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Sample records for activator trar cooperate

  1. The quorum sensing transcriptional regulator TraR has separate binding sites for DNA and the anti-activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhida; Fuqua, Clay [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Chen, Lingling, E-mail: linchen@indiana.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quorum sensing transcription factor TraR is inhibited by forming TraR-TraM complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K213 is a key DNA binding residue, but not involved in interaction with TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraM-interacting TraR residues did not affect DNA-binding of TraR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraR residues reduced the TraR-TraM interaction more than those of TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR is driven by thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Quorum sensing represents a mechanism by which bacteria control their genetic behaviors via diffusible signals that reflect their population density. TraR, a quorum sensing transcriptional activator in the Rhizobiaceae family, is regulated negatively by the anti-activator TraM via formation of a TraR-TraM heterocomplex. Prior structural analysis suggests that TraM and DNA bind to TraR in distinct sites. Here we combined isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) to investigate roles of TraR residues from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 in binding of both TraM and DNA. We found that K213A mutation of TraR{sub NGR} abolished DNA binding, however, did not alter TraM binding. Mutations of TraM-interfacing TraR{sub NGR} residues decreased the TraR-TraM interaction, but did not affect the DNA-binding activity of TraR{sub NGR}. Thus, our biochemical studies support the independent binding sites on TraR for TraM and DNA. We also found that point mutations in TraR{sub NGR} appeared to decrease the TraR-TraM interaction more effectively than those in TraM{sub NGR}, consistent with structural observations that individual TraR{sub NGR} residues contact with more TraM{sub NGR} residues than each TraM{sub NGR} residues with TraR{sub NGR} residues. Finally, we showed that TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR was driven thermodynamically. We discussed subtle mechanistic differences in Tra

  2. Activity of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid conjugal transfer regulator TraR is inhibited by the product of the traM gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuqua, C; Burbea, M; Winans, S C

    1995-01-01

    The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid tra regulon was previously found to be positively regulated by the TraR protein in the presence of a diffusible N-acyl homoserine lactone designated Agrobacterium autoinducer (AAI). TraR and AAI are similar to LuxR from Vibrio fischeri and the Vibrio autoinducer (VAI), which regulate target bioluminescence (lux) genes in a cell density-dependent manner. We now show that tra genes are also regulated by a second protein, designated TraM, which acts to antagonize Tra...

  3. Identification of amino acid residues of the pheromone-binding domain of the transcription factor TraR that are required for positive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Esther D; Cho, Hongbaek; Winans, Stephen C

    2009-08-01

    Genes required for replication and for conjugal transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid are regulated by the quorum sensing transcription factor TraR, whose N-terminal domain binds to the pheromone 3-oxo-octanoylhomoserine lactone (OOHL) and whose C-terminal domain binds to specific DNA sequences called tra boxes. Here, we constructed 117 mutants, altering 103 surface-exposed amino acid residues of the TraR N-terminal domain. Each mutant was tested for activation of the traI promoter, where TraR binds to a site centred 45 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start site, and of the traM promoter, where TraR binds a site centred 66 nucleotides upstream. Alteration of 18 residues blocked activity at the traI promoter. Of these, alteration at three positions impaired TraR abundance or DNA binding, leaving 15 residues that are specifically needed for positive control. Of these 15 residues, nine also blocked or reduced activity at the traM promoter, while six had no effect. Amino acid residues required for activation of both promoters probably contact the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, while residues required only for traI promoter activation may contact another RNA polymerase component.

  4. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  5. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  6. Theoretical Study of Molecular Determinants Involved in Signal Binding to the TraR Protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL mediated cell-cell communication in bacteria is dependent on the recognition of the cognate signal by its receptor. This interaction allows the receptor-ligand complex to act as a transcriptional activator, controlling the expression of a range of bacterial phenotypes, including virulence factor expression and biofilm formation. One approach to determine the key features of signal- binding is to model the intermolecular interactions between the receptor and ligand using computational-based modeling software (LigandFit. In this communication, we have modeled the crystal structure of the AHL receptor protein TraR and its AHL signal N-(3- oxooctanoyl-homoserine lactone from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compared it to the previously reported antagonist behaviour of a number of AHL analogues, in an attempt to determine structural constraints for ligand binding. We conclude that (i a common conformation of the AHL in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic region exists for ligand-binding, (ii a tail chain length threshold of 8 carbons is most favourable for ligand-binding affinity, (iii the positive correlation in the docking studies could be used a virtual screening tool.

  7. Cooperation in innovation activities : The importance of partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria, Pedro; Lima, Francisco; Santos, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance of cooperation partners for the development of innovation activities. We contribute to the literature on cooperation in innovation activities that seeks to identify the characteristics differentiating cooperative from non-cooperative firms by proposing a different

  8. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U; Lindhardt, Anders T; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-12-16

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing 'waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si-Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2.

  9. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-12-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing `waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si-Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2.

  10. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Nobuyuki [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Electrotechnical Laboratory is involved in the development and the improvement of three dimensional geometrical modeling for the work environment including various kinds of robots. Here, the research on the system which allows to materialize an active sensing by the cooperation of robots and the construction of an experimental system for the assessment of such modeling were reviewed. In the second stage of this project, the development of cooperative active sensory system with small size mobile robots as an operation platform was attempted. Thus, studies on the sensing techniques for robot operation and the real-time sensing techniques were started. An electric binocular head was prepared after consideration of size, cost and convenience and attached to the commercially available mobile robot base (Mouse 89, Japan System Design Co., Ltd.). The small mobile robot capable of binocular visual tracing thus obtained was confirmed to be highly efficient by various cooperative control experiments although the head was prepared at the sacrifice of control characteristics. Next, a real-time sensing system which allows to trace a moving object was constructed on the basis of Zero Disparity Filter (ZDF) produced by Kaenel et al. and further improved in the respect of the difficulty in real time processing and an expanded type ZDF was obtained. This system is routinely used as an basic vision unit for a mobile robot in the presence. (M.N.)

  11. CREDIT ACTIVITIES OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the lending activities of cooperative banks in Poland in the years 2010– 2014, in a size of banks. Elaboration is a review, based on the data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority. Research indicates that the value of own funds of the cooperative banks was reflected in both the volume of lending, and in the structure of loans. Banks with capital of 5 million euro loans for primarily farmers, individuals, and individual entrepreneurs. In turn, the banks with capital of more than 5 million euro were most involved in the financing of small and medium enterprises and individual farmers. Regardless of the size of banks, the most important in lending loans were investment and operating

  12. Cooperative activity and its potential for learning in tertiary education

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    Cirila Peklaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning situation can be structured in different ways, as an individual, competitive, or cooperative activity. Each of these structures can be used for different purposes and can lead to different learning outcomes. This paper focuses on cooperative activity and its potential for learning in tertiary education. After defining cooperative activity (or, in a broader sense, learning in interaction and introducing the CAMS theoretical framework to analyse cooperative activity, the main discussion focuses on the theoretical reasons for the usefulness of group learning and on the research of effects of cooperative learning on cognitive (metacognitive, affective-motivational and social processes in university students. The key elements that should be established for successful cooperation are also discussed. At the end, a new direction in using cooperative activity in learning—computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL, which emerged with rapid technology development in the last two decades—is presented and discussed.

  13. Activity Book. Catch the Spirit of Learning's Cooperation Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernagozzi, Tom; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This activity book includes across-the-curriculum activities with Olympic themes; a "cooperation relay" (four competitive team activities based on a cooperative learning model); highlights of African Americans' Olympic achievements; a poster on teamwork and activities based on the theme of keeping the Olympic torch alive; and a…

  14. Applications of cooperative games to business activities

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    Rafel Amer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We show several applications of the cooperative game theory and the Shapley value to business activities. Among them we emphasize on the sharing of costs or profits. In the theoretical part, the axiomatic setting proposed by Shapley is described and the properties of the value are studied. It is also shown the usefulness of simple games to describe and analyze collective decision systems ruled by voting. Many of these systems admit a representation as weighted majority games, a class of simple games. One of the most interesting problems in this case is to define a measure of the power distribution among the agents involved in the system. This problem receives a nice solution by means of the Shapley–Shubik index of power, which is the restriction of the Shapley value to simple games.

  15. Cooperating Teachers' Perspectives of Student Teaching Skills and Activities

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    Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cooperating teachers deem required student teaching skills and activities relevant to the agricultural education student teaching experience. The population for this descriptive study consisted of individuals who served as cooperating teachers in Iowa and South Dakota during the last 5…

  16. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trempy, Janine E; Skinner, Monica M; Siebold, William A

    2002-05-01

    A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning-positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  17. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  18. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  19. Literature review on recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This literature review supports the report, Recent International Activity in Cooperative VehicleHighway Automation Systems. It : reviews the published literature in English dating from 2007 or later about non-U.S.-based work on cooperative vehicle...

  20. Microarray Selection of Cooperative Peptides for Modulating Enzyme Activities

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    Jinglin Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, peptide microarrays have been used to distinguish proteins, antibodies, viruses, and bacteria based on their binding to random sequence peptides. We reported on the use of peptide arrays to identify enzyme modulators that involve screening an array of 10,000 defined and addressable peptides on a microarray. Primary peptides were first selected to inhibit the enzyme at low μM concentrations. Then, new peptides were found to only bind strongly with the enzyme–inhibitor complex, but not the native enzyme. These new peptides served as secondary inhibitors that enhanced the inhibition of the enzyme together with the primary peptides. Without the primary peptides, the secondary effect peptides had little effect on the enzyme activity. Conversely, we also selected peptides that recovered the activities of inhibited enzyme–peptide complex. The selection of cooperative peptide pairs will provide a versatile toolkit for modulating enzyme functions, which may potentially be applied to drug discovery and biocatalysis.

  1. Students' Experiences of Active Engagement through Cooperative Learning Activities in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on students' experiences of lectures which included many opportunities for active engagement through cooperative learning activities. At the end of a 13-week semester-long unit, 113 students completed a questionnaire which contained five open-ended questions focusing on the extent to which the students thought that the lecture…

  2. Cooperative Control Method of Active and Semiactive Control: New Framework for Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiko Hiramoto

    2014-01-01

    A new control design framework for vibration control, the cooperative control of active and semiactive control, is proposed in the paper. In the cooperative control, a structural system having both of an actuator and a semiactive control device, for example, MR damper and so forth, is defined as the control object. In the proposed control approach, the higher control performance is aimed by the cooperative control between the active control with the actuator and the semiactive control with th...

  3. Recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the current state of the art in cooperative vehiclehighway automation systems in Europe and Asia : based on a series of meetings, demonstrations, and site visits, combined with the results of literature review. This review c...

  4. Mathematical Ideas In Some Cooperative Work Activities Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interface between Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS), cultural practices and mathematics is currently generating a great deal of interest among mathematics education researchers and practitioners alike. This article uses mathematical lenses to examine the cultural practice of dhava (cooperative work) among the ...

  5. An Active Cooperation-Aware Spectrum Allocation Mechanism for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  6. Cooperation with assets management companies as the investment activity of insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sinitsyna, T.

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the peculiarities of investment activity of local insurance companies there is analyze of one of the option using the investment opportunities of insurance companies in the way of cooperation with assets management companies.

  7. Globalization and Cooperative Activity among National Labor Unions and National Environmental Organizations in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    STEELE, David Foster

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the cooperative activity between national labor unions and national environmental organizations in the United States on issues associated with globalization. Past researchers have advocated the need for organizations that makeup the labor and environmental movements to work together, but do they? It is hypothesized that globalization issues may be a key factor for cooperative activity between national labor unions and national environmental organizations. The conducted res...

  8. A game theory approach for competition and cooperation among project’s subcontractors with interaction activities

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    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some projects are often performed by many subcontractors that cooperate with each other and some of them are conducted by outsourcing them to several firms; so subcontractors carry out activities in competition. Appropriate trade-off between time and cost and achieving more benefit and cost saving are objectives of both models. In this paper, it is investigated that how different subcontractors of a project can cooperate to achieve more advantages if possible and how sub-contractors can compete to make the results better and find the optimum cost to minimize the time for each of them. The competition here does not mean eliminating a competitor, but the aim is to challenge the contractors in order to choose the best decision. The purpose of this study is to address the challenges in time and cost management and to find more profit allocation among subcontractors and fair competition for fair allocation as well. A model based on cooperative game theory in time/cost trade-off problem of projects is suggested and then a competition model among subcontractors based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. A case study is rep-resented to comprehensively illustrate the problem, the cooperative techniques of cooperative game theory, and the payoff matrix of non-cooperative model among subcontractors. Results of the proposed model reveal that subcontractors can obtain higher profit from cooperation if pos-sible. When they outsource the project and compete with each other, they must consider the in-teraction activities and choose the best strategies for cost saving and gain more reward from the client. Moreover, it is found that some techniques such as Shapley value, Core, Max-Min Core, or Equal Profit Method (EPM are able to fairly assign extra profit of cooperation, and using the payoff matrix, Nash equilibrium, and Nash bargaining helps to find the optimum point to mini-mize time and cost for interaction activities state.

  9. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  10. 76 FR 18165 - Request for Public Comments Concerning Regulatory Cooperation Activities That Would Help...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... activities between or among the United States, Mexico, and Canada: Information-sharing agreements; technical... will serve as a basis for bilateral and trilateral discussion with Canada and Mexico on regulatory cooperation activities to undertake which will support the President's National Export Initiative and serve as...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.240 - When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... housing activities? The requirement for a local cooperation agreement applies only to rental and lease-purchase homeownership units assisted with IHBG funds which are owned by the Indian tribe or TDHE. ... agreement required for affordable housing activities? 1000.240 Section 1000.240 Housing and Urban...

  12. Marketing Education Cooperative Education Manual. Classroom and Training Station Connecting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Cooperative Education is a teaching method which uses real life work experiences to teach and/or reinforce competencies from the Marketing Content Standards. Direct connections are made between classroom instruction and workplace activities. The activities in this manual can be used to reinforce and contextualize content taught in the classroom…

  13. Methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities (Systematic review protocol

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    Rotter Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital partnerships, mergers and cooperatives are arrangements frequently seen as a means of improving health service delivery. Many of the assumptions used in planning hospital cooperatives are not stated clearly and are often based on limited or poor scientific evidence. Methods This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane EPOC methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the reported methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities as well as methods of hospital cooperation. We will search the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and bibliographic databases including PubMed (via NLM, Web of Science, NHS EED, Business Source Premier (via EBSCO and Global Health for publications that report on methods for evaluating hospital cooperatives, strategic partnerships, mergers, alliances, networks and related activities and methods used for such partnerships. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case-control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyze the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low versus high quality studies and the method reported in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in tabular form. Discussion Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin hospital cooperation activities as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for partnerships, alliances or other fields of cooperation in a hospital setting. PROSPERO

  14. The impact of active/cooperative instruction on beginning nursing student learning strategy preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jecklin, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Rapid changes in the nursing field and high demand for practicing nurses put pressure on nursing faculty to educate increasing numbers of nursing students, often without corresponding increases in resources. Although the use of active and cooperative instruction methods in the classroom has been associated with improved student learning, these practices require increased effort on the part of both faculty and students. In addition, little is known about whether these methods influence student nurses' use of these more elaborative processing strategies in their independent study. The purpose of this quasi-experimental investigation was to identify the impact of incorporating active and cooperative classroom instructional activities on student preference for teaching methods and use of learning strategies in independent study. A convenience sample of beginning baccalaureate nursing students at a large Mid-Atlantic University was randomly assigned by the registrar to two class sections. Students in one section received primarily active/cooperative instruction, while the other received primarily traditional lecture-based instruction. Results indicated that student nurses exposed to active/cooperative instructional methods had an increased preference for these methods after a semester of instruction, while those exposed to traditional instruction had a higher preference for traditional methods. In addition, students participating in active class instruction reported increased preference for more elaborative independent study strategies, although overall preference for both groups indicated a reliance on surface study strategies of memorization and recall. Implications for use of instruction and student testing methodologies are presented.

  15. Marketing activities as critical success factors: The case of seed producer cooperatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the specific marketing activities that contribute most to the performance improvement of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in Ethiopia. Both quantitative and qualitative procedures were adopted to extract information from knowledgeable and experienced experts

  16. Cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; Juel Lau, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. RESULTS: Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA...

  17. The Effect of Cooperative Writing Activities on Writing Anxieties of Prospective Primary School Teachers

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    Erdogan, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of cooperative writing activities on the writing anxieties of prospective primary school teachers. The study group of the research is composed of 30 prospective primary school teachers. A mixed method consisting of qualitative and quantitative research methods was used in the collection,…

  18. Engaging Bioanthropology College Students: The Role of Active and Cooperative Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluri, Kathaeryne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the design and implementation of an active, cooperative pedagogy in an undergraduate biological anthropology course. The research draws upon a theoretical framework constructed from anthropology, education, and psychology research. The pedagogy studied was developed for and used in the laboratory component of a large,…

  19. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  20. Cooperative Activity as Mediation in the Social Adjustment of Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junqian

    2017-01-01

    Social adjustment is one of the most difficult and long-lasting challenges for international students who study in a new country. This paper uses a case study of cooperative painting activity conducted in Australian setting, in which two Chinese and three other students from different countries participated, in order to assess the efficiency of…

  1. co-Laevo - Supporting Cooperating Teams by Working 'within' Shared Activity Time Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Tell, Paolo; Bardram, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -alone scheduling tools, like a team calendar, the actual work is not disconnected from the plan. In essence, users work ‘within’ a shared schedule, suspending and resuming activity workspaces in order to access the contained resources required for their work. Users are thereby constantly confronted with their own...... and collaborators’ activities as part of task switching during everyday work. We introduce this concept, and several entailing design implications, as cooperative activity life cycle management. We anticipate the design of such a system to decrease information overload and increases awareness among team members.......In this paper, we describe the interaction design and implementation of co-Laevo: an activity-centric desktop computing system supporting task coordination within cooperating teams. Coordination is supported by having all team members orchestrate their dependent tasks on a shared activity time line...

  2. A Sourcebook of Cooperative Learning Activities for Introductory Undergraduate Astronomy for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Grace L.; Miller, Scott T.; Trasco, John D.

    1996-05-01

    Students become more interested in learning and retain more in courses that rely on active rather than passive teaching methods. Cooperative learning activities can be structured to engage students toward greater participation in their own education. We have developed a sourcebook containing a variety of cooperative learning methods and activities to aid in the teaching of astronomy at the undergraduate level. Special effort has been made to include activities that can be used within the classroom or as a group homework assignment, in courses with teaching assistants and those without, and in large or small classes. In addition to reinforcing concepts taught in introductory astronomy, the activities are structured to strengthen skills associated with a scientifically literate person. A goal of undergraduate science education is to produce citizens who can understand and share in the excitement of scientific discoveries as well as make informed decisions regarding scientific and technological issues. The sourcebook, available in August, 1996, will contain sections on the advantages/disadvantages of group activities, basic cooperative learning techniques, in class/out of class activities, and how to use peer instruction to expose students to the wonderfaul astronomy resources on the internet. Each activity includes suggestions to the instructor as to how the assignment can be incorporated into an introductory astronomy course. This project funded by NSF DUE-9354503.

  3. A Cooperative Bayesian Nonparametric Framework for Primary User Activity Monitoring in Cognitive Radio Network

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Walid; Poor, H Vincent; Başar, Tamer; Song, Ju Bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach that enables a number of cognitive radio devices that are observing the availability pattern of a number of primary users(PUs), to cooperate and use \\emph{Bayesian nonparametric} techniques to estimate the distributions of the PUs' activity pattern, assumed to be completely unknown. In the proposed model, each cognitive node may have its own individual view on each PU's distribution, and, hence, seeks to find partners having a correlated perception. To address this problem, a coalitional game is formulated between the cognitive devices and an algorithm for cooperative coalition formation is proposed. It is shown that the proposed coalition formation algorithm allows the cognitive nodes that are experiencing a similar behavior from some PUs to self-organize into disjoint, independent coalitions. Inside each coalition, the cooperative cognitive nodes use a combination of Bayesian nonparametric models such as the Dirichlet process and statistical goodness of fit techniques ...

  4. Relation between cooperative molecular motors and active Brownian particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touya, Clément; Schwalger, Tilo; Lindner, Benjamin

    2011-05-01

    Active Brownian particles (ABPs), obeying a nonlinear Langevin equation with speed-dependent drift and noise amplitude, are well-known models used to describe self-propelled motion in biology. In this paper we study a model describing the stochastic dynamics of a group of coupled molecular motors (CMMs). Using two independent numerical methods, one based on the stationary velocity distribution of the motors and the other one on the local increments (also known as the Kramers-Moyal coefficients) of the velocity, we establish a connection between the CMM and the ABP models. The parameters extracted for the ABP via the two methods show good agreement for both symmetric and asymmetric cases and are independent of N, the number of motors, provided that N is not too small. This indicates that one can indeed describe the CMM problem with a simpler ABP model. However, the power spectrum of velocity fluctuations in the CMM model reveals a peak at a finite frequency, a peak which is absent in the velocity spectrum of the ABP model. This implies richer dynamic features of the CMM model which cannot be captured by an ABP model.

  5. Impact of heterogeneous activity and community structure on the evolutionary success of cooperators in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies suggest that heavy-tailed distributions of human activities are universal in real social dynamics [L. Muchnik, S. Pei, L. C. Parra, S. D. S. Reis, J. S. Andrade Jr., S. Havlin, and H. A. Makse, Sci. Rep. 3, 1783 (2013)]. On the other hand, community structure is ubiquitous in biological and social networks [M. E. J. Newman, Nat. Phys. 8, 25 (2012)]. Motivated by these facts, we here consider the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game taking place on top of a real social network to investigate how the community structure and the heterogeneity in activity of individuals affect the evolution of cooperation. In particular, we account for a variation of the birth-death process (which can also be regarded as a proportional imitation rule from a social point of view) for the strategy updating under both weak and strong selection (meaning the payoffs harvested from games contribute either slightly or heavily to the individuals' performance). By implementing comparative studies, where the players are selected either randomly or in terms of their actual activities to play games with their immediate neighbors, we figure out that heterogeneous activity benefits the emergence of collective cooperation in a harsh environment (the action for cooperation is costly) under strong selection, whereas it impairs the formation of altruism under weak selection. Moreover, we find that the abundance of communities in the social network can evidently foster the formation of cooperation under strong selection, in contrast to the games evolving on randomized counterparts. Our results are therefore helpful for us to better understand the evolution of cooperation in real social systems.

  6. Impact of heterogeneous activity and community structure on the evolutionary success of cooperators in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical studies suggest that heavy-tailed distributions of human activities are universal in real social dynamics [L. Muchnik, S. Pei, L. C. Parra, S. D. S. Reis, J. S. Andrade Jr., S. Havlin, and H. A. Makse, Sci. Rep. 3, 1783 (2013), 10.1038/srep01783]. On the other hand, community structure is ubiquitous in biological and social networks [M. E. J. Newman, Nat. Phys. 8, 25 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2162]. Motivated by these facts, we here consider the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game taking place on top of a real social network to investigate how the community structure and the heterogeneity in activity of individuals affect the evolution of cooperation. In particular, we account for a variation of the birth-death process (which can also be regarded as a proportional imitation rule from a social point of view) for the strategy updating under both weak and strong selection (meaning the payoffs harvested from games contribute either slightly or heavily to the individuals' performance). By implementing comparative studies, where the players are selected either randomly or in terms of their actual activities to play games with their immediate neighbors, we figure out that heterogeneous activity benefits the emergence of collective cooperation in a harsh environment (the action for cooperation is costly) under strong selection, whereas it impairs the formation of altruism under weak selection. Moreover, we find that the abundance of communities in the social network can evidently foster the formation of cooperation under strong selection, in contrast to the games evolving on randomized counterparts. Our results are therefore helpful for us to better understand the evolution of cooperation in real social systems.

  7. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... on regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  8. USING COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES TO ENHANCE FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION SKILL

    OpenAIRE

    Nittaya Phiwpong; Nutprapha K. Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ opinions towards the reading comprehension through cooperative learning activities. The subjects were 25 students in grade 5 at Bannonnoi school, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The studied was operated in an English course in second semester of 2014 academic year. The experiment took two days a week for five weeks. There are two instruments which were used in this study; lesson plans which were used for teaching over 10 periods, consisting o...

  9. Robust Functionality and Active Data Management for Cooperative Networks in the Presence of WMD Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Active Data ManagemE~nt for Cooperative Networks in the Presentee of WMD Stressors Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. September...policies were obtaiMd by solving a constrained optimization problem whose cost function employs the rigorous model developed for the service reliability of...to policies that considered nodes’ roliability but disregarded the communication costs over the network. Moreover, the algorithm developed ill this

  10. On the estimation of cooperativity in ion channel kinetics: activation free energy and kinetic mechanism of Shaker K+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kinshuk; Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2013-04-28

    In this paper, we have explored generic criteria of cooperative behavior in ion channel kinetics treating it on the same footing with multistate receptor-ligand binding in a compact theoretical framework. We have shown that the characterization of cooperativity of ion channels in terms of the Hill coefficient violates the standard Hill criteria defined for allosteric cooperativity of ligand binding. To resolve the issue, an alternative measure of cooperativity is proposed here in terms of the cooperativity index that sets a unified criteria for both the systems. More importantly, for ion channel this index can be very useful to describe the cooperative kinetics as it can be readily determined from the experimentally measured ionic current combined with theoretical modelling. We have analyzed the correlation between the voltage value and slope of the voltage-activation curve at the half-activation point and consequently determined the standard free energy of activation of the ion channel using two well-established mechanisms of cooperativity, namely, Koshland-Nemethy-Filmer (KNF) and Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) models. Comparison of the theoretical results for both the models with appropriate experimental data of mutational perturbation of Shaker K(+) channel supports the experimental fact that the KNF model is more suitable to describe the cooperative behavior of this class of ion channels, whereas the performance of the MWC model is unsatisfactory. We have also estimated the mechanistic performance through standard free energy of channel activation for both the models and proposed a possible functional disadvantage in the MWC scheme.

  11. On the estimation of cooperativity in ion channel kinetics: Activation free energy and kinetic mechanism of Shaker K+ channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kinshuk; Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we have explored generic criteria of cooperative behavior in ion channel kinetics treating it on the same footing with multistate receptor-ligand binding in a compact theoretical framework. We have shown that the characterization of cooperativity of ion channels in terms of the Hill coefficient violates the standard Hill criteria defined for allosteric cooperativity of ligand binding. To resolve the issue, an alternative measure of cooperativity is proposed here in terms of the cooperativity index that sets a unified criteria for both the systems. More importantly, for ion channel this index can be very useful to describe the cooperative kinetics as it can be readily determined from the experimentally measured ionic current combined with theoretical modelling. We have analyzed the correlation between the voltage value and slope of the voltage-activation curve at the half-activation point and consequently determined the standard free energy of activation of the ion channel using two well-established mechanisms of cooperativity, namely, Koshland-Nemethy-Filmer (KNF) and Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) models. Comparison of the theoretical results for both the models with appropriate experimental data of mutational perturbation of Shaker K^+ channel supports the experimental fact that the KNF model is more suitable to describe the cooperative behavior of this class of ion channels, whereas the performance of the MWC model is unsatisfactory. We have also estimated the mechanistic performance through standard free energy of channel activation for both the models and proposed a possible functional disadvantage in the MWC scheme.

  12. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked with a nati......Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...... in interprofessional courses and if the model has a potential as mean of pedagogical development and collaboration. Methods The study is based on action research and is a mixed method study. In 2016 the project will gather data in cooperation with lecturers through qualitative methods and a followup on the baseline......, Metropolitan University College and Roskilde University Centre. Bodil Winther Hansen (bwha@phmetropol.dk) Associate Professor, Metropolitan University College, 1999- Occupational Therapist , 1987, Art therapist 2001, Master in Adult Education and Human Resource, from Roskilde University, Denmark, 2003 Years...

  13. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.

  14. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2015-02-13

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  15. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  16. The Cooperative Activities of CSLD2, CSLD3, and CSLD5 Are Required for Normal Arabidopsis Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Lan; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Oikawa, Ai; Manisseri, Chithra; Knierim, Bernhard; Prak, Lina; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Knox, J. Paul; Auer, Manfred; Willats, William G.T; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2011-01-01

    .... This demonstrates that the cooperative activities of CSLD2, CSLD3, and CSLD5 are required for normal Arabidopsis development, and that they are involved in important processes besides the specialized role in tip growth...

  17. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duschau-Wicke Alexander

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. Methods Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Results Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training

  18. Metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization as a tool in single bond activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, David

    2015-03-13

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) plays an important role in bond activation processes, enabling many chemical and biological catalytic reactions. A recent new mode of activation of chemical bonds involves ligand aromatization-dearomatization processes in pyridine-based pincer complexes in which chemical bonds are broken reversibly across the metal centre and the pincer-ligand arm, leading to new bond-making and -breaking processes, and new catalysis. In this short review, such processes are briefly exemplified in the activation of C-H, H-H, O-H, N-H and B-H bonds, and mechanistic insight is provided. This new bond activation mode has led to the development of various catalytic reactions, mainly based on alcohols and amines, and to a stepwise approach to thermal H2 and light-induced O2 liberation from water. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyaluronan Hybrid Cooperative Complexes as a Novel Frontier for Cellular Bioprocesses Re-Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Stellavato

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic Acid (HA-based dermal formulations have rapidly gained a large consensus in aesthetic medicine and dermatology. HA, highly expressed in the Extracellular Matrix (ECM, acts as an activator of biological cascades, stimulating cell migration and proliferation, and operating as a regulator of the skin immune surveillance, through specific interactions with its receptors. HA may be used in topical formulations, as dermal inducer, for wound healing. Moreover, intradermal HA formulations (injectable HA provide an attractive tool to counteract skin aging (e.g., facial wrinkles, dryness, and loss of elasticity and restore normal dermal functions, through simple and minimally invasive procedures. Biological activity of a commercially available hyaluronic acid, Profhilo®, based on NAHYCO™ technology, was compared to H-HA or L-HA alone. The formation of hybrid cooperative complexes was confirmed by the sudden drop in η0 values in the rheological measurements. Besides, hybrid cooperative complexes proved stable to hyaluronidase (BTH digestion. Using in vitro assays, based on keratinocytes, fibroblasts cells and on the Phenion® Full Thickness Skin Model 3D, hybrid cooperative complexes were compared to H-HA, widely used in biorevitalization procedures, and to L-HA, recently proposed as the most active fraction modulating the inflammatory response. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were accomplished for the transcript quantification of collagens and elastin. Finally immunofluorescence staining permitted to evaluate the complete biosynthesis of all the molecules investigated. An increase in the expression levels of type I and type III collagen in fibroblasts and type IV and VII collagen in keratinocytes were found with the hybrid cooperative complexes, compared to untreated cells (CTR and to the H-HA and L-HA treatments. The increase in elastin expression found in both cellular model and in the Phenion® Full Thickness Skin Model 3D also at

  20. Local climate activities in co-operation between municipality, civil society and science shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    involvement in projects it was proposed to involve the local branch of the environmental NGO. The starting point was topics developed by the administration and the NGO together and announced to students as part of the Science Shop project supply. The focus is climate impact of local activities and strategies...... are initiated and co-ordinated by a group with members from municipal administration, the local NGO and the Science Shop. All projects have involved student projects, but most projects have also contributed to ongoing research activities. The projects up till now have focused on the municipal food supply...... society has taken place in some projects. Results have been published locally and some nationally. Especially the food projects have got national interest. Co-operation about environmental impacts of municipal investments may be an up-coming activity....

  1. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    2016-01-01

    Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...... conducted a baseline investigation in 2015, exploring 538 students´ and participating lecturers´ evaluation of the current use of the model in interprofessional courses. This baseline and previous evaluations show that there are continuous challenges, concerning both the collaboration between the course...... lecturers and student satisfaction and participation. Objectives Develop collaborative and didactical knowledge and generate deeper insight into facilitation of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC). Investigate the current use of the study activity model...

  2. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  3. Confined cooperative self-assembly and synthesis of optically and electrically active nanostructures : final LDRD report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Haddad, Raid Edward (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Fan, Hongyou; Ta, Anh (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bai, Feng (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Huang, Jian Yu

    2011-10-01

    In this project, we developed a confined cooperative self-assembly process to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) j-aggregates including nanowires and nanorods with controlled diameters and aspect ratios. The facile and versatile aqueous solution process assimilates photo-active macrocyclic building blocks inside surfactant micelles, forming stable single-crystalline high surface area nanoporous frameworks with well-defined external morphology defined by the building block packing. Characterizations using TEM, SEM, XRD, N{sub 2} and NO sorption isotherms, TGA, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy indicate that the j-aggregate nanostructures are monodisperse and may further assemble into hierarchical arrays with multi-modal functional pores. The nanostructures exhibit enhanced and collective optical properties over the individual chromophores. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  4. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  5. CONDITIONS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN COMPANIES AND NGOs IN THE FIELD OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITIES: THE POLISH CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Drewniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is becoming an increasingly popular area of activity of companies which are interested in not only the managers or owners, but also customers, suppliers, NGOs, administrative and other stakeholders groups. The analysis aim is to present CSR initiatives as part of deliberate strategy of the company, which is one of the key sources of competitive advantage in the market. The findings concern the scope of cooperation between companies and NGOs in the field of socially responsible activities. The analysis indicates that the expected form of cooperation of NGOs with small businesses is to provide financial assistance to social organizations. However, in the case of medium-sized enterprises, these expectations also apply to material support. Moreover, in the case of medium-sized enterprises a key determinant of cooperation with social organization is realization of the social objective, while small businesses are more guided by "goodness of the heart". Considerations based on the identification of scope of CSR, are pointing to the key aspects of this activity to the company, the environment and customers. Discussions were extended to the characteristics of the benefits, barriers and forms of the cooperation, as well as, there were presented the results of research in the field of forms and determinants of such cooperation. Considerations are based on secondary sources, from national and international journals, books, magazines and specialist reports.

  6. Hyperglycemia Induces a Dynamic Cooperativity of Histone Methylase and Demethylase Enzymes Associated With Gene-Activating Epigenetic Marks That Coexist on the Lysine Tail

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniella Brasacchio; Jun Okabe; Christos Tikellis; Aneta Balcerczyk; Prince George; Emma K. Baker; Anna C. Calkin; Michael Brownlee; Mark E. Cooper; Assam El-Osta

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia Induces a Dynamic Cooperativity of Histone Methylase and Demethylase Enzymes Associated With Gene-Activating Epigenetic Marks That Coexist on the Lysine Tail Daniella Brasacchio 1 , Jun...

  7. Elastically cooperative activated barrier hopping theory of relaxation in viscous fluids. II. Thermal liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2014-05-21

    Building on the elastically collective nonlinear Langevin equation theory developed for hard spheres in Paper I, we propose and implement a quasi-universal theory for the alpha relaxation of thermal liquids based on mapping them to an effective hard sphere fluid via the dimensionless compressibility. The result is a zero adjustable parameter theory that can quantitatively address in a unified manner the alpha relaxation time over 14 or more decades. The theory has no singularities above zero Kelvin, and relaxation in the equilibrium low temperature limit is predicted to be of a roughly Arrhenius form. The two-barrier (local cage and long range collective elastic) description results in a rich dynamic behavior including apparent Arrhenius, narrow crossover, and deeply supercooled regimes, and multiple characteristic or crossover times and temperatures of clear physical meaning. Application of the theory to nonpolar molecules, alcohols, rare gases, and liquids metals is carried out. Overall, the agreement with experiment is quite good for the temperature dependence of the alpha time, plateau shear modulus, and Boson-like peak frequency for van der Waals liquids, though less so for hydrogen-bonding molecules. The theory predicts multiple growing length scales upon cooling, which reflect distinct aspects of the coupled local hopping and cooperative elastic physics. Calculations of the growth with cooling of an activation volume, which is strongly correlated with a measure of dynamic cooperativity, agree quantitatively with experiment. Comparisons with elastic, entropy crisis, dynamic facilitation, and other approaches are performed, and a fundamental basis for empirically extracted crossover temperatures is established. The present work sets the stage for addressing distinctive glassy phenomena in polymer melts, and diverse liquids under strong confinement.

  8. An Empirical Evaluation of an Activity-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Cooperation in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Software engineering (SE) is predominantly a team effort that needs close cooperation among several people who may be geographically distributed. It has been recognized that appropriate tool support is a prerequisite to improve cooperation within SE teams. In an effort to contribute to this line...

  9. Ising model of cardiac thin filament activation with nearest-neighbor cooperative interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John Jeremy; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Tu, Yuhai; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Bers, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a model of cardiac thin filament activation using an Ising model approach from equilibrium statistical physics. This model explicitly represents nearest-neighbor interactions between 26 troponin/tropomyosin units along a one-dimensional array that represents the cardiac thin filament. With transition rates chosen to match experimental data, the results show that the resulting force-pCa (F-pCa) relations are similar to Hill functions with asymmetries, as seen in experimental data. Specifically, Hill plots showing (log(F/(1-F)) vs. log [Ca]) reveal a steeper slope below the half activation point (Ca(50)) compared with above. Parameter variation studies show interplay of parameters that affect the apparent cooperativity and asymmetry in the F-pCa relations. The model also predicts that Ca binding is uncooperative for low [Ca], becomes steeper near Ca(50), and becomes uncooperative again at higher [Ca]. The steepness near Ca(50) mirrors the steep F-pCa as a result of thermodynamic considerations. The model also predicts that the correlation between troponin/tropomyosin units along the one-dimensional array quickly decays at high and low [Ca], but near Ca(50), high correlation occurs across the whole array. This work provides a simple model that can account for the steepness and shape of F-pCa relations that other models fail to reproduce.

  10. Cooperative activation of cardiac transcription through myocardin bridging of paired MEF2 sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Courtney M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Hu, Jianxin [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Thomas, Reuben [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Gladstone Inst.; Gainous, T. Blair [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Celona, Barbara [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Sinha, Tanvi [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Dickel, Diane E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Genomics Division; Heidt, Analeah B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Xu, Shan-Mei [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Bruneau, Benoit G. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Gladstone Inst.; Pollard, Katherine S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Gladstone Inst.; Pennacchio, Len A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Genomics Division; Black, Brian L. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of

    2017-03-28

    Enhancers frequently contain multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor. These homotypic binding sites often exhibit synergy, whereby the transcriptional output from two or more binding sites is greater than the sum of the contributions of the individual binding sites alone. Although this phenomenon is frequently observed, the mechanistic basis for homotypic binding site synergy is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we identify a bona fide cardiac-specific Prkaa2 enhancer that is synergistically activated by homotypic MEF2 binding sites. We show that two MEF2 sites in the enhancer function cooperatively due to bridging of the MEF2C-bound sites by the SAP domain-containing co-activator protein myocardin, and we show that paired sites buffer the enhancer from integration site-dependent effects on transcription in vivo. Paired MEF2 sites are prevalent in cardiac enhancers, suggesting that this might be a common mechanism underlying synergy in the control of cardiac gene expression in vivo.

  11. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC WHITEBOARD USAGE AS A TOOL FOR ORGANIZATION OF STUDENTS’ COOPERATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro L. Desyatov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence and advantages of organization of students’ cooperative learning via usage of network technologies is defined. The correlation and relationship between cooperative and collaborative learning are pointed out. The didactic potential of virtual electronic whiteboard (further – VEW, author’s note as a tool of organization of students’ cooperative learning is revealed. The examples of learning tasks which can be completed by students with the usage of a VEW are given. The main requirements which a VEW has to meet for organization of students’ cooperative learning are stated. The article describes the didactic problems that can be solved via usage of a VEW in students’ cooperative learning.

  12. Cryptochrome and phytochrome cooperatively but independently reduce active gibberellin content in rice seedlings under light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4-OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we established a series of cryptochrome-deficient lines through reverse genetic screening from a Tos17 mutant population and construction of knockdown lines based on an RNA interference technique. By using these lines and phytochrome mutants, we elucidated that cryptochrome 1 (cry1), consisting of two species in rice plants (cry1a and cry1b), is indispensable for robust induction of the GA2ox genes. On the other hand, repression of the GA20ox genes is mediated by phytochromes. In addition, we found that the phytochromes also mediate the repression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase gene (OsGA3ox2) in the light. These results imply that, in rice seedlings, phytochromes mediate the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis capacity, while cry1 mediates the induction of gibberellin inactivation capacity. The cry1 action was demonstrated to be dominant in the reduction of active gibberellin content, but, in rice seedlings, the cumulative effects of these independent actions reduced active gibberellin content in the light. This pathway design in which different types of photoreceptors independently but cooperatively regulate active gibberellin content is unique from the viewpoint of dicot research. This redundancy should provide robustness to the response in rice plants.

  13. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  14. MRL proteins cooperate with activated Ras in glia to drive distinct oncogenic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E; Alqadri, N; Dodgson, L; Mason, D; Lyulcheva, E; Messina, G; Bennett, D

    2017-01-01

    The Mig10/RIAM/Lpd (MRL) adapter protein Lpd regulates actin dynamics through interactions with Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP proteins to promote the formation of cellular protrusions and to stimulate invasive migration. However, the ability of MRL proteins to interact with multiple actin regulators and to promote serum response factor (SRF) signalling has raised the question of whether MRL proteins employ alternative downstream mechanisms to drive oncogenic processes in a context-dependent manner. Here, using a Drosophila model, we show that overexpression of either human Lpd or its Drosophila orthologue Pico can promote growth and invasion of RasV12-induced cell tumours in the brain. Notably, effects were restricted to two populations of Repo-positive glial cells: an invasive population, characterized by JNK-dependent elevation of Mmp1 expression, and a hyperproliferative population lacking elevated JNK signalling. JNK activation was not triggered by reactive immune cell signalling, implicating the involvement of an intrinsic stress response. The ability to promote dissemination of RasV12-induced tumours was shared by a subset of actin regulators, including, most prominently, Chicadee/Profilin, which directly interacts with Pico, and, Mal, a cofactor for serum response factor that responds to changes in G:F actin dynamics. Suppression of Mal activity partially abrogated the ability of pico to promote invasion of RasV12 tumours. Furthermore, we found that larval glia are enriched for serum response factor expression, explaining the apparent sensitivity of glial cells to Pico/RasV12 overexpression. Taken together, our findings indicate that MRL proteins cooperate with oncogenic Ras to promote formation of glial tumours, and that, in this context, Mal/serum response factor activation is rate-limiting for tumour dissemination. PMID:28346426

  15. Structural basis for the cooperative allosteric activation of the free fatty acid receptor GPR40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Byrne, Noel; Wang, John; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, Frank K.; Chobanian, Harry R.; Colletti, Steven L.; Di Salvo, Jerry; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande; Guo, Yan; Hall, Dawn L.; Hadix, Jennifer; Hastings, Nicholas B.; Hermes, Jeffrey D.; Ho, Thu; Howard, Andrew D.; Josien, Hubert; Kornienko, Maria; Lumb, Kevin J.; Miller, Michael W.; Patel, Sangita B.; Pio, Barbara; Plummer, Christopher W.; Sherborne, Bradley S.; Sheth, Payal; Souza, Sarah; Tummala, Srivanya; Vonrhein, Clemens; Webb, Maria; Allen, Samantha J.; Johnston, Jennifer M.; Weinglass, Adam B.; Sharma, Sujata; Soisson, Stephen M. (Merck); (Globel Phasing)

    2017-06-05

    Clinical studies indicate that partial agonists of the G-protein-coupled, free fatty acid receptor 1 GPR40 enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and represent a potential mechanism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full allosteric agonists (AgoPAMs) of GPR40 bind to a site distinct from partial agonists and can provide additional efficacy. We report the 3.2-Å crystal structure of human GPR40 (hGPR40) in complex with both the partial agonist MK-8666 and an AgoPAM, which exposes a novel lipid-facing AgoPAM-binding pocket outside the transmembrane helical bundle. Comparison with an additional 2.2-Å structure of the hGPR40–MK-8666 binary complex reveals an induced-fit conformational coupling between the partial agonist and AgoPAM binding sites, involving rearrangements of the transmembrane helices 4 and 5 (TM4 and TM5) and transition of the intracellular loop 2 (ICL2) into a short helix. These conformational changes likely prime GPR40 to a more active-like state and explain the binding cooperativity between these ligands.

  16. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria.

  17. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater

  18. EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER USING SIMULATION MEDIA PHET AND ACTIVITIES TOWARD STUDENT RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Mawaddah Lubis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the differences in learning outcomes of students taught by cooperative learning model NHT using simulation PhET and conventional learning, analyzing the differences in learning outcomes of students who have high activity and low activity, as well as the  interaction between learning model with the level of student activity in  influencing the outcome students learn physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this study were students of class X SMK Tritech Informatika Medan. The tests were used to obtain the data is in the form of multiple choice. Test requirements have been carried out in the form of normality and homogeneity, which showed that the normal data and homogeneous. The data were analyzed using Anova analysis of two paths. The results showed that: The physics learning outcomes of students who use cooperative learning model NHT using PhET simulations media is better than students who use conventional learning models. The physics learning outcomes of students who have high learning activities is better than students who have Low learning activities. There is an interaction between cooperative learning model NHT PhET simulations using the media and the level of learning activity in influencing student learning outcomes. Average increase learning outcomes in the control class is greater than the experimental class.

  19. Conditional Cooperativity in Toxin-Antitoxin Regulation Prevents Random Toxin Activation and Promotes Fast Translational Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria; Trusina, Ala; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Many toxin–antitoxin (TA) loci are known to strongly repress their own transcription. This auto-inhibition is often called ‘conditional cooperativity’ as it relies on cooperative binding of TA complexes to operator DNA that occurs only when toxins are in a proper stoichiometric relationship...... with antitoxins. There has recently been an explosion of interest in TA systems due to their role in bacterial persistence, however the role of conditional cooperativity is still unclear. We reveal the biological function of conditional cooperativity by constructing a mathematical model of the well studied TA...... such that random induction of relBE is minimized. At the same time it enables quick removal of free toxin when the starvation is terminated....

  20. Cooperative Lewis Acid/Cp*Co(III) Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation for the Synthesis of Isoquinolin-3-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Greßies, Steffen; Glorius, Frank

    2016-04-25

    A facile route toward the synthesis of isoquinolin-3-ones through a cooperative B(C6 F5 )3 - and Cp*Co(III) -catalyzed C-H bond activation of imines with diazo compounds is presented. The inclusion of a catalytic amount of B(C6 F5 )3 results in a highly efficient reaction, thus enabling unstable NH imines to serve as substrates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  2. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  3. Cooperative activities of hematopoietic regulators recruit RNA polymerase II to a tissue-specific chromatin domain

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Boyer, Meghan E; Kiekhaefer, Carol M.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2002-01-01

    The hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 regulates erythropoiesis and β-globin expression. Although consensus GATA-1 binding sites exist throughout the murine β-globin locus, we found that GATA-1 discriminates among these sites in vivo. Conditional expression of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells recapitulated the occupancy pattern. GATA-1 induced RNA polymerase II (pol II) recruitment to subregions of the locus control region and to the β-globin promoters. The hematopoietic factor NF-E2 cooper...

  4. Security Cooperation Activities: Strengthening a Partner Military and its Governing Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    leading theorists’ analyses of the US pursuing assistance goals. Divined from these theories are variables used to describe US aid and allied...look reveals the reality that the Malian government failed to address grievances and provide services to the Tuareg population. Neglect created ripe...the whole picture. Operational artists offer valued security cooperation planning inputs when that advice is bounded by the reality of an ally’s true

  5. IMPROVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT AND STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES USED COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE STAD BASED STRUCTURED LKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa .

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this research to improve understanding of the concepts and learning activity of students in solving physics problems through learning models of Cooperative type STAD based structured worksheet. The subjects were first grade students of SMA Swasta Galih Agung numbered 21 people consisted of 21 girls. Object of research is a process of learning by applying Cooperative type STAD model of learning. The research method was applied action research through two learning cycles, each cycle consisting of the stages of planning, implementation, observation and reflection. The results of the data analysis shown that through the application of Cooperative type STAD based structured worksheet model of learning there is an increasing mastery of physics concepts and learning activity first grade students. Increased mastery of physics concepts is seen from increase the number of students who pass out of 10 students (47,62% to 18 students (85,7% with averages of 66,62 and 81,09, the learning outcomes completeness criteria of a minimum of 65. Increasing students' learning activity was view from the first and second cycles includes Visual with an average of 81,90% to 91,42%, Oral with an average of 80% to 87,90%, Listening with an average of 81,27% to 84,15%, Writing with an average of 78,08 to 85,41%, Motor with an average of 72,05% to 80%, Mental with an average of 71,44% to 82,20% and Emotional with an average of 73,03% to 82,24%.

  6. Cooperative Control of Active Power Filters in Power Systems without Mutual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Tlustý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for calculating controller parameters of the APFs implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation is presented. The node-voltage-detection control strategy is applied and the basic controller parameters are found under the condition that the demanded THD factors at the buses where the APFs are placed will be obtained. A cooperative control of several APFs without mutual communication is proposed, simulated, and experimentally verified. By tuning the controller gains without considering the power circuit parameters, all APFs used tend to share harmonic load currents approximately equally regardless of the operation modes of the nonlinear loads in different parts of the power system.

  7. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  8. Readiness of educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in the inclusive educational practice of higher school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ts. Tsyrenov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of integration of persons with health limitations and disabilities into the educational space of higher education institutions. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the extent of readiness of the educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in inclusive educational practice of the higher school. The leading approach to studying this problem is the retrospective interdisciplinary analysis that allows an integrated consideration of the universities' readiness for full-fledged integration of people with health limitations and disabilities into the educational process. In the paper, the results of research into students' attitude toward the disabled and HL people and their readiness for results-oriented cooperation are presented, and the specific problems of psychological and social support rendering are described. The value references system of students with health limitations and disabilities has been found out, and grounds have been provided for having to include the subjects that form a tolerant attitude to special needs people into the student-training content. It has also been proven that qualified professional training has to be ensured for the academic teaching staff, infrastructure has to be provided, and an integrated program has to be developed that would allow personifying the academic process adjusted for the development particularities of students with health limitations. The materials of the paper are of practical importance for educational activity subjects involved into the higher-school inclusive educational practice.

  9. Cooperative activities of hematopoietic regulators recruit RNA polymerase II to a tissue-specific chromatin domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Boyer, Meghan E.; Kiekhaefer, Carol M.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2002-01-01

    The hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 regulates erythropoiesis and β-globin expression. Although consensus GATA-1 binding sites exist throughout the murine β-globin locus, we found that GATA-1 discriminates among these sites in vivo. Conditional expression of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells recapitulated the occupancy pattern. GATA-1 induced RNA polymerase II (pol II) recruitment to subregions of the locus control region and to the β-globin promoters. The hematopoietic factor NF-E2 cooperated with GATA-1 to recruit pol II to the promoters. We propose that only when GATA-1 attracts pol II to the locus control region can pol II access the promoter in a NF-E2-dependent manner. PMID:12193659

  10. Efficient and robust star polymer catalysts for living radical polymerization: cooperative activation in microgel-core reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Takaya; Nomura, Akihisa; Ouchi, Makoto; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2012-05-14

    Multifunctional microgel-core star polymers with ruthenium catalysts are designed as catalyst-bearing nanoreactors to improve activity, controllability, and functionality tolerance in living radical polymerization. Multifunctional ligands are efficiently incorporated into the core of star polymers by sequential tandem procedures: 1) ruthenium-catalyzed living radical polymerization, 2) in situ core hydrogenation, and 3) core-ruthenium removal. Typically, the star polymer ligands comprising multiple phosphines and amines within the core cooperatively enclose a ruthenium complex (>100 per core). As a result, the in-core pseudo hetero P,N-chelation of the ruthenium complexes not only showed high activity for methyl methacrylate but also high tolerance to unprotected methacrylic acid. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  12. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  13. MICU1 controls both the threshold and cooperative activation of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csordás, György; Golenár, Tünde; Seifert, Erin L.; Kamer, Kimberli J.; Sancak, Yasemin; Perocchi, Fabiana; Moffat, Cynthia; Weaver, David; Perez, Sergio de la Fuente; Bogorad, Roman; Koteliansky, Victor; Adijanto, Jeffrey; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Hajnóczky, György

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via the uniporter is central to cell metabolism, signaling and survival. Recent studies identified MCU as the uniporter’s likely pore and MICU1, an EF-hand protein, as its critical regulator. How this complex decodes dynamic cytoplasmic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) signals, to tune out small [Ca2+]c increases yet permit pulse transmission, remains unknown. We report that loss of MICU1 in mouse liver and cultured cells causes mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation during small [Ca2+]c elevations, yet an attenuated response to agonist-induced [Ca2+]c pulses. The latter reflects loss of positive cooperativity, likely via the EF-hands. MICU1 faces the intermembrane space and responds to [Ca2+]c changes. Prolonged MICU1 loss leads to an adaptive increase in matrix Ca2+ binding, yet cells show impaired oxidative metabolism and sensitization to Ca2+ overload. Collectively, the data indicate that MICU1 senses the [Ca2+]c to establish the uniporter’s threshold and gain, thereby allowing mitochondria to properly decode different inputs. PMID:23747253

  14. Google+ as a Tool for Use in Cooperative Laboratory Activities between Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ortiz, Joan; Pàmies-Vilà, Rosa; Martinez Miralles, Jordi Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The following is a proposal for collaboration between universities with the aim to improve curricula that require laboratory activities. A methodology is suggested to implement an innovative educational project involving the exchange of laboratory activities. The exchange of laboratory activities can be carried out on different levels of…

  15. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the communication and sociological values of the actors involved and saw it as essential for their way of cooperating. The cooperation included and combined elements of traditional industrial building production, with concepts and initiatives that had to be understood by means of sociological analysis. Tentatively...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process...

  16. Structural and Energetic Mechanisms of Cooperative Autoinhibition and Activation of Vav1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bingke; Martins, Ilídio R.S.; Li, Pilong; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Umetani, Junko; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Machius, Mischa; Tomchick, Diana R.; Rosen, Michael K. (Mayo); (UTSMC)

    2010-05-12

    Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They control processes including T cell activation, phagocytosis, and migration of normal and transformed cells. We report the structure and biophysical and cellular analyses of the five-domain autoinhibitory element of Vav1. The catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain of Vav1 is controlled by two energetically coupled processes. The DH active site is directly, but weakly, inhibited by a helix from the adjacent Acidic domain. This core interaction is strengthened 10-fold by contacts of the calponin homology (CH) domain with the Acidic, pleckstrin homology, and DH domains. This construction enables efficient, stepwise relief of autoinhibition: initial phosphorylation events disrupt the modulatory CH contacts, facilitating phosphorylation of the inhibitory helix and consequent GEF activation. Our findings illustrate how the opposing requirements of strong suppression of activity and rapid kinetics of activation can be achieved in multidomain systems.

  17. On cooperation of the universities of different countries with commercial enterprises and legal aspects of their joint innovative activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anisimova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this article we compare and make generalizations on experiences involving cooperation between research universities in the USA, Germany, Poland and Russia and commercial enterprises in these countries...

  18. NOD1 cooperates with TLR2 to enhance T cell receptor-mediated activation in CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandine C Mercier

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRR, like Toll-like receptors (TLR and NOD-like receptors (NLR, are involved in the detection of microbial infections and tissue damage by cells of the innate immune system. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that TLR2 can additionally function as a costimulatory receptor on CD8 T cells. Here, we establish that the intracytosolic receptor NOD1 is expressed and functional in CD8 T cells. We show that C12-iEDAP, a synthetic ligand for NOD1, has a direct impact on both murine and human CD8 T cells, increasing proliferation and effector functions of cells activated via their T cell receptor (TCR. This effect is dependent on the adaptor molecule RIP2 and is associated with an increased activation of the NF-κB, JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NOD1 stimulation can cooperate with TLR2 engagement on CD8 T cells to enhance TCR-mediated activation. Altogether our results indicate that NOD1 might function as an alternative costimulatory receptor in CD8 T cells. Our study provides new insights into the function of NLR in T cells and extends to NOD1 the recent concept that PRR stimulation can directly control T cell functions.

  19. Complex molecular mechanisms cooperate to mediate histone deacetylase inhibitors anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardou Katya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are a new class of promising anti-tumour agent inhibiting cell proliferation and survival in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Neuroblastoma (NB is the second most common solid tumour in children still associated with poor outcome in higher stages and, thus NB strongly requires novel treatment modalities. Results We show here that the HDACi Sodium Butyrate (NaB, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA and Trichostatin A (TSA strongly reduce NB cells viability. The anti-tumour activity of these HDACi involved the induction of cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, followed by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, via the activation of the caspases cascade. Moreover, HDACi mediated the activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and BimEL and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-xL, RIP and survivin, that further enhanced the apoptotic signal. Interestingly, the activity of these apoptosis regulators was modulated by several different mechanisms, either by caspases dependent proteolytic cleavage or by degradation via the proteasome pathway. In addition, HDACi strongly impaired the hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF by NB cells. Conclusion HDACi are therefore interesting new anti-tumour agents for targeting highly malignant tumours such as NB, as these agents display a strong toxicity toward aggressive NB cells and they may possibly reduce angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF production by NB cells.

  20. Strong cooperativity and loose geometry between CUB domains are the basis for procollagen c-proteinase enhancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Daniel; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Font, Bernard; Eichenberger, Denise; Hulmes, David J S; Moali, Catherine

    2009-11-27

    Procollagen C-proteinase enhancers (PCPE-1 and -2) specifically activate bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and other members of the tolloid proteinase family during C-terminal processing of fibrillar collagen precursors. PCPEs consist of two CUB domains (CUB1 and CUB2) and one NTR domain separated by one short and one long linker. It was previously shown that PCPEs can strongly interact with procollagen molecules, but the exact mechanism by which they enhance BMP-1 activity remains largely unknown. Here, we used a series of deletion mutants of PCPE-1 and two chimeric constructs with repetitions of the same CUB domain to study the role of each domain and linker. Out of all the forms tested, only those containing both CUB1 and CUB2 were capable of enhancing BMP-1 activity and binding to a mini-procollagen substrate with nanomolar affinity. Both these properties were lost by individual CUB domains, which had dissociation constants at least three orders of magnitude higher. In addition, none of the constructs tested could inhibit PCPE activity, although CUB2CUB2NTR was found to modulate BMP-1 activity through direct complex formation with the enzyme, resulting in a decreased rate of substrate processing. Finally, increasing the length of the short linker between CUB1 and CUB2 was without detrimental effect on both activity and substrate binding. These data support the conclusion that CUB1 and CUB2 bind to the procollagen substrate in a cooperative manner, involving the short linker that provides a flexible tether linking the two binding regions.

  1. Prototyping and Active User Involvement in System Development: Towards a Cooperative Prototyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    published in conference proceedings, journals or books, some in more than one version. In the thesis they are reprinted from the most recent manuscripts. This choice is made to provide the most recent contents. The papers are reformatted to make the typography of the thesis consistent. Before delving...... writing and planning meetings. In fact, such activities occupied much of my time the first year. Although I wasted time on involving myself in projects that never turned out the way I needed it for my thesis studies, the project start up activities had some positive side-effects. I made contacts...... and Lyngsø project plans, I was independently seeking other ways of reaching the goals of my thesis project. Within the frames of the COOP program I took the initiative to establish two smaller field studies on prototyping techniques featuring active user involvement by trying out some of the ideas from my...

  2. Ongoing slow oscillatory phase modulates speech intelligibility in cooperation with motor cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojima, Takayuki; Kitajo, Keiichi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Neural oscillation is attracting attention as an underlying mechanism for speech recognition. Speech intelligibility is enhanced by the synchronization of speech rhythms and slow neural oscillation, which is typically observed as human scalp electroencephalography (EEG). In addition to the effect of neural oscillation, it has been proposed that speech recognition is enhanced by the identification of a speaker's motor signals, which are used for speech production. To verify the relationship between the effect of neural oscillation and motor cortical activity, we measured scalp EEG, and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a speech recognition task in which participants were required to recognize spoken words embedded in noise sound. We proposed an index to quantitatively evaluate the EEG phase effect on behavioral performance. The results showed that the delta and theta EEG phase before speech inputs modulated the participant's response time when conducting speech recognition tasks. The simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment showed that slow EEG activity was correlated with motor cortical activity. These results suggested that the effect of the slow oscillatory phase was associated with the activity of the motor cortex during speech recognition.

  3. From cooperation to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to suc...

  4. Suppression of p53 activity through the cooperative action of Ski and histone deacetylase SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasumichi; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Miyazawa, Keiji; Imamura, Takeshi

    2011-02-25

    Ski was originally identified as an oncogene based on the fact that Ski overexpression transformed chicken and quail embryo fibroblasts. Consistent with these proposed oncogenic roles, Ski is overexpressed in various human tumors. However, whether and how Ski functions in mammalian tumorigenesis has not been fully investigated. Here, we show that Ski interacts with p53 and attenuates the biological functions of p53. Ski overexpression attenuated p53-dependent transactivation, whereas Ski knockdown enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53. Interestingly, Ski bound to the histone deacetylase SIRT1 and stabilized p53-SIRT1 interaction to promote p53 deacetylation, which subsequently decreased the DNA binding activity of p53. Consistent with the ability of Ski to inactivate p53, overexpressing Ski desensitized cells to genotoxic drugs and Nutlin-3, a small-molecule antagonist of Mdm2 that stabilizes p53 and activates the p53 pathway, whereas knocking down Ski increased the cellular sensitivity to these agents. These results indicate that Ski negatively regulates p53 and suggest that the p53-Ski-SIRT1 axis is an attractive target for cancer therapy.

  5. Effect of microalgae/activated sludge ratio on cooperative treatment of anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, Fatemeh Pourasgharian; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Akram; Moayedi, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, capability of the green microalga (MA), Chlorella vulgaris, in treating synthetic anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater was investigated. While pure C. vulgaris (100 % MA) provided maximum soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies of 27 and 72 % respectively, addition of activated sludge (AS) to MA in different mass ratios (91, 80, 66.7, 9 % MA) improved wastewater treatment efficiency. Thus giving maximum sCOD and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies 85 and 86.3 % (for MA/AS = 10/1), respectively. Utilizing AS without C. vulgaris, for treating the synthetic wastewater resulted in 87 % maximum sCOD and 42 % maximum N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies. Furthermore, algal growth and specific growth rates were measured in the systems with microalga as the dominant cellular population. As a result, faster algal growth was observed in mixed systems. Specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.14 (day(-1)) in 100 % MA and 0.39 (day(-1)) in 80 % MA. Finally, data gathered by online measurement of dissolved oxygen indicate that algae-activated sludge mixture improves photosynthetic activity of examined microalga strain during anaerobic effluent treatment.

  6. Regional Neonatal Associates for cooperative study of platelet-activating factor (PAF). Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, F.

    1992-11-01

    Lipid inflammatory mediators are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory distress syndrome, including neonatal lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). One such mediator is platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent bioactive phospholipid that induces adverse airway, vascular, and microcirculatory responses. To study the role of PAF in neonatal lung disease, we used an {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay to measure PAF in whole blood and tracheal lavage in very low birthweight infants at 1, 3, 5, 9, 21 and 28 days after birth. PAF was found in the pulmonary lavagate and blood of ventilated infants as early as one day after birth. Lavagate levels of PAF increased with acute injury (pneumothorax, pneumonia) but were not associated with BPD. Our results indicate PAF could be associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. We suggest that as a consequence of the pathophysiologic processes associated with BPD, PAF is released by pulmonary cells. Our preliminary data indicate that low birthweight infants also have lower PAF acetylhydrolase levels in cord blood and tracheal lavagate as compared to adults. Therefore, it is possible the increased levels of PAF in the blood of low birthweight infants might be due to persistent transient increases in PAF alveolar levels coupled with lower blood acetylhydrolase activities and could be important in the development of symptoms associated with BPD. Future plans for this project call for completing the enzymatic study of acetylhydrolase activity in pulmonary lavage of the BPD infants.

  7. Analysis and Prospects of European Co-Operation in the Field of Regional Planning. Activity Report of the Committee of Senior Officials 1976-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    To guide future work, to provide an overall view of the program of technical cooperation in regional planning, and to form a basis for a Conference Ministerial Resolution, the report outlines the activities of the Committee of Senior Officials (CSO) of the Council of Europe's Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning during…

  8. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator and immediate angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction. : One-year follow up. The European Cooperative Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); D.P. de Bono (David); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. Verstraete (Marc); J. Lubsen (Jacob); F.J.J. van de Werf (Frans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. The European Cooperative Study Group conducted two randomized trials in patients with suspected myocardial infarction to assess the effect of 100 mg single-chain recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) on enzymatic infarct size, left ventricular

  9. Cooperative activation of cyclin D1 and progesterone receptor gene expression by the SRC-3 coactivator and SMRT corepressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sudipan; Gao, Tong; Pace, Margaret C; Oesterreich, Steffi; Smith, Carolyn L

    2010-06-01

    Although the ability of coactivators to enhance the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) target genes is well established, the role of corepressors in regulating 17beta-estradiol (E2)-induced gene expression is poorly understood. Previous studies revealed that the silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressor is required for full ERalpha transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and we report herein the E2-dependent recruitment of SMRT to the regulatory regions of the progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclin D1 genes. Individual depletion of SMRT or steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-3 modestly decreased E2-induced PR and cyclin D1 expression; however, simultaneous depletion revealed a cooperative effect of this coactivator and corepressor on the expression of these genes. SMRT and SRC-3 bind directly in an ERalpha-independent manner, and this interaction promotes E2-dependent SRC-3 binding to ERalpha measured by co-IP and SRC-3 recruitment to the cyclin D1 gene as measured by chromatin IP assays. Moreover, SMRT stimulates the intrinsic transcriptional activity of all of the SRC family (p160) coactivators. Our data link the SMRT corepressor directly with SRC family coactivators in positive regulation of ERalpha-dependent gene expression and, taken with the positive correlation found for SMRT and SRC-3 in human breast tumors, suggest that SMRT can promote ERalpha- and SRC-3-dependent gene expression in breast cancer.

  10. DIVISION OF LABOR IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING‘S INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY ACTIVITIES: PROCESS AND BENEFITS FOR EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research revealing the positive effects of cooperative learning (CL on EFL learning is vast and well-documented, yet little is known about the processes occurring within the use of CL in EFL classrooms. This qualitative case study fills the gap in the literature by exploring the role of individual accountability—a principle of and one of the activities in CL—in enhancing EFL learning. The study was conducted in Indonesian middle and high schools‘ EFL classrooms. Document analysis, classroom observations (involving two secondary school teachers and 77 students, and in-depth interviews (involving the two teachers and four focal students were utilized as data collection methods. The gathered data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. One of the findings—identified by looking at the relation between the EFL learners as individual accountability performers and the division of labor—substantiated that reciprocity and exchange of information took place in the observed CL groups. Specifically, the division of labor arranged by the procedures of the selected CL structures (including individual accountability activities, i.e., performances and peer interaction made the EFL learners specialize on a certain part of the learning materials—thus creating information gap—and learn from their peers‘ presentations of expertise (i.e., the previously thought about, discussed, and learned information.

  11. Distinct and cooperative activities of HESO1 and URT1 nucleotidyl transferases in microRNA turnover in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 3' uridylation is increasingly recognized as a conserved RNA modification process associated with RNA turnover in eukaryotes. 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal ribose protects micro(miRNAs from 3' truncation and 3' uridylation in Arabidopsis. Previously, we identified HESO1 as the nucleotidyl transferase that uridylates most unmethylated miRNAs in vivo, but substantial 3' tailing of miRNAs still remains in heso1 loss-of-function mutants. In this study, we found that among nine other potential nucleotidyl transferases, UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase 1 (URT1 is the single most predominant nucleotidyl transferase that tails miRNAs. URT1 and HESO1 prefer substrates with different 3' end nucleotides in vitro and act cooperatively to tail different forms of the same miRNAs in vivo. Moreover, both HESO1 and URT1 exhibit nucleotidyl transferase activity on AGO1-bound miRNAs. Although these enzymes are able to add long tails to AGO1-bound miRNAs, the tailed miRNAs remain associated with AGO1. Moreover, tailing of AGO1-bound miRNA165/6 drastically reduces the slicing activity of AGO1-miR165/6, suggesting that tailing reduces miRNA activity. However, monouridylation of miR171a by URT1 endows the miRNA the ability to trigger the biogenesis of secondary siRNAs. Therefore, 3' tailing could affect the activities of miRNAs in addition to leading to miRNA degradation.

  12. Dendritic spikes are enhanced by cooperative network activity in the intact hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamondi, A; Acsády, L; Buzsáki, G

    1998-05-15

    In vitro experiments suggest that dendritic fast action potentials may influence the efficacy of concurrently active synapses by enhancing Ca2+ influx into the dendrites. However, the exact circumstances leading to these effects in the intact brain are not known. We have addressed these issues by performing intracellular sharp electrode recordings from morphologically identified sites in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in vivo while simultaneously monitoring extracellular population activity. The amplitude of spontaneous fast action potentials in dendrites decreased as a function of distance from the soma, suggesting that dendritic propagation of fast action potentials is strongly attenuated in vivo. Whereas the amplitude variability of somatic action potentials was very small, the amplitude of fast spikes varied substantially in distal dendrites. Large-amplitude fast spikes in dendrites occurred during population discharges of CA3-CA1 neurons concurrent with field sharp waves. The large-amplitude fast spikes were associated with bursts of smaller-amplitude action potentials and putative Ca2+ spikes. Both current pulse-evoked and spontaneously occurring Ca2+ spikes were always preceded by large-amplitude fast spikes. More spikes were observed in the dendrites during sharp waves than in the soma, suggesting that local dendritic spikes may be generated during this behaviorally relevant population pattern. Because not all dendritic spikes produce somatic action potentials, they may be functionally distinct from action potentials that signal via the axon.

  13. Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutziger, Kareen L; Piroddi, Nicoletta; McMichael, Jonathan T; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado; Regnier, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tension development and relaxation in cardiac muscle are regulated at the thin filament via Ca(2+) binding to cardiac troponin C (cTnC) and strong cross-bridge binding. However, the influence of cTnC Ca(2+)-binding properties on these processes in the organized structure of cardiac sarcomeres is not well-understood and likely differs from skeletal muscle. To study this we generated single amino acid variants of cTnC with altered Ca(2+) dissociation rates (k(off)), as measured in whole troponin (cTn) complex by stopped-flow spectroscopy (I61Q cTn>WT cTn>L48Q cTn), and exchanged them into cardiac myofibrils and demembranated trabeculae. In myofibrils at saturating Ca(2+), L48Q cTnC did not affect maximum tension (T(max)), thin filament activation (k(ACT)) and tension development (k(TR)) rates, or the rates of relaxation, but increased duration of slow phase relaxation. In contrast, I61Q cTnC reduced T(max), k(ACT) and k(TR) by 40-65% with little change in relaxation. Interestingly, k(ACT) was less than k(TR) with I61Q cTnC, and this difference increased with addition of inorganic phosphate, suggesting that reduced cTnC Ca(2+)-affinity can limit thin filament activation kinetics. Trabeculae exchanged with I61Q cTn had reduced T(max), Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension (pCa(50)), and slope (n(H)) of tension-pCa, while L48Q cTn increased pCa(50) and reduced n(H). Increased cross-bridge cycling with 2-deoxy-ATP increased pCa(50) with WT or L48Q cTn, but not I61Q cTn. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the role of cTn Ca(2+)-binding properties on the magnitude and rate of tension development and relaxation in cardiac muscle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PTPRG inhibition by DNA methylation and cooperation with RAS gene activation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianqiao; Lee, Seung-Tae; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaomei; Houseman, E Andres; Hsu, Ling-I; Roy, Ritu; Wrensch, Margaret; de Smith, Adam J; Chokkalingam, Anand; Buffler, Patricia; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2014-09-01

    While the cytogenetic and genetic characteristics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are well studied, less clearly understood are the contributing epigenetic mechanisms that influence the leukemia phenotype. Our previous studies and others identified gene mutation (RAS) and DNA methylation (FHIT) to be associated with the most common cytogenetic subgroup of childhood ALL, high hyperdiploidy (having five more chromosomes). We screened DNA methylation profiles, using a genome-wide high-dimension platform of 166 childhood ALLs and 6 normal pre-B cell samples and observed a strong association of DNA methylation status at the PTPRG locus in human samples with levels of PTPRG gene expression as well as with RAS gene mutation status. In the 293 cell line, we found that PTPRG expression induces dephosphorylation of ERK, a downstream RAS target that may be critical for mutant RAS-induced cell growth. In addition, PTPRG expression is upregulated by RAS activation under DNA hypomethylating conditions. An element within the PTPRG promoter is bound by the RAS-responsive transcription factor RREB1, also under hypomethylating conditions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that DNA methylation of the PTPRG gene is a complementary event in oncogenesis induced by RAS mutations. Evidence for additional roles for PTPR family member genes is also suggested. This provides a potential therapeutic target for RAS-related leukemias as well as insight into childhood ALL etiology and pathophysiology. © 2014 UICC.

  15. Lanthanide derivatives comprising arylhydrazones of β-diketones: cooperative E/Z isomerization and catalytic activity in nitroaldol reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudov, Kamran T; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Sutradhar, Manas; Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Huseynov, Fatali E; Shamilov, Nazim T; Voronina, Anna A; Buslaeva, Tatyana M; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2015-03-28

    Two complexes [KLa(HL(1))2{(CH3)2NCHO}2(H2O)3] (1) and [Sm(H2O)9](E-H2L(2))3·2H2O (2) were synthesized by the reaction of lanthanum(III) and samarium(III) nitrates with potassium 3-(2-(2,4-dioxopentan-3-ylidene)hydrazinyl)-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzenesulfonate (KH2L(1)) and potassium (E,Z)-5-chloro-3-(2-(1,3-dioxo-1-phenylbutan-2-ylidene)hydrazinyl)-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonate (KH2L(2)), respectively. Both complexes were fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Cooperative E,Z→E isomerization of KH2L(2), induced by resonance assisted hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions, occurs upon the interaction with Sm(III). Catalytic activities of KH2L(1,2) and their lanthanide derivatives were evaluated in the Henry reaction of nitroethane with a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. Good yields (up to 91%) and diastereoselectivities (syn/anti 3 : 1) were observed in the reactions catalyzed by 1 in water.

  16. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  17. Multiple Mechanisms Cooperate to Constitutively Exclude the Transcriptional Co-Activator YAP from the Nucleus During Murine Oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Laleh; Malki, Safia; Cockburn, Katie; Macaulay, Angus; Robert, Claude; Rossant, Janet; Clarke, Hugh J

    2016-05-01

    Reproduction depends on the generation of healthy oocytes. Improving therapeutic strategies to prolong or rescue fertility depends on identifying the inter- and intracellular mechanisms that direct oocyte development under physiological conditions. Growth and proliferation of multiple cell types is regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway, whose chief effectors are the transcriptional co-activator YAP and its paralogue WWTR1. To resolve conflicting results concerning the potential role of Hippo in mammalian oocyte development, we systematically investigated the expression and localization of YAP in mouse oocytes. We report that that YAP is expressed in the germ cells beginning as early as Embryonic Day 15.5 and subsequently throughout pre- and postnatal oocyte development. However, YAP is restricted to the cytoplasm at all stages. YAP is phosphorylated at serine-112 in growing and fully grown oocytes, identifying a likely mechanistic basis for its nuclear exclusion, and becomes dephosphorylated at this site during meiotic maturation. Phosphorylation at serine-112 is regulated by a mechanism dependent on cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, which is known to be active in oocytes prior to maturation. Growing oocytes also contain a subpopulation of YAP, likely dephosphorylated, that is able enter the oocyte nucleus, but it is not retained there, implying that oocytes lack the cofactors required to retain YAP in the nucleus. Thus, although YAP is expressed throughout oocyte development, phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms cooperate to ensure that it does not accumulate in the nucleus. We conclude that nuclear YAP does not play a significant physiological role during oocyte development in mammals. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  19. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy......, not least in the power sector. Over the years, five focus areas have been addressed. Energy security of supply triggered the Nordic cooperation with the need to develop a long-term energy policy. This required decision-making support and energy systems analyses based on reliable and valid data, modelling...... the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...

  20. CEDEX's supporting activities through the Cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation; Apoyo del CEDEX a las actuaciones del Fondo de cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Marrero, I. del

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the activities CEDEX has being doing since 2012, Giving Technical support to the cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation (Fondo de Cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento-FCAS), of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Throughout the document, the different activities carried out by the CEDEX up to now, are briefly described. They have mainly consisted in giving technical support during the formulation, review and monitoring of the tasks derived from the FCAS programs, capacity buildings, and preparing technical guides and recommendations concerning different subjects. The FCAS programs concerns water planning water supply and sanitation planning as well as water supply and sanitation (sewerage and wastewater treatment plants) construction projects. The paper ends up presenting a set of conclusions and lessons learned extracted from this period working for the FCAS, as well as the main courses of action projected for the future collaboration works. (Author)

  1. Cooperative Catalytic Activation of Si-H Bonds: CO2 -Based Synthesis of Formamides from Amines and Hydrosilanes under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongchang; Lin, Xiaowei; Chen, Yaju; Zhang, Wuying; Zhou, Xiantai; Ji, Hongbing

    2017-03-22

    A simple cooperative catalytic system was successfully developed for the solvent-free N-formylation of amines with CO2 and hydrosilanes under ambient conditions, which was composed of a Zn(salen) catalyst and quaternary ammonium salt. These commercially available binary components activated the Si-H bonds effectively, owing to the intermolecular synergistic effect between Lewis base and transition metal center (LB-TM), and subsequently facilitated the insertion of CO2 to form the active silyl formats, thereby leading to excellent catalytic performance at a low catalyst loading. Furthermore, the bifunctional Zn(salen) complexes, with two imidazolium-based ionic-liquid (IL) units at the 3,3'-position of salen ligand, acted as intramolecularly cooperative catalysts, and the solvent-regulated separation resulted in facile catalyst recycling and reuse. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  3. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  4. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  5. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  6. Alkaloid-Derived Thioureas in Asymmetric Organocatalysis: A Cooperative Learning Activity in a Project-Based Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, David

    2015-01-01

    An experiment carried out by advanced undergraduate students in a project-based laboratory course is described. Taking into account the positive effects of working in teams, which has been key for successful research in industry and academia, a cooperative learning experience in the laboratory was developed. Students working in teams of four…

  7. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  8. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGY OF COOPERATION, MOTIVATIONAL, INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF FUTURE HUMANITARIAN TEACHER READINESS FOR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY IN POLYSUBJECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Spivakovska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Redefining of modern information and communication technologies (ICT from teaching aids to teaching process subjects, continuous growth of their subjectivity necessary demands appropriate knowledge, skills, appropriate attitude to didactic capabilities of ICT, ability to cooperate with them and to build pupils learning activity aimed at formation and development of self organization, self development skills, promoting their subjective position in getting education that will be readiness of modern teacher to organize effective professional activities in polysubjective learning environment (PLE. The new tasks of humanitarian teacher related to self selection and design of educational content as well as the modeling of the learning process in conditions of PLE virtualized alternatives choice, impose special requirements to professionally important teacher’s personality qualities, rather to his readiness to implement effective professional work in such conditions. In this article the essence of future humanitarian teacher readiness concept to professional activity in polysubjective educational environment is proved. The structure of the readiness is analyzed. Psychological strategy of cooperation, reflective, motivational and informational partials are substantiated and characterized as components of the future humanitarian teacher readiness to professional activities in polysubjective educational environment.

  10. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  11. Methandiide as a non-innocent ligand in carbene complexes: from the electronic structure to bond activation reactions and cooperative catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia; Modl, Tanja; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of a ruthenium carbene complex based on a sulfonyl-substituted methandiide and its application in bond activation reactions and cooperative catalysis is reported. In the complex, the metal-carbon interaction can be tuned between a Ru-C single bond with additional electrostatic interactions and a Ru=C double bond, thus allowing the control of the stability and reactivity of the complex. Hence, activation of polar and non-polar bonds (O-H, H-H) as well as dehydrogenation reactions become possible. In these reactions the carbene acts as a non-innocent ligand supporting the bond activation as nucleophilic center in the 1,2-addition across the metal-carbon double bond. This metal-ligand cooperativity can be applied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation for the reduction of ketones. This concept opens new ways for the application of carbene complexes in catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Stable Economic Cooperation : A Relational Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Lazarova, E.A.; Ruys, P.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a relational economy in which economic agents participate in three types of relational economic activities: autarkic activities; binary matching activities; and plural cooperative activities. We introduce a stability notion and characterize stable interaction structures, both in the

  13. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  14. NRP/Optineurin Cooperates with TAX1BP1 to potentiate the activation of NF-kappaB by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 tax protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Journo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor (NF-kappaB is a major survival pathway engaged by the Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 Tax protein. Tax1 activation of NF-kappaB occurs predominantly in the cytoplasm, where Tax1 binds NF-kappaB Essential Modulator (NEMO/IKKgamma and triggers the activation of IkappaB kinases. Several independent studies have shown that Tax1-mediated NF-kappaB activation is dependent on Tax1 ubiquitination. Here, we identify by co-immunoprecipitation assays NEMO-Related Protein (NRP/Optineurin as a binding partner for Tax1 in HTLV-1 infected and Tax1/NRP co-expressing cells. Immunofluorescence studies reveal that Tax1, NRP and NEMO colocalize in Golgi-associated structures. The interaction between Tax1 and NRP requires the ubiquitin-binding activity of NRP and the ubiquitination sites of Tax1. In addition, we observe that NRP increases the ubiquitination of Tax1 along with Tax1-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. Surprisingly, we find that in addition to Tax1, NRP interacts cooperatively with the Tax1 binding protein TAX1BP1, and that NRP and TAX1BP1 cooperate to modulate Tax1 ubiquitination and NF-kappaB activation. Our data strongly suggest for the first time that NRP is a critical adaptor that regulates the assembly of TAX1BP1 and post-translationally modified forms of Tax1, leading to sustained NF-kappaB activation.

  15. THE MARKETING OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan-Nicolae, DECUSEARA; Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives have proven to be a business model that has endured over time, even during the economic crisis. Even if they don’t have the scale of large companies, they manage, through their ability to adapt, to overcome challenges offered by the market they are acting. The fact that their members are working in these cooperatives makes them to engage more actively in cooperative work and also to be more responsible, in the end, working for them. Even if they don’t have marketing budgets, coop...

  16. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson......'s disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of midbrain DA neurons by expression analyses and loss-of-function knockout mouse studies, including Nurr1......, Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation...

  17. EXAMINING THE DYNAMICS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN COMPETING FIRMS IN THEIR R&D ACTIVITIES (R&D CO-OPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraddin Maroofi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between collaboration with competitors and goods innovation performance was investigated along with the moderating effect of the innovating firm's technological capability. The hypothesis that collaboration with competitors has an inverted U-shaped relationship with goods innovation performance was tested using data on new goods introductions from 749 Iranian firms. The results support the balance between competition and collaboration by confirming that collaboration with competitors contributes considerably to successful goods innovation. The positive influences of co-optation certainly seem consistent with the cooperative arguments that collaboration with competitors increases absorptive capacity, improves information exchange and facilitates joint problem solving. The results also show that unnecessary collaboration with competitors can have a negative influence on innovation performance, raising concerns about opportunistic exploitation. The results support the existence of a bell-shaped relationship between application and goods innovation performance. Technological capability and alliances with universities were shown to weaken the relationship.

  18. Chloroplast Glutamine Synthetase, the Key Regulator of Nitrogen Metabolism in Wheat, Performs Its Role by Fine Regulation of Enzyme Activity via Negative Cooperativity of Its Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Németh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine synthetase (GS is of central interest as the main route of ammonia assimilation in plants, and as a connection point between the organic and inorganic worlds. Even though GS activity is critical for producing high yields of crop plants, the autoregulation of substrate consumption of wheat GS remained unknown until now. Here we show kinetic evidence, that the chloroplast localized GS isoform (GS2 of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jubilejnaja-50 takes place at the carbon-nitrogen metabolic branch point, where it is a mediator, and its enzymatic activity is regulated in a negatively cooperative allosteric manner. We have discovered that GS2 activity is described by a tetraphasic kinetic curve in response to increasing levels of glutamate supply. We constructed a model that explains the kinetic properties of glutamate consumption and this unique allosteric behavior. We also studied the subunit composition of both wheat leaf GS isoenzymes by a combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein blotting. Both leaf isozymes have homogeneous subunit composition. Glutamate is both a substrate, and an allosteric regulator of the biosynthetic reaction. We have concluded on the basis of our results and previous reports, that wheat GS2 is probably a homooctamer, and that it processes its substrate in a well-regulated, concentration dependent way, as a result of its negatively cooperative, allosteric activity. Thus, GS2 has a central role as a regulator between the nitrogen and the carbon cycles via maintaining glutamine-glutamate pool in the chloroplast on the level of substrates, in addition to its function in ammonia assimilation.

  19. The Delta Cooperative Model: a Dynamic and Innovative Team-Work Activity to Develop Research Skills in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baez-Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i student’s perception of the workshops’ effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student’s knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83%and 75%respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology.

  20. The Delta Cooperative Model: a Dynamic and Innovative Team-Work Activity to Develop Research Skills in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rios-Velazquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i student’s perception of the workshops’ effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student’s knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83%and 75%respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 activation plays a causative role in urothelial cancer pathogenesis in cooperation with Pten loss in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Mona; Ahmad, Imran; van Rhijn, Bas W. G.; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Bergman, Andre M.; King, Louise; Ridgway, Rachel; Leung, Hing Y.; Fraser, Sioban; Sansom, Owen J.; Iwata, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Although somatic mutations and overexpression of the tyrosine kinase Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) are strongly associated with bladder cancer, evidence for their functional involvement in the pathogenesis remains elusive. Previously we showed that activation of Fgfr3 alone is not sufficient to initiate urothelial tumourigenesis in mice. Here we hypothesise that cooperating mutations are required for Fgfr3-dependent tumourigenesis in the urothelium and analyse a mouse model in which an inhibitor of Pi3k-Akt signalling, Pten, is deleted in concert with Fgfr3 activation (UroIICreFgfr3+/K644EPtenflox/flox). Two main phonotypical characteristics observed in the urothelium were increased urothelial thickness and abnormal cellular histopathology, including vacuolisation, condensed cellular appearance, enlargement of cells and nuclei, and loss of polarity. These changes were not observed when either mutation was present individually. Expression patterns of known urothelial proteins indicated the abnormal cellular differentiation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that Fgfr3 and Pten mutations cooperatively caused cellular enlargement, while Pten contributed to an increased cell proliferation. Finally, FGFR3 overexpression was analysed along the level of phosphorylated mTOR in sixty-six T1 urothelial tumours in tissue microarray, which supported the occurrence of functional association of these two signalling pathways in urothelial pathogenesis. Taken together, this study provides evidence supporting a functional role of FGFR3 in the process of pathogenesis in urothelial neoplasm. Given the wide availability of inhibitors specific to FGF signalling pathways, our model may open the avenue for FGFR3-targeted translation in urothelial disease. PMID:24519156

  2. Cooperative Activity of GABP with PU.1 or C/EBPε Regulates Lamin B Receptor Gene Expression, Implicating Their Roles in Granulocyte Nuclear Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Krishnakumar; Garhwal, Rahul; Pelletier, Margery G H; Gotur, Deepali; Halene, Stephanie; Zwerger, Monika; Yang, Zhong-Fa; Rosmarin, Alan G; Gaines, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear segmentation is a hallmark feature of mammalian neutrophil differentiation, but the mechanisms that control this process are poorly understood. Gene expression in maturing neutrophils requires combinatorial actions of lineage-restricted and more widely expressed transcriptional regulators. Examples include interactions of the widely expressed ETS transcription factor, GA-binding protein (GABP), with the relatively lineage-restricted E-twenty-six (ETS) factor, PU.1, and with CCAAT enhancer binding proteins, C/EBPα and C/EBPε. Whether such cooperative interactions between these transcription factors also regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins that control nuclear segmentation is unclear. We investigated the roles of ETS and C/EBP family transcription factors in regulating the gene encoding the lamin B receptor (LBR), an inner nuclear membrane protein whose expression is required for neutrophil nuclear segmentation. Although C/EBPε was previously shown to bind the Lbr promoter, surprisingly, we found that neutrophils derived from Cebpe null mice exhibited normal Lbr gene and protein expression. Instead, GABP provided transcriptional activation through the Lbr promoter in the absence of C/EBPε, and activities supported by GABP were greatly enhanced by either C/EBPε or PU.1. Both GABP and PU.1 bound Ets sites in the Lbr promoter in vitro, and in vivo within both early myeloid progenitors and differentiating neutrophils. These findings demonstrate that GABP, PU.1, and C/EBPε cooperate to control transcription of the gene encoding LBR, a nuclear envelope protein that is required for the characteristic lobulated morphology of mature neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Child activity recognition based on cooperative fusion model of a triaxial accelerometer and a barometric pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Park, Jung Wook

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a child activity recognition approach using a single 3-axis accelerometer and a barometric pressure sensor worn on a waist of the body to prevent child accidents such as unintentional injuries at home. Labeled accelerometer data are collected from children of both sexes up to the age of 16 to 29 months. To recognize daily activities, mean, standard deviation, and slope of time-domain features are calculated over sliding windows. In addition, the FFT analysis is adopted to extract frequency-domain features of the aggregated data, and then energy and correlation of acceleration data are calculated. Child activities are classified into 11 daily activities which are wiggling, rolling, standing still, standing up, sitting down, walking, toddling, crawling, climbing up, climbing down, and stopping. The overall accuracy of activity recognition was 98.43% using only a single- wearable triaxial accelerometer sensor and a barometric pressure sensor with a support vector machine.

  4. Cooperation of bisphenol A and leptin in inhibition of caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Anna; Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of bisphenol A and leptin on caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Caspase-3 and survivin expression was measured at the transcript level by real-time PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. In addition, caspase-3 activity was measured, using a fluorometric assay, upon exposure to bisphenol A (40 nM) alone, leptin (2.5 nM) alone, and the combination of both agents. 17β-estradiol (40 nM) was used as a positive control for estrogenic properties of bisphenol A. Results showed that the interaction between bisphenol A and leptin, which was similar to that observed between 17β-estradiol and leptin, led to the inhibition of caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 cells. Surprisingly, survivin was found to not be involved in the anti-apoptotic activity of either agent. Also, results showed that leptin inhibits caspase-3 activity by acting on the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, but bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol by the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. In conclusion, the study reveals that bisphenol A and leptin interact to inhibit caspase-3 expression and activity by modulating STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in OVCAR-3 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    prices in the local economy, undermining progress. Communication between the US military and NGOs can promote US national interests and policy. Civil...Lo gis tic s M an ag em en t a nd Re so ur ce S up po rt #1 0 - O il a nd H az ar do us M at er ial s Re sp on se Domestic Coordination...terrorist activities, with a particular focus in Afghanistan and Pakistan . The FBI created the CBRNE [Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear

  6. SU-F-T-237: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Cooperatives Activities Supporting the NCI’s National Clinical Trial Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Galvin, J [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Newtown, PA (United States); Michalski, J [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Rosen, M [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); FitzGerald, T [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Knopp, M [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Cooperative has been active for the past two years supporting the National Clinical Trial Network and the details of that support are reported. Methods: There are six QA centers (Houston, Ohio, Philadelphia-RT, Philadelphia-DI, Rhode Island, St. Louis) providing an integrated RT and DI quality control program in support of the NCI’s clinical trials. The QA Center’s efforts are focused on assuring high quality data for clinical trials designed to improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients worldwide. This program is administered through five core services: site qualification, trial design support, credentialing, data management, and case review. Results: IROC currently provides core support for 172 NCTN trials with RT, DI and RT/DI components. Many of these trials were legacy trial from the previous cooperative group program. IROC monitors nearly 1800 RT photon and 20 proton institutions. Over 28,000 beams outputs were monitored with 8% of the sites requiring repeat audits due to beam out of criteria. As part of credentialing, 950 QA phantoms have been irradiated, 515 imaging modalities evaluated and almost 4000 credentialing letters have been issued. In just year 2, 5290 RT and 4934 DI patient datasets were received (many using TRIAD) by IROC QA Centers to be prepared for review. During the past 2 years, a total of 6300 RT cases and 19,000 DI image sets were reviewed by IROC technical staff. To date, IROC has published 36 manuscripts. Conclusion: The QA services provided by IROC are numerous and are continually being evaluated for effectiveness, harmonized across all NCTN Groups and administered in an efficient and timely manner to enhance accurate and per protocol trial data submission. These efforts increase each NCTN Group’s ability to derive meaningful outcomes from their clinical trials. This work was supported by DHHS NIH grant 5U24CA180803.

  7. A cooperative approach to animal disease response activities: Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and vvIBD in California poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Emi K; Shea, Supie; Jones, Annette; Ramos, Gregory; Pitesky, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDv) was first detected in the United States at the end of 2008. Since its detection, Federal and State animal health officials, the poultry industry and the research/academic community have led response activities through a collaborative effort. By June 2011, much still remained unknown regarding the basic epidemiology and ecology of vvIBD in California, although there were a number of potential activities to fill this information gap. Available resources limited the ability to pursue all the activities, and responsible parties and stakeholders recognized the need to prioritize the activities. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a useful multi-criteria decision making methodology that incorporates qualitative information (in the form of judgments) with available quantitative information. This is especially useful when there is very limited quantitative information, such as in the situation with vvIBD in California. A commercial package that allows ready use of the AHP model was utilized for prioritizing activities, incorporating input from members from the three stakeholder groups: State and Federal animal health officials, poultry industry, and research/academia. Based on their inputs on 17 potential activities, the participants identified three priority activities; specifically determination of risk factors for re-emergence or re-introduction at affected premises, development of a laboratory diagnostic test to screen for segment B of the vvIBDV genome and surveillance of other potential reservoirs (mealworms, rodents, beetles). In order to evaluate the ability of the AHP to respond to differences, a sensitivity analysis was done in order to evaluate changes in prioritization of activities. Changes in prioritization were noted demonstrating the plasticity of the model under different conditions. However, a 50% increase or decrease in weighting was necessary to affect the order of the three highest scoring

  8. KLF6 cooperates with NUR77 and SF1 to activate the human INSL3 promoter in mouse MA-10 leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Maxime A; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E; Robert, Nicholas M; Bergeron, Francis; Tremblay, Jacques J

    2016-04-01

    Insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a Leydig cell-specific hormone, is essential for testis descent during foetal life and bone metabolism in adults. Despite its essential roles in male reproductive and bone health, very little is known regarding its transcriptional regulation in Leydig cells. To date, few transcription factors have been shown to activate INSL3 promoter activity: the nuclear receptors AR, NUR77, COUP-TFII and SF1. To identify additional regulators, we have isolated and performed a detailed analysis of a 1.1 kb human INSL3 promoter fragment. Through 5' progressive deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, we have mapped a 10 bp element responsible for about 80% of INSL3 promoter activity in Leydig cells. This element is identical to the CPE element of the placental-specific glycoprotein-5 (PSG5) promoter that is recognized by the developmental regulator Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6). Using PCR and western blotting, we found that KLF6 is expressed in several Leydig and Sertoli cell lines. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse testis revealed the presence of KLF6 in the nuclei of both Leydig and Sertoli cells. KLF6 binds to the 10 bp KLF element at -108 bp and activates the -1.1 kb human, but not the mouse, INSL3 promoter. KLF6-mediated activation of the human INSL3 promoter required an intact KLF element as well as Leydig/Sertoli-enriched factors because KLF6 did not stimulate the human INSL3 promoter activity in CV-1 fibroblast cells. Consistent with this, we found that KLF6 transcriptionally cooperates with NUR77 and SF1. Collectively, our results identify KLF6 as a regulator of human INSL3 transcription. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Effectiveness of a mining simulation cooperative learning activity on the cognitive and affective achievement of students in a lower division physical geology course: A confluent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Jeffrey Wayne

    Most students enrolled in lower division physical geology courses are non-majors and tend to finish the course with little appreciation of what it is geologists really do. They may also be expected to analyze, synthesize, and apply knowledge from previous laboratory experiences with little or no instruction and/or practice in utilizing the critical thinking skills necessary to do so. This study sought to answer two research questions: (1) do physical geology students enrolled in a course designed around a mining simulation activity perform better cognitively than students who are taught the same curriculum in the traditional fashion; and (2) do students enrolled in the course gain a greater appreciation of physical geology and the work that geologists do. Eighty students enrolled in the course at Columbia College, Sonora, California over a two year period. During the first year, thirty-one students were taught the traditional physical geology curriculum. During the second year, forty-nine students were taught the traditional curriculum up until week nine, then they were taught a cooperative learning mining simulation activity for three weeks. A static group, split plot, repeated measures design was used. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both the control and treatment groups. The cognitive assessment instrument was validated by content area experts in the University of South Carolina Geological Sciences Department. Students were given raw lithologic, gravimetric, topographic, and environmental data with which to construct maps and perform an overlay analysis. They were tested on the cognitive reasoning and spatial analysis they used to make decisions about where to test drill for valuable metallic ores. The affective instrument used a six point Likert scale to assess students' perceived enjoyment, interest, and importance of the material. Gains scores analysis of cognitive achievement data showed a mean of 2.43 for the control group and 4.47 for

  10. City Centres as Places for Strategic Cooperation through Active City Management – The Significance of Trade Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brańka Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits that the contemporary city should be viewed as a common space that needs the effort of many various stakeholders in order to satisfy the diverse (and changing needs of its stakeholders. Yet, achieving this effectively requires active management and coordination of a range of activities. This paper discusses three examples of recent activities in Cracow (Poland that reflect strategic approach. The first of these case studies focuses on identifying the factors encouraging students to remain in Cracow after completing their studies. The second case study corresponds to a shopping centre opened in 2006 and the last case study shows the recent application of the cultural park legal framework to the city centre of Cracow. This study also makes reference to recent research funded by the European Commission’s Life Long Learning programme on the professional competences of city managers across 6 countries.

  11. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  12. Let's Cooperate! Integrating Cooperative Learning Into a Lesson on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Patricia R

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning is an effective teaching strategy that promotes active participation in learning and can be used in academic, clinical practice, and professional development settings. This article describes that strategy and provides an example of its use in a lesson about ethics. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(4):154-156. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand cooperates with NSAIDs via activated Wnt signalling in (pre)malignant colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Dianne M; Jalving, Mathilde; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Sloots, Ineke A; Koster, Roelof; Hollema, Harry; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Koornstra, Jan J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; de Jong, Steven

    2011-02-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonistic agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are interesting agents for the chemoprevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. We investigated whether NSAIDs sensitize colon cancer and adenoma cell lines and ex vivo cultured human adenomas to recombinant human (rh)TRAIL. Involvement of the crucial Wnt signalling pathway in the sensitization of colon cancer cells was examined. Five colon cancer and two adenoma cell lines, human ex vivo adenomas and normal colonic epithelium were treated with aspirin or sulindac combined with rhTRAIL. Apoptosis levels, expression of intracellular proteins and TRAIL receptor membrane expression were assessed. Ls174T cells stably transfected with an inducible dominant negative TCF-4 (dnTCF-4) construct served to analyse the role of Wnt pathway activation. Both rhTRAIL-sensitive and -resistant colon cancer cell lines were strongly sensitized to rhTRAIL by aspirin (maximum enhancement ratio, 7.1). Remarkably, in adenoma cell lines sulindac enhanced rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis most effectively (maximum enhancement ratio, 2.5). Although membrane TRAIL receptor expression was not affected by NSAIDs, caspase-8 activation was enhanced by combinational treatment. Several proteins from different biological pathways were affected by NSAIDs, indicating complex mechanisms of sensitization. Elimination of TCF-4 completely blocked the sensitizing effect in colon cancer cells. In ex vivo adenomas the combination of sulindac and rhTRAIL increased apoptosis from 18.4% (sulindac) and 17.8% (rhTRAIL) to 28.0% (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005, respectively). It was concluded that NSAID-induced sensitization to rhTRAIL requires TCF-4 activity. Thus, the combination of TRAIL-receptor agonistic agents and NSAIDs is a potentially attractive treatment option for (pre)malignant tumours with constitutively active Wnt signalling, such as colorectal tumours. Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society

  14. TGF-beta1 and WISP-1/CCN-4 can regulate each other's activity to cooperatively control osteoblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkson, Colette A; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Fisher, Larry W; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Young, Marian F

    2008-08-01

    Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1), like other members of the CCN family, is expressed in skeletal tissues. Its mechanism of action remains unknown. Expression of WISP-1 was analyzed in human bone marrow stroma cells (hBMSC) by RT-PCR. We identified two major transcripts corresponding to those of full-length WISP-1, and of the splice variant WISP-1va which lacks a putative BMP/TGF-beta binding site. To investigate the function of WISP-1 in bone, hBMSC cultures were treated with recombinant human (rh)WISP-1 and analyzed for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. WISP-1 treatment increased both BrdU incorporation and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Considering the known functional synergy found between the TGF-beta super-family and members of the CCN family, we next tested the effect of WISP-1 on TGF-beta1 activity. We found that rhWISP-1 could reduce rhTGF-beta1 induced BrdU incorporation. Similarly, rhTGF-beta1 inhibited rhWISP-1 induction of AP activity. To explore functional differences between the WISP-1 variants, WISP-1 or WISP-1va were transfected into hBMSC. Both variants could strongly induce BrdU incorporation. However, there were no effects of either variant on AP activity without an additional osteogenic stimulus such as TGF-beta1. Taken together our results suggest a functional relationship between WISP-1 and TGF-beta1. To further define this relationship we analyzed the effect of WISP-1 on TGF-beta signaling. rhWISP-1 significantly reduced TGF-beta1 induced phosphorylation of Smad-2. Our data indicates that full-length WISP-1 and its variant WISP-1va are modulators of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and may be novel regulators of TGF-beta1 signaling in osteoblast-like cells.

  15. Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Wu, C L; Fattaey, A R

    1993-01-01

    the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB). The other protein, murine DP-1, was purified from an E2F DNA-affinity column, and it was subsequently shown to bind the consensus E2F DNA-binding site. To study a possible interaction between E2F-1 and DP-1, we have now isolated a cDNA for the human...... is required for stable interaction with pRB in vivo and that trans-activation by E2F-1/DP-1 heterodimers is inhibited by pRB. We suggest that "E2F" is the activity that is formed when an E2F-1-related protein and a DP-1-related protein dimerize.......The E2F transcription factor has been implicated in the regulation of genes whose products are involved in cell proliferation. Two proteins have recently been identified with E2F-like properties. One of these proteins, E2F-1, has been shown to mediate E2F-dependent trans-activation and to bind...

  16. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  17. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  18. New and recently finalised activities within the NKS Programmes for Nordic cooperation on nuclear reactor safety and emergency preparedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andgren, Karin; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, NKS has provided funding for hundreds of research activities in fields comprising reactor safety, decommissioning, nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness, and management of radioactive waste. Advanced technologies and methods developed under the NKS framework have been used...... within the Nordic countries as well as internationally. Two programme areas are defined under the NKS platform: The NKS-R programme on nuclear reactor safety and the NKS-B programme on emergency preparedness. Three articles, giving an introduction to NKS and its two programmes, were published...

  19. China-Africa: New Directions of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the policy of fifth generation of Chinese leadership with regard to African states. The article deals with the concept of “Chinese Dream”, which was first declared in Africa, an innovative model of international cooperation in the framework of the formation of “economic zone of the Silk Road”. The authors reveal three basic directions of cooperation - political, economic and humanitarian cooperation. Political cooperation is characterized by the activation of mutual visits at the highest level, the interaction in the framework of the UN General Assembly, participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Economic cooperation is characterized by the activation of bilateral trade, the transition to a “modernized version of” investment cooperation, implementation of the strategy of “going abroad” of Chinese products, imports of natural resources from Africa, creating jobs for the local population, financing of infrastructure projects, the transfer of labor-intensive industries in Africa. Humanitarian cooperation includes training program for Africa, the implementation of the Sino-African programs, technology partnerships, research and exchange, and the China-Africa Forum “Think Tank”. Cooperation in health care also plays an important role. The authors note that the new Chinese leadership declares transition to an upgraded version of the Sino-African cooperation.

  20. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and R&D intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level of innovativeness increase the likelihood...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  1. A Consensus-Based Cooperative Control of PEV Battery and PV Active Power Curtailment for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays installed in residential houses leads to serious voltage quality problems in low voltage distribution networks (LVDNs). In this paper, a combined method using the battery energy management of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the active power...... curtailment (APC) of PV arrays is proposed to regulate voltage in LVDNs with high penetration level of PV resources. A distributed control strategy composed of two consensus algorithms is used to reach an effective utilization of limited storage capacity of PEV battery considering its power/capacity and state...... of charge (SoC). A consensus control algorithm is also developed to fairly share the required power curtailment among PVs during overvoltage periods. The main objective is to mitigate the voltage rise due to the reverse power flow and to compensate the voltage drop resulting from the peak load. Overall...

  2. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  3. Elastically cooperative activated barrier hopping theory of relaxation in viscous fluids. I. General formulation and application to hard sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2014-05-21

    We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

  4. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  5. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug.

  6. The cooperative activity between the carboxyl-terminal TSP1 repeats and the CUB domains of ADAMTS13 is crucial for recognition of von Willebrand factor under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Pan, Weilan; Rux, Ann H; Sachais, Bruce S; Zheng, X Long

    2007-09-15

    ADAMTS13 cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) between Tyr(1605) and Met(1606) residues at the central A2 subunit. The amino-terminus of ADAMTS13 protease appears to be sufficient to bind and cleave VWF under static and denatured condition. However, the role of the carboxyl-terminus of ADAMTS13 in substrate recognition remains controversial. Present study demonstrates that ADAMTS13 cleaves VWF in a rotation speed- and protease concentration-dependent manner on a mini vortexer. Removal of the CUB domains (delCUB) or truncation after the spacer domain (MDTCS) significantly impairs its ability to cleave VWF under the same condition. ADAMTS13 and delCUB (but not MDTCS) bind VWF under flow with dissociation constants (K(D)) of about 50 nM and about 274 nM, respectively. The isolated CUB domains are neither sufficient to bind VWF detectably nor capable of inhibiting proteolytic cleavage of VWF by ADAMTS13 under flow. Addition of the TSP1 5-8 (T5-8CUB) or TSP1 2-8 repeats (T2-8CUB) to the CUB domains restores the binding affinity toward VWF and the inhibitory effect on cleavage of VWF by ADAMTS13 under flow. These data demonstrate directly and quantitatively that the cooperative activity between the middle carboxyl-terminal TSP1 repeats and the distal carboxyl-terminal CUB domains may be crucial for recognition and cleavage of VWF under flow.

  7. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... divers theoretical and conceptual frameworks to study collective action with a human ecosystem approach and develop one with a stronger anthropological reference....

  8. Cotylenin A and arsenic trioxide cooperatively suppress cell proliferation and cell invasion activity in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takashi; Okabe-Kado, Junko; Kato, Nobuo; Honma, Yoshio; Kumakura, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    attractive enhancer for the ATO-induced anticancer activities in human breast cancer.

  9. Interplay of Electronic Cooperativity and Exchange Coupling in Regulating the Reactivity of Diiron(IV)-oxo Complexes towards C-H and O-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azaj; Ansari, Mursaleem; Singha, Asmita; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-07-26

    Activation of inert C-H bonds such as those of methane are extremely challenging for chemists but in nature, the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme readily oxidizes methane to methanol by using a diiron(IV) species. This has prompted chemists to look for similar model systems. Recently, a (μ-oxo)bis(μ-carboxamido)diiron(IV) ([Fe(IV)2 O(L)2 ](2+) L=N,N-bis-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-methoxypyridyl-2'-methyl)-N'-acetyl-1,2-diaminoethane) complex has been generated by bulk electrolysis and this species activates inert C-H bonds almost 1000 times faster than mononuclear Fe(IV) =O species and at the same time selectively activates O-H bonds of alcohols. The very high reactivity and selectivity of this species is puzzling and herein we use extensive DFT calculations to shed light on this aspect. We have studied the electronic and spectral features of diiron {Fe(III) -μ(O)-Fe(III) }(+2) (complex I), {Fe(III) -μ(O)-Fe(IV) }(+3) (II), and {Fe(IV) -μ(O)-Fe(IV) }(+4) (III) complexes. Strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the Fe centers leads to spin-coupled S=0, S=3/2, and S=0 ground state for species I-III respectively. The mechanistic study of the C-H and O-H bond activation reveals a multistate reactivity scenario where C-H bond activation is found to occur through the S=4 spin-coupled state corresponding to the high-spin state of individual Fe(IV) centers. The O-H bond activation on the other hand, occurs through the S=2 spin-coupled state corresponding to an intermediate state of individual Fe(IV) centers. Molecular orbital analysis reveals σ-π/π-π channels for the reactivity. The nature of the magnetic exchange interaction is found to be switched during the course of the reaction and this offers lower energy pathways. Significant electronic cooperativity between two metal centers during the course of the reaction has been witnessed and this uncovers the reason behind the efficiency and selectivity observed. The catalyst is found to prudently choose the

  10. Fostering Cooperation in Nonproliferation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Security Assistance 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Ira n Lib ya Ch ina Vie tna m Au str ia Hu ng ary Alb an ia Slo va kia Ind on es ia Ro ma nia Fin lan d Sw...148 C. Raja Mohan, “Atomic Adolescent ,” Indian Express (Bombay), October 11, 2006, http://www.indianexpress.com...Straits Times, March 29, 2007. Mohan, C. Raja. “Atomic Adolescent ,” Indian Express (Bombay), October 11, 2006, http://www.indianexpress.com

  11. Cooperative anti-invasive effect of Cdc42/Rac1 activation and ROCK inhibition in SW620 colorectal cancer cells with elevated blebbing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion de Toledo

    Full Text Available Rho GTPases are key regulators of tumour cell invasion and therefore constitute attractive targets for the design of anticancer agents. Several strategies have been developed to modulate their increased activities during cancer progression. Interestingly, none of these approaches took into account the existence of the well-known antagonistic relationship between RhoA and Rac1. In this study, we first compared the invasiveness of a collection of colorectal cancer cell lines with their RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 activities. A marked decrease of active Cdc42 and Rac1 correlated with the high invasive potential of the cell lines established from metastatic sites of colorectal adenocarcinoma (LoVo, SKCo1, SW620 and CoLo205. Conversely, no correlation between RhoA activity and invasiveness was detected, whereas the activity of its kinase effector ROCK was higher in cancer cell lines with a more invasive phenotype. In addition, invasiveness in these colon cancer cell lines was correlated with a typical round and blebbing morphology. We then tested whether treatment with PDGF to restore Cdc42 and Rac1 activities and/or with Y27632, a chemical inhibitor of ROCK, could decrease the invasiveness of SW620 cells. The association of both treatments substantially decreased the invasive potential of SW620 cells and this effect was accompanied by loss of membrane blebbing, restoration of a more elongated cell morphology and re-establishment of E-cadherin-dependent adherens junctions. This study paves the road to the development of therapeutic strategies in which different Rho GTPase modulators are combined to modulate the cross-talk between Rho GTPases and their specific input in metastatic progression.

  12. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Information Program Name Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) DoD Component Navy Joint Participants United States Marine Corps; United...dated June 16, 2004 CEC December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016 12:13:59 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Mission The Cooperative Engagement Capability

  13. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  15. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  16. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  17. Significance of UICC Activities in Global Health Initiatives on Cancer Looking Towards the Future of Cooperative Networks for Cancer Care in Asia - A Dialogue with the Union for International Cancer Control(UICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie; Adams, Cary; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    At the 24th Asia Pacific Cancer Conference held in Seoul, Korea from 22 to 24 June 2017, a dialogue with Dr.Cary Adams, CEO of the Union for International Cancer Control(UICC)was held to discuss the significance of UICC activities in global health initiatives on cancer and pathways for cooperation on cancer control and care.UICC is engaged in a wide range of capacity building, advocacy and convening initiatives and is increasingly focusing on multi-sectoral approaches.In Japan activities are still predominantly focused on scientific and clinical research and this dialogue provided an opportunity to discuss the possibilities for expanding cooperation in Asia, using the UICC Asia Regional Office(UICC-ARO)as a platform.Discussion also covered UICC's new C/Can 2025: City Cancer Challenge, a new multi-sectoral initiative that has the potential to bring multiple stakeholders together.

  18. Building Partner Cooperation between Teachers and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Šteh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in which all of those involved are respected and recognised in their efforts to achieve common goals.The second part presents the findings of an empirical study carried out on a representative sample of Slovene primary schools. Teachers (N = 467 and parents (N = 1,690 were asked to express their pinions about the need for mutual cooperation, their view of each other when fulfilling their respective roles, and where they perceive the main obstacles to mutual cooperation. It became evident that teachers and parents have doubts about each other’s competence. This does not form a solid base on which to establish and build the necessary partner relationship, and along with it mutual cooperation. Yet both groups to a large extent agree that teacher-parent cooperation is both necessary and useful. This gives rise to the question as to how to ensure that schools adopt policies promotingopportunities for better understanding, for building quality mutualrelations and for parents to become more actively involved.

  19. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program... Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute... area of P3's planned activity is to develop a fundamental understanding of the factors that lead to low...

  20. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  1. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  2. Can Altruism Hinder Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Nakao

    2008-01-01

    This note considers the effects of altruism on cooperation in the context of a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma. Altruism has two conflicting impacts on cooperation: One is to reduce the temptation for defection the other is to make the future punishment ineffective. The total effect of altruism hinges on the shape of players'' cost functions.

  3. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  4. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  5. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  6. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-07

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  8. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  9. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  10. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  11. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  12. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  13. Cooperation among microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wingreen, Ned S.; Levin, Simon A

    2006-01-01

    Understanding cooperation among microorganisms presents conceptual and mathematical challenges at the interface of evolutionary biology and the theory of emergent properties of independent agents, two of the most exciting areas in modern mathematical biology.

  14. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  15. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  16. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  17. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  18. Cooperating mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  19. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    framework and motivation for this mathematical formalization for cooperative principles. The insight was the quantification of an individual’s...theories need to be formalized so they can better inform mathematical and computational models. The interest is clearly there. This conference was meant...this mathematical formalization for cooperative principles. The insight was the quantification of an individual’s contribution to the group effort

  20. PECULIARITIES OF AGRICULTURAL SERVICE COOPERATIVES DEVELOPMENT IN LVIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Tsymbalista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study the recent trends and identify the main problems of the agricultural service cooperatives development. The processes of establishing and functioning of cooperatives in Lviv region are investigated. The dynamics of number of established cooperatives shows a gradual growth in recent year, while the share of operating units is rather low. The size structure of the agricultural service cooperatives in Lviv region proves that the rural population is insufficiently active in participating in cooperatives. The most popular sphere of activity of the cooperatives in the region is dairy production, while the most wide spread type of cooperative is a marketing cooperative. The analysis of the sales of agricultural products by the cooperatives of the region by distribution channels shows that on the present stage of their development service cooperatives can hardly cope with their main objective which is to overcome the monopoly power of commercial intermediaries. This is evidenced by the fact that the share of agricultural production sold by cooperatives to the intermediaries is still significant.

  1. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Transnational Research Co-operation: Opportunities and Challenges for transnational research co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the NGOs have a lot of international experience (mainly in Denmark and Germany) as partners in different co-operation projects. Almost all the NGOs have recognized the important role of the scientific information in their activity. NGOs also feel the need for an easy access to required information...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... in order to improve transnational cooperation are identified to be: • Search for national/international project partners • Access to existent co-operation projects or networks • Develop in common project proposals on themes requested by community groups • Exchange information/good operational practices...

  3. Cooperative credit systems: defence of the model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sánchez Boza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the role carried out by saving and credit cooperatives in Central America where they have gained momentum, mainly in the past ten years. Cooperatives of this type are called financial intermediation cooperatives due to the influence of various legislative regulations that have placed them in the context of international control, the type of economic activity they perform and the fact that they make profits from both public and private international entities which enable their growth.Many of these organisations can be commended. They are highly competitive on financial markets and strive to extend their profits to increasingly larger parts of the population while also searching for new products to benefit the sector of the population that has chosen the cooperative model as a means to progress in a sphere of equity and respect for the rights of their fellow men.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015

  4. When cooperation begets cooperation: the role of key individuals in galvanizing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Wrangham, Richard; Glowacki, Luke; Russell, Andrew F

    2015-12-05

    Life abounds with examples of conspecifics actively cooperating to a common end, despite conflicts of interest being expected concerning how much each individual should contribute. Mathematical models typically find that such conflict can be resolved by partial-response strategies, leading investors to contribute relatively equitably. Using a case study approach, we show that such model expectations can be contradicted in at least four disparate contexts: (i) bi-parental care; (ii) cooperative breeding; (iii) cooperative hunting; and (iv) human cooperation. We highlight that: (a) marked variation in contributions is commonplace; and (b) individuals can often respond positively rather than negatively to the contributions of others. Existing models have surprisingly limited power in explaining these phenomena. Here, we propose that, although among-individual variation in cooperative contributions will be influenced by differential costs and benefits, there is likely to be a strong genetic or epigenetic component. We then suggest that selection can maintain high investors (key individuals) when their contributions promote support by increasing the benefits and/or reducing the costs for others. Our intentions are to raise awareness in--and provide testable hypotheses of--two of the most poorly understood, yet integral, questions regarding cooperative ventures: why do individuals vary in their contributions and when does cooperation beget cooperation? © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  6. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  7. A new long form of Sox5 (L-Sox5), Sox6 and Sox9 are coexpressed in chondrogenesis and cooperatively activate the type II collagen gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, V; Li, P.; de Crombrugghe, B

    1998-01-01

    Transcripts for a new form of Sox5, called L-Sox5, and Sox6 are coexpressed with Sox9 in all chondrogenic sites of mouse embryos. A coiled-coil domain located in the N-terminal part of L-Sox5, and absent in Sox5, showed >90% identity with a similar domain in Sox6 and mediated homodimerization and heterodimerization with Sox6. Dimerization of L-Sox5/Sox6 greatly increased efficiency of binding of the two Sox proteins to DNA containing adjacent HMG sites. L-Sox5, Sox6 and Sox9 cooperatively act...

  8. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  9. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  10. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  11. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  12. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  13. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  14. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  15. The cooperation between family and school in cooperative education of children and youth in the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELŻBIETA MAGIERA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical journalism and literature of the interwar period emphasised importance of the cooperation between family and school with respect to cooperative education of school-age children and youth. Cooperative education started usually in family through the formation of reason, will and emotions. Family home constituted a basic level of education and could repeatedly stimulate cooperative interests. Common work of the family at family farm or in craft or cottage industry business became the first school of cooperation and joint-action on which cooperative activity was based. Family home played a supporting part in the development of student cooperative. The acceptance of parents and their recognition, and sometimes their involvement in the work of student cooperation, were a form of encouragement for students and teachers for further activity of the cooperative. At the same time, student cooperative – in particular in rural areas – was a medium stimulating the parents of these students and the environment to cooperatistic actions. The social life of school was guided by the principle of convergence, i.e. its interpenetration and complementation by the family home and environment life. The idea of cooperation in the interwar educational system being accomplished in practice by means of student cooperatives had the possibilities of playing a very big part. This was determined by its broad application in educational activity of the Polish school as well as its understanding and acceptance by the family and environment. Important part was played by the tutor of student cooperative. His / her duty was to tighten the cooperation between student cooperative and family home which, on the one hand, ensured the understanding of teacher's actions and, on the other hand, provided material and moral assistance for the cooperative. At the same time, teacher – through student cooperative – could influence socially and educationally the family and

  16. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  17. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  18. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  19. Physicality and Cooperative Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    CSCW researchers have increasingly come to realize that material work setting and its population of artefacts play a crucial part in coordination of distributed or co-located work. This paper uses the notion of physicality as a basis to understand cooperative work. Using examples from an ongoing

  20. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  1. Designs for Cooperative Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Robin

    Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

  2. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  3. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  4. Targeted overexpression of an activated N-ras gene results in B-cell and plasma cell lymphoproliferation and cooperates with c-myc to induce fatal B-cell neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael A; Kirchhof, Nicole; Carlson, Cathy S; Van Ness, Brian G

    2012-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant expansion of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Although there is no pathognomonic genetic lesion among multiple myeloma patients, activation of the ras gene has been identified as a common mutation. We have previously described the use of the 3' κ immunoglobulin light chain enhancer (3'KE) to target transgenic expression in murine B and plasma cells, resulting in bcl-X(L) and c-myc-driven murine models of multiple myeloma. In this report, we characterize the role of activated mutant N-ras in B and plasma cells in transgenic mice. We constructed transgenic mice that use 3'KE to direct expression of a mutant activated N-ras. We also crossed the N-ras mice with mice bearing a c-myc transgene to study the cooperative effects of the transgenic constructs. Mice were sacrificed when moribund or at specific time intervals and characterized by serology, light microscopy, and flow cytometry. The transgenic N-ras animals develop B- and plasma cell lymphoproliferation, and aged mice develop immunoglobulinemia, renal hyaline tubular casts, and microscopic foci of abnormal plasma cells in extramedullary sites, including the liver and kidney. Bitransgenic 3'KE/N-Ras V12 × Eμ-c-Myc mice develop fatal B-cell neoplasia, with a median survival of 10 weeks. These data indicate that activated N-ras can play a role in B- and plasma cell homeostasis and that activated N-Ras and c-Myc can cooperate to induce B-cell neoplasia. Copyright © 2012 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  6. Individual and co-operative roles of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the killing activity of enteric strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC933 and vaginal strain Lactobacillus gasseri KS120.1 against enteric, uropathogenic and vaginosis-associated pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, Fabrice; Servin, Alain L

    2010-03-01

    The mechanism underlying the killing activity of Lactobacillus strains against bacterial pathogens appears to be multifactorial. Here, we investigate the respective contributions of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid in killing bacterial pathogens associated with the human vagina, urinary tract or intestine by two hydrogen peroxide-producing strains. In co-culture, the human intestinal strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC933 and human vaginal strain Lactobacillus gasseri KS120.1 strains killed enteric Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344, vaginal Gardnerella vaginalis DSM 4944 and urinary tract Escherichia coli CFT073 pathogens. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCSs) produced the same reduction in SL1344, DSM 4944 and CFT073 viability, whereas isolated bacteria had no effect. The killing activity of CFCSs was heat-stable. In the presence of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium inhibiting the lactic acid-dependent killing activity, CFCSs were less effective at killing of the pathogens. Catalase-treated CFCSs displayed a strong decreased activity. Tested alone, hydrogen peroxide triggered a concentration-dependent killing activity against all three pathogens. Lactic acid alone developed a killing activity only at concentrations higher than that present in CFCSs. In the presence of lactic acid at a concentration present in Lactobacillus CFCSs, hydrogen peroxide displayed enhanced killing activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that for hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus strains, the main metabolites of Lactobacillus, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, act co-operatively to kill enteric, vaginosis-associated and uropathogenic pathogens.

  7. LMS Moodle: Distance International Education in Cooperation of Higher Education Institutions of Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimbayev, N.; Kultan, J.; Abdykarimova, S.; Akramova, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of international cooperation requires cooperation in the sphere of education. An enhanced sharing of experience in the sphere of practical teaching activities implies the increase of the quality of teaching process and of scientific cooperation. Sharing of experience in educational activities implies understanding among…

  8. Cooperative Farming Potential for Establishing Food Security within Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Milovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative farming led by smallholder farmers might be the future of Bangladesh’s agriculture. The paper examines rice‑farming surveys from Kurigram Sadar, Bangladesh, and explores the potential of cooperative farming and mechanization. It reveals that a number of informal, community‑supported cooperative practices are already in place, although rice farming is still labor intensive and inefficient. The paper argues that mechanization of key activities and institutionalization of cooperative farming may reverse the situation and improve food security. Kurigram Sadar rice farming is relevant to other parts of rural Bangladesh as well, as most of the country is employing similar agricultural practices.

  9. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  10. The Gache Gache Fishing Co-operative, July 1984-June 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Mtada, O.S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Details are given of development of the Gache Gache Fishing Cooperative and fishing activities in Lake Kariba undertaken during the year June 1984-June 1985. The viability of fishing cooperatives in Lake Kariba is also examined.

  11. Organizational Fluidity and Sustainable Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Glance, N S; Glance, Natalie; Huberman, Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    Abstract We show that fluid organizations display higher levels of cooperation than attainable by groups with either a fixed social structure or lacking one altogether. By moving within the organization, individuals cause restructurings that facilitate cooperation. Computer experiments simulating fluid organizations faced with a social dilemma reveal a myriad of complex cooperative behaviors that result from the interplay between individual strategies and structural changes. Significantly, fluid organizations can display long cycles of sustained cooperation interrupted by short bursts of defection.

  12. Interaction Processes and Student Outcomes in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Frequency and quality of cooperative learning activities in fourth through sixth grade were correlated with measures of students' attitudes toward school, perceptions of classroom climate, intrinsic motivation, and performance on a reading comprehension and standardized achievement test. Found that effects of cooperative learning depended on the…

  13. A Scale Development for Teacher Competencies on Cooperative Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Ayfer; Erbil, Deniz Gokce

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative learning method is a learning method studied both in Turkey and in the world for long years as an active learning method. Although cooperative learning method takes place in training programs, it cannot be implemented completely in the direction of its principles. The results of the researches point out that teachers have problems with…

  14. Enhancing Student Performance through Cooperative Learning in Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan L.

    2004-01-01

    Students in a physical sciences course were introduced to cooperative learning at the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus. Groups of four to five students worked together in tutorial and practical sessions. Mid-term and practical examinations were abolished and 40% of total marks were allocated to the cooperative learning activities. A peer-…

  15. Murder They Wrote. A Cross-Curricular Cooperative Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Linda

    This document contains a cross-curricular cooperative learning experience that is designed to give high school students career and technical educational experiences in the areas of forensic sciences and criminalistics by doing the forensic work to "solve" a fictitious murder. The activities included in the cooperative learning experience…

  16. Using Mindful Movement in Cooperative Learning while Learning about Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Ella

    2011-01-01

    Unlike studies on cooperative learning that have focused on the verbal communication aspect of learning, this study focuses on the non-verbal aspect--mindful movement, which is the use of body movement to aid academic learning. Our research examined the link between five learning activities occurring within a cooperative group of children using…

  17. Cooperation goals, regulatory focus, and their combined effects on creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Bruena, Mareen; Rietzschel, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the co-activation of cooperation versus competition goals with regulatory focus, and tested whether the combined effects on creativity are interactive or additive. An experiment with 192 adults showed two main effects, such that participants with a cooperation goal and a

  18. 34 CFR 637.15 - What are cooperative projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Cooperative project grants assist groups of nonprofit accredited colleges and universities to work together to conduct a science improvement project. (b) Activities that the Secretary may fund under cooperative... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM What Kinds of...

  19. Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan Management System. ... Financial transactions through manual system of operation are prone to errors and unimagined complexities, making it so difficult a task maintaining all entries of users account, search records of activities, handle loan deduction errors ...

  20. Adapting Cooperative Learning in Tertiary ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary…

  1. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  2. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  3. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  4. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  5. Cooperation preferences and framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit Dit Dariel, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experiment investigating whether framing affects the elicitation and predictive power of preferences for cooperation, i.e., the willingness to cooperate with others. Cooperation preferences are elicited in three treatments using the method of Fischbacher,

  6. Cooperative competition for future mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held, providing the possibility for teams to develop and compare their cooperative driving solutions in a competitive setting. The challenge was organized to further accelerate developments in the area of cooperative driving. Nine

  7. Cooperative Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A methodology that has not received as much attention in the physical education setting as in other subject areas is cooperative learning. Cooperative learning has been used for many years in math, science, and history, but not until recently has the concept been applied to physical education. Research conducted on cooperative learning has shown…

  8. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  9. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-11-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells.

  10. Cooperative networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on radio resource allocation in a heterogeneous wireless medium. It presents radio resource allocation algorithms with decentralized implementation, which support both single-network and multi-homing services. The brief provides a set of cooperative networking algorithms, which rely on the concepts of short-term call traffic load prediction, network cooperation, convex optimization, and decomposition theory. In the proposed solutions, mobile terminals play an active role in the resource allocation operation, instead of their traditional role as passive service recipients in the networking environment.

  11. International cooperation in cold forging technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Lange, K

    1992-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of cold forging technology started in 1961 by formation of the OECD Group of Experts on Metal Forming. In 1967 this group was transformed into the International Cold Forging Group, ICFG, an independent body which has now been operative for 25 years. Members...... by cooperative activities or by instigating national research. These subgroups have produced 9 data sheets and 7 guidelines on subjects such as materials, tool design and construction, calculation methods for cold forging tools, manufacture of slugs, lubrication aspects and small quantity production. Plenary...

  12. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  13. Cooperative Retransmissions Through Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Foh, Chuan Heng

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key capacity-limiting factors. Recently developed interference-embracing techniques show promising performance on turning collisions into useful transmissions. However, the interference-embracing techniques are hard to apply in practical applications due to their strict requirements. In this paper, we consider utilising the interference-embracing techniques in a common scenario of two interfering sender-receiver pairs. By employing opportunistic listening and analog network coding (ANC), we show that compared to traditional ARQ retransmission, a higher retransmission throughput can be achieved by allowing two interfering senders to cooperatively retransmit selected lost packets at the same time. This simultaneous retransmission is facilitated by a simple handshaking procedure without introducing additional overhead. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed cooperative retransmission.

  14. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  15. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  16. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  17. Network Formation and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Balmaceda

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we adopt Granovetter's view expressed in his famous article ''Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness'' , where he argues that the concept of man in economics is extremely undersocialized because it ignores the importance of social networks. In so doing the incentives to mutual cooperation in social matching games in which the social network is endogenously determined are studied. The main result shows that in atomized societies where there is no inform...

  18. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  19. Nudging Cooperation in a Crowd Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niella, Tamara; Stier-Moses, Nicolás; Sigman, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that driven by a competition heuristic, people don't even reflect or consider whether a cooperation strategy may be better. As a paradigmatic example of this behavior we propose the zero-sum game fallacy, according to which people believe that resources are fixed even when they are not. We demonstrate that people only cooperate if the competitive heuristic is explicitly overridden in an experiment in which participants play two rounds of a game in which competition is suboptimal. The observed spontaneous behavior for most players was to compete. Then participants were explicitly reminded that the competing strategy may not be optimal. This minor intervention boosted cooperation, implying that competition does not result from lack of trust or willingness to cooperate but instead from the inability to inhibit the competition bias. This activity was performed in a controlled laboratory setting and also as a crowd experiment. Understanding the psychological underpinnings of these behaviors may help us improve cooperation and thus may have vast practical consequences to our society. PMID:26797425

  20. Improving the Students' Activity and Learning Outcomes on Social Sciences Subject Using Round Table and Rally Coach of Cooperative Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Sumarmi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to analyze increasing students' learning activity and learning outcomes. Student activities which were observed include the visual, verbal, listening, writing and mental visual activity; (2) to analyze the improvement of student learning outcomes using "Round Table" and "Rally Coach" Model of…

  1. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...... between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  2. International Cooperation in Nuclear Data Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Herman, M.; Katakura, J.; Koning, A. J.; Nordborg, C.

    2011-08-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is organising a co-operation between the major nuclear data evaluation projects in the world. The co-operation involves the ENDF, JEFF, and JENDL projects, and, owing to the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), also the Russian BROND and the Chinese CENDL projects. The Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), comprised of about 20 core members, manages this co-operation and meets annually to discuss progress in each evaluation project and also related experimental activities. The WPEC assesses common needs for nuclear data improvements and these needs are then addressed by initiating joint evaluation efforts. The work is performed in specially established subgroups, consisting of experts from the participating evaluation projects. The outcome of these subgroups is published in reports, issued by the NEA. Current WPEC activities comprise for example a number of studies related to nuclear data uncertainties, including a review of methods for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data, as well as evaluations of some of the major actinides, such as {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. This paper gives an overview of current and planned activities within the WPEC.

  3. Tubular g-C3 N4 Isotype Heterojunction: Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity through Cooperative Manipulation of Oriented Electron and Hole Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhenwei; Yang, Dong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Nan, Yanhu; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    A tubular g-C3 N4 isotype heterojunction (TCNH) photocatalyst was designed for cooperative manipulation of the oriented transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes to pursue high catalytic performance. The adduct of cyanuric acid and melamine (CA·M) is first hydrothermally treated to assemble into hexagonal prism crystals; then the hybrid precursors of urea and CA·M crystals are calcined to form tubular g-C3 N4 isotype heterojunctions. Upon visible-light irradiation, the photogenerated electrons transfer from g-C3 N4 (CA·M) to g-C3 N4 (urea) driven by the conduction band offset of 0.05 eV, while the photogenerated holes transfer from g-C3 N4 (urea) to g-C3 N4 (CA·M) driven by the valence band offset of 0.18 eV, which renders oriented transfer of the charge carriers across the heterojunction interface. Meanwhile, the tubular structure of TCNH is favorable for oriented electron transfer along the longitudinal dimension, which greatly decreases the chance of charge carrier recombination. Consequently, TCNH exhibits a high hydrogen evolution rate of 63 μmol h(-1) (0.04 g, λ > 420 nm), which is nearly five times of the pristine g-C3 N4 and higher than most of the existing g-C3 N4 photocatalysts. This study demonstrates that isotype heterojunction structure and tubular structure can jointly manipulate the oriented transfer of electrons and holes, thus facilitating the visible-light photocatalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Sørensen, Jesper; Nielbo, Kristoffer L; Andersen, Marc; Lienard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  5. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Mitkidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. RESULTS: Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. CONCLUSION: The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  6. We can work it out: An enactive look at cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFantasia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The past years have seen an increasing debate on cooperation and its unique human character. Philosophers and psychologists have proposed that cooperative activities are characterized by shared goals to which participants are committed through the ability to understand each other’s intentions. Despite its popularity, some serious issues arise with this approach to cooperation. First, one may challenge the assumption that high-level mental processes are necessary for engaging in acting cooperatively. If they are, then how do agents that do not possess such ability (preverbal children, or children with autism who are often claimed to be mind-blind engage in cooperative exchanges, as the evidence suggests? Secondly, to define cooperation as the result of two de-contextualized minds reading each other’s intentions may fail to fully acknowledge the complexity of situated, interactional dynamics and the interplay of variables such as the participants’ relational and personal history and experience. In this paper we challenge such accounts of cooperation, calling for an embodied approach that sees cooperation not only as an individual attitude towards the other, but also as a property of interaction processes. Taking an enactive perspective, we argue that cooperation is an intrinsic part of any interaction, and that there can be cooperative interaction before complex communicative abilities are achieved. The issue then is not whether one is able or not to read the other’s intentions, but what it takes to participate in joint action. From this basic account, it should be possible to build up more complex forms of cooperation as needed. Addressing the study of cooperation in these terms may enhance our understanding of human social development, and foster our knowledge of different ways of engaging with others, as in the case of autism.

  7. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  8. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  9. A Pilot Study of Cooperative Programming Learning Behavior and Its Relationship with Students' Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Wang, Chin-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    In this study we proposed a web-based programming assisted system for cooperation (WPASC) and we also designed one learning activity for facilitating students' cooperative programming learning. The aim of this study was to investigate cooperative programming learning behavior of students and its relationship with learning performance. Students'…

  10. Cooperative Learning Instructional Methods for CS1: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Leland; Chizhik, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1…

  11. U.S.-Brazil Cooperation: Working Together to Shape the Global Strategic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    U.S.-Brazil Cooperation: Working Together to Shape The Global Strategic Environment by Colonel Rodrigo Pereira Vergara...Cooperation: Working Together to Shape The Global Strategic Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...cooperation by strengthening convergences and building complementary forms of activity to shape a more favorable global strategic environment . 15

  12. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT).......Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, which...

  13. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, whi...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  14. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  15. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  16. Federated Structures for Cooperative Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, James M.

    1997-01-01

    A comparative institutional economics approach is used to investigate the question of whether the governance structure of cooperatives is flawed in ways that would make it an inefficient or ineffective organization form for the political-social-economic environment at this turn to the new century. Cooperatives in four settings around the globe were studied intensively. The findings suggest that, while greater use of federated cooperatives and co-op-IOF hybrid models is required, the cooperati...

  17. p100 Deficiency is insufficient for full activation of the alternative NF-κB pathway: TNF cooperates with p52-RelB in target gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Lovas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constitutive activation of the alternative NF-κB pathway leads to marginal zone B cell expansion and disorganized spleen microarchitecture. Furthermore, uncontrolled alternative NF-κB signaling may result in the development and progression of cancer. Here, we focused on the question how does the constitutive alternative NF-κB signaling exert its effects in these malignant processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore the consequences of unrestricted alternative NF-κB activation on genome-wide transcription, we compared gene expression profiles of wild-type and NF-κB2/p100-deficient (p100(-/- primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and spleens. Microarray experiments revealed only 73 differentially regulated genes in p100(-/- vs. wild-type MEFs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays showed in p100(-/- MEFs direct binding of p52 and RelB to the promoter of the Enpp2 gene encoding ENPP2/Autotaxin, a protein with an important role in lymphocyte homing and cell migration. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of genes with anti-apoptotic/proliferative activity (Enpp2/Atx, Serpina3g, Traf1, Rrad, chemotactic/locomotory activity (Enpp2/Atx, Ccl8, and lymphocyte homing activity (Enpp2/Atx, Cd34. Most importantly, biochemical and gene expression analyses of MEFs and spleen, respectively, indicated a marked crosstalk between classical and alternative NF-κB pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that p100 deficiency alone was insufficient for full induction of genes regulated by the alternative NF-κB pathway. Moreover, alternative NF-κB signaling strongly synergized both in vitro and in vivo with classical NF-κB activation, thereby extending the number of genes under the control of the p100 inhibitor of the alternative NF-κB signaling pathway.

  18. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  19. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  20. Successful Industry/Academia Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The control literature is rich on impressive applications of advanced control, and within almost any industrial sector there are numerous examples of successful advanced control applications. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that there is still a wide potential for increased cooperation...... between academia and industry within this area. In this position paper, it is advocated that one of the enablers for successful cooperation between industry and academia within the control area is a proper framework for cooperation projects between companies and universities. Some suggestions...... by less complex but industrially feasible solutions. The proposed approach is illustrated by three case studies of successful industrial/academic cooperation....

  1. Gdf11/Smad signalling and Cdx proteins cooperate to activate the Hoxc8 early enhancer in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Developing anatomy along the head-tail axis of bilaterian embryos is specified, to a large extent, by the overlapping patterns of expression of the Hox genes. Hox gene enhancers respond to a variety of signals in order to regulate these discreet domains of expression. For mouse Hoxc8, the 399bp "early enhancer" plays a major role. Activation of this enhancer is now examined using luciferase expression constructs transfected into HepG2 cells. Constructs are activated by the combined actions of Gdf11/Smad and Cdx protein signalling pathways, both of which are functional in early embryos. Each of these pathways alone has little stimulatory effect. Stimulation by the two pathways together exceeds the sum of the effects of each pathway alone, indicating synergistic activity. By mutation analysis, two Smad binding motifs are identified as mediators of the Gdf11 effect and two Cdx binding motifs mediate the Cdx effect. The two Smad motifs and one of the Cdx sites are conserved from fish to mammals. Gdf11 stimulation is partially inhibited by Specific Inhibitor of Smad3, suggesting that Smad3 plays a part in signal transduction. Fgf2 increases luciferase activation by the Hoxc8 enhancer, but not, apparently, by specific interactions with either Gdf11 or Cdx effects.

  2. O-Fucose Monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch Has a Temperature-sensitive Function and Cooperates with O-Glucose Glycan in Notch Transport and Notch Signaling Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O.; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1R245A knock-in), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1R245A knock-in and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. PMID:25378397

  3. O-fucose monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch has a temperature-sensitive function and cooperates with O-glucose glycan in Notch transport and Notch signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-02

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1(R245A knock-in)), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1(R245A knock-in) and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Silviculture in cooperation with hunters: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Reitz; Andrea Hille; Susan Stout

    2004-01-01

    The long history of deer overabundance in Pennsylvania is associated with very high reforestation costs and substantial threats to diversity and sustainability. In response to this legacy, several landowners and agency personnel formed the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) in partnership with the Sand County Foundation. This Cooperative focuses on about 74,000...

  5. Establishment of a Nuclear Cooperation Network between Korea and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Sohn, Dong Seong; Song, Kee Chan (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of this study is to establish a personnel network and to identify potential complementary areas for technical cooperation in the future to advance Korean-Brazilian nuclear cooperation activities. To this end, current status of the cooperation in the areas of economy, energy resources and S and T between the two countries was surveyed, and the history of the nuclear development program and the current nuclear R and D status in Brazil, as well as the bilateral nuclear cooperation activities of both countries were analyzed. In addition, areas of mutual interest were identified by both countries' focal points and a personnel network was established. Based on the aforementioned preliminary activities, bilateral joint seminars were held in Brazil. At the joint seminars, possible areas of cooperation were discussed and joint research collaboration areas were surveyed and identified while both sides made efforts to expand the information and experts exchanges in specific areas. Through this study, possible specific areas of cooperation in which both sides have a common interest were identified in such areas as radiation technology application, post irradiation examination, radioactive waste management, I and C, and advanced nuclear fuel, and also concrete implementation methods were proposed. These results will be effectively utilized in establishing a basic direction for expanding bilateral nuclear cooperation activities in the future. Consistent establishment of a foundation for promoting cooperation could be established and maintained through the operation of a focal point in charge of coordinating bilateral technical cooperation, and then a long-term and stable human network could be established.

  6. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Toppi

    Full Text Available The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans' degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level.

  7. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short......This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing trafic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear...

  8. TGF-β1 and WISP-1/CCN-4 can regulate each other’s activity to cooperatively control osteoblast function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkson, Colette A.; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Fisher, Larry W.; Gehron Robey, Pamela; Young, Marian F.

    2009-01-01

    Wnt-induced secreted protein – 1 (WISP-1), like other members of the CCN family, is expressed in skeletal tissues. Its mechanism of action remains unknown. Expression of WISP-1 was analyzed in human bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) by RT-PCR. We identified two major transcripts corresponding to those of full length WISP-1, and of the splice variant WISP-1va which lacks a putative BMP/TGF-β binding site. To investigate the function of WISP-1 in bone, BMSC cultures were treated with recombinant human (rh)WISP-1 and analyzed for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. WISP-1 treatment increased both BrdU incorporation and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Considering the known functional synergy found between the TGF-β super-family and members of the CCN family, we next tested the effect of WISP-1 on TGF-β1 activity. We found that rhWISP-1 could reduce rhTGF-β1 induced BrdU incorporation. Similarly, rhTGF-β1 inhibited rhWISP-1 induction of AP activity. To explore functional differences between the WISP-1 variants, WISP-1 or WISP-1va were transfected into BMSC. Both variants could strongly induce BrdU incorporation. However, there were no effects of either variant on AP activity without an additional osteogenic stimulus such as TGF-β1. Taken together our results suggest a functional relationship between WISP-1 and TGF-β1. To further define this relationship we analyzed the effect of WISP-1 on TGF-β signaling. rhWISP-1 significantly reduced TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of smad-2. Our data indicates that full length WISP-1 and its variant WISP-1va are modulators of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and may be a novel regulators of TGF-β1 signaling in osteoblast-like cells. PMID:18404666

  9. Nordic Model of Subregional Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzela Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nordic co-operation is renowned throughout the world and perceived as the collaboration of a group of countries which are similar in their views and activities. The main pillars of the Nordic model of co-operation are the tradition of constitutional principles, activity of public movements and organisations, freedom of speech, equality, solidarity, and respect for the natural environment. In connection with labour and entrepreneurship, these elements are the features of a society which favours efficiency, a sense of security and balance between an individual and a group. Currently, the collaboration is a complex process, including many national, governmental and institutional connections which form the “Nordic family”.

  10. Growth Factor-Activated Stem Cell Circuits and Stromal Signals Cooperatively Accelerate Non-Integrated iPSC Reprogramming of Human Myeloid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tea Soon; Huo, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Ann; Talbot, C. Conover; Verma, Karan; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Kaplan, Ian M.; Zambidis, Elias T.

    2012-01-01

    Nonviral conversion of skin or blood cells into clinically useful human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) occurs in only rare fractions (∼0.001%–0.5%) of donor cells transfected with non-integrating reprogramming factors. Pluripotency induction of developmentally immature stem-progenitors is generally more efficient than differentiated somatic cell targets. However, the nature of augmented progenitor reprogramming remains obscure, and its potential has not been fully explored for improving the extremely slow pace of non-integrated reprogramming. Here, we report highly optimized four-factor reprogramming of lineage-committed cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors with bulk efficiencies of ∼50% in purified episome-expressing cells. Lineage-committed CD33+CD45+CD34− myeloid cells and not primitive hematopoietic stem-progenitors were the main targets of a rapid and nearly complete non-integrated reprogramming. The efficient conversion of mature myeloid populations into NANOG+TRA-1-81+ hiPSC was mediated by synergies between hematopoietic growth factor (GF), stromal activation signals, and episomal Yamanaka factor expression. Using a modular bioinformatics approach, we demonstrated that efficient myeloid reprogramming correlated not to increased proliferation or endogenous Core factor expressions, but to poised expression of GF-activated transcriptional circuits that commonly regulate plasticity in both hematopoietic progenitors and embryonic stem cells (ESC). Factor-driven conversion of myeloid progenitors to a high-fidelity pluripotent state was further accelerated by soluble and contact-dependent stromal signals that included an implied and unexpected role for Toll receptor-NFκB signaling. These data provide a paradigm for understanding the augmented reprogramming capacity of somatic progenitors, and reveal that efficient induced pluripotency in other cell types may also require extrinsic activation of a molecular framework that commonly regulates self

  11. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  12. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  14. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  15. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  16. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  17. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  18. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  19. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on

  20. In vitro activities of inulin fermentation products to HCT-116 cells enhanced by the cooperation between exogenous strains and adult faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-Ting; Fu, Yu; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2018-01-10

    Inulin was fermented by adult faecal microbiota and 10 exogenous strains for 24 or 48 h. The contents of acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate were quantified in the fermented products, and the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on a human colon cell line (HCT-116 cells) were assessed. Most of these strains increased contents of acetate, propionate and butyrate, and promoted lactate conversion. Correlation analysis suggested that butyrate and lactate in the fermentation products were positively and negatively correlated with the measured inhibition ratios (p inulin fermentation products with higher anti-colon cancer activity.

  1. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  2. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tillman; E. Hughes

    1999-07-01

    During the period of April 1, 1999 through June 30, 1999, wood cofiring testing at both Seward Generating Station of GPU Genco and Bailly Generating Station of Northern Indiana Public Service Company provided the focus for all activities. In both cases, the testing was directed at the impacts of cofiring on efficiency, operability, and NO{sub x} emissions. This report summarizes the activities during the second calendar quarter in 1999 of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing activities at both generating stations.

  3. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tillman; E. Hughes

    1999-04-01

    During the period of January 1, 1999 through March 31, 1999, construction was performed in support of two major demonstrations. Major progress was made on several projects including cofiring at Seward (GPU Genco), and Bailly (NIPSCO). Most of the work was focused on construction and system commissioning activities at the Seward and Bailly Generating Stations. Additionally, petroleum coke cofiring testing was completed at the Bailly Generating Station. This report summarizes the activities during the first calendar quarter in 1999--the fourth contract quarter in 1998--of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of construction activities and related events.

  4. University-Company Cooperation in a Hydroelectric Plant: Cooperation Study in Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Mussi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroelectric power plants are considered strategic for the country when considering their relevance and impact on other sectors of the economy. However, the dynamics of the operation of a plant, its support structure and power generation activities can cause impacts on the environment, which must be constantly monitored in order to mitigate any environmental risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the partnership relations between a plant by menas of the creation of a department within the environmental management and universities and research institutes to identify specific partnerships in environmental management and hydroelectric plants. Six projects have been selected for analysis, four of them related to projects with universities and two related to cooperation with research institutes. The focus of the analysis was restricted to the main points observed in the management of these partnerships, which are: (a motivation for establishing partnerships, (b the composition of the estimated costs for implementing these partnerships, (c the difficulties of reconciling technical management and financial management, and (d the measurement of results and contributions from these interactions. Administrative practices of management of partnerships were also analyzed in the stages preceding cooperation for cooperation and further cooperation. Although other such studies are needed to strengthen the findings presented, one can conclude that the purposes of the establishment of cooperation in environmental management differ from those observed in other fields of knowledge such as engineering and biotechnology, for example.

  5. The effect of geographical proximity on scientific cooperation among Chinese cities from 1990 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Ma

    Full Text Available The relations between geographical proximity and spatial distance constitute a popular topic of concern. Thus, how geographical proximity affects scientific cooperation, and whether geographically proximate scientific cooperation activities in fact exhibit geographic scale features should be investigated.Selected statistics from the ISI database on cooperatively authored papers, the authors of which resided in 60 typical cites in China, and which were published in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were used to establish matrices of geographic distance and cooperation levels between cities. By constructing a distance-cooperation model, the degree of scientific cooperation based on spatial distance was calculated. The relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation, as well as changes in that relationship, was explored using the fitting function.(1 Instead of declining, the role of geographical proximity in inter-city scientific cooperation has increased gradually but significantly with the popularization of telecommunication technologies; (2 the relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation has not followed a perfect declining curve, and at certain spatial scales, the distance-decay regularity does not work; (3 the Chinese scientific cooperation network gathers around different regional center cities, showing a trend towards a regional network; within this cooperation network the amount of inter-city cooperation occurring at close range increased greatly.The relationship between inter-city geographical distance and scientific cooperation has been enhanced and strengthened over time.

  6. The effect of geographical proximity on scientific cooperation among Chinese cities from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haitao; Fang, Chuanglin; Pang, Bo; Li, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    The relations between geographical proximity and spatial distance constitute a popular topic of concern. Thus, how geographical proximity affects scientific cooperation, and whether geographically proximate scientific cooperation activities in fact exhibit geographic scale features should be investigated. Selected statistics from the ISI database on cooperatively authored papers, the authors of which resided in 60 typical cites in China, and which were published in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, were used to establish matrices of geographic distance and cooperation levels between cities. By constructing a distance-cooperation model, the degree of scientific cooperation based on spatial distance was calculated. The relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation, as well as changes in that relationship, was explored using the fitting function. (1) Instead of declining, the role of geographical proximity in inter-city scientific cooperation has increased gradually but significantly with the popularization of telecommunication technologies; (2) the relationship between geographical proximity and scientific cooperation has not followed a perfect declining curve, and at certain spatial scales, the distance-decay regularity does not work; (3) the Chinese scientific cooperation network gathers around different regional center cities, showing a trend towards a regional network; within this cooperation network the amount of inter-city cooperation occurring at close range increased greatly. The relationship between inter-city geographical distance and scientific cooperation has been enhanced and strengthened over time.

  7. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  8. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  9. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education......The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...

  10. Apo2L/TRAIL and the death receptor 5 agonist antibody AMG 655 cooperate to promote receptor clustering and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jonathan D; Kordich, Jennifer J; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Piasecki, Julia; Bush, Tammy L; Sullivan, Timothy; Foltz, Ian N; Chang, Wesley; Douangpanya, Heather; Dang, Thu; O'Neill, Jason W; Mallari, Rommel; Zhao, Xiaoning; Branstetter, Daniel G; Rossi, John M; Long, Alexander M; Huang, Xin; Holland, Pamela M

    2014-08-11

    Death receptor agonist therapies have exhibited limited clinical benefit to date. Investigations into why Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG 655 preclinical data were not predictive of clinical response revealed that coadministration of Apo2L/TRAIL with AMG 655 leads to increased antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The combination of Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG 655 results in enhanced signaling and can sensitize Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells. Structure determination of the Apo2L/TRAIL-DR5-AMG 655 ternary complex illustrates how higher order clustering of DR5 is achieved when both agents are combined. Enhanced agonism generated by combining Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG 655 provides insight into the limited efficacy observed in previous clinical trials and suggests testable hypotheses to reconsider death receptor agonism as a therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cooperative Al-H Bond Activation in DIBAL-H: Catalytic Generation of an Alumenium-Ion-Like Lewis Acid for Hydrodefluorinative Friedel-Crafts Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Francis; Metsänen, Toni T; Irran, Elisabeth; Hrobárik, Peter; Oestreich, Martin

    2017-11-03

    The Ru-S bond in Ohki-Tatsumi complexes breaks oligomeric DIBAL-H structures into their more reactive monomer. That deaggregation is coupled to heterolytic Al-H bond activation at the Ru-S bond, formally splitting the Al-H linkage into hydride and an alumenium ion. The molecular structure of these Lewis pairs was established crystallographically, revealing an additional Ru-Al interaction next to the Ru-H and Al-S bonds. That bonding situation was further analyzed by quantum-chemical calculations and is best described as a three-center-two-electron (3c2e) donor-acceptor σ(Ru-H) → Al interaction. Despite the extra stabilization of the aluminum center by the interaction with both the sulfur atom and the Ru-H bond, the hydroalane adducts are found to be stronger Lewis acids and electrophiles than the free ruthenium catalyst and DIBAL-H in its different aggregation states. Hence, the DIBAL-H molecule and its Al-H bond are activated by the Ru-S bond, but these hydroalane adducts are not to be mistaken as sulfur-stabilized alumenium ions in a strict sense. The Ohki-Tatsumi complexes catalyze C(sp(3))-F bond cleavage with DIBAL-H, and the catalytic setup is applied to hydrodefluorinative Friedel-Crafts alkylations. A broad range of CF3-substituted arenes is efficiently converted into unsymmetrical diarylmethanes with various arenes as nucleophiles. Computed fluoride-ion affinities (FIAs) of the hydroalane adducts as well as DIBAL-H in its aggregation states support this experimental finding.

  12. Social Cooperative – an Important Entity of the Social Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is characterized by a number of social problems that have multiple causes that range from structural weaknesses of purely individual factors. In the challenges of globalization phenomenon and in the context of sustainable development needs of humanity, the cooperative movement has an important role. Cooperative organizations have the ability to provide viable alternatives, being the main actors of social economy, along with associations and foundations, putting the human in the center of the activity and bringing another report in the process of creating economic value. Also, the cooperative movement is a solution for the multiple and the difficult economic and social issues of the contemporary world.

  13. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  14. Cooperative learning in industrial-sized biology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Norris; Chang, Shu-Mei; Brickman, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of cooperative learning activities on student achievement and attitudes in large-enrollment (>250) introductory biology classes. We found that students taught using a cooperative learning approach showed greater improvement in their knowledge of course material compared with students taught using a traditional lecture format. In addition, students viewed cooperative learning activities highly favorably. These findings suggest that encouraging students to work in small groups and improving feedback between the instructor and the students can help to improve student outcomes even in very large classes. These results should be viewed cautiously, however, until this experiment can be replicated with additional faculty. Strategies for potentially improving the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement in large courses are discussed.

  15. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  16. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing...

  17. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  18. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Future direction for implementing the multilateral cooperation with the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Young Don

    1999-03-01

    Korea has achieved remarkable results in the development of nuclear technology over the past years. Nuclear R and D programs have been actively pursued with the aim of enhancing nuclear technological capability to the level of nuclear advanced countries by early 2000. Worth noting is the fact that the IAEA has played an important role in facilitating Korea's acquisition of advanced nuclear technologies by participating in IAEA technical cooperation programmes, and technical cooperation with the IAEA has laid a firm groundwork for Korea to achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Technical cooperation with the IAEA should be steadily pursued so that Korea can play a leading role in the international nuclear arena in the years to come. Up to now, the study of major programmes and of the current status of overall technical cooperation projects, which have been implemented by the IAEA, has been insufficient. It should be noted that analysis of the assistance provided by the IAEA leaves something to be desired. In this regard, analyzing the current status of technical cooperation projects as well as recommending policy direction is required in a bid to implement IAEA technical cooperation projects systematically. Korea's status within the IAEA, including activities in the Advisory Committee and the current status of its participation in Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and other major programmes underway, is presented in this report. The policy direction for and implementation status of IAEA technical cooperation programmes are explained at length. The current status of technical cooperation programmes carried out in the 1997-1998 cycle and those to be implemented in the 1992-2000 cycle are also described in this report. Strategies for upgrading Korea's status within the IAEA as well as directions for nuclear cooperation through the IAEA were presented in this study to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and to

  20. Clinical presentation and outcome of non-AIDS defining cancers, in HIV-infected patients in the ART-era: the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and tumors activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, M; Martellotta, F; Di Francia, R; Spina, M; Vaccher, E; Balestreri, L; Borsatti, E; Bearz, A; De Paoli, P; Tirelli, U

    2015-10-01

    The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly extended the survival rates of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), leading to suppression even though not eradication of HIV. In HIV infected patients, cancer has become a growing problem, representing the first cause of death. A large number of worldwide studies have shown that HIV infection raises the risk of many non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs), including squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), testis cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the colon and rectum (CRC), skin (basal cell skin carcinoma and melanoma), Hodgkin disease (HD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Generally in HIV positive patients NADCs are more aggressive and in advanced stage disease than in the general population. In the ART era, however, the outcome of HIV positive patients is more similar as in the general population. Only about lung cancer the outcome seems different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. The aim of this article is to provide an up-date on NADCs within the activity of the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumors (GICAT) to identify clinical prognostic and predicting factors in patients with HIV infection included in the GICAT.

  1. EL CONTROL DE LA ACTIVIDAD REGISTRAL COOPERATIVA: ESTUDIO CRÍTICO SOBRE SUS DIFICULTADES E INCÓGNITAS/THE CONTROL OF THE REGISTRAL ACTIVITY ON CO-OPERATIVES: A CRITICAL STUDY OF ITS DIFFICULTIES AND ENIGMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María BURZACO SAMPER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La configuración de los Registros de Cooperativas como instrumentos de carácter administrativo con eficacia jurídica encierra una serie de dificultades de indudable trascendencia práctica entre los que destaca el control de la actividad registral. En este sentido, la multiplicidad normativa característica del actual escenario jurídico cooperativo propicia la existencia de soluciones divergentes que, al margen de los problemas que plantean sobre un eventual exceso competencial, pueden tener incidencia tanto en la seguridad jurídica como en el tipo y alcance de la fiscalización judicial. Por otro lado, la naturaleza híbrida de los Registros de Cooperativas provoca distorsiones cuya salida no siempre es clara, en cuanto las previsiones legales y reglamentarias chocan con ciertas limitaciones de la normativa administrativa general aplicable: así ocurre singularmente con el principio registral de legitimación en relación con aquellos mecanismos de control en vía administrativa cuya puesta en marcha corresponde de oficio a la propia Administración Pública./The configuration of the Registries of Cooperatives as administrative instruments withlegal effect, raises a series of difficulties of doubtless practical importance. Out of them, wecan underline one: the control behind the registration activity.In this sense, the multiplying number of norms that shape current legal cooperativescene, may involve many divergent resolutions that, on top of the issues caused behind apotential excess of competence, may also has consequences on both the legal security as wellas on the nature and reach of the judicial control.On the other hand, the hybrid character of the Registries of Cooperatives may needsome adjustments whose solution is not always clear, due to the legal and legitimateassessments mismatching some restrictions of the applicable general administrative norm.This can be illustrated behind the registry principle of legitimacy, related to

  2. Models in cooperative game theory crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2005-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in coperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The propertie

  3. Cooperative Testing of Uncontrollable Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper deals with targeted testing of timed systems with uncontrollable behavior. The testing activity is viewed as a game between the tester and the system under test (SUT) towards a given test purpose. The SUT is modeled as Timed Game Automaton and the test purpose is specified...... in Timed CTL formula. We can employ a timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check if the test purpose is ture w.r.t. the model, and if yes, to generate a winning strategy and use it for black-box conformance testing. Specifically, we show that in case the checking yields a negative result, we can still test...... the SUT against the test purpose as long as the SUT reacts to our moves in a cooperative style. We present an operational framework of cooperative winning strategy generation, test case derivation and execution. The test method is proved to be sound and complete. Preliminary experimental results indicate...

  4. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  5. Loss of cooperativity of secreted CD40L and increased dose-response to IL4 on CLL cell viability correlates with enhanced activation of NF-kB and STAT6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nupur; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Caudron-Herger, Maiwen; Haebe, Sarah; Brady, Nathan; Diener, Susanne; Nothing, Maria; Döhner, Hartmut; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Rippe, Karsten; Mertens, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells fail to enter apoptosis in vivo as opposed to their non-malignant B-lymphocyte counterparts. The ability of CLL cells to escape apoptosis is highly dependent on their microenvironment. Compared to non-malignant B cells, CLL cells are more responsive to complex stimuli that can be reproduced in vitro by the addition of cytokines. To understand the molecular mechanism of the environment-dependent anti-apoptotic signaling circuitry of CLL cells, we quantified the effect of the SDF-1, BAFF, APRIL, anti-IgM, interleukin-4 (IL4) and secreted CD40L (sCD40L) on the survival of in vitro cultured CLL cells and found IL4 and sCD40L to be most efficient in rescuing CLL cells from apoptosis. In quantitative dose-response experiments using cell survival as readout, the binding affinity of IL4 to its receptor was similar between malignant and non-malignant cells. However, the downstream signaling in terms of the amount of STAT6 and its degree of phosphorylation was highly stimulated in CLL cells. In contrast, the response to sCD40L showed a loss of cooperative binding in CLL cells but displayed a largely increased ligand binding affinity. Although a high-throughput microscopy analysis did not reveal a significant difference in the spatial CD40 receptor organization, the downstream signaling showed an enhanced activation of the NF-kB pathway in the malignant cells. Thus, we propose that the anti-apoptotic phenotype of CLL involves a sensitized response for IL4 dependent STAT6 phosphorylation, and an activation of NF-kB signaling due to an increased affinity of sCD40L to its receptor. © 2014 UICC.

  6. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  7. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  8. The Long Way Toward Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Foth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand why cooperation between health care professionals is still often problematic, we carried out 25 semistructured face-to-face expert interviews with physicians and nurses in different rural and urban areas in northern Germany. Using Mayring’s qualitative content analysis method to analyze the data collected, we found that doctors and nurses interpreted interprofessional conflicts differently. Nursing seems to be caught in a paradoxical situation: An increasing emphasis is placed on achieving interprofessional cooperation but the core areas of nursing practice are subject to increasing rationalization in the current climate of health care marketization. The subsequent and systematic devaluation of nursing work makes it difficult for physicians to acknowledge nurses’ expertise. We suggest that to ameliorate interprofessional cooperation, nursing must insist on its own logic of action thereby promoting its professionalization; interprofessional cooperation cannot take place until nursing work is valued by all members of the health care system.

  9. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Dalsgaard; Morten Flate Paulsen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optima...

  10. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  11. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  12. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  13. Specific Cooperative Analysis and Design in General Hypermedia Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1994-01-01

    in specific use settings to inform development of general products. We describe and discuss the application of cooperative – i.e. participatory – analysis and design techniques in a project developing a general hypermedia framework as well as specific cooperative hypermedia applications for the engineering...... characterised the interaction between specific cooperative analysis and design activities and general development activities. Prototypes, scenarios, and concise bullet list summaries are used as the mediating artifacts in this interaction rather than comprehensive requirement and design specifications....... activities. We demonstrate how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users’ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Mutual challenging...

  14. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  15. The principle of open and voluntary membership. Legal and enforcing economic consequences practice, in the Costa Rican cooperative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Roxana Sánchez Boza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of the cooperative principle of free adhesion or voluntary adherence is found in the constitutional rules, which define the Right of Association. The legal and regulatory development of these rules is done through cooperative laws, acts of constitution and other rules of affiliation and disaffiliation of cooperatives. The application of the principle in the study must be interdependent with the rest of the Cooperative Principles as well as the Values of the Cooperatives, in order to ensure adequate protection for both the associate and the associated cooperative. In this paper of the principle in the study is made through the election of a cooperative, in most cases, credit unions. These cooperatives, for reasons of their economic activity, have more legal and regulatory regulations compared to the other types of cooperatives, according the effects of affiliation and disaffiliation.Received: 01 June 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  16. Fostering cooperative activism through critical design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menendez Blanco, Maria; Bjørn, Pernille; De Angeli, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    . The adversarial propositions embedded in our critical design artefacts challenged the description of dyslexia as a learning disorder putting forward the view of a learning difference. These artefacts demonstrated their capacity to bridge heterogeneous social worlds (those of teachers, children, and parents...

  17. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  18. Potential and challenges for the Black Sea regional cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galya VLADOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early nineties, the Black Sea region has witnessed fundamental geopolitical changes and significant shifts in its regional context and dynamics. In an attempt to react to the altered circumstances after the collapse of the Soviet Union and to address an increasing number of common challenges, the Black Sea states have jointed efforts in various regional cooperation activities. Throughout the years, the Black Sea cooperation has evolved with different speed and success, reflecting the difficult regional circumstances and attracting increasing external involvement. Today, more than twenty years after the first cooperation activities have been launched, the Black Sea cooperation is still shadowed by persisting historical rivalries, unrecognized territorial entities, ‘frozen conflicts’ and security threats. As a result, despite the many pressing problems of regional character, the cooperation efforts are currently showing rather limited outcomes. Seen against this background, the current paper presents a study of the main challenges and the existing potential for further development of the Black Sea regional cooperation.

  19. Neighbourhood reaction in the evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Weiming; Xiu, Baoxin

    2015-05-07

    Combining evolutionary games with adaptive networks, an entangled model between strategy evolution and structure adaptation is researched in this paper. We consider a large population of cooperators C and defectors D placed in the networks, playing the repeated prisoner׳s dilemma (PD) games. Because of the conflicts between social welfare and personal rationality, both strategy and structure are allowed to change. In this paper, the dynamics of strategy originates form the partner imitation based on social learning and the dynamics of structure is driven by the active linking and neighbourhood reaction. Notably, the neighbourhood reaction is investigated considering the changes of interfaces between cooperators and defectors, where some neighbours may get away from the interface once the focal agent changes to different strategy. A rich landscape is demonstrated by changing various embedding parameters, which sheds light upon that reacting promptly to the shifted neighbour will promote the prevalence of cooperation. Our model encapsulates the dynamics of strategy, reaction and structure into the evolutionary games, which manifests some intriguing principles in the competition between two groups in natural populations, artificial systems and even human societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strengthening Institutions and Enterprises of Cooperative and Their Impact on Members’ Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyati Soemodipoero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revitalization of Cooperative interpreted as a series of activities undertaken to reorganize the institutional and strengthen cooperative efforts in accordance with the values and principles of cooperatives. Cooperative serves as a tool to equalize the concentration of control of economic assets so that the weak economy may have opportunities to enhance economic independence. The purpose of this study is to explore the link between the level of member participation and human resource competencies to the strengthening of the institutional and cooperative efforts as well as its impact on member assets. This research used logistic regression analysis and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The results showed that the level of participation of members and managers of Human Resources competencies significantly affect institutional strengthening and cooperative efforts. Different test shows that there is a difference between financial capital and human capital before and after become a member of the cooperative.

  1. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  2. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  3. Adherence to cooperative principles among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives in the area largely adhered to the cooperatives principles. However, capacity building on innovative financial sourcing and loan recovery mechanisms should be embarked upon by management to enhance the adherence. Keywords: Cooperatives principles, loan recovery, agricultural cooperatives ...

  4. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or other...

  5. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  6. Progress report on the regulatory cooperation program between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia. Final report of projects and other activities completed in 2008-2009 and plans for 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudak, S. F.; Sneve, M. K.; Kiselev, M.; Shandala, N. K.

    2011-06-15

    This report sets out the progress made in the projects and related activities carried out in the period 2008 - 2009 within the Regulatory Cooperation Program between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia. The progress described follows directly from previous work carried out within the Regulatory Cooperation Program, as set out in earlier NRPA reports and in accordance with the Norwegian Government's Plan of Action to improve nuclear and radiation safety in Northwest Russia. The work was carried out by specialists of the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, with support from other Russian organisations and specialists as well as experts from the NRPA. Five main projects are described, each of which has contributed to the improvement of regulatory supervision by the FMBA over the sites operated by SevRAO in the Northwest of Russia, including the Sites for Temporary Storage at Andreyev Bay and Gremikha, and the Regional Centre for Waste Conditioning and Long-term Storage at Saida Bay. The main activities of interest include recovery and secure the safe condition of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from inadequate storage facilities and ensuring their continued future safe storage. The topics covered by these projects include: Control of Occupational Exposure and Optimisation During Hazardous Operations through the Development of Databases on Radiation Situation and Individual Occupational Exposure (DOSEMAP). The software for a mapping database of radiation situation parameters at SevRAO Facilities has been developed. A computer scheme of workshops in new Complex facilities for the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management, the design of which is already available, has been developed. The software for the database on individual doses to the SevRAO workers has also been developed. Two draft guidance documents have been prepared: 'Application of the database on the radiation

  7. Subtle Structural Changes in (Cu(II)L)2Mn(II) Complexes To Induce Heterometallic Cooperative Catalytic Oxidase Activities on Phenolic Substrates (H2L = Salen Type Unsymmetrical Schiff Base).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Prithwish; Ghosh, Soumavo; Giri, Sanjib; Rane, Vinayak; Kadam, Ramakant; Drew, Michael G B; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2017-05-01

    A new Cu(II) complex of an asymmetrically dicondensed Schiff base (H2L = N-(2-hydroxyacetophenylidene)-N'-salicylidene-1,3-propanediamine) derived from 1,3-propanediamine, salicylaldehyde, and o-hydroxyacetophenone has been synthesized. Using this complex, [CuL] (1), as a metalloligand, two new trinuclear Cu-Mn complexes, [(CuL)2Mn(N3)(H2O)](ClO4)·H2O (2) and [(CuL)2Mn(NCS)2] (3), have been prepared. Single-crystal structural analyses reveal that complexes 2 and 3 both have the same bent trinuclear {(CuL)2Mn}(2+) structural unit in which two terminal bidentate square-planar (CuL) units are chelated to the central octahedral Mn(II) ion. This structural similarity is also evident from the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, which suggest that compounds 2 and 3 are both antiferromagnetically coupled with comparable exchange coupling constants (-21.8 and -22.3 cm(-1), respectively). The only difference between 2 and 3 lies in the coordination around the central Mn(II) ion; in 3, two SCN(-) groups are coordinated to the Mn(II), leaving a neutral complex, but in 2, one N3(-) group and one H2O molecule are coordinated to give a positively charged species. The presence of such a labile H2O coligand makes 2 catalytically active in mimicking two well-known polynuclear copper proteins, catecholase and phenoxazinone synthase. The turnover numbers (kcat) for the aerial oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol and o-aminophenol are 1118 and 6581 h(-1), respectively, values which reflect the facility of the heterometallic catalyst in terms of both efficiency and catalytic promiscuity for aerial dioxygen activation. The mechanisms of these biomimetic oxidase reactions are proposed for the first time involving any heterometallic catalyst on the basis of mass spectral analysis, EPR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The evidence of the intermediates indicates possible heterometallic cooperative activity where the substrates bind to a Mn(II) center and Cu

  8. Fostering Positive Peer Relations in the Primary Classroom through Circle Time and Co-Operative Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Latisha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of co-operative games and circle time activities in fostering positive peer relations in two French Primary classrooms (N = 40). It presents French teachers' and pupils' perceptions of a set of co-operative games and circle time activities implemented within a year long study on personal, social…

  9. Conditions of cooperation between enterprises and business environment institutions using the Podlasie region as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniluk Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation in the field of innovation activities means active participation in joint projects with other companies and business environment institutions. Some of these institutions are involved in cooperation with entrepreneurs to a very limited extent, which makes the help ineffective.

  10. Cooperative Catalysis for Selective Alcohol Oxidation with Molecular Oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, T.K.; Eisenberg, D.; van Noordenne, D.; Jungbacker, P.; Rothenberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    The activation of dioxygen for selective oxidation of organic molecules is a major catalytic challenge. Inspired by the activity of nitrogen-doped carbons in electrocatalytic oxygen reduction, we combined such a carbon with metal-oxide catalysts to yield cooperative catalysts. These simple materials

  11. How open is too open? The mitigating role of appropriation mechanisms in R&D cooperation settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Theresa; Lorenz, Annika; Blind, Knut

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the influence of firms’ R&D cooperation activities on their likelihood to experience imitation. Analyses of firm-level survey data concerning the R&D cooperation behavior of 2,797 German firms reveal that companies engaging in R&D cooperation face significantly more

  12. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  13. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Model evaluation of agricultural consumer cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Oksana Evgen'evna

    2016-10-01

    Subject of research - the system of organization and management and economic relations arising in the process of interaction between business entities. The object of research is the agricultural consumer cooperatives. In the course of the study were actively used different methods and techniques of economic and statistical analysis, with particular, such as the method of comparison, grouping method, the Delphi method, the methods and techniques of factor analysis, economic and statistical methods; techniques used medium, relative and average values ​​of continuous reception and sample surveys, was conducted as a detail, and data compilation.

  15. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Hughes; D. Tillman

    2000-10-01

    During the period of July 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000, alternatives for relocating the Seward Generating Station cofiring project were investigated. Allegheny Energy Supply Company LLC will accept the separate injection demonstration at its Albright Generating Station. During this period, also, efforts were made at program outreach. Papers were given at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference. This report summarizes the activities during the second calendar quarter in 2000 of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of the relocation of Seward, and on the outreach efforts.

  16. Cooperative sentry vehicles and differential GPS leapfrog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDDEMA,JOHN T.; LEWIS,CHRISTOPHER L.; LAFARGE,ROBERT A.

    2000-06-07

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter, perform a surround task, and travel extended distances. This paper describes the authors most recent activities. In particular, this paper highlights the development of a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) leapfrog capability that allows two or more vehicles to alternate sending DGPS corrections. Using this leapfrog technique, this paper shows that a group of autonomous vehicles can travel 22.68 kilometers with a root mean square positioning error of only 5 meters.

  17. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  19. Enhanced Cooperation - the New Trend of the EU Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila O. Babynina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to implementation of the enhanced cooperation in the EU. Actually two such projects are шn progress (the law applicable to divorce and legal separation and unitary patent protection and other two are under discussionffmandai transaction tax and European Public Prosecutor's Office. Active use of the enhanced cooperation recently shows that such kind of the promoting integration is more and more required in the EU. However its implementation can jeopardize the principles of the EU functioning and undermine the status of the institutions in the integration process. This mechanism can also be used in order to exclude the discordant states from integration process instead of traditional search of compromises. This argument is based on analysis of the implementation conditions of the project on the unitary patent protection. At the same time the projects of the enhanced cooperation obviously make the interaction in different spheres more efficient. In addition they can be used for testing the new types of cooperation. That's why the search for an optimal balance between promotion integration through the mechanism of enhanced cooperation and preserving the unity of the EU should be considered as main goal by participants of the integration process. Otherwise the gradual separation on the vanguard group may lead to EU division. Nevertheless taking into consideration enlargement of the EU and its diversity, the enhanced cooperation Should be used onlyas "extreme measure".

  20. Interdepartmental Cooperation in Defence Issues and Strategic Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Nikolic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this paper comes from one successfully conducted empirical research about motivation of potential candidates to serve in the active reserve as a kind of military service which is recently introduced in the Serbian Army. The research team was faced with a set of problems related to the deadlines, resources and mandate issues. A solution was found in agile interdepartmental cooperation. Firstly, we started with identification of missing resources and mandates of our research team. Then, we investigated where we could find the missing issues. After that, we established lines for cooperation with other departments in the MoD. The clarity of interdepartmental communication and concretisation of demands and expectations were crucial for success. In the end we realized the full potential of interdepartmental cooperation and started to think about that phenomenon in the wider context of defence and security issues. We found some other examples of interdepartmental cooperation in earlier efforts of the defence sector reform, as well as some results in other armies. The paper presents strengths and opportunities of interdepartmental cooperation through temporary engaged working groups in the specific defence sector environment, as well as potential obstacles. In a wider aspect, interdepartmental cooperation in defence and security issues becomes more and more important because of new security challenges we are facing today.

  1. EMCORE - Emotional Cooperative Groupware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, N.; Messina, A.

    In the last years considerable effort has been spent to develop groupware applications. Despite this, no general consenus has been met by groupware applications in computer field. Interdisciplinary approach could prove very useful to overcome these difficulties. A workgroup is not simply a set of people gathered together, working for a common goal. It can also be thought as a strong, hard mental reality. Actually, sociological and psychological definitions of group differ considerably. At sociological level a group is generally described in the view of the activities and events occurring inside the group itself. On the other hand, the psychological group approach considers not only the actions occurring inside the group, but also all the mental activities originated by belonging to the group, be they emotional or rational nature. Since early '60 simple work group (i.e. discussion group) has been analyzed in his psychological behavior. EMCORE is a prototype which aims to support computer science methods with psychological approach. The tool has been developed for a discussion group supported by heterogeneous distributed systems and has been implemented according to the CORBA abstraction augmented by the machine independent JAVA language. The tool allows all the common activities of a discussion group: discussion by voice or by chatting board if multimedia device are not present; discussion and elaboration of a shared document by text and/or graphic editor. At the same time, tools are provided for the psychoanalytic approach, according to a specific methodology.

  2. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  3. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  4. Smartphone-Based Cooperative Indoor Localization with RFID Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Fernando; Jiménez, Antonio R

    2018-01-18

    In GPS-denied indoor environments, localization and tracking of people can be achieved with a mobile device such as a smartphone by processing the received signal strength (RSS) of RF signals emitted from known location beacons (anchor nodes), combined with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) estimates of the user motion. An enhacement of this localization technique is feasible if the users themselves carry additional RF emitters (mobile nodes), and the cooperative position estimates of a group of persons incorporate the RSS measurements exchanged between users. We propose a centralized cooperative particle filter (PF) formulation over the joint state of all users that permits to process RSS measurements from both anchor and mobile emitters, as well as PDR motion estimates and map information (if available) to increase the overall positioning accuracy, particularly in regions with low density of anchor nodes. Smartphones are used as a convenient mobile platform for sensor measurements acquisition, low-level processing, and data transmission to a central unit, where cooperative localization processing takes place. The cooperative method is experimentally demonstrated with four users moving in an area of 1600 m 2 , with 7 anchor nodes comprised of active RFID (radio frequency identification) tags, and additional mobile tags carried by each user. Due to the limited coverage provided by the anchor beacons, RSS-based individual localization is inaccurate (6.1 m median error), but this improves to 4.9 m median error with the cooperative PF. Further gains are produced if the PDR information is added to the filter: median error of 3.1 m (individual) and 2.6 m (cooperative); and if map information is also considered, the results are 1.8 m (individual) and 1.6 m (cooperative). Thus, for each version of the particle filter, cooperative localization outperforms individual localization in terms of positioning accuracy.

  5. Smartphone-Based Cooperative Indoor Localization with RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In GPS-denied indoor environments, localization and tracking of people can be achieved with a mobile device such as a smartphone by processing the received signal strength (RSS of RF signals emitted from known location beacons (anchor nodes, combined with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR estimates of the user motion. An enhacement of this localization technique is feasible if the users themselves carry additional RF emitters (mobile nodes, and the cooperative position estimates of a group of persons incorporate the RSS measurements exchanged between users. We propose a centralized cooperative particle filter (PF formulation over the joint state of all users that permits to process RSS measurements from both anchor and mobile emitters, as well as PDR motion estimates and map information (if available to increase the overall positioning accuracy, particularly in regions with low density of anchor nodes. Smartphones are used as a convenient mobile platform for sensor measurements acquisition, low-level processing, and data transmission to a central unit, where cooperative localization processing takes place. The cooperative method is experimentally demonstrated with four users moving in an area of 1600 m 2 , with 7 anchor nodes comprised of active RFID (radio frequency identification tags, and additional mobile tags carried by each user. Due to the limited coverage provided by the anchor beacons, RSS-based individual localization is inaccurate (6.1 m median error, but this improves to 4.9 m median error with the cooperative PF. Further gains are produced if the PDR information is added to the filter: median error of 3.1 m (individual and 2.6 m (cooperative; and if map information is also considered, the results are 1.8 m (individual and 1.6 m (cooperative. Thus, for each version of the particle filter, cooperative localization outperforms individual localization in terms of positioning accuracy.

  6. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  7. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition, which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  8. Developing Praxis in Conflictual Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    . The presentation will discuss and analyse some empirical material from a project on conflictual cooperation in the building business. The analysis opens an opportunity to discuss and expand Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning. The authors' original intention of understanding learning as an integral...... of the house leaves traces which we must take into account in our ensuing acts. Additionally it will be argued that the professionals may constitute different communities on the building site. This does not mean that the building site is a community of practice, all the same the conflictual cooperation...

  9. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  10. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  11. Cooperation for knowledge demands know-how for cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de la Rive Box (Louk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractValedictory Address by Louk de la Rive Box, Professor of international cooperation and Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies (22 April 2010). Which Knowledge and for Which Development? Old Timers and New Players More than a decade ago the cyber-revolution gave rise

  12. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  13. Inter-Korean Forest Cooperation 1998–2012: A Policy Arrangement Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Despite political obstacles, South and North Korea have a history of conducting cooperative forest activities. Since 1999, the two Koreas have taken part in implementing cooperative forest projects, including reforestation, construction of tree nurseries, and control of insect pests, to achieve sustainability of the forests on the Korean Peninsula. This paper analyzes South Korean policies for inter-Korean forest cooperation, using a policy arrangement approach (PAA) with four dimensions: di...

  14. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  15. PERFIL PSICOLÓGICO DE LOS ASOCIADOS Y VALORES COOPERATIVOS EN CUATRO ENTIDADES QUE REALIZAN ACTIVIDADES FINANCIERAS EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL HUILA - PSICHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PARTNERS AND COOPERATIVE VALUES INTO FOUR ENTITIES CONDUCTING FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES IN THE DEPARTMENT OF HUILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE PARRADO CORREDOR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the difficulties for organizational development of cooperatives is the same behavior associated. Values of solidarity have to assume that every person possesses the same level of entrepreneurship and develop the cooperative attitudes similar to the other partners, however, the entrepreneurial intent is a personal attitude and intersubject variability presents.This paper explores the relationship between individual factors (personality and organizational characteristics desirable and cooperative values. We applied a psychometric test of personality (BFQ, which measures Energia, Teson, Agreeableness, Openness mental, Emotional Stability to 71 people not associated (NA, people associated (PA and associate directors (AD between 20 and 43 years old. ANOVA was performed in SPSS v. 14. Differences in scores on the Agreeableness dimension (p = ,009, energy (p = ,068 and open-mindedness (p = ,080 between AD and NA, but no significant differences in scores of friendliness between NA and PA, as there is no different in open-mindedness between PA and AD. According to the theories of personality, such factors and their sub-dimensions, could promote cooperative values and organizational development.

  16. Cooperative cognitive radio networking system model, enabling techniques, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Bin; Mark, Jon W

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief examines the active cooperation between users of Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networking (CCRN), exploring the system model, enabling techniques, and performance. The brief provides a systematic study on active cooperation between primary users and secondary users, i.e., (CCRN), followed by the discussions on research issues and challenges in designing spectrum-energy efficient CCRN. As an effort to shed light on the design of spectrum-energy efficient CCRN, they model the CCRN based on orthogonal modulation and orthogonally dual-polarized antenna (ODPA). The resource allocation issues are detailed with respect to both models, in terms of problem formulation, solution approach, and numerical results. Finally, the optimal communication strategies for both primary and secondary users to achieve spectrum-energy efficient CCRN are analyzed.

  17. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017...

  18. Statistical physics of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Jordan, Jillian J.; Rand, David G.; Wang, Zhen; Boccaletti, Stefano; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-05-01

    Extensive cooperation among unrelated individuals is unique to humans, who often sacrifice personal benefits for the common good and work together to achieve what they are unable to execute alone. The evolutionary success of our species is indeed due, to a large degree, to our unparalleled other-regarding abilities. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of human cooperation remains a formidable challenge. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that it is important to focus on the collective behavior that emerges as the result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and even societies. Non-equilibrium statistical physics, in particular Monte Carlo methods and the theory of collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transition points, has proven to be very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. By treating models of human cooperation as classical spin models, a physicist can draw on familiar settings from statistical physics. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. The complexity of solutions therefore often surpasses that observed in physical systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical research that advances our understanding of human cooperation, focusing on spatial pattern formation, on the spatiotemporal dynamics of observed solutions, and on self-organization that may either promote or hinder socially favorable states.

  19. Trends and Issues in Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Thomas J., Ed.; Patterson, Lewis D., Ed.

    The program for the semiannual Cooperative Program Seminar, held October 9-10, 1973, in Washington, D.C. is presented in this document. At this seminar plans were made to broaden the program focus from just consortium concerns to include the full range of interests in systems of interdependence in postsecondary education. These proceedings, to the…

  20. Investment financing in cooperative firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cuomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By general agreement, one of the main obstacles to the growth of producer cooperatives is difficult investment financing, due to inadequate Capitalisation levels and the resulting inability to lodge sufficient collateral with lenders. Moreover, worker-owned firms are considered not very reliable because they suffer from problems of moral hazard and insufficient commitment. Unfortunately, the literature on this issue is not extensive and has weaknesses that are highlighted in the paper. By means of its critical analysis, it is possible to provide evidence that the funding difficulties caused by the particular structure of cooperative firms can be effectively tackled by creating an institutional framework within which cooperatives would be offered a wider range of organizational options comparable to those open to traditional enterprises. Finally, it is proved that the willingness of the members to fund the operations of their cooperative with loan capital may not be enough to mobilize external credit. For member financings to persuade potential providers of funds to place trust in a firm, third-party claims must necessarily qualify as senior debt and be repaid before the claims of the partners are settled.

  1. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  2. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    European Environmental Programme was written. Environmental work in the Authors of this chapter European context was initially based on economic cooperation and not until much later did it achieve a status of its own in the Maastricht and Amsterdam treaties. The second large UN conference for environment...

  3. Beginning of a scientific cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria V. Mikhaylova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Article reviews the All-Russian Science and Practice Conference “Culture and politics of interethnic and interreligious relations” held in Yakutsk on November 29-30, 2015. In scope of cooperation between Moscow University for the Humanities and North-Eastern Federal University Ch.K. Lamazhaa, Doctor of Philosophy, participated in the conference.

  4. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign par...

  5. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often…

  6. COOPERATIVE PROFESSIONALISM IN THEATRE ARTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    procurement, and enhancement of theatre profession, reduction of production cost, employment provision, high yielding profit, articulated welfare, participative management and cooperative spirit. “The arts generally suffer inadequate or scarce investment. It was observed that theatres' financial plight indicates the situation's ...

  7. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  8. Interface: Schools and Police Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Peter D.

    The climate between police and schools has changed from an adversarial one in the 1960s and 1970s to one in which both sides recognize the many advantages to be gained through cooperation. The criminal justice system is made up of three elements: police, courts, and corrections. Tempering the criminal justice system are the community norms which…

  9. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  10. Competition, cooperation, and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between workers can be of substantial value to a firm, yet its level often varies substantially between firms. We show that these differences can unfold in a competitive labor market if workers have heterogeneous social preferences and preferences are private information. In our model,

  11. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...

  12. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  13. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitiv...

  14. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL SOCIAL LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES ON LOAN REPAYMENT BEHAVIOUR OF COOPERATOR BORROWERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on analysis of influence of financial social learning opportunities on loan repayment behavior of cooperator borrowers was carried out in Abia State, Nigeria. It was the objectives of the study to relate social learning financial opportunities in cooperative societies and member borrowers budgeting and timely repayment of loans; and determine demographic, social learning and financial factors that influenced loan repayment by cooperator borrowers. Two-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting first, two of the three agricultural zones; and second two registered farmers’ multi-purpose agricultural cooperative societies. This was followed by purposive selection from registers of the chosen cooperative societies sixty cooperators who currently were repaying loans borrowed. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in analyzing the gathered cross sectional data. Results suggest important relationships between financial social learning opportunities in cooperative societies and borrowers’ budgeting and timely loan repayment behaviours. Attendance to meetings, discussions with fellow cooperators and meaningful observation on financial behaviour of members of cooperative societies had significant positive influences on conduct and performance loan beneficiaries. The number of times beneficiaries attended meeting since after loan(s were received; number of times they discussed loan matters with members before loan(s were received; and number of times they discussed loan repayment strategies with other cooperators after loans were received had positive influences on loan repayment behaviour of cooperator borrowers. Cooperator(s should participate in all union activities to truly belong and reap the benefits of being a member

  15. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  16. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Waite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors, cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local

  17. 75 FR 4440 - Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Morocco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) through legislation; technical assistance for a plan to enforce... cooperative activities in four main priority areas: Institutional and policy strengthening; biodiversity...

  18. Promoting Cooperative Learning in the Classroom: Comparing Explicit and Implicit Training Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elliott

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether providing 4th and 5th-grade students with explicit instruction in prerequisite cooperative-learning skills and techniques would enhance their academic performance and promote in them positive attitudes towards cooperative learning. Overall, students who received explicit training outperformed their peers on both the unit project and test and presented more favourable attitudes towards cooperative learning. The findings of this study support the use of explicitly instructing students about the components of cooperative learning prior to engaging in collaborative activities. Implications for teacher-education are discussed.

  19. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikael Puurtinen; Tapio Mappes

    2009-01-01

    .... Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  20. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  2. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  3. U.S. — France Counterterrorism Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Ivkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the ground aspects of the U.S. — France counterterrorism cooperation. Main forms and realization principles of this cooperation after September 11, 2001 are under analysis.

  4. Cooperation: integrating evolutionary and ecological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam P

    2006-11-21

    Putting a competitive squeeze on a cooperative group has long been considered to encourage cheats. Now we learn that competition, by driving diversification among cooperators, can create groups that are both more productive and more resistant to defection.

  5. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Lars

    2012-03-01

    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on.

  6. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.

  7. Hard Decision Fusion based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armi N.M. Saad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed to combat fading, noise uncertainty, shadowing, and even hidden node problem due to primary users (PUs activity that is not spatially localized. It improves the probability of detection by collaborating to detect PUs signal in cognitive radio (CR system as well. This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection in CR system by implementing hard decision combining in data fusion centre. Through computer simulation, we evaluate the performances of cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection by employing OR and AND rules as decision combining. Energy detector is used to observe the presence of primary user (PU signal. Those results are compared to non-cooperative signal detection for evaluation. They show that cooperative technique has better performance than non-cooperative. Moreover, signal to noise ratio (SNR with greater than or equal 10 dB and 15 collaborated users in CR system has optimal value for probability of detection.

  8. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  9. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolv...

  10. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  11. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  12. Analysis of Cooperativity by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Brown

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.

  13. Analysis of cooperativity by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan

    2009-08-04

    Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.

  14. Building partner cooperation between teachers and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Steh, Barbara; Kalin, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in whic...

  15. Insulin/receptor binding: the last piece of the puzzle? What recent progress on the structure of the insulin/receptor complex tells us (or not) about negative cooperativity and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyts, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Progress in solving the structure of insulin bound to its receptor has been slow and stepwise, but a milestone has now been reached with a refined structure of a complex of insulin with a "microreceptor" that contains the primary binding site. The insulin receptor is a dimeric allosteric enzyme that belongs to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The insulin binding process is complex and exhibits negative cooperativity. Biochemical evidence suggested that insulin, through two distinct binding sites, crosslinks two receptor sites located on each α subunit. The structure of the unliganded receptor ectodomain showed a symmetrical folded-over conformation with an antiparallel disposition. Further work resolved the detailed structure of receptor site 1, both without and with insulin. Recently, a missing piece in the puzzle was added: the C-terminal portion of insulin's B-chain known to be critical for binding and negative cooperativity. Here I discuss these findings and their implications. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effectiveness of Co-Operative Learning Method in Learning of Mathematics among Eighth Standard Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Thiyagu

    2012-01-01

    Co-operative learning is defined as students working together to "attain groups goals that cannot be obtained by working alone or competitively." The main purpose of co-operative learning is to actively involve students in the learning process, a level of student empowerment which is not possible in a lecture format. The present study…

  17. Considering University-Business Cooperation Modes from the Perspective of Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses enterprises' engagement in university-business cooperation (UBC) activities: research and development, mobility of academics and students, curriculum development and lifelong learning. It first provides an introductory overview of university-business cooperation policy. It then presents a selection of UBC models, elements and…

  18. Facilitating Cooperative Learning in Online and Blended Courses: An Example from an Integrated Marketing Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katryna

    2013-01-01

    Employers today expect that students will be able to work in teams. Cooperative learning theory addresses how skills such as decision making, problem solving and communication can be learned by individuals in group settings. This paper discusses how cooperative learning can be used in an online and blended environment to increase active learning…

  19. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Students' Acquisition and Practice of Scientific Skills in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatila, Hanadi; Al Husseiny, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Recent research findings have shown that cooperative learning improves students' thinking skills as it allows them to communicate actively with each other (Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 2014). Therefore, cooperative learning has been proposed by many educators to be implemented in classrooms to produce lifelong learners and critical thinkers…

  20. 77 FR 17095 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cellco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cellco... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Cellco Partnership d/b... activity is the research and development of technology and intellectual property relating to enhanced...

  1. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning and Communication Pedagogy: Does Working in Teams Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Mina; Brady, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative learning has increasingly become a popular form of active pedagogy employed in academic institutions. This case study explores the relationship between cooperative learning and academic performance in higher education, specifically in the field of communication. Findings from a questionnaire administered to undergraduate students in a…

  2. A marketing co-operative as a system of attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.J. Bijman (Jos); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractChanges in the market conditions for fruit and vegetables have induced Dutch co-operative auctions to restructure their sales and marketing activities. Nine auctions merged into VTN and established the marketing organisation The Greenery International BV. VTN/The Greenery have

  3. 7 CFR 1484.12 - What is the Cooperator program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonprofit U.S. trade organizations to share the costs of certain overseas marketing and promotion activities... into project agreements with those eligible nonprofit U.S. trade organizations that have the broadest... Cooperator program generally operates on a reimbursement basis. (d) FAS policy is to ensure that benefits...

  4. Useful Expressions for Implementing Cooperative Learning in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Machiko; Kanamaru, Ayako; Plaza, Taron; Shiramizu, Chie

    2016-01-01

    With the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology calling for junior and senior high school English classes in Japan to be more communicative and taught in English, teachers need effective tools to help make their classrooms more interactive. Cooperative learning activities have the potential to increase interaction among students and…

  5. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...

  6. Cooperative Video Streaming with Dynamic Compression at the Terminal Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Janus Heide; Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Krigslund, Rasmus

    Media content distribution constitutes a growing share of the services on the Internet. In recent years methods for cooperative media distribution has been a research area with high activity. Concurrently wireless internet connections have emerged. Wireless connection technologies, e.g. Wimax, ha...

  7. Cooperative Societies: paradigm of the participation in a concurrent market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject to the latest edition of the Brazilian Civil Code, and considering the alterations caused in the regulation of societies in general, deserves mark the permanence of an interpretative dualism about the positioning of cooperative societies in orbit of exercentes legal entities of business activities.

  8. Emerging Collaborative and Cooperative Practices in 1:1 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annika; Wiklund, Matilda; Hatakka, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors explored how laptops used in 1:1 classrooms affect cooperation and collaboration practices. Based on an observational time study, the authors found that the most common activity in 1:1 classrooms is group work using the computer. They also found that, despite what the concept 1:1 alludes to about one student working…

  9. Adherence to Cooperative Principles among Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study assessed agricultural cooperatives' level of adherence to cooperative guiding principles in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 126 respondents for the study. Data on group characteristics, level of awareness, adherence and constraints to adherence to cooperative ...

  10. Comparative Productivity Between Farmer Cooperator and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of cooperatives in agricultural productivity in Kwara state, Nigeria. Ninety (90) farmer cooperators and ninety (90) non-cooperator farmer households were randomly sampled across the state. The study data were analysed using the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and the Ordinary Least Squares ...

  11. Understanding Cooperation in Inter-Organisational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Riemens, Lourens; van Eck, Pascal; Krishnamurthy, Sandeep; Isaías, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Cooperation in inter-organisational networks usually requires considerable up-front investments in information technology (IT) specific for this cooperation. It is therefore of great importance that participants in a network select the partners for which it is most likely that cooperation will

  12. Qualitative elements constituting effective agricultural cooperatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives like all cooperatives are built on the principle of cooperation and community spirit, also known as ubuntu. They are widely promoted as a positive force for collective effort in smallholder agriculture development. However, research suggests that they generally have not been effective and successful ...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization...

  14. Cooperative Learning in the Physical Education Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven E.; Wilson, Rolayne

    1991-01-01

    Presents guidelines for promoting and using cooperative learning in physical education. To establish cooperative learning, teachers must plan for specific group dynamics. Physical educators need to understand their roles with groups and how groups should be structured. The article offers two cooperative learning lesson examples. (SM)

  15. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide instructions...

  16. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  17. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  18. Treatment of capital in Brasilian cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergílio Frederico Perius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.

  19. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/18: Maritime Cooperation Between India and Pakistan: Building Confidence at Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDDIQA-AGHA,AYESHA

    2000-11-01

    This paper discusses ways in which the navies of both India and Pakistan can cooperate on issues of maritime and naval significance. Although the militaries and navies of the two countries have traditionally seen each other as rivals, international economic developments make cooperation imperative. South Asia requires an approach that can alter the existing hostile images and perceptions. This can be achieved through developing an incremental approach towards confidence building that would allow consistency and help build confidence gradually. The aim is to make confidence building a sustainable activity that would help transform hostile images and build cooperative and nonhostile relationships. This paper proposes a five-step model to suggest what the two navies can do jointly to build confidence, with the ultimate goal of naval arms control. The steps include (1) the Signaling Stage to initiate communication between the two navies, (2) the Warming-Up Stage to build confidence through nonmilitary joint ventures, (3) the Handshake Stage to build confidence between the two navies through military joint ventures, (4) the Problem-Solving Stage to resolve outstanding disputes, and (5) the Final Nod Stage to initiate naval arms control. This model would employ communication, navigation, and remote sensing technologies to achieve success.

  20. New and Traditional Multilateral Development Banks: Current and Potential Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experts on multilateral development banks (MDBs mention the possibility of large-scale co-financing in their forecasts concerning their future operations. However, interaction between MDBs and other actors, including co-financing, is rarely considered as a research problem for analytical and scientific papers. Yet this type of cooperation is one of the most important factors of effectiveness for the entire system of MDB financing. Thus, working in partnership with governmental institutions (development assistance agencies, export credit agencies, etc., MDBs help attract additional financial resources and expertise in the countries where they are active. Working on state, regional and global levels, multilateral banks cooperate not only with governmental institutions, but also with private sector and civil society representatives. Such cooperation benefits both parties. In addition to mobilizing additional financial resources, it improves project preparation and implementation, taking into account national peculiarities, while partner institutions get a chance to use their experience and expertise. Given the recent establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB, they are unlikely to achieve their main goal of narrowing the infrastructure financing deficit in developing countries without active cooperation with other institutions. This article discusses the results and examines the prospects of the NDB and AIIB cooperating with traditional MDBs. It also focuses on the new banks’ engagement with other financial institutions, including commercial banks and national development banks. The author analyzes interbank memorandums and agreements as a formal basis for cooperation between various institutions, and examines in detail the examples of co-financing infrastructure projects by the new and traditional MDBs, as well as new multilateral cooperation mechanisms established by development banks. The

  1. NATO AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES: THE PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akmataliyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cooperation between NATO and Central Asian countries dates back to the 1990s, significant presence of the Alliance in the region is visible throughout the last decade only. The cooperation advanced due to the NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. However, its planned conclusion in 2012 will not lead to the withdrawal of the Alliance from Central Asia. Throughout the last decade NATO developed a network of diversified partnerships with countries of the region. In this process Kazakhstan emerged as its most promising and active partner.

  2. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper's hawk ( Accipiter cooperii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian

    2017-03-01

    A Cooper's hawk ( Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper's hawk.

  3. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, S. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 Delaware (United States); Dussel, G. G. [Departamento de Fisica J.J. Giambiagi, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dukelsky, J.; Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    We describe recent efforts to study Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei. We consider a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes and compare results based on three treatments of pairing correlations: a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson Ansatz. Significant differences are seen in the pairing correlation energies. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective. Our results confirm that only a few pairs near the Fermi surface in realistic atomic nuclei are collective. (Author)

  4. Shame and honour drive cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Can the threat of being shamed or the prospect of being honoured lead to greater cooperation? We test this hypothesis with anonymous six-player public goods experiments, an experimental paradigm used to investigate problems related to overusing common resources. We instructed the players that the two individuals who were least generous after 10 rounds would be exposed to the group. As the natural antithesis, we also test the effects of honour by revealing the identities of the two players who were most generous. The non-monetary, reputational effects induced by shame and honour each led to approximately 50 per cent higher donations to the public good when compared with the control, demonstrating that both shame and honour can drive cooperation and can help alleviate the tragedy of the commons. PMID:21632623

  5. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim......We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...... approximation, only three real values per message passing iteration have to be broadcast to neighboring agents. Despite these very low communication requirements, the estimation accuracy can be comparable to that of particle-based belief propagation....

  6. Photonic Counterparts of Cooper Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, André; Júnior, Filomeno S. de Aguiar; de Melo e Souza, Reinaldo; Pena, Arthur Patrocínio; Monken, Carlos H.; Santos, Marcelo F.; Koiller, Belita; Jorio, Ado

    2017-11-01

    The microscopic theory of superconductivity raised the disruptive idea that electrons couple through the elusive exchange of virtual phonons, overcoming the strong Coulomb repulsion to form Cooper pairs. Light is also known to interact with atomic vibrations, as, for example, in the Raman effect. We show that photon pairs exchange virtual vibrations in transparent media, leading to an effective photon-photon interaction identical to that for electrons in the BCS theory of superconductivity, in spite of the fact that photons are bosons. In this scenario, photons may exchange energy without matching a quantum of vibration of the medium. As a result, pair correlations for photons scattered away from the Raman resonances are expected to be enhanced. An experimental demonstration of this effect is provided here by time-correlated Raman measurements in different media. The experimental data confirm our theoretical interpretation of a photonic Cooper pairing, without the need for any fitting parameters.

  7. [Multiprofessional cooperation in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falckenberg, Maja

    2007-04-01

    "Nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come." (Victor Hugo) Originally referring to the beginning of the enlightenment (reconnaissance) of the French revolution the transcription of this words regarding to German palliative Care structures would mean a tremendous effort. The meaning of the new idea is a holistic kind of care for patients with a chronic disease at the end of their lives, so that they can die as most self determined as possible at a location of their choice. The special aim of palliative care, the need of interdisciplinary cooperation leading to multidisciplinary solutions is pointed out. The meaning of palliative care team as a team with special communication skills in between the team and with further cooperating partners is described. Communication in palliative care means more than telling facts.

  8. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  9. Approaches to Building Teacher-Parent Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the areas of cooperation inwhich parent and teacher expectations were the same and where they differed. Data were obtained from a sample of 55 randomly selected primary schools. We analyzed school-to home communications, parentalinfluence on school decisions, and parent involvement in different school activities. At the same time, we also explored building cooperation among the teachers, students, and their parents, within the framework of the program ‘Reading and Conversation’. The findings indicated that the third- and ninth- grade lead teachers were mostly in agreement about the importance of parent involvement and as such represented a fairly homogenous group. The third-grade lead teachers were more open about actual involvement of parents in instruction than their ninth-grade colleagues, who were more cautious and restrained. In contrast to the lead teachers who represented a relatively narrow professional group, parents’ views were much more diverse. Parental education was the best predictor of their readiness to become involved in the life and work of their children’s school. Whether the area in which the families lived was urban or suburban did not make any difference. The evaluation of the one-year ‘Reading and Conversation’ programme revealed increases in parents’motivation to collaborate with the school as a consequence of the program’s approach to work, as well as improvement in mutual relationships and dialogue.

  10. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  11. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  12. Global Cooperation or Rival Trade Blocs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Junne

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of whether the world will continue to move toward a liberal, multi-lateral world trade system or whether it will fall apart into rival trade blocs. It starts with a short comparison of different scenarios for the development of the world economy. It then tries to illustrate the importance of developments inside the major trade blocs for the relationships between these blocs, taking as an examples (a the impact of Gernam reunification, (b the impact of a possible break-up of China, and (c the impact of domestic polarization within the United States. It then discusses how different research avenues give rise to different expectations with regard to cooperation versus rivalry. For instance, from a long waves perspective increasing rivalry can be expected. However, an analysis of strategic alliances points in the direction of more cooperation and collective management of international economic relations. And finally, analyses that give more attention to the internal restructuring of companies lead to the hypothesis that new societal demands for a more active state will be articulated, implying more frictions at the international level. An analysis in terms of "concepts of control" points in the same direction. The tenative conclusion of this paper, meanwhile, is that "managed rivalry" will characterize future relations between the main trading blocs.

  13. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  14. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  15. Promotion of technical cooperation in the field of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Kyung; Jung, Duk Yung; Suh, Seong Seog; Park, Myung Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Moo Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to improve the quality of human resources and the capability of research and development through the promotion of technical cooperation with foreign energy organizations possessing advanced technologies, and at the same time to contribute to internationalizing energy technology through the active involvement in multilateral technical cooperation programs with international organizations. To attain these aims, practical cooperative relations has been strengthened with 34 organizations from 11 countries including 6 organizations with which new cooperative agreements has been concluded in 1995 from the USA, Australia, China, and Russia, through the promotion of the continuous exchange of information and personnel, and international joint projects. And also the positive participation in technical cooperation programs and research projects organized or sponsored by APEC, IEA, UNDP, UNESCO, WEC has been made. In addition, for the improvement in research capability, 200 researchers has been dispatched abroad for the presentation of papers, of for the discussion of joint research projects, and 30 foreign experts through diverse overseas personnel exchange programs including Brain Pool Program were invited for the contribution of advancing research projects. (author). 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  17. The Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation: A Story of Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, C.

    2013-10-01

    The SNGC (Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation) is an alliance founded in 2006 for commercial cooperation between Spanish nuclear companies in order to joint efforts for the commercial promotion in the chinese market. This alliance was originally formed by ENUSA Industrial Avanzadas S. A. (ENUSA). Tecnatom S. A. and Equipos Nucleares, S. A. (ENSA). In 2008 Ringo Valvulas S. L. Joined the alliance, and July 2008 the Nuclear Group for China AIE was incorporated with each of the four companies holding a 25% share. Subsequently, as explained below, the legal name was changed to Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation AIE and the trade name of Spanish Nuclear Group/China was maintained as a brand for activities in this country. (Author)

  18. [Cooperations between biology laboratories of the establishments of healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Pascal; Payen, Catherine; Mérens, Audrey; Ceppa, Franck; Renard, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In France, the cooperations between biological laboratories of the healthcare establishments increased after those realized in the private laboratories. The biologists are confronted with various hypotheses of organization. They are often complex because they may preserve the quality of the care and their continuity while realizing financial economies. These economies are mostly based on the global reduction in the staff and in the equipments by mutualising the biological tests with varying degrees. We describe the various elements to be taken into account (staff, activities, budget, quality, transport, materials) and propose many scenarios of cooperations, from a unique central shape to the transfer of very specialized tests, with their advantages and their inconveniences. The management of human aspects in these cooperations is determining to facilitate their success as well as a reliable preliminary inventory of fixtures.

  19. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  20. Cooperation in lovers: An fNIRS-based hyperscanning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yafeng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxin; Li, Xianchun; Hu, Yi

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated interactive exchange in lovers and the associated interpersonal brain synchronization (IBS) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Three types of female-male dyads, lovers, friends, and strangers, performed a cooperation task during which brain activity was recorded in right frontoparietal regions. We measured better cooperative behavior in lover dyads compared with friend and stranger dyads. Lover dyads demonstrated increased IBS in right superior frontal cortex, which also covaried with their task performance. Granger causality analyses in lover dyads revealed stronger directional synchronization from females to males than from males to females, suggesting different roles for females and males during cooperation. Our study refines the theoretical explanation of romantic interaction between lovers. Hum Brain Mapp 38:831-841, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Report for fiscal 1995 on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Committee activity record; 1995 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Iinkai katsudo kiroku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This paper reports the committee activities in fiscal 1995 on research cooperation for developing an electronics design and production aid system of simple operation type (MATIC). This fiscal year has decided the directionality of MATIC promotion by activities carried out by the different committees. These activities relate to research and development themes, the basic policies of the research and development along with the themes, research and development themes linked with overseas countries, and promotion methods. The working group (WG)I has discussed and deliberated specific research and development items to promote research and development of automobiles and components thereof as the promotion theme, promotion of the research and development, and technical problems. The committee consists of researchers at the related corporations participated in MATIC. The WGII has taken up household appliances and parts thereof, and the WGIII textiles and apparels as the research and development themes, and given specific discussions for promoting the research and development. The paper also reports the activities taken by different committees for promotion of the production-based futuristic type integrated information system, and promotion of the MATIC technologies, operation and cooperation. (NEDO)

  2. A Distributed Quaternary Turbo Coded Cooperative Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDINI FILHO, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communications achieve MIMO-like diversity gains by introducing a relay that creates an independent faded path between the source and the destination. Coded cooperation integrates cooperation with channel coding in order to increase the bit error rate (BER performance of cooperative communications. Turbo codewords can be built efficiently at the destination using encoded portions of the information sent by the source and the relay. This paper presents a distributed turbo cooperative coding scheme that utilizes convolutional codes defined over the finite ring of integers Z4 that performs better than its equivalent binary counterparts.

  3. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Katakura,J.; Koning,A.; Nordborg,C.

    2010-04-30

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is organising a co-operation between the major nuclear data evaluation projects in the world. The co-operation involves the ENDF, JEFF, and JENDL projects, and, owing to the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), also the Russian RUSFOND and the Chinese CENDL projects. The Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), comprised of about 20 core members, manages this co-operation and meets annually to discuss progress in each evaluation project and also related experimental activities. The WPEC assesses common needs for nuclear data improvements and these needs are then addressed by initiating joint evaluation efforts. The work is performed in specially established subgroups, consisting of experts from the participating evaluation projects. The outcome of these subgroups is published in reports, issued by the NEA. Current WPEC activities comprise for example a number of studies related to nuclear data uncertainties, including a review of methods for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data, as well as evaluations of some of the major actinides, such as {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. This paper gives an overview of current and planned activities within the WPEC.

  4. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Smyth, Conor; Mylona, Kalliopi; Niblo, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  5. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    for mobile devices using the Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) in particular, and how/when to use them. Sample applications and services will be demoed during the tutorial. The list of topics to be discussed include: - Application platforms (WAP, Java ME, BREW) - Designing wireless applications...... on a totally different platform like a mobile phone or a BlackBerry device. While wireless applications can be much smaller than conventional desktop applications, developers should think in the small in terms of the devices on which the applications will run and the environment in which they will operate...... - Wireless application programming models - Testing and deploying wireless applications - Applying the Service-Oriented Architecture - Web services for mobile devices - Securing wireless applications and service...

  6. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  7. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    following a common strategy. Wireless devices share their resources (i.e. radio link, antenna, battery, processing unit, etc.) during cooperation using the short-range technology as the underlying communication platform. The amount of data exchanged over the short-range link diers from application...... to application. In some situations the short-range communication is not used at all in case all mobile devices have a predefined mutual understanding of their cooperativeness. The main reason of cooperation is threefold: first, the limit capability of wireless devices can be virtually enhanced by cooperation...... networks. An energy saving cooperative strategy for DVB-H in ii Abstract networks is designed as a primary attempt to illustrate the potential of cooperation application for multicast services. Furthermore, a cooperative retrans-mission scheme is proposed for reliable multicast service in wireless network...

  8. Cooperation Forms in the Aeronautics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MOCENCO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the world economy and the globally accelerated diversification of production led to the need of widening the economic cooperation. The need of cooperation increased in various sectors of the global economy, such as the transport industry, IT and commercial sector. The aeronautics industry is a representative sector of cooperation, where the exchange of knowledge and technology, the cooperation between universities, industries, research organizations, small and medium enterprises (SMEs, etc. and the free flow of ideas are crucial factors for the implementation and sustainability of a unique innovation system. The main objective of this paper is to identify the main forms of cooperation in the aircraft industry. The paper includes two important parts: the first part contains an analysis of the US and Europe aeronautics industry evolution, highlighting the cooperation forms and fields that emerged over time; and the second part comprises an analysis of the Romanian aircraft industry cooperation.

  9. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  10. To cooperate or to defect? Altruism and reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Gawroński, Przemysław

    2009-09-01

    The basic difficulty in cooperation theory is to justify the cooperation. Here we propose a new approach, where players are driven by their altruism to cooperate or not. The probability of cooperation depends also on the co-player’s reputation. We find that players with positive altruism cooperate and meet cooperation. In this approach, payoffs are not relevant.

  11. FETC/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. TILLMAN; E. HUGHES

    1998-08-01

    This quarter much progress was made in promoting cofiring through the many FETC/EPRI backed projects. During January 1, 1998 to March 31st, 1998 significant contractual agreements were arranged for future testing and analyses of previous testing were conducted. Most notable was the analysis done on the testing run at the Tennessee Valley Authority�s Colbert Fossil Plant that showed no significant impacts to the plant boiler due to cofiring. Northern Indiana Public Service Company also identified Bailly #7 as the site of the next series of tests using their plants. Other work done on these projects primarily focused on continued cofiring development. This report summarizes the activities during the first quarter in 1998 of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  12. Adaptive Opportunistic Cooperative Control Mechanism Based on Combination Forecasting and Multilevel Sensing Technology of Sensors for Mobile Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile Internet of Things, there are many challenges, including sensing technology of sensors, how and when to join cooperative transmission, and how to select the cooperative sensors. To address these problems, we studied the combination forecasting based on the multilevel sensing technology of sensors, building upon which we proposed the adaptive opportunistic cooperative control mechanism based on the threshold values such as activity probability, distance, transmitting power, and number of relay sensors, in consideration of signal to noise ratio and outage probability. More importantly, the relay sensors would do self-test real time in order to judge whether to join the cooperative transmission, for maintaining the optimal cooperative transmission state with high performance. The mathematical analyses results show that the proposed adaptive opportunistic cooperative control approach could perform better in terms of throughput ratio, packet error rate and delay, and energy efficiency, compared with the direct transmission and opportunistic cooperative approaches.

  13. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Nuclear Power Group

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  14. Cheating and punishment in cooperative animal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-02-05

    Cheaters-genotypes that gain a selective advantage by taking the benefits of the social contributions of others while avoiding the costs of cooperating-are thought to pose a major threat to the evolutionary stability of cooperative societies. In order for cheaters to undermine cooperation, cheating must be an adaptive strategy: cheaters must have higher fitness than cooperators, and their behaviour must reduce the fitness of their cooperative partners. It is frequently suggested that cheating is not adaptive because cooperators have evolved mechanisms to punish these behaviours, thereby reducing the fitness of selfish individuals. However, a simpler hypothesis is that such societies arise precisely because cooperative strategies have been favoured over selfish ones-hence, behaviours that have been interpreted as 'cheating' may not actually result in increased fitness, even when they go unpunished. Here, we review the empirical evidence for cheating behaviours in animal societies, including cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects, and we ask whether such behaviours are primarily limited by punishment. Our review suggests that both cheating and punishment are probably rarer than often supposed. Uncooperative individuals typically have lower, not higher, fitness than cooperators; and when evidence suggests that cheating may be adaptive, it is often limited by frequency-dependent selection rather than by punishment. When apparently punitive behaviours do occur, it remains an open question whether they evolved in order to limit cheating, or whether they arose before the evolution of cooperation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  16. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  17. Cooperation with Externalities and Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Habis, Helga; Csercsik, Dávid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of cooperative games where the worth of a coalition depends on the behavior of other players and on the state of nature as well. we allow for coalitions to form both before and after the resolution of uncertainty, hence agreements must be stable against both types of deviations. The appropriate extension of the classicakl core concept, the Sustainable Core, is defined for this new setup to test the stability of allocations in such a complex environment. A prominent ap...

  18. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N.; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the “majority-flipping attacker,” does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker’s outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  19. Health data cooperatives - citizen empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, E; Kossmann, D; Brand, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on Health Record Banking. Healthcare is often ineffective and costs are steadily rising. This is in a large part due to the inaccessibility of medical and health data stored in multiple silos. Furthermore, in most cases molecular differences between individuals that result in different susceptibilities to drugs and diseases as well as targeted interventions cannot be taken into account. Technological advances in genome sequencing and the interaction of 'omics' data with environmental data on one hand and mobile health on the other, promise to generate the longitudinal health data that will form the basis for a more personalized, precision medicine. For this new medicine to become a reality, however, millions of personal health data sets have to be aggregated. The value of such aggregated personal data has been recognized as a new asset class and many commercial entities are competing for this new asset (e.g. Google, Facebook, 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe). The primary source and beneficiary of personal health data is the individual. As a collective, society should be the beneficiary of both the economic and health value of these aggregated data and (health) information. We posit that empowering citizens by providing them with a platform to safely store, manage and share their health-related data will be a necessary element in the transformation towards a more effective and efficient precision medicine. Such health data platforms should be organized as cooperatives that are solely owned and controlled by their members and not by shareholders. Members determine which data they want to share for example with doctors or to contribute to research for the benefit of their health and that of society. Members will also decide how the revenues generated by granting third parties access to the anonymized data that they agreed to share, should be invested in research, information or education. Currently no

  20. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  1. Cooperative learning as applied to resident instruction in radiology reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Donald; Georges, Alexandra; Vaslow, Dale

    2007-12-01

    The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an active form of resident instruction, cooperative learning, and the residents' response to that form of instruction. The residents dictated three sets of reports both before and after instruction in radiology reporting using the cooperative learning method. The reports were evaluated for word count, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, advancement on clinical spectrum, clarity, and comparison to prior reports. The reports were evaluated for changes in performance characteristics between the pre- and postinstruction dictations. The residents' response to this form of instruction was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The instruction was effective in changing the resident dictations. The results became shorter (Pcooperative learning activities. The least positive responses related to the amount of time devoted to the project. Sixty-three percent of respondents stated that the time devoted to the project was appropriate. Cooperative learning can be an effective tool in the setting of the radiology residency. Instructional time requirements must be strongly considered in designing a cooperative learning program.

  2. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  3. NETL-EERC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christina B. Behr-Andres; Daniel J. Daly

    2001-07-31

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the 6-year Environmental Management Cooperative Agreement (EMCA) between the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), a nonprofit, contract-supported unit of the University of North Dakota, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The first portion of the report summarizes EMCA's structure, activities, and accomplishments. The appendix contains profiles of the individual EMCA tasks. Detailed descriptions and results of the tasks can be found separately in published Final Topical Reports. EMCA (DOE Contract No. DE-FC21-94MC31388) was in place from the fall of 1994 to the summer of 2001. Under EMCA, approximately $5.4 million was applied in three program areas to expedite the commercialization of 15 innovative technologies for application in DOE's EM Program ($3.8 million, or 69% of funds), provide technical support to the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA; $1.04 million, or 19% of funds), and provide for the coordination of the EMCA activities ($0.62 million, or 11% of funds). The following sections profile the overall accomplishments of the EMCA program followed by a summary of the accomplishments under each of the EMCA areas: commercialization, DDFA technical support, and management. Table 1 provides an overview of EMCA, including program areas, program activities, the duration and funding of each activity, and the associated industry partner, if appropriate.

  4. Twelve years of cooperation in the field of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapengiesser, Sten; Bennerstedt, Torkel

    2005-06-01

    SSI has pursued an international cooperation program since 1992 within the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness for radiation accidents with the three Baltic countries as main beneficiaries. As the Baltic countries are members of the EU since May 2004, this bilateral support will now be phased out and replaced with other forms of cooperation. During the years passed, a large number of activities have been launched with a total budget of some 14 million ECU. The Baltic radiation protection authorities have played a big role in the cooperation and Baltic ministries, universities, nuclear technology installations and other industries using radiation have also been engaged in the projects. SKI, SKB, Studsvik and the Swedish nuclear power plants should be mentioned as major cooperation partners on the Swedish side. During autumn 2004 when such a large coordinated work program was coming to an end, SSI decided to hold a seminar with the purpose to follow up experiences from the work and discuss coming forms of cooperation. The seminar took place on the 18 of November 2004 and gathered some 80 participants, 29 of which from the Baltic countries. It was opened by Lars-Erik Holm, the SSI Director General, and the three Baltic countries then presented their views and impressions from the passed years of cooperation. The seminar was concluded with a panel discussion on 'How to proceed from today's situation'. The result was that SSI invited to a new coordination meeting during autumn 2005 to follow up and discuss coordination of radiation protection around the Baltic Sea together with the other Nordic radiation protection authorities.

  5. Funding oncology clinical trials: are cooperative group trials sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Hsien-Yeang; Whelan, Patrick; Levine, Mark N; Cowan, Kathryn; Lysakowski, Barbara; Kowaleski, Brenda; Snider, Anne; Xu, Rebecca Y; Arnold, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Many oncology clinical trials departments (CTDs) are in serious fiscal deficit and their sustainability is in jeopardy. This study investigates whether the payment models used to fund industry versus cooperative group trials contribute to the fiscal deficit of a CTD. We examined the lifetime costs of all cooperative group and industry trials activated in the CTD of a cancer center between 2007 and 2011. A trial's lifetime is defined as being from the date the first patient was accrued until the last patient's actual or projected final follow-up visit. For each trial, we calculated the lifetime monthly net income, which was defined as monthly revenue minus monthly costs. Data sources included study protocols, trial budgets, and accrual data. Of the 97 trials analyzed, 64 (66%) were cooperative group trials. The pattern of lifetime net income for cooperative group trials has a positive peak during patient accrual followed by a negative trough during follow-up. In contrast, the pattern for industry trials resembled an "l" shape. The patterns reflect the differing payment models: upfront lump-sum payments (cooperative group) versus milestone payments (industry). The negative trough in the lifetime net income of a cooperative group trial occurs because follow-up costs are typically not funded or are underfunded. CTDs accrue more patients in new trials to offset that deficit. The CTD uses revenue from accrual to existing trials to cross-subsidize past trials in follow-up. As the number of patients on follow-up increases, the fiscal deficit grows larger each year, perpetuating the cycle.

  6. 76 FR 65749 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-TAI and Southwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--TAI and... the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act... organizing and implementing joint engineering and scientific research activities. These activities will...

  7. 7 CFR 1484.13 - What special definitions apply to the Cooperator program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Consumer promotion—activities that are designed to directly influence consumers by changing attitudes or... contract between FAS and a Cooperator in which the basic working relationship is described including the...

  8. Using Cooperative Small Groups in Introductory Accounting Classes: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Effective use of cooperative learning groups requires the following: attention to group formation, orientation that sets clear expectations and guidelines, activities to develop teamwork skills, peer evaluation, and other assessments that recognize and measure individual effort on group projects. (SK)

  9. Environmental assessment cooperative farming program San Luis National Wildlife Refuge complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document examines the cooperative farming at San Luis NWR Complex to examine if that activity is compatible with the primary purposes of the Refuges. This...

  10. 78 FR 42054 - Office of Economic Adjustment; Notice of Cooperative Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Supply Corps School Athens GA Naval Support Activity New Orleans LA Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach... including the following: 32 CFR part 33, ``Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative...

  11. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  12. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  13. Evolution of Cooperation on Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Aming; Su, Qi; Cornelius, Sean P; Liu, Yang-Yu; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    The structure of social networks is a key determinant in fostering cooperation and other altruistic behavior among naturally selfish individuals. However, most real social interactions are temporal, being both finite in duration and spread out over time. This raises the question of whether stable cooperation can form despite an intrinsically fragmented social fabric. Here we develop a framework to study the evolution of cooperation on temporal networks in the setting of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma. By analyzing both real and synthetic datasets, we find that temporal networks generally facilitate the evolution of cooperation compared to their static counterparts. More interestingly, we find that the intrinsic human interactive pattern like bursty behavior impedes the evolution of cooperation. Finally, we introduce a measure to quantify the temporality present in networks and demonstrate that there is an intermediate level of temporality that boosts cooperation most. Our results open a new avenue for investi...

  14. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  15. The Cultural Transmission of Cooperative Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue eZhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab subjects to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  16. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  17. Recent developments in cooperative control and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Murphey, Robert; Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several years, cooperative control and optimization has un­ questionably been established as one of the most important areas of research in the military sciences. Even so, cooperative control and optimization tran­ scends the military in its scope -having become quite relevant to a broad class of systems with many exciting, commercial, applications. One reason for all the excitement is that research has been so incredibly diverse -spanning many scientific and engineering disciplines. This latest volume in the Cooperative Systems book series clearly illustrates this trend towards diversity and creative thought. And no wonder, cooperative systems are among the hardest systems control science has endeavored to study, hence creative approaches to model­ ing, analysis, and synthesis are a must! The definition of cooperation itself is a slippery issue. As you will see in this and previous volumes, cooperation has been cast into many different roles and therefore has assumed many diverse meanings. P...

  18. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  19. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  20. Energy co-operatives in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tham; T. Muneer

    2011-01-01

    The UK is implementing different types of policies to encourage the use of renewable energy for electricity generation. Currently, the UK is falling behind other European countries in this respect. Hence, co-operatives play an important role in helping the UK to move forward. Co-operatives are of interest to the Government in respect of economic development in the community. Co-operatives keep both the business, or entity, and the wealth it creates locally, which also supports the local econo...