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Sample records for activation underlies poor

  1. Technologies of identification under the Old Poor Law\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In this important article Steve Hindle, the leading historian of the local state and the pre-1834 Poor Law, considers the different ways in which parish and township authorities labelled and identified paupers. His paper is closely based upon the lecture which he gave to the British Association for Local History in June 2006. Steve Hindle gives an accessible and comprehensive explanation of the background and rationale for the various ways in which the poor could be categorised, and discusses...

  2. Dendritic brushes under theta and poor solvent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Kalogirou, Andreas; Charalambopoulos, Antonios; Vlahos, Costas

    2013-07-01

    The effects of solvent quality on the internal stratification of polymer brushes formed by dendron polymers up to third generation were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with Langevin thermostat. The distributions of polymer units, of the free ends, the radii of gyration, and the back folding probabilities of the dendritic spacers were studied at the macroscopic states of theta and poor solvent. For high grafting densities we observed a small decrease in the height of the brush as the solvent quality decreases. The internal stratification in theta solvent was similar to the one we found in good solvent, with two and in some cases three kinds of populations containing short dendrons with weakly extended spacers, intermediate-height dendrons, and tall dendrons with highly stretched spacers. The differences increase as the grafting density decreases and single dendron populations were evident in theta and poor solvent. In poor solvent at low grafting densities, solvent micelles, polymeric pinned lamellae, spherical and single chain collapsed micelles were observed. The scaling dependence of the height of the dendritic brush at high density brushes for both solvents was found to be in agreement with existing analytical results.

  3. Estimated Under-Five Deaths Associated with Poor-Quality Antimalarials in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renschler, John P.; Walters, Kelsey M.; Newton, Paul N.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Many antimalarials sold in sub-Saharan Africa are poor-quality (falsified, substandard, or degraded), and the burden of disease caused by this problem is inadequately quantified. In this article, we estimate the number of under-five deaths caused by ineffective treatment of malaria associated with consumption of poor-quality antimalarials in 39 sub-Saharan countries. Using Latin hypercube sampling our estimates were calculated as the product of the number of private sector antimalarials consumed by malaria-positive children in 2013; the proportion of private sector antimalarials consumed that were of poor-quality; and the case fatality rate (CFR) of under-five malaria-positive children who did not receive appropriate treatment. An estimated 122,350 (interquartile range [IQR]: 91,577–154,736) under-five malaria deaths were associated with consumption of poor-quality antimalarials, representing 3.75% (IQR: 2.81–4.75%) of all under-five deaths in our sample of 39 countries. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding our results because of gaps in data on case fatality rates and prevalence of poor-quality antimalarials. Our analysis highlights the need for further investigation into the distribution of poor-quality antimalarials and the need for stronger surveillance and regulatory efforts to prevent the sale of poor-quality antimalarials. PMID:25897068

  4. Nocturnal motor activity in fibromyalgia patients with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  5. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Hoekstra, A.Y, Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Van der Meer, T.H., 2009. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 106 (42), E119

  6. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; van der Meer, Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint (WF) of a product refers to freshwater onsumed during production (1). We calculated bioenergy WFs assuming crop water requirements are met (2); Jongschaap et al. (3) correctly point out that this is not always true, giving an example for jatropha grown under poor, rainfed

  7. Estimation of absorbed dose for poor shields under conditions of near-earth space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyukov, V.V.; Krajnyukov, V.I.; Trufanov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of electron absorbed dose in materials of a space vehicle for poor shields under conditions of near-earth space flight is carried out. Impact of power and angular distribution of incidence electrons and radiation scattering processes under conditions of complex geometry and multitude of materials of flight vehicle elements and nodes is studied through simulator model by example of isolating layer of aluminium-polyethylene assembly. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  8. Spatial memory enhances the evacuation efficiency of virtual pedestrians under poor visibility condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Shi, Meng; Kwok Kit Yuen, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Spatial memory is a critical navigation support tool for disoriented evacuees during evacuation under adverse environmental conditions such as dark or smoky conditions. Owing to the complexity of memory, it is challenging to understand the effect of spatial memory on pedestrian evacuation quantitatively. In this study, we propose a simple method to quantitatively represent the evacueeʼs spatial memory about the emergency exit, model the evacuation of pedestrians under the guidance of the spatial memory, and investigate the effect of the evacueeʼs spatial memory on the evacuation from theoretical and physical perspectives. The result shows that (i) a good memory can significantly assist the evacuation of pedestrians under poor visibility conditions, and the evacuation can always succeed when the degree of the memory exceeds a threshold (\\varphi > 0.5); (ii) the effect of memory is superior to that of “follow-the-crowd” under the same environmental conditions; (iii) in the case of multiple exits, the difference in the degree of the memory between evacuees has a significant effect (the greater the difference, the faster the evacuation) for the evacuation under poor visibility conditions. Our study provides a new quantitative insight into the effect of spatial memory on crowd evacuation under poor visibility conditions. Project supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Grant No. 11203615).

  9. Poor Consumer Comprehension and Plan Selection Inconsistencies Under the 2016 Choice Architecture

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    Annabel Z. Wang BA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many health policy experts have endorsed insurance competition as a way to reduce the cost and improve the quality of medical care. In line with this approach, health insurance exchanges, such as HealthCare.gov , allow consumers to compare insurance plans online. Since the 2013 rollout of HealthCare.gov , administrators have added features intended to help consumers better understand and compare insurance plans. Although well-intentioned, changes to exchange websites affect the context in which consumers view plans, or choice architecture, which may impede their ability to choose plans that best fit their needs at the lowest cost. Methods: By simulating the 2016 HealthCare.gov enrollment experience in an online sample of 374 American adults, we examined comprehension and choice of HealthCare.gov plans under its choice architecture. Results: We found room for improvement in plan comprehension, with higher rates of misunderstanding among participants with poor math skills ( P 0.9. Limitations: Participants were drawn from a general population sample. The study does not assess for all possible plan choice influencers, such as provider networks, brand recognition, or help from others. Conclusions: Our findings suggest two areas of improvement for exchanges: first, the remaining gap in consumer plan comprehension and, second, the apparent influence of sorting order—and likely other choice architecture elements—on plan choice. Our findings inform strategies for exchange administrators to help consumers understand and select plans that better fit their needs.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of polyelectrolyte brushes under poor solvent conditions: origins of bundle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Li; Merlitz, Holger; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are applied to investigate salt-free planar polyelectrolyte brushes under poor solvent conditions. Starting above the Θ-point with a homogeneous brush and then gradually reducing the temperature, the polymers initially display a lateral structure formation, forming vertical bundles of chains. A further reduction of the temperature (or solvent quality) leads to a vertical collapse of the brush. By varying the size and selectivity of the counterions, we show that lateral structure formation persists and therefore demonstrate that the entropy of counterions being the dominant factor for the formation of the bundle phase. By applying an external compression force on the brush we calculate the minimal work done on the polymer phase only and prove that the entropy gain of counterions in the bundle state, as compared to the homogeneously collapsed state at the same temperature, is responsible for the lateral microphase segregation. As a consequence, the observed lateral structure formation has to be regarded universal for osmotic polymer brushes below the Θ-point.

  11. Living under a democracy: participation and its impact on the living conditions of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avritzer, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian democratization took place between 1985 and 1988. In 1985, the authoritarian power holders transferred political power to civilians, and in 1988, a new democratic constitution was enacted, thus finalizing the transition. The end of the transition triggered processes of participation in different Brazilian cities, such as São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Recife, and Rio de Janeiro. However, only in Porto Alegre could the political context in the postdemocratization period generate a process of reverting priorities, that is to say, of inverting the pattern of democratic participation and the pattern of public investment at the urban level. In this article, I show the social conditions of the poor in the city of Porto Alegre in 1985, explain the emergence of participatory budgeting in the city, and show how democracy made a difference in the living conditions of the urban poor in the city of Porto Alegre. In the second part of the article, I analyze the recent expansion of participatory budgeting in Brazil and its recent expansion to midsize cities. In the final part of the article, I show how new participatory institutions are being introduced at the federal level of government. Participation at the local and national levels is making a difference in the living conditions of the Brazilian poor.

  12. Immune cell-poor melanomas benefit from PD-1 blockade after targeted type I IFN activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald, Tobias; Landsberg, Jennifer; Lopez-Ramos, Dorys; Renn, Marcel; Glodde, Nicole; Jansen, Philipp; Gaffal, Evelyn; Steitz, Julia; Tolba, Rene; Kalinke, Ulrich; Limmer, Andreas; Jönsson, Göran; Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Infiltration of human melanomas with cytotoxic immune cells correlates with spontaneous type I IFN activation and a favorable prognosis. Therapeutic blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors in patients with preexisting lymphocytic infiltrates prolongs survival, but new complementary strategies are needed to activate cellular antitumor immunity in immune cell-poor melanomas. Here, we show that primary melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice, which imitate human immune cell-poor melanomas with a poor outcome, escape IFN-induced immune surveillance and editing. Peritumoral injections of immunostimulatory RNA initiated a cytotoxic inflammatory response in the tumor microenvironment and significantly impaired tumor growth. This critically required the coordinated induction of type I IFN responses by dendritic, myeloid, natural killer, and T cells. Importantly, antibody-mediated blockade of the IFN-induced immune-inhibitory interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 receptors further prolonged the survival. These results highlight important interconnections between type I IFNs and immune-inhibitory receptors in melanoma pathogenesis, which serve as targets for combination immunotherapies. Using a genetically engineered mouse melanoma model, we demonstrate that targeted activation of the type I IFN system with immunostimulatory RNA in combination with blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors is a rational strategy to expose immune cell-poor tumors to cellular immune surveillance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

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    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  14. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  15. Development of scour in non-cohesive sediments under a poorly erodible top layer

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zuylen, J.A.; Sloff, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the development of deep scour holes in the river bed of the Dutch Rhine delta in the Netherlands. Assessment of multi-beam surveys, laboratory-flume experiments, and 3D numerical modelling, shows how fast this type of scour holes grows in depth and width. These typical scour holes are found in the tidal deltaic rivers that experience a general incision. This erosion decreases the thickness of the erosion resistant clay/peat layer that is covering and protecting the under...

  16. Soil C dynamics under intensive oil palm plantations in poor tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Ruegg, Johanna; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Buttler, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm cultivation mainly takes place on heavily-weathered tropical soils where nutrients are limiting factors for plant growth and microbial activity. Intensive fertilization and changes of C input by oil palms strongly affects soil C and nutrient dynamics, challenging long-term soil fertility. Oil palm plantations management offers unique opportunities to study soil C and nutrients interactions in field conditions because 1) they can be considered as long-term litter manipulation experiments since all aboveground C inputs are concentrated in frond pile areas and 2) mineral fertilizers are only applied in specific areas, i.e. weeded circle around the tree and interrows, but not in harvest paths. Here, we determined impacts of mineral fertilizer and organic matter input on soil organic carbon dynamics and microbial activity in mature oil palm plantation established on savanna grasslands. Rates of savanna-derived soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and oil palm-derived SOC net stabilization were determined using changes in isotopic signature of in C input following a shift from C4 (savanna) to C3 (oil palm) vegetation. Application of mineral fertilizer alone did not affect savanna-derived SOC decomposition or oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, but fertilization associated with higher C input lead to an increase of oil palm-derived SOC stabilization rates, with about 50% of topsoil SOC derived from oil palm after 9 years. High carbon and nutrients inputs did not increase microbial biomass but microorganisms were more active per unit of biomass and SOC. In conclusion, soil organic matter decomposition was limited by C rather than nutrients in the studied heavily-weathered soils. Fresh C and nutrient inputs did not lead to priming of old savanna-derived SOC but increased turnover and stabilization of new oil palm-derived SOC.

  17. Activated allogeneic NK cells preferentially kill poor prognosis B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

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    Diego Sanchez-Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild type (wt IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA mismatched Natural Killer (NK cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.□

  18. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV ) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  19. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16 + monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16 + monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local area fails to meet the levels of... achieving poor levels of performance; or (3) Requires other appropriate measures designed to improve the...

  1. Beneficial effect of nutritional supportive plan among under-nourished children in poor families in Iran with collaborating Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam; Araste, Razieh; Kamali, Behroo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition in the form of Protein – Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and micro nutrient deficiencies, is one of the most important health problems in developing countries, Iran included. The purpose of this study was to improve nutritional status among under-nourished children in poor families. Methods: A total of 50,000 children under 5 (girls and boys) in 30 provinces in Iran which suffered by moderate and severe malnutrition participated (<-2SD weight for age) in this program. Malnourished children belong to poor families were determined; weights and heights were measured and anthropometric indicators were determined based on WHO, 2007. Then, these malnourished children were introduced to Imam Khomeini Foundation. Khomeini Foundation as one of the biggest NGO in Iran which supports poor families since 1979. This study collaborated with Ministry of Welfare, Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini. They have started to receive monthly supportive food basket which could support their daily nutritional requirements. This basket included (meat, egg, cheese, legumes, milk, tuna fish, chicken, liquid oil). Along with food support community health workers were actively involved with counseling of mothers on the nutritional requirements of children. Nutritional support cut for whoever has been improved nutritional status. However, nutritional education still had continued. Results: The results of monitoring & evaluation (according to anthropometric indicators) of this plan have shown around more than 45% of children that received food basket had consistently improved nutritional status. Conclusion: Likewise other intervention nutrition programs in developing countries this project showed that inter sector collaboration have been the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. (author)

  2. Decadal-scale variation in diet forecasts persistently poor breeding under ocean warming in a tropical seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Emily M; Townsend, Howard M; Anderson, David J

    2017-01-01

    Climate change effects on population dynamics of natural populations are well documented at higher latitudes, where relatively rapid warming illuminates cause-effect relationships, but not in the tropics and especially the marine tropics, where warming has been slow. Here we forecast the indirect effect of ocean warming on a top predator, Nazca boobies in the equatorial Galápagos Islands, where rising water temperature is expected to exceed the upper thermal tolerance of a key prey item in the future, severely reducing its availability within the boobies' foraging envelope. From 1983 to 1997 boobies ate mostly sardines, a densely aggregated, highly nutritious food. From 1997 until the present, flying fish, a lower quality food, replaced sardines. Breeding success under the poor diet fell dramatically, causing the population growth rate to fall below 1, indicating a shrinking population. Population growth may not recover: rapid future warming is predicted around Galápagos, usually exceeding the upper lethal temperature and maximum spawning temperature of sardines within 100 years, displacing them permanently from the boobies' island-constrained foraging range. This provides rare evidence of the effect of ocean warming on a tropical marine vertebrate.

  3. Decadal-scale variation in diet forecasts persistently poor breeding under ocean warming in a tropical seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Tompkins

    Full Text Available Climate change effects on population dynamics of natural populations are well documented at higher latitudes, where relatively rapid warming illuminates cause-effect relationships, but not in the tropics and especially the marine tropics, where warming has been slow. Here we forecast the indirect effect of ocean warming on a top predator, Nazca boobies in the equatorial Galápagos Islands, where rising water temperature is expected to exceed the upper thermal tolerance of a key prey item in the future, severely reducing its availability within the boobies' foraging envelope. From 1983 to 1997 boobies ate mostly sardines, a densely aggregated, highly nutritious food. From 1997 until the present, flying fish, a lower quality food, replaced sardines. Breeding success under the poor diet fell dramatically, causing the population growth rate to fall below 1, indicating a shrinking population. Population growth may not recover: rapid future warming is predicted around Galápagos, usually exceeding the upper lethal temperature and maximum spawning temperature of sardines within 100 years, displacing them permanently from the boobies' island-constrained foraging range. This provides rare evidence of the effect of ocean warming on a tropical marine vertebrate.

  4. Low physical activity work-related and other risk factors increased the risk of poor physical fitness in cement workers

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    Ditha Diana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness

  5. WHY IS A FLARE-RICH ACTIVE REGION CME-POOR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Ye, Pinzhong; Liu, Rui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, S. [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Jingxiu, E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: ljliu@mail.ustc.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The largest AR in the past 24 years, NOAA AR 12192, which crossed the visible disk from 2014 October 17 to 30, unusually produced more than one hundred flares, including 32 M-class and 6 X-class ones, but only one small CME. Flares and CMEs are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process. Why is such a flare-rich AR so CME-poor? We compared this AR with other four ARs; two were productive in both and two were inert. The investigation of the photospheric parameters based on the SDO /HMI vector magnetogram reveals that the flare-rich AR 12192, as with the other two productive ARs, has larger magnetic flux, current, and free magnetic energy than the two inert ARs but, in contrast to the two productive ARs, it has no strong, concentrated current helicity along both sides of the flaring neutral line, indicating the absence of a mature magnetic structure consisting of highly sheared or twisted field lines. Furthermore, the decay index above the AR 12192 is relatively low, showing strong constraint. These results suggest that productive ARs are always large and have enough current and free energy to power flares, but whether or not a flare is accompanied by a CME is seemingly related to (1) the presence of a mature sheared or twisted core field serving as the seed of the CME, or (2) a weak enough constraint of the overlying arcades.

  6. Differential Reliance on Lipid Metabolism as a Salvage Pathway Underlies Functional Differences of T Cell Subsets in Poor Nutrient Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: T cells compete with malignant cells for limited nutrients within the solid tumor microenvironment. We found that effector memory CD4 T cells respond distinctly from other T cell subsets to limiting glucose and can maintain high levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a nutrient-poor environment. Unlike naive (TN or central memory T (TCM cells, effector memory T (TEM cells fail to upregulate fatty acid synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and reductive glutaminolysis in limiting glucose. Interference of fatty acid synthesis in naive T cells dramatically upregulates IFN-γ, while increasing exogenous lipids in media inhibits production of IFN-γ by all subsets, suggesting that relative ratio of fatty acid metabolism to glycolysis is a direct predictor of T cell effector activity. Together, these data suggest that effector memory T cells are programmed to have limited ability to synthesize and metabolize fatty acids, which allows them to maintain T cell function in nutrient-depleted microenvironments. : Ecker et al. distinguish unique metabolic and functional properties of naive and memory T cell subsets during glucose limitation. During glucose starvation, T cells begin to differentially rely on fatty acid synthesis and glutamine utilization to survive. Unexpectedly, reliance on fatty acid synthesis alters the ability to produce IFN-γ. Keywords: lipid droplets, IFN-γ, oxidative phosphorylation, reductive glutaminolysis, serum-free media, naive T cell, glycolysis, effector memory T cell, fatty acid synthesis

  7. Elevated ratio of MMP2/MMP9 activity is associated with poor response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, Pierre; Sähr, Heiner; Lehner, Burkhard; Fischer, Christian; Seebach, Elisabeth; Fellenberg, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucially involved in the regulation of multiple stages of cancer progression. Elevated MMP levels have been associated with the development of metastases and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the role of MMPs in osteosarcoma and their prognostic value is still unclear. Available data are conflicting, most likely due to different technical approaches. We hypothesized that in contrast to total mRNA or protein levels frequently analyzed in previous studies the enzymatic activities of MMPs and their inhibitors the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closer related to their biological functions. We therefore aimed to evaluate the reliability of different zymography techniques for the quantification of MMP and TIMP activities in osteosarcoma biopsies in order to investigate their distribution, possible regulation and prognostic value. All analyses were done using cryo-conserved osteosarcoma pretreatment biopsies (n = 18). Gene and protein expression of MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Overall MMP activity was analyzed by in situ zymography, individual MMP activities were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Reverse zymography was used to detect and quantify TIMP activities. Strong overall MMP activities could be detected in osteosarcoma pretreatment biopsies with MMP2 and MMP9 as predominant active MMPs. In contrast to total RNA or protein expression MMP2 and MMP9 activities showed significant quantitative differences between good and poor responders. While MMP9 activity was high in the good responder group and significantly decreased in the poor responder group, MMP2 activity showed a reverse distribution. Likewise, significant differences were detected concerning the activity of TIMPs resulting in a negative correlation of TIMP1 activity with MMP2 activity (p = 0.044) and negative correlations of TIMP2 and TIMP3 with MMP9 activity (p = 0.007 and p

  8. Repackaging exemptions under National Health Insurance in Ghana: how can access to care for the poor be improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanchebe Derbile, E.; van der Geest, S.

    2013-01-01

    For the past 10 years the Ghana Government has been trying to replace the old user fee system with an overall health insurance scheme, but one problem of the old system continues to bedevil the new policy: exemption of the poor. This paper presents data from empirical fieldwork and also puts forward

  9. Limited sampling strategies drawn within 3 hours postdose poorly predict mycophenolic acid area-under-the-curve after enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, B.C. de; Gelder, T. van; Mathôt, R.A.A.; Glander, P.; Tedesco-Silva, H.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Budde, K.; Hest, R.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies predicted that limited sampling strategies (LSS) for estimation of mycophenolic acid (MPA) area-under-the-curve (AUC(0-12)) after ingestion of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) using a clinically feasible sampling scheme may have poor predictive performance. Failure of

  10. Low putamen activity associated with poor reward sensitivity in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivational signals influence a wide variety of cognitive processes and components of behavioral performance. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS may be closely associated with a low motivation to learn induced by impaired neural reward processing. However, the extent to which reward processing is impaired in CCFS patients is unclear. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to determine whether brain activity in regions related to reward sensitivity is impaired in CCFS patients. fMRI data were collected from 13 CCFS patients (mean age, 13.6 ± 1.0 years and 13 healthy children and adolescents (HCA (mean age, 13.7 ± 1.3 years performing a monetary reward task. Neural activity in high- and low-monetary-reward conditions was compared between CCFS and HCA groups. Severity of fatigue and the reward obtained from learning in daily life were evaluated by questionnaires. Activity of the putamen was lower in the CCFS group than in the HCA group in the low-reward condition, but not in the high-reward condition. Activity of the putamen in the low-reward condition in CCFS patients was negatively and positively correlated with severity of fatigue and the reward from learning in daily life, respectively. We previously revealed that motivation to learn was correlated with striatal activity, particularly the neural activity in the putamen. This suggests that in CCFS patients low putamen activity, associated with altered dopaminergic function, decreases reward sensitivity and lowers motivation to learn.

  11. Water Relations and Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Under Different Cultural Practices on Poorly Drained Sites in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    Substantial forest acreage in the south-central U.S. is seasonally water-logged due to an underlying fragipan. Severely restricted drainage in the non-growing season leads to a reduced subsoil zone, which restricts root respiration. The same sites may also be subjected to summer drought. These climatic and edaphic problems may result in low seedling survival and...

  12. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. PMID:26504353

  13. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  14. Sleep and eating in childhood: a potential behavioral mechanism underlying the relationship between poor sleep and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Julia; Dube, Laurette; Thibault, Louise; Gruber, Reut

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to examine the associations between sleep and eating behaviors. Specifically, we examined associations between sleep duration and continuity with behaviors that promote eating regardless of true physiologic hunger state including emotional (food intake in response to emotional distress) external (eating in response to the sight or smell of food), and restrained eating (a paradoxical behavior; food intake is initially reduced to lose or maintain body weight, but followed by increased consumption and binge eating). Fifty-six children (29 boys; 27 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated in the study. Mean age was 7.7±1.9 years, and average body mass index (BMI) was within the healthy range (17.8±4.3 kg/m(2)). Sleep duration, continuity and schedule were assessed using actigraphy and self-reports. The Child Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-modified version (DEBQ-M) was used to examine levels of emotional, external and restrained eating in the children. Associations between the sleep and eating behaviors were examined using partial correlations and multiple regression analyses. External eating score was negatively associated with sleep duration; emotional eating score was associated with lower levels of sleep continuity; and restrained eating score were associated with a later sleep start and later bedtime. Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity were associated with higher levels of eating behaviors shown to be associated with increased food intake. Therefore, sleep loss may be associated with diminished self-regulation of appetite in children, increasing the risk for overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mg,Ca-ATPase activity under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladutin, V.V.; Orlova, V.V.; Lob, P.A.; Gerasiminko, I.V.; Mack, E.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The influence of different doses irradiation at the Mg,Ca-ATPase activity at the rat brain has been investigated. The analyses were made at the apparatus of LKB and Carl-Ceis-Jena firm with help of reagents of Sigma and Boehringer firm. Rats decapitated after 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h after action of irradiation. Dose 0.206 C/kg. Erythrocytes. 1 and 3h after irradiation influence- decrease of Mg,Ca-ATPase activity to 86-87% relatively control level, 24 and 48 h - increase of activity to the control level. Dose 0.312 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - decrease of ATPase activity to 90% relatively control, 3h - increase to control level, 24h - fall to 86%, after 48h small increase to 93% relatively control. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - sharp fall of Mg, Ca-ATPase activity to 67 % relatively control, increase of activity to 96% after 3h and sharp fall of activity to 64% 6h after action of irradiation. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Cerebellum. 1h - sharp decrease of ATPase activity to 80%. After 3h -sharp increase to 160% relatively control level and sharp fall of ATPase activity to 47% relatively control after 6h. The mechanism of radiation pathology of active ion transport has been discussed

  16. Poor sleep as a pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jinshia; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that poor sleep is a potential pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile. However, existing findings are largely limited to adults. The present study examines whether poor sleep (duration, quality) mediates the relation between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents (N = 220, Mage = 12.62) provided six saliva samples over two days to derive cortisol indices (bedtime, AUCAG, AUCTG, slopeMAX). Perceived stress, stressful life events, self-reported sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured. Using bootstrapping analyses, sleep quality mediated the relation between perceived stress and AUCTG (R2 = 0.10, F(7, 212) = 3.55, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.09, 1.15]), as well as the relation between stressful life events and AUCTG (R2 = 0.11, F(7, 212) = 3.69, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.40, 3.82]). These mediation models remained significant after adjusting for sleep duration, suggesting that poor sleep quality underlies the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Longitudinal data combined with objectively-measured sleep is essential to further disentangle the complex association between sleep and stress. PMID:25889840

  17. Upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with poor performance status: active stone removal or conservative management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Iba, Akinori; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Wakamiya, Takahito; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hara, Isao

    2017-11-16

    It remains controversial as to whether active stone removal should be performed in patients with poor performance status because of their short life expectancy and perioperative risks. Our objectives were to evaluate treatment outcomes of active stone removal in patients with poor performance status and to compare life prognosis with those managed conservatively. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3 or 4 treated for upper urinary tract calculi at our four hospitals between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were classified into either surgical treatment group or conservative management group based on the presence of active stone removal. Stone-free rate and perioperative complications in surgical treatment group were reviewed. In addition, we compared overall survival and stone-specific survival between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to investigate predictors of overall survival and stone-specific survival. Fifty-two patients (70.3%) underwent active stone removal (surgical treatment group) by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (n = 6), ureteroscopy (n = 39), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 6) or nephrectomy (n = 1). The overall stone-free rate was 78.8% and perioperative complication was observed in nine patients (17.3%). Conservative treatment was undergone by 22 patients (29.7%) (conservative management group). Two-year overall survival rates in surgical treatment and conservative management groups were 88.0% and 38.4%, respectively (p performance status could be performed safely and effectively. Compared to conservative management, surgical stone treatment achieved longer overall survival and stone-specific survival.

  18. The diet, physical activity and accommodation of patients with quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis in a poor South Indian community. A four-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, C V; Rajendran, K; Mohan, K; Fox, W; Radhakrishna, S

    1966-01-01

    A previous report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, has shown that, if standard chemotherapy is given for one year, the response of patients treated at home in very poor environmental circumstances is nearly as good as that of those treated in sanatorium under much more favourable conditions. This paper reports on a four-year follow-up of all the patients whose disease was bacteriologically quiescent at the end of the year's treatment. During this period, all the patients were managed on a domiciliary basis; about a quarter of them received chemotherapy with isoniazid alone for two years, another quarter received the drug for one year and the rest received no specific chemotherapy. Despite adverse environmental factors (poor diet; long hours of work often involving strenuous physical activity; overcrowded living conditions; and, for the sanatorium patients, the stresses of returning suddenly to the unfavourable home environment), the great majority of patients in both series maintained quiescent disease throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the few patients whose disease relapsed bacteriologically were at no special dietary disadvantage in comparison with those who maintained quiescent disease throughout, nor did they show any appreciable differences in occupation, physical activity or living accommodation. These findings, together with the earlier ones, indicate that, despite adverse environmental circumstances, standard chemotherapy for an adequate period of time is sufficient in the great majority of patients for the attainment of bacteriological quiescence and its maintenance thereafter.

  19. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, Sharon A; Ambs, Stefan; Prueitt, Robyn L; Ridnour, Lisa A; Boersma, Brenda J; Dorsey, Tiffany M; Wink, David A; Goodman, Julie E; Yfantis, Harris G; Lee, Dong H

    2010-01-01

    Inducible cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) is commonly overexpressed in breast tumors and is a target for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the association of COX-2 with breast cancer survival and how this association is influenced by tumor estrogen and HER2 receptor status and Akt pathway activation. Tumor COX-2, HER2 and estrogen receptor α (ER) expression and phosphorylation of Akt, BAD, and caspase-9 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 248 cases of breast cancer. Spearman's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and disease-specific survival. COX-2 was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in ER-negative [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-5.41; comparing high versus low COX-2] and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.07-7.52). However, the hazard of poor survival associated with increased COX-2 was highest among patients who were both ER-negative and HER2-positive (HR = 5.95; 95% CI, 1.01-34.9). Notably, COX-2 expression in the ER-negative and HER2-positive tumors correlated significantly with increased phosphorylation of Akt and of the two Akt targets, BAD at Ser136 and caspase-9 at Ser196. Up-regulation of COX-2 in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast tumors is associated with Akt pathway activation and is a marker of poor outcome. The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype

  20. Underlying mechanisms of improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H.P.; Streppel, K.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; van Harten, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  1. Underlying Mechanisms of Improving Physical Activity Behavior after Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Streppel, Kitty R.M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Woude, Luc H.V.; van Harten, Willem H.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  2. 75 FR 57103 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... enforcement activity will ensure that minorities and women have equitable access to employment opportunities... discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.'' This information... diminishing possible vestiges of discrimination among FTA grant recipients. FTA's assessment of this...

  3. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  4. Reduced ovulation rate, failure to be mated and fertilization failure/embryo loss are the underlying causes of poor reproductive performance in juvenile ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sara J; Smaill, Bronwyn; O'Connell, Anne R; Johnstone, Peter D; Stevens, David R; Quirke, Laurel D; Farquhar, Philip A; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    A ewe that is mated as a juvenile (producing a lamb at 1 year of age) will produce an average of only 0.6 lambs to weaning, compared to an average of 1.2 lambs in adult ewes. Understanding the underlying causes of this low reproductive efficiency and designing methods to improve or mitigate these effects could potentially increase adoption of mating juvenile ewes. In Experiment 1, 2 Cohorts of ewes, born a year apart, were mated in order to lamb at 1 and 2 years of age and the performance of the ewes at each age was compared. Onset of puberty, mating by the fertile ram, ovulation rate, early pregnancy (day 30-35) litter size, number of lambs born and number of lambs weaned were measured. In juvenile ewes, by day 35 of pregnancy, 43% of ova had failed to become a viable embryo and this early loss was the largest contributor to the poor reproductive performance observed. Compared with young adult ewes, ovulation rate was lower (pewes with a greater ovulation rate (pewes, failure to mate with the ram, lower ovulation rate and increased fertilisation failure/embryo loss underlie their poor reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological findings in the tracheal epithelium of dogs exposed to the inhalation of poorly conditioned gases under use of an endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Norimar Hernandes; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Defaveri, Júlio; Carvalho, Lídia Raquel; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2011-10-01

    To study morphological findings in the tracheal epithelium of dogs exposed to the inhalation of poorly conditioned gases under use of an endotracheal tube (ET) or laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Twelve dogs randomly were allocated to two groups: ET group (n-6) and LMA group (n-6), anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated, without CO(2) reabsorption. Haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters, tympanic temperature, temperature, relative and absolute humidity of the ambient and inhaled gases were analyzed during three hours. The animals were submitted to euthanasia and biopsies were carried out along the tracheal segment to morphological study. Three healthy dogs were used to morphological control. Inhaled gas temperature was maintained between 24ºC and 26ºC, relative humidity between 10% and 12%, and absolute humidity between 2 - 3 mg H(2)O.L(-1) with no significant differences between groups. In both groups, histological analysis showed epithelial inflammation and congestion in the corion and scanning electron microscopy showed ciliary grouping and disorganization. Transmission electron microscopy showed higher alterations in ET group than LMA group as widening of cell junctions, ciliary disorientation, cytoplasmic vacuolization, nuclear abnormalities, picnosis and chromatin condensation. LMA determined less pronounced changes in the tracheal epithelium in dogs exposed to the inhalation of poorly conditioned gases.

  6. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  7. DNA Amplifications and Aneuploidy, High Proliferative Activity and Impaired Cell Cycle Control Characterize Breast Carcinomas with Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Blegen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore whether specific cytogenetic abnormalities can be used to stratify tumors with a distinctly different clinical course, we performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH of tumors from patients who were diagnosed with metastatic disease after an interval of less than 2 years or who remained free from distant metastases for more than 10 years. All patients presented with distant metastases after mastectomy indicating that none of the patients in this study was cured and free of remaining tumor cells. Tumors in the group of short‐term survivors showed a higher average number of chromosomal copy alterations compared to the long‐term survivors. Of note, the number of sub‐chromosomal high‐level copy number increases (amplifications was significantly increased in the group of short‐term survivors. In both short‐ and long‐term survivors recurrent chromosomal gains were mapped to chromosomes 1q, 4q, 8q, and 5p. Copy number changes that were more frequent in the group of short‐term survivors included gains of chromosome 3q, 9p, 11p and 11q and loss of 17p. Our results indicate that low‐ and high grade malignant breast adenocarcinomas are characterized by a specific pattern of chromosomal copy number changes. Furthermore, immunohistochemical evaluation of the expression levels of Ki‐67, p27KIP1, p21WAF1, p53, cyclin A and cyclin E revealed a correlation between increased proliferative activity and poor outcome.

  8. The Influence of Malnutrition and Micronutrient Status on Anemic Risk in Children under 3 Years Old in Poor Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Hui; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Yu, Wentao; Man, Qingqing; Scherpbier, Robert; Pan, Lili; Duan, Yifan; Yin, Shi-an

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and anemia affect large numbers of young children living in poor areas of China. Multi-micronutrient deficiencies may be related to the prevalence of anemia in different populations, and identifying the risk factors that render children susceptible to anemia is the first step in combating anemia effectively. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1370 children under 3 years old were selected based on probability proportional to size sampling principles from poor counties of China. Basic characteristics data were collected by questionnaire; then anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field and anemia prevalence evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12–35 months (N = 553) to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children’s anemia. Results Among children aged 0–35 months, the prevalence of stunting, low body weight and wasting was 17.5%, 8.6% and 5.1%, respectively, and 25.6% of the children were affected by anemia, with more anemic infants and younger children than older children (P children aged 12–35 months affected by iron deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, folic acid deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. For children aged 0–11 months who were breastfed, the mothers’ anemic status was the only factor associated with the child’s anemia (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2–5.4, P children aged 12–35 months, multivariate logistic regression indicated that anemia was significantly associated with iron and vitamin B12 deficiency (OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.9–14.5, P anemia was higher in children under 2 years old and requires urgent intervention. An effective intervention strategy should include iron and vitamin B12 supplements, improving dietary diversity and controlling breastfeeding mothers' anemia. PMID:26488490

  9. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Connectivity changes underlying neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scharnowski

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM, we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activity was associated with increased effective connectivity between the visual cortex and the superior parietal lobe. Specifically, participants who learned to control activity in their visual cortex showed increased top-down control of the superior parietal lobe over the visual cortex, and at the same time reduced bottom-up processing. These results are consistent with efficient employment of top-down visual attention and imagery, which were the cognitive strategies used by participants to increase their visual cortex activity.

  11. Blood superoxiddismutase and catalase: enzymes activity under oxidative stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Каріна Леонідівна Шамелашвілі; Інга Володимирівна Леус; Тетяна Іванівна Сергієнко; Марина Вячеславівна Горіла; Наталія Іванівна Штеменко

    2015-01-01

    The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase depends not only on the used compounds of rhenium, and also on their dimensional structure and form of applying. It is established that the cis- and trans-isomers of complex compounds of rhenium did countervailing effect on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Cis-isomers of Rhenium dycarboxylats agreed increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. While under the action of trans-isomers, where increased activity of superox...

  12. Functional activity of the rats’ hepatocytes under cancerogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivchuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity in rat’s hepatocytes under carcinoma Geuren T8 development as well as after introduction of rhenium compounds and cis-platin were studied. It has been determined that the decrease of enzymatic activity contrary to the control animals has been observed under simultaneous injection of cis-platin and cluster rhenium compounds in a liposome form. That confirms possible hepatoprotective properties of the rhenium compounds.

  13. Blood superoxiddismutase and catalase: enzymes activity under oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Каріна Леонідівна Шамелашвілі

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase depends not only on the used compounds of rhenium, and also on their dimensional structure and form of applying. It is established that the cis- and trans-isomers of complex compounds of rhenium did countervailing effect on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Cis-isomers of Rhenium dycarboxylats agreed increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. While under the action of trans-isomers, where increased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase activity decreased

  14. Cytoplasmic localization of alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Sameer; Rakha, Emad A; Alshareeda, Alaa; Mohibi, Shakur; Zhao, Xiangshan; Katafiasz, Bryan J; Wang, Jun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Bele, Aditya; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew R; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptional activation by estrogen receptor (ER) is a key step to breast oncogenesis. Given previous findings that ADA3 is a critical component of HAT complexes that regulate ER function and evidence that overexpression of other ER coactivators such as SRC-3 is associated with clinical outcomes in breast cancer, the current study was designed to assess the potential significance of ADA3 expression/localization in human breast cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed ADA3 expression in breast cancer tissue specimens and assessed the correlation of ADA3 staining with cancer progression and patient outcome. Tissue microarrays prepared from large series of breast cancer patients with long-term follow-ups were stained with anti-ADA3 monoclonal antibody using immunohistochemistry. Samples were analyzed for ADA3 expression followed by correlation with various clinicopathological parameters and patients' outcomes. We report that breast cancer specimens show predominant nuclear, cytoplasmic, or mixed nuclear + cytoplasmic ADA3 staining patterns. Predominant nuclear ADA3 staining correlated with ER+ status. While predominant cytoplasmic ADA3 staining negatively correlated with ER+ status, but positively correlated with ErbB2, EGFR, and Ki67. Furthermore, a positive correlation of cytoplasmic ADA3 was observed with higher histological grade, mitotic counts, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and positive vascular invasion. Patients with nuclear ADA3 and ER positivity have better breast cancer specific survival and distant metastasis free survival. Significantly, cytoplasmic expression of ADA3 showed a strong positive association with reduced BCSS and DMFS in ErbB2+/EGFR+ patients. Although in multivariate analyses ADA3 expression was not an independent marker of survival, predominant nuclear ADA3 staining in breast cancer tissues correlates with ER+ expression and together serves as a marker of good prognosis, whereas predominant cytoplasmic ADA3 expression correlates with

  15. MANAGEMENT OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE UNDER CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Naumova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of comparison, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction in devoted paper for the purpose of summarized modern theoretical approaches to the investment activity of the enterprise are used. The research is based on the analysis of scientific papers of leading scientists about investment activity of the enterprise under crisis economic conditions. The relationship between corporate management, technological modification of the production process, the government protection of the property rights of investors under crisis conditions and investment activity of Ukrainian enterprises are analyzed. The paper is shown that lack of the investment activity in Ukraine is a negative consequence of the presence a high degree of risk as a result of banking crisis and serious legal violations in the activity of enterprises.

  16. The association of physical activity, body mass index and the blood pressure levels among urban poor youth in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afrifa-Anane, Ernest; Agyemang, Charles; Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) among adults and youth. However, the mechanisms of how the risk factors (physical inactivity and obesity) relate with blood pressure (BP) are not well known especially among the urban poor youth in low and middle income

  17. Seahorses under a changing ocean: the impact of warming and acidification on the behaviour and physiology of a poor-swimming bony-armoured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Santos, Catarina; Aurélio, Maria L; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Paula, José Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Seahorses are currently facing great challenges in the wild, including habitat degradation and overexploitation, and how they will endure additional stress from rapid climate change has yet to be determined. Unlike most fishes, the poor swimming skills of seahorses, along with the ecological and biological constraints of their unique lifestyle, place great weight on their physiological ability to cope with climate changes. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH = -0.5 units) on the physiological and behavioural ecology of adult temperate seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus. Adult seahorses were found to be relatively well prepared to face future changes in ocean temperature, but not the combined effect of warming and acidification. Seahorse metabolism increased normally with warming, and behavioural and feeding responses were not significantly affected. However, during hypercapnia the seahorses exhibited signs of lethargy (i.e. reduced activity levels) combined with a reduction of feeding and ventilation rates. Nonetheless, metabolic rates were not significantly affected. Future ocean changes, particularly ocean acidification, may further threaten seahorse conservation, turning these charismatic fishes into important flagship species for global climate change issues.

  18. Leisure-time physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with established vascular disease or poorly controlled vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.G.; Graaf, van der Y.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Wassink, A.M.J.; Visseren, F.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of leisure-time physical activity on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in patients with manifest arterial disease, or poorly controlled risk factors. METHODS: We examined 3940 patients with manifest arterial disease, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, aged

  19. AVCRI104P3, a novel multitarget compound with cognition-enhancing and anxiolytic activities: studies in cognitively poor middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Llort, L; Ratia, M; Pérez, B; Camps, P; Muñoz-Torrero, D; Badia, A; Clos, M V

    2015-06-01

    The present work describes, for the first time, the in vivo effects of the multitarget compound AVCRI104P3, a new anticholinesterasic drug with potent inhibitory effects on human AChE, human BuChE and BACE-1 activities as well as on the AChE-induced and self-induced Aβ aggregation. We characterized the behavioral effects of chronic treatment with AVCRI104P3 (0.6 μmol kg(-1), i.p., 21 days) in a sample of middle aged (12-month-old) male 129/Sv×C57BL/6 mice with poor cognitive performance, as shown by the slow acquisition curves of saline-treated animals. Besides, a comparative assessment of cognitive and non-cognitive actions was done using its in vitro equipotent doses of huprine X (0.12 μmol kg(-1)), a huperzine A-tacrine hybrid. The screening assessed locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive function and side effects. The results on the 'acquisition' of spatial learning and memory show that AVCRI104P3 exerted pro-cognitive effects improving both short- and long-term processes, resulting in a fast and efficient acquisition of the place task in the Morris water maze. On the other hand, a removal test and a perceptual visual learning task indicated that both AChEIs improved short-term 'memory' as compared to saline treated mice. Both drugs elicited the same response in the corner test, but only AVCRI104P3 exhibited anxiolytic-like actions in the dark/light box test. These cognitive-enhancement and anxiolytic-like effects demostrated herein using a sample of middle-aged animals and the lack of adverse effects, strongly encourage further studies on AVCRI104P3 as a promising multitarget therapeutic agent for the treatment of cholinergic dysfunction underlying natural aging and/or dementias. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Soumya C; Kannan, Anbarasu; Gopal, Ashidha; Devaraj, Niranjali; Halagowder, Devaraj

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy

  1. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Soumya C, E-mail: chidambaram.soumya@gmail.com [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Kannan, Anbarasu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Gopal, Ashidha [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Devaraj, Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Halagowder, Devaraj [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy.

  2. Biodiversity assessment of high rain forest under human activities: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of these species are under protection of International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources [Vulnerable, Endangered, Threatened species]. It is however concluded that all form of developmental operation activity at the Erinle forest have affected these conservation important species, and also transformed the ...

  3. Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological conditions. Ali A Kherd, Nawal Helmi, Khadijah Saeed Balamash, Taha A Kumosani, Shareefa A AL-Ghamdi, Qari M, Etimad A Huwait, Soonham S Yaghmoor, Alaama Nabil, Maryam A AL-Ghamdi, Said S Moselhy ...

  4. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program (1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The summary reports of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1992 are included. In this report, 104 summaries of researches using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and 9 summaries of the researches using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) are collected. (J.P.N.)

  5. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  6. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    The FDA hydrolysis capacities and bacterial biomass concentrations (estimated by determination of ATP content) of growth cultures prepared from activated sludge and wastewater, were measured to find out whether the FDA activity would reflect bacterial biomass under different physiological states...... of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...... revealed differences up to two orders of magnitude of the ratio. Based on these results it was concluded that the FDA activity should not be applied for measurements of viable biomass in environments in which different physiological conditions occur....

  7. Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor are increased in patients with malaria and are associated with a poor clinical or a fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Ullum, Henrik; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    PAR are associated with disease severity in malaria. METHODS: At admission to the hospital, plasma concentrations of suPAR were measured by ELISA in samples from 645 African children with clinical symptoms of malaria: 478 had malaria, and 167 had a blood film negative for Plasmodium parasites. Fourteen healthy......BACKGROUND: Blood concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are increased in conditions with immune activation, and high concentrations of suPAR often predict a poor clinical outcome. This study explored the hypothesis that high plasma concentrations of su......: If the plasma concentration of suPAR reflects the extent of parasite-induced immune activation, this may explain why a high concentration of suPAR is associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with malaria....

  8. BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the soil fertility, biomass and microbial activity of the soil under forest cover of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia maculata; Pinus Caribbean var. hondurensis, 40 years old, and a fragment of Semideciduous Forest, located on the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. In soil samples collected in the 0-5 cm layer were determined fertility parameters, basal respiration and microbial biomass carbon. The results showed that for the species E. grandis and E. cloeziana the carbon of biomass microbial content was higher than for any other ecosystem evaluated, and equal to those observed under native forest. In contrast, the ground under Pinus had the lowest microbiological indexes. Under C. maculata and E. pilularis the contents were intermediate for this parameter. The basal respiration of all ecosystems was equal. The fertility level was very low in all types of evaluated vegetation.

  9. Epigenetic silencing of miRNA-9 is associated with HES1 oncogenic activity and poor prognosis of medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschetti, G; Abela, L; Nonoguchi, N; Dubuc, A M; Remke, M; Boro, A; Grunder, E; Siler, U; Ohgaki, H; Taylor, M D; Baumgartner, M; Shalaby, T; Grotzer, M A

    2014-01-01

    Background: microRNA-9 is a key regulator of neuronal development aberrantly expressed in brain malignancies, including medulloblastoma. The mechanisms by which microRNA-9 contributes to medulloblastoma pathogenesis remain unclear, and factors that regulate this process have not been delineated. Methods: Expression and methylation status of microRNA-9 in medulloblastoma cell lines and primary samples were analysed. The association of microRNA-9 expression with medulloblastoma patients' clinical outcome was assessed, and the impact of microRNA-9 restoration was functionally validated in medulloblastoma cells. Results: microRNA-9 expression is repressed in a large subset of MB samples compared with normal fetal cerebellum. Low microRNA-9 expression correlates significantly with the diagnosis of unfavourable histopathological variants and with poor clinical outcome. microRNA-9 silencing occurs via cancer-specific CpG island hypermethylation. HES1 was identified as a direct target of microRNA-9 in medulloblastoma, and restoration of microRNA-9 was shown to trigger cell cycle arrest, to inhibit clonal growth and to promote medulloblastoma cell differentiation. Conclusions: microRNA-9 is a methylation-silenced tumour suppressor that could be a potential candidate predictive marker for poor prognosis of medulloblastoma. Loss of microRNA-9 may confer a proliferative advantage to tumour cells, and it could possibly contribute to disease pathogenesis. Thus, re-expression of microRNA-9 may constitute a novel epigenetic regulation strategy against medulloblastoma. PMID:24346283

  10. Epigenetic silencing of miRNA-9 is associated with HES1 oncogenic activity and poor prognosis of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschetti, G; Abela, L; Nonoguchi, N; Dubuc, A M; Remke, M; Boro, A; Grunder, E; Siler, U; Ohgaki, H; Taylor, M D; Baumgartner, M; Shalaby, T; Grotzer, M A

    2014-02-04

    microRNA-9 is a key regulator of neuronal development aberrantly expressed in brain malignancies, including medulloblastoma. The mechanisms by which microRNA-9 contributes to medulloblastoma pathogenesis remain unclear, and factors that regulate this process have not been delineated. Expression and methylation status of microRNA-9 in medulloblastoma cell lines and primary samples were analysed. The association of microRNA-9 expression with medulloblastoma patients' clinical outcome was assessed, and the impact of microRNA-9 restoration was functionally validated in medulloblastoma cells. microRNA-9 expression is repressed in a large subset of MB samples compared with normal fetal cerebellum. Low microRNA-9 expression correlates significantly with the diagnosis of unfavourable histopathological variants and with poor clinical outcome. microRNA-9 silencing occurs via cancer-specific CpG island hypermethylation. HES1 was identified as a direct target of microRNA-9 in medulloblastoma, and restoration of microRNA-9 was shown to trigger cell cycle arrest, to inhibit clonal growth and to promote medulloblastoma cell differentiation. microRNA-9 is a methylation-silenced tumour suppressor that could be a potential candidate predictive marker for poor prognosis of medulloblastoma. Loss of microRNA-9 may confer a proliferative advantage to tumour cells, and it could possibly contribute to disease pathogenesis. Thus, re-expression of microRNA-9 may constitute a novel epigenetic regulation strategy against medulloblastoma.

  11. Root activity pattern of banana under irrigated and rain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhana, A.; Aravindakshan, M.; Wahid, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Root morphology by excavation method and root activity pattern by 32 P soil-injection technique have been studied in banana var., Nendran under rainfed/irrigated conditions. The number of roots, length and diameter of roots and dry weight of roots were found to be more for the rainfed banana crop compared to the irrigated. The results of the radiotracer studies indicated that about 60 per cent of the active roots of irrigated banana lie within 20 cm distance and about 90 per cent of the total root activity is found within 40 cm distance from the plant. In the case of rainfed crop about 85 per cent of the active roots were found within a radius of 40 cm around the plant. Active roots were found to be more concentrated at 15 to 30 cm depth under rainfed conditions while the density of active roots was more or less uniform along the profile upto a dpeth of 60 cm in irrigated banana. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  12. In the Name of ‘Poor and Marginalised’? Politics of NGO Activism with Dalit Women in Rural North India

    OpenAIRE

    Govinda, Radhika

    2009-01-01

    Assertion by the Dalits or ex-untouchables is one of the most signifi cant developments in contemporary India. Dalit women have actively participated in Dalit movements and in women’s and development NGOs activism. However, their voices and perspectives are said to have been marginalised by movements and NGOs alike. This article unpacks the complexities, contradictions and challenges that are produced, reproduced and subverted in NGO activism with Dalit women by examining a women’s NGO and its...

  13. One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available - dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model in which as many dislocations are poised for backward jumps as for forward jumps, the experimental activation volume Vye(C27a) under applied stresses close to C...27a is different from the true activation volume V(C27) evaluated at C27 ?C27a. The relations between the two are developed. A model is then discussed in which fewer dislocations are available for backward than for forward jumps. Finally...

  14. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  15. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow study with 123I-IMP in patients with dementia and in patients with poor activities of daily living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamiya, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) SPECT and quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies were performed in 111 patients with cerebral disorders. Continuous arterial blood sampling method based on the microsphere model was used as a quantitative rCBF measurement. We evaluated rCBF in patients with dementia and also in patients with poor activities of daily living (ADL). Patients with dementia showed significant reduction of mean CBF in contrast to patients without dementia. Significant decrease of rCBF in the bilateral frontal cortex, parietal cortex and basal ganglia and the right temporal cortex were found in demented patients. Although patients with vascular dementia showed decreased rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia, demented patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant reduction of rCBF in any region. Patients with poor ADL showed decreased rCBF in all brain regions. And particularly frontal and basal ganglionic defects were most pronounced. Patients with poor ADL resulting from cerebral infarction showed significant decrease of rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia. However, there was no significant correlation in Parkinson's disease between ADL and rCBF. The rCBF measurement with 123 I-IMP is useful for clinical evaluation of demented patients and patients with poor ADL. (author)

  16. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow study with [sup 123]I-IMP in patients with dementia and in patients with poor activities of daily living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamiya, Takashi [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-11-01

    N-isopropyl-p[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) SPECT and quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies were performed in 111 patients with cerebral disorders. Continuous arterial blood sampling method based on the microsphere model was used as a quantitative rCBF measurement. We evaluated rCBF in patients with dementia and also in patients with poor activities of daily living (ADL). Patients with dementia showed significant reduction of mean CBF in contrast to patients without dementia. Significant decrease of rCBF in the bilateral frontal cortex, parietal cortex and basal ganglia and the right temporal cortex were found in demented patients. Although patients with vascular dementia showed decreased rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia, demented patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant reduction of rCBF in any region. Patients with poor ADL showed decreased rCBF in all brain regions. And particularly frontal and basal ganglionic defects were most pronounced. Patients with poor ADL resulting from cerebral infarction showed significant decrease of rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia. However, there was no significant correlation in Parkinson's disease between ADL and rCBF. The rCBF measurement with [sup 123]I-IMP is useful for clinical evaluation of demented patients and patients with poor ADL. (author).

  17. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  18. Poor outcomes of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in non-Japanese adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonke, Gabe S.; Ludwig, Inge; van Oosten, Hannah; Baars, Joke W.; Meijer, Ellen; Kater, Arnon P.; de Jong, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection manifests as a combination of persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms and high viral load in apparently immunocompetent patients. It is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These 2 abnormal

  19. Poor outcomes of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in non-Japanese adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Sonke (Gabe); I. Ludwig (Inge); H. van Oosten (Hannah); J.W. Baars (Joke); E. Meijer (Ellen); A.P. Kater (Arnon); D. de Jong (Daphne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractChronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection manifests as a combination of persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms and high viral load in apparently immunocompetent patients. It is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These 2

  20. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  1. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation versus McCoy blade in active position in patients with poor view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Vasudevan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful endotracheal intubation requires a clear view of glottis. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation may improve the view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh blade, but it requires another trained hand. Alternatively, McCoy laryngoscope with elevated tip may be useful. This study has been designed to compare the two techniques in patients with poor view of glottis. Two hundred patients with ′Grade 2 or more′ view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh blade are included in the study. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation was applied, followed by laryngoscopy with McCoy blade in activated position; and the view was noted in both situations. The two interventions were compared using Chi-square test. The overall changes, in the views, were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Both the techniques improved the view of glottis significantly (P< 0.05. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation was significantly better than McCoy laryngoscope in active position, especially in patients with Grade 3 or 4 baseline view, poor oropharyngeal class, decreased head extension and decreased submandibular space (odds ratio = 2.36, 3.17, 3.22 and 26.48 respectively. To conclude, optimal external laryngeal manipulation is a better technique than McCoy laryngoscope in patients with poor view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh blade.

  2. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  3. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995 carried out in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University in 1995. As cooperative activities of KUR, 9 projects and 91 ordinary researches are described in their summaries, with 10 ordinary researches in KUCA cooperative activities. Titles of the 9 projects are development of biological effect analysis of monochromatic neutron spectrum field, study on optimization of bottle condition in ultra cold neutron fission experiment, feature improvement of KUR-ISOL and nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear physics using it, fundamental study on development of new compound for thermal neutron trapping therapy and expansion of its adopting illness, study on properties of synthetic metal using nuclear procedure, neutron diffraction of magnetic substances under the extreme conditions (high pressure, high magnetic field), study on movement in environment of harmful substances, fundamental study on radiation protection against controllable radiation in KUR, and dynamic property study of metal materials using low speed neutron scattering method. (G.K.)

  4. Depression is associated with poor functioning in activities of daily living among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drageset, Jorunn; Eide, Geir E; Ranhoff, Anette H

    2011-11-01

    To explore depressive symptoms among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the relationship between their depressive symptoms and dependence on activities of daily living, comorbidity and sociodemographic variables. Depression has become a major health care concern among older people, but depression and its association with functioning in activities of daily living among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment has previously not been studied in Norway. A cross-sectional comparative design. The sample comprised older residents (age 65-102 years; n = 227) from 30 nursing homes with at least six months of residence. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≤0·5 and were capable of conversation. Scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items) and demographic variables were collected during face-to-face interviews. The activities of daily living were assessed using the Katz Index based on nurses' observation, and medical diagnoses were obtained from the patient records. Pearson's chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression were used to identify possible associations between activities of daily living and depression. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, length of stay per year and education, more dependence on activities of daily living was associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1·18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·04-1·37; p = 0·02]. Higher age was associated with less depression (OR: 0·64; 95% CI: 0·43-0·94; p = 0·02), that is, the odds of depression declined by 36% for each 10-year increase in age. Our results suggest that depression symptoms are a major health problem among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and that younger residents are more prone to having depressive symptoms. Nursing home staff should communicate with and observe residents closely for signs of depression, especially younger residents with high dependence on activities of daily living

  5. Poor outcomes of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in non-Japanese adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sonke, Gabe; Ludwig, Inge; Oosten, Hannah; Baars, Joke; Meijer, Ellen; Kater, Arnon; Jong, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    textabstractChronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection manifests as a combination of persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms and high viral load in apparently immunocompetent patients. It is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These 2 abnormal Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases are seldom reported in individuals other than Japanese children and adolescents. We report a series of 2 adult non-Japanese patients with fatal chronic ac...

  6. Sibutramine promotes amygdala activity under fasting conditions in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Heldmann, Marcus; Daul, Susanne; Klose, Silke; Rotte, Michael; Schäfer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-06-01

    Sibutramine, a centrally-acting selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor, has been used as an appetite suppressant drug in obesity. To gain insight into the central nervous actions of sibutramine, brain responses to pictures of food items after sibutramine vs placebo application were assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese women. In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 10 healthy obese women (BMI 31.8-39.9 kg/m(2)) received 15 mg/d of sibutramine vs placebo for 14 d. Obese participants, and a group of 10 age-matched normal weight controls, viewed pictures of food items and control objects in hungry and satiated states while lying in the MR scanner. The paradigm followed a block design. In obese participants, fMRI measurements were conducted prior and after two weeks of daily sibutramine or placebo administration, whereas control participants were scanned only at one point in time. Upon food item presentation, obese participants showed increased brain activity in areas related to emotional and reward processing, perceptual processing, and cognitive control as compared to normal weight controls. Sibutramine exerted a divergent satiety-dependent effect on amygdala activity in obese participants, increasing activity in the hungry state while decreasing it under conditions of satiation. Our results demonstrate a modulatory influence of sibutramine on amygdala activity in obese women which may underlie the appetite suppressant effects of the drug.

  7. Deciphering Molecular Mechanism Underlying Hypolipidemic Activity of Echinocystic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that a triterpene mixture, consisting of echinocystic acid (EA and oleanolic acid (OA at a ratio of 4 : 1, dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat/high cholesterol diets. This study was aimed at exploring the mechanisms underlying antihyperlipidemic effect of EA. Molecular docking simulation of EA was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker (version: 4.3.0 to investigate the potential targets related to lipid metabolism. Based on the molecular docking information, isotope labeling method or spectrophotometry was applied to examine the effect of EA on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT in rat liver microsomes. Our results revealed a strong affinity of EA towards ACAT and DGAT in molecular docking analysis, while low binding affinity existed between EA and HMG-CoA reductase as well as between EA and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Consistent with the results of molecular docking, in vitro enzyme activity assays showed that EA inhibited ACAT and DGAT, with IC50 values of 103 and 139 μM, respectively, and exhibited no significant effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. The present findings suggest that EA may exert hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting the activity of ACAT and DGAT.

  8. Magnetic activity effect on equatorial spread-F under high and low solar activity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K S.V.; Somayajulu, V V; Krishna Murthy, B V

    1986-08-01

    The effect of magnetic activity on spread-F at two equatorial stations, Trivandrum and Huancayo, separated in longitude by about 150 deg, under high and low solar activity conditions has been investigated. Magnetic activity produces strong inhibition effect on spread-F at Huancayo compared to that at Trivandrum especially during high solar activity period. This results in a decrease of spread-F with solar activity at Huancayo in contrast to Trivandrum. These findings are explained in terms of F-region electrodynamics and Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for spread-F.

  9. Activated microglia in the spinal cord underlies diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Couture, Réjean; Hong, Yanguo

    2014-04-05

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common chronic medical condition. Approximately 30% of diabetic patients develop neuropathic pain, manifested as spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperglycemia induces metabolic changes in peripheral tissues and enhances oxidative stress in nerve fibers. The damages and subsequent reactive inflammation affect structural properties of Schwann cells and axons leading to the release of neuropoietic mediators, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-nociceptive mediators. Therefore, diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) shares some histological features and underlying mechanisms with traumatic neuropathy. DNP displays, however, other distinct features; for instance, sensory input to the spinal cord decreases rather than increasing in diabetic patients. Consequently, development of central sensitization in DNP involves mechanisms that are distinct from traumatic neuropathic pain. In DNP, the contribution of spinal cord microglia activation to central sensitization and pain processes is emerging as a new concept. Besides inflammation in the periphery, hyperglycemia and the resulting production of reactive oxygen species affect the local microenvironment in the spinal cord. All these alterations could trigger resting and sessile microglia to the activated phenotype. In turn, microglia synthesize and release pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroactive molecules capable of inducing hyperactivity of spinal nociceptive neurons. Hence, it is imperative to elucidate glial mechanisms underlying DNP for the development of effective therapeutic agents. The present review highlights the recent developments regarding the contribution of spinal microglia as compelling target for the treatment of DNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet, physical activity, and adiposity in children in poor and rich neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan Mahshid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity in Canadian children increased three-fold in twenty years. Children living in low-income neighborhoods exercise less and are more overweight than those living in more affluent neighborhoods after accounting for family socio-economic status. Strategies to prevent obesity in children have focused on personal habits, ignoring neighborhood characteristics. It is essential to evaluate diet and physical activity patterns in relation to socio-economic conditions to understand the determinants of obesity. The objective of this pilot study was to compare diet, physical activity, and the built environment in two Hamilton area elementary schools serving socio-economically different communities. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study (November 2005-March 2006 in two public elementary schools in Hamilton, Ontario, School A and School B, located in low and high socioeconomic areas respectively. We assessed dietary intake, physical activity, dietary restraint, and anthropometric measures in consenting children in grades 1 and higher. From their parents we assessed family characteristics and walkability of the built environment. Results 160 children (n = 48, School A and n = 112, School B, and 156 parents (n = 43, School A and n = 113, School B participated in this study. The parents with children at School A were less educated and had lower incomes than those at School B. The School A neighborhood was perceived to be less walkable than the School B neighborhood. Children at School A consumed more baked foods, chips, sodas, gelatin desserts, and candies and less low fat dairy, and dark bread than those at School B. Children at School A watched more television and spent more time in front of the computer than children studying at School B, but reported spending less time sitting on weekdays and weekends. Children at both schools were overweight but there was no difference in their mean BMI z-scores (School A = 0.65 versus School

  11. Incidence of Haemonchus spp. and effect on haematocrit and eye colour in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Krecek, R C; Letty, B A; van der Linde, M J; Grimbeek, R J; de Villiers, J F; Motswatswe, P W; Molebiemang, G S; Boshoff, H M; Hansen, J W

    2002-01-03

    The diversity and predominance of nematode genera in goats of resource-poor farmers at Rust de Winter, Gauteng Province, Impendle, KwaZulu-Natal Province, and Kraaipan, North-West Province, South Africa, was determined by means of a longitudinal study of the nematode faecal egg counts (FECs) and differential third-stage nematode larvae. The animals were bled for haematocrit determination and scored for pallor of ocular mucous membranes using the FAMACHA( Copyright) method, an assay for clinical evaluation of anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. Animals considered to be in danger of dying from anaemia caused by haemonchosis were selectively treated with an anthelmintic. Lower haematocrit values were registered during periods of heavier Haemonchus infection, which occurred from December/January to March for Rust de Winter; from December to March/April for Impendle; and from November/December to February or April for Kraaipan. There was agreement too between the lower haematocrits and paler mucous membranes scored according to the FAMACHA( Copyright) method. The use of this system may be recommended as part of an integrated approach to worm control in goats kept in the resource-poor areas studied.

  12. TRPM4 expression is associated with activated B cell subtype and poor survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Suet K; Ch'ng, Ewe S; Md Salleh, Md Salzihan

    2017-01-01

    to investigate TRPM4 protein expression pattern in non-malignant tissues and DLBCL cases, and its association with clinico-demographic parameters and survival in DLBCL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of publicly available DLBCL microarray data sets showed that TRPM4 transcripts were up-regulated in DLBCL compared...... to normal germinal centre B (GCB) cells, were expressed more highly in the activated B cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) subtype and higher TRPM4 transcripts conferred worse overall survival (OS) in R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL cases (P ... immunohistochemical analysis showed that TRPM4 was expressed in various human tissues but not in normal B cells within lymphoid tissues (reactive tonsil, lymph node and appendix). TRPM4 protein was present in 26% (n = 49 of 189) of our cohort of R-CHOP-treated DLBCL cases and this was associated significantly...

  13. Stunted PFC activity during neuromuscular control under stress with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for impaired cognition, which is primarily regulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, very little is known about the neural pathways that underlie obesity-related declines in neuromuscular control, particularly under stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the PFC on neuromuscular control during handgrip exertions under stress with obesity. Twenty non-obese and obese young adults performed submaximal handgrip exertions in the absence and presence of a concurrent stressful task. Primary dependent measures included oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2: a measure of PFC activity) and force fluctuations (an indicator of neuromuscular control). Higher HbO2 levels in the PFC were observed in the non-obese compared to the obese group (P = 0.009). In addition, higher HbO2 levels were observed in the stress compared to the control condition in the non-obese group; however, this trend was reversed in the obese group (P = 0.043). In general, force fluctuations increased by 26% in the stress when compared to the control condition (P = 0.001) and obesity was associated with 39% greater force fluctuation (P = 0.024). Finally, while not significant, obesity-related decrements in force fluctuations were magnified under stress (P = 0.063). The current study provides the first evidence that neuromuscular decrements with obesity were associated with impaired PFC activity and this relationship was augmented in stress conditions. These findings are important because they provide new information on obesity-specific changes in brain function associated with neuromuscular control since the knowledge previously focused largely on obesity-specific changes in peripheral muscle capacity.

  14. Exergy performance of human body under physical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Albuquerque, Cyro; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply performance indicators for individuals under physical activity based on the concepts of exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is one of the most used tests to assess the functional capacity of individuals with varying degrees of physical training. To perform the exergy analysis during the test, it is necessary to calculate heat and mass flow rates, associated with radiation, convection, vaporization and respiration, determined from the measurements and some relations found in the literature. The energy balance allowed the determination of the internal temperature over time and the exergy variation of the body along the experiment. Eventually, it was possible to calculate the destroyed exergy and the exergy efficiency from the exergy analysis. The exergy rates and flow rates are dependent of the exercise level and the body metabolism. The results show that the relation between the destroyed exergy and the metabolism is almost constant during the test, furthermore its value has a great dependence of the subject age. From the exergy analysis it was possible to divide the subjects according to their training level, for the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis was applied to the human body under physical activities. • Concept of maximum available work from ATP hydrolysis was compared with exergy analysis results. • For the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. • Runners during physical activities tend to a state of minimum destroyed exergy and maximum exergy efficiency

  15. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces astrocytoma cell invasion and constitutive activation of STAT3 predicts poor prognosis in human astrocytoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinchuan Liang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines (U251 and U87, and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.

  16. TLX activates MMP-2, promotes self-renewal of tumor spheres in neuroblastoma and correlates with poor patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, P L; Saini, R K R; Zhai, Q; Vizlin-Hodzic, D; Venkatabalasubramanian, S; Hayashi, A; Johansson, E; Zeng, Z-j; Mohlin, S; Påhlman, S; Hansford, L; Kaplan, D R; Funa, K

    2014-10-30

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (Drosophila tailless homolog) is essential for the maintenance of neural stem/progenitor cell self-renewal, but its role in neuroblastoma (NB) is not well understood. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the formation of tumor spheres in three different NB cell lines, when grown in neural stem cell media. We demonstrate that the knock down of TLX in IMR-32 cells diminishes its tumor sphere-forming capacity. In tumor spheres, TLX is coexpressed with the neural progenitor markers Nestin, CD133 and Oct-4. In addition, TLX is coexpressed with the migratory neural progenitor markers CD15 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in xenografts of primary NB cells from patients. Subsequently, we show the effect of TLX on the proliferative, invasive and migratory properties of IMR-32 cells. We attribute this to the recruitment of TLX to both MMP-2 and Oct-4 gene promoters, which resulted in the respective gene activation. In support of our findings, we found that TLX expression was high in NB patient tissues when compared with normal peripheral nervous system tissues. Further, the Kaplan-Meier estimator indicated a negative correlation between TLX expression and survival in 88 NB patients. Therefore, our results point at TLX being a crucial player in progression of NB, by promoting self-renewal of NB tumor-initiating cells and altering their migratory and invasive properties.

  17. [Present-day sports activities among the blind and persons with poor vision in different countries of the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmachev, R A

    2003-01-01

    The approach of a country to persons with limited physical abilities is an important component of country's social-and-cultural policy. Blindness is a most severe variety of health disorders leading to social defect and social insufficiency. The role of adaptive physical culture is important within the system of the social-and-medical rehabilitation of the blind because the sedentary life mode has a negative effect on organisms of the disabled due to vision. Sports is not only a method for correcting the general somatic condition, but it is also an important social-and-physiological factor that enables the blind to comprehend their abilities as an example for others. As for our country, the information about the modern sports activities among the disabled due to vision is absolutely insufficient for the public at large. An analysis of results of examination (conducted by using the computer data base of the International Blind Sportsmen Association--IBSA) of 2386 blind and impaired vision sportsmen is presented in the paper. Data about sport disciplines and types of ophthalmic pathologies encountered among the high-class blind and impaired vision athletes from different world countries are described. The above data can be helpful in elaborating the rehabilitation programs for persons with severe disorders of the organ of vision to be used in rehabilitation centers, sport federations and clubs of the disabled as well as in other institutions dealing with rehabilitation of the disabled due to vision in our country.

  18. Low physical activity and high screen time can increase the risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality among Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    Full Text Available To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA and screen time (ST with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students.Data were collected in October, 2013. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI, perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 college students (41.6% males and 58.4% females. The outcomes were self-reported PA status, ST, anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and sleep quality. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models.Overall, 16.3%, 15.9% and 17.3% of the students had psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.8%. High ST was significantly positively associated with anxiety (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.65, depression (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.47-2.09, psychopathological symptoms (OR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.43-2.01 and poor sleep quality (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.65. High PA was insignificantly negatively associated with anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and poor sleep. Low PA and high ST were independently and interactively associated with increased risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality (p<0.05 for all.Interventions are needed to reduce ST and increase PA in the lifestyles of young people. Future research should develop and measure the impacts of interventions and their potential consequences on sleep, health, and well being.

  19. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical Report of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, is published any time as a prompt report as occasion requires. In this report, the title, names of reporters and summary of each of 53 researches which were carried out under the visiting research program in the first half of 1983 are given. The titles are, for example, a mechanism for the anodic oxidation of GaAs, gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation study of relaxation phenomena, the studies on the genesis of volcanic rocks by partition of trace elements, neutron activation analysis of geochemical standard rock samples, studies on the changes of elements in the fur of rats with various disease, neutron activation analysis on glacier ice strata and glaciegla lake sediments in Nepal Himalayas, low temperature irradiation effects on bcc metals, organ and its subcellular distribution of manganese ion in animals, structure analysis of orthorhombic BaTiO 3 by profile analysis method, regional distribution of Mn, Zn and Cu in human brain, neutron diffraction study of Mn-Ni alloy, structural change of KCoF 3 in the vicinity of the critical region, activation analysis of trace elements in tumor tissues (thyroid) and so on. (Kako, I.)

  20. HIV Infection Is Associated With Poor Outcomes for Patients With Anal Cancer in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, David; Bitterman, Danielle; Leichman, Cynthia G; Leichman, Lawrence; Sanfilippo, Nicholas; Moore, Harvey G; Du, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    HIV status may affect outcomes after definitive chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. Here, we report a large series in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era comparing outcomes between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with anal cancer. This was a retrospective chart review. The study was conducted at an outpatient oncology clinic at large academic center. A total of 107 patients were reviewed, 39 HIV positive and 68 HIV negative. All of the patients underwent definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. Data on patient characteristics, treatment, toxicity, and outcomes were collected. Overall survival, colostomy-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival were analyzed. Median follow-up was 15 months. HIV-positive patients were younger (median, 52 vs 64 years; p HIV-positive patients had a significantly longer duration from biopsy to start of chemoradiation (mean number of days, 82 vs 54; p = 0.042). There were no differences in rates of acute toxicities including diarrhea, fatigue, or dermatitis. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (33% vs 15%; p = 0.024). The 3-year overall survival rate was 42% in HIV-positive and 76% in HIV-negative patients (p = 0.037; HR, 2.335 (95% CI, 1.032-5.283)). Three-year colostomy-free survival was 67% in HIV-positive and 88% in HIV-negative patients (p = 0.036; HR, 3.231 (95% CI, 1.014-10.299)). Differences in overall survival rates were not significant on multivariate analysis. This study was limited by its retrospective design and small patient numbers. In this cohort, HIV-positive patients had significantly worse overall and colostomy-free survival rates than HIV-negative patients. However, differences in survival were not significant on multivariate analysis. Additional studies are necessary to establish the etiology of this difference.

  1. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is published any time by summarizing in the form of an interim report the data required for research and experiment such as the results of the functional test on various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste management, and the report of study meetings in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, the conspicuous results obtained halfway in research, new techniques, discussion on other papers and reports and others. In this report, the gists of 71 papers on the research activities under visiting research program performed in the second half of 1984 are collected, and the subject number, the title of research reporters, and the summary of report for each research are given. (Kako, I.)

  2. Control of articulated snake robot under dynamic active constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Vitiello, Valentina; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Flexible, ergonomically enhanced surgical robots have important applications to transluminal endoscopic surgery, for which path-following and dynamic shape conformance are essential. In this paper, kinematic control of a snake robot for motion stabilisation under dynamic active constraints is addressed. The main objective is to enable the robot to track the visual target accurately and steadily on deforming tissue whilst conforming to pre-defined anatomical constraints. The motion tracking can also be augmented with manual control. By taking into account the physical limits in terms of maximum frequency response of the system (manifested as a delay between the input of the manipulator and the movement of the end-effector), we show the importance of visual-motor synchronisation for performing accurate smooth pursuit movements. Detailed user experiments are performed to demonstrate the practical value of the proposed control mechanism.

  3. Under pressure: response urgency modulates striatal and insula activity during decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine L; Minati, Ludovico; Harrison, Neil A; Ward, Jamie; Critchley, Hugo D

    2011-01-01

    When deciding whether to bet in situations that involve potential monetary loss or gain (mixed gambles), a subjective sense of pressure can influence the evaluation of the expected utility associated with each choice option. Here, we explored how gambling decisions, their psychophysiological and neural counterparts are modulated by an induced sense of urgency to respond. Urgency influenced decision times and evoked heart rate responses, interacting with the expected value of each gamble. Using functional MRI, we observed that this interaction was associated with changes in the activity of the striatum, a critical region for both reward and choice selection, and within the insula, a region implicated as the substrate of affective feelings arising from interoceptive signals which influence motivational behavior. Our findings bridge current psychophysiological and neurobiological models of value representation and action-programming, identifying the striatum and insular cortex as the key substrates of decision-making under risk and urgency.

  4. Under pressure: response urgency modulates striatal and insula activity during decision-making under risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Jones

    Full Text Available When deciding whether to bet in situations that involve potential monetary loss or gain (mixed gambles, a subjective sense of pressure can influence the evaluation of the expected utility associated with each choice option. Here, we explored how gambling decisions, their psychophysiological and neural counterparts are modulated by an induced sense of urgency to respond. Urgency influenced decision times and evoked heart rate responses, interacting with the expected value of each gamble. Using functional MRI, we observed that this interaction was associated with changes in the activity of the striatum, a critical region for both reward and choice selection, and within the insula, a region implicated as the substrate of affective feelings arising from interoceptive signals which influence motivational behavior. Our findings bridge current psychophysiological and neurobiological models of value representation and action-programming, identifying the striatum and insular cortex as the key substrates of decision-making under risk and urgency.

  5. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The book carries a large number of summary studies made by using the Research Reactor (KUR) or the Critical Assembly (KUCA). These studies include low temperature irradiation effect on iron-alloy and ceramics, study on the influence of the neutron irradiation on the low temperature strength of various welded joint of dissimilar materials, effects of neutron irradiation on superconducting properties under stress in superconducting wires, neutron activation analysis and photo-emission phenomena from gamma-ray irradiated rock-forming minerals, study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors, distribution and mobility of ions of metal elements in stem, activation analysis of high purity metals, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of superionic conductor, neutron spectrometry with CR-39 track detector, geochemical study on trace element abundances in island arc igneous rocks, experiment for measurement of neutron flux distribution in a tight pitch-lattice with a dy-wir, reactor rate distribution measurement of tight pitch lattice core with internal blanket, measurement of the foil reaction rates in a critical core, and many more. (N.K.)

  6. Early Activation of Children Operated on under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Dudov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the safety and clinical and economic efficiency of early activation of children operated on under extracorporeal circulation (EC. Subjects and methods. Sixty-eight children aged 4—14 years (8.6±0.4 years operated on under EC for congenital heart diseases (CHD were examined. In accordance with the time of switching to spontaneous respiration and tracheal extubation, 2 groups were identified: 1 those who received postoperative artificial ventilation (AV for 2.9±0.2 hours (a study group; 2 those who had AV for 8.7±0.7 hours (a control group. Both groups did not differ in age, cardiac diseases, their severity, anthropometric characteristics, EC duration, aortic ligation time, and abnormality pattern. In the study group, anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl (5.3±0.1 ^g/kg/hr, diazepam (0.15±0.01 mg/kg/hr, and inhaled ftorotan or enflurane. Diazepam was discontinued in the postperfusion period. The control group received fentanyl (7.6±0.4 ^Bg/kg/hr, diazepam (0.3±0.02 mg/kg/hr, droperidol (0.4±0.04 mg/kg/hr, and/or sodium oxybutyrate (81±5 mg/kg/hr. Myoplegia was provided by pancuronium or pipecuronium that was continuously infused until EC was completed in Group 1 and intermittently injected until the end of surgery in Group 2. Results. There were no indications for tracheal reintubation in both groups of patients. The early postoperative period was uncomplicated in 97.2% of the children in the study group and in 28.1% in the control group (p<0.05. The incidence of pulmonary complications was 2.8 and 46.9%, respectively (p<0.05. In the children from Groups 1 and 2, the duration of a resuscita-tive period was 44.2±1.7 and 77.3±4.9 hours, respectively (p<0.05, and that of the whole postoperative period was 12.6±0.3 and 18.0±1.1 days (p<0.05. In the study group, the total final expenditures, including the cost of anesthesia and treatment for postoperative complications, decreased by 127.5% as compared to the control

  7. Factors of poor prognosis of visceral leishmaniasis among children under 12 years of age. A retrospective monocentric study in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sérgio da Costa Braga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUTION: A major concern with the visceral leishmaniasis (VL is its high lethality rate, even with proper treatment. Low age, prior malnutrition, disease duration prior to diagnosis, severe anemia, fever for more than 60 days, diarrhea and jaundice are known poor prognostic factors. The goals of this study are to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of VL among children under 12 years of age and to identify the factors associated with VL poor outcome. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty children under 12 years of age with confirmed VL admitted to Hospital João Paulo II (FHEMIG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between January 2001 and December 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. The primary outcome was the poor clinical evolution: sepsis, and/or pneumonia, and/or urinary tract infection, and/or of bleeding (expect epistaxis, and/or severe neutropenia (neutrophil < 500 cells/mm3. Odds ratio (crude and adjusted and its 95% confidence interval for each variable were calculated. Values less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Average age was 3.3 years (3.6 months-11.6 years, 71.2% were younger than 5 years and 47.2% lived in Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte. The mean fatality rate was 3.6%. Sixty-six (26.4% patients presented poor evolution. After a multivariate analysis, age <18 months, abnormal respiratory physical examination on hospital admission, and platelets <85,000/mm3 remained associated with increased chance of poor evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients aged between 12 and 18 months, with platelet counts bellow 85,000/mm3, and respiratory abnormalities at admission should be considered potentially severe.

  8. Integrated genomic analyses identify KDM1A's role in cell proliferation via modulating E2F signaling activity and associate with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sathiya Pandi; Singh, Smriti; Gupta, Amit; Yadav, Sandhya; Singh, Shree Ram; Shukla, Sanjeev

    2015-10-28

    The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extracellular Neutrophil Proteases Are Efficient Regulators of IL-1, IL-33, and IL-36 Cytokine Activity but Poor Effectors of Microbial Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Danielle M; Sullivan, Graeme P; Moran, Hannah B T; Henry, Conor M; Reeves, Emer P; McElvaney, Noel G; Lavelle, Ed C; Martin, Seamus J

    2018-03-13

    Neutrophil granule proteases are thought to function as anti-microbial effectors, cooperatively hydrolyzing microorganisms within phagosomes, or upon deployment into the extracellular space. However, evidence also suggests that neutrophil proteases play an important role in the coordination and escalation of inflammatory reactions, but how this is achieved has been obscure. IL-1 family cytokines are important initiators of inflammation and are typically released via necrosis but require proteolytic processing for activation. Here, we show that proteases liberated from activated neutrophils can positively or negatively regulate the activity of six IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ) with exquisite sensitivity. In contrast, extracellular neutrophil proteases displayed very poor bactericidal activity, exhibiting 100-fold greater potency toward cytokine processing than bacterial killing. Thus, in addition to their classical role as phagocytes, neutrophils play an important immunoregulatory role through deployment of their granule proteases into the extracellular space to process multiple IL-1 family cytokines. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Now the summary report of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1991 has been put in order and published. As compared with the past reports, in the report of this year, pages increased and the style changed, but this is due to the change of the method of adopting researches to that throughout one year from fiscal year 1991. So far one page was allotted to every subject, but this limit was relaxed according to the contents. This style is not yet fixed. As well known, discussion is going on about the way the research reactor and the Research Reactor Institute should be. As for this summary report, in order to receive the international evaluation, it was decided to publish the report in English from fiscal year 1992, and the Progress Report on the research by the Institute personnel is included in it. In this report, 98 summaries of the researches using the KUR and 15 summaries of the researches using the KUCA are collected. One summary which was not reported in fiscal year 1990 is added. (K.I.)

  11. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  12. CDK-mediated activation of the SCF(FBXO) (28) ubiquitin ligase promotes MYC-driven transcription and tumourigenesis and predicts poor survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cepeda, Diana; Ng, Hwee-Fang; Sharifi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligases act as master regulators of cellular homeostasis by targeting key proteins for ubiquitylation. Here, we identified a hitherto uncharacterized F-box protein, FBXO28 that controls MYC-dependent transcription by non-proteolytic ubiquitylation. SCF(FBXO28...... results in an impairment of MYC-driven transcription, transformation and tumourigenesis. Finally, in human breast cancer, high FBXO28 expression and phosphorylation are strong and independent predictors of poor outcome. In conclusion, our data suggest that SCF(FBXO28) plays an important role...... in transmitting CDK activity to MYC function during the cell cycle, emphasizing the CDK-FBXO28-MYC axis as a potential molecular drug target in MYC-driven cancers, including breast cancer....

  13. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYIMPANGAN POSITIF (POSITIVE DEVIANCE STATUS GIZI BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI KABUPATEN GIZI-KURANG RENDAH DAN TINGGI DI PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN (FACTORS OF POSITIVE DEVIANCE IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVES AMONG POOR FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Luciasari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The amount of poor population in Jeneponto & Selayar districts, South Sulawesi, were relatively similar and higher than the national average. However, Janeponto had high prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (28%, whereas Selayar had low prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (11,31%. Objective: This research aims to measure positive deviance which affects nutrition status in two different districts with relative-similar poverty level as well as different nutrition deficiency prevalence. Method: This research is an advance analysis of Riskesdas 2007 data which targeted poor family with under-five-children as sample. As the first step, data verification is conducted to make sure data completeness. Analysis is done by using statistical description, whereas Chi square test is used to analyzing nutrition-status-factors difference between two districts. Result: Under-five-children nutrition status is highly affected by family socio-economy status which covers education level of parents, income, total of family member, access to clean water, environment hygiene and sanitation, and family morbidity. Conclusion: Positive deviation factor of less malnutrition nutritional status than high malnutrition in poor areas was the high parental education, the small number of household members, and ease of access to water.   Keywords: positive deviance, nutritional status, under-fives, poor family   ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Penduduk miskin di Kabupaten Jeneponto dan Selayar, Sulawesi Selatan, jumlahnya relatif sama dan lebih tinggi dari angka nasional. Namun, Jeneponto memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang tinggi (28%, sedangkan Selayar memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang rendah (11,3%. Tujuan: Menentukan faktor-faktor penyimpangan positif yang memengaruhi status gizi di dua kabupaten dengan tingkat kemiskinan relatif sama tetapi berprevalensi gizi kurang berbeda. Metode: Analisis lanjut data

  14. Non-canonical regulation of glutathione and trehalose biosynthesis characterizes non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts with poor performance in active dry yeast production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several yeast species, belonging to Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces genera, play fundamental roles during spontaneous must grape fermentation, and recent studies have shown that mixed fermentations, co-inoculated with S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains, can improve wine organoleptic properties. During active dry yeast (ADY production, antioxidant systems play an essential role in yeast survival and vitality as both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress and negatively affect technological performance. Mechanisms for adaptation and resistance to desiccation have been described for S. cerevisiae, but no data are available on the physiology and oxidative stress response of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts and their potential impact on ADY production. In this study we analyzed the oxidative stress response in several non-Saccharomyces yeast species by measuring the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes, e.g., catalase and glutathione reductase, accumulation of protective metabolites, e.g., trehalose and reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid and protein oxidation levels. Our data suggest that non-canonical regulation of glutathione and trehalose biosynthesis could cause poor fermentative performance after ADY production, as it corroborates the corrective effect of antioxidant treatments, during biomass propagation, with both pure chemicals and food-grade argan oil.

  15. CDK-mediated activation of the SCF(FBXO) (28) ubiquitin ligase promotes MYC-driven transcription and tumourigenesis and predicts poor survival in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Diana; Ng, Hwee-Fang; Sharifi, Hamid Reza; Mahmoudi, Salah; Cerrato, Vanessa Soto; Fredlund, Erik; Magnusson, Kristina; Nilsson, Helén; Malyukova, Alena; Rantala, Juha; Klevebring, Daniel; Viñals, Francesc; Bhaskaran, Nimesh; Zakaria, Siti Mariam; Rahmanto, Aldwin Suryo; Grotegut, Stefan; Nielsen, Michael Lund; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Sun, Dahui; Lerner, Mikael; Navani, Sanjay; Widschwendter, Martin; Uhlén, Mathias; Jirström, Karin; Pontén, Fredrik; Wohlschlegel, James; Grandér, Dan; Spruck, Charles; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Sangfelt, Olle

    2013-07-01

    SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligases act as master regulators of cellular homeostasis by targeting key proteins for ubiquitylation. Here, we identified a hitherto uncharacterized F-box protein, FBXO28 that controls MYC-dependent transcription by non-proteolytic ubiquitylation. SCF(FBXO28) activity and stability are regulated during the cell cycle by CDK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of FBXO28, which is required for its efficient ubiquitylation of MYC and downsteam enhancement of the MYC pathway. Depletion of FBXO28 or overexpression of an F-box mutant unable to support MYC ubiquitylation results in an impairment of MYC-driven transcription, transformation and tumourigenesis. Finally, in human breast cancer, high FBXO28 expression and phosphorylation are strong and independent predictors of poor outcome. In conclusion, our data suggest that SCF(FBXO28) plays an important role in transmitting CDK activity to MYC function during the cell cycle, emphasizing the CDK-FBXO28-MYC axis as a potential molecular drug target in MYC-driven cancers, including breast cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  16. CDK-mediated activation of the SCFFBXO28 ubiquitin ligase promotes MYC-driven transcription and tumourigenesis and predicts poor survival in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Diana; Ng, Hwee-Fang; Sharifi, Hamid Reza; Mahmoudi, Salah; Cerrato, Vanessa Soto; Fredlund, Erik; Magnusson, Kristina; Nilsson, Helén; Malyukova, Alena; Rantala, Juha; Klevebring, Daniel; Viñals, Francesc; Bhaskaran, Nimesh; Zakaria, Siti Mariam; Rahmanto, Aldwin Suryo; Grotegut, Stefan; Nielsen, Michael Lund; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Sun, Dahui; Lerner, Mikael; Navani, Sanjay; Widschwendter, Martin; Uhlén, Mathias; Jirström, Karin; Pontén, Fredrik; Wohlschlegel, James; Grandér, Dan; Spruck, Charles; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Sangfelt, Olle

    2013-01-01

    SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligases act as master regulators of cellular homeostasis by targeting key proteins for ubiquitylation. Here, we identified a hitherto uncharacterized F-box protein, FBXO28 that controls MYC-dependent transcription by non-proteolytic ubiquitylation. SCFFBXO28 activity and stability are regulated during the cell cycle by CDK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of FBXO28, which is required for its efficient ubiquitylation of MYC and downsteam enhancement of the MYC pathway. Depletion of FBXO28 or overexpression of an F-box mutant unable to support MYC ubiquitylation results in an impairment of MYC-driven transcription, transformation and tumourigenesis. Finally, in human breast cancer, high FBXO28 expression and phosphorylation are strong and independent predictors of poor outcome. In conclusion, our data suggest that SCFFBXO28 plays an important role in transmitting CDK activity to MYC function during the cell cycle, emphasizing the CDK-FBXO28-MYC axis as a potential molecular drug target in MYC-driven cancers, including breast cancer. PMID:23776131

  17. Agent Activity-Rescheduling Decisions under Unexpected Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, E.W.L.; Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Neves, J.M.; Santos, M.F.; Machado, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of activity-based transport simulation models, rescheduling of daily activities and associated travel in response to unforeseen events such as traffic congestion is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes the results of a stated adaptation experiment on how individuals

  18. Activity of recombinant factor VIIa under different conditions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark) is an effective drug for treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B and inhibitors. Little is known about physiological conditions influencing the efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII. We...... investigated the in-vitro effects of pH, temperature, and haemodilution on the activity of recombinant activated factor VII. Samples from eight healthy volunteers were spiked with recombinant activated factor VII (final concentration 1.7 microg/ml) and adjusted to pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.4 or analysed at 30......, 33, 37, and 40 degrees C, or diluted 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60% with dextran before analysis. Samples were analysed as rotational thromboelastometry in whole blood (clotting time, clot formation time, and maximum clot firmness) with and without Innovin (tissue factor), and as factor VII coagulant...

  19. Behaviour of the activity of cellulase irradiated under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M; Kaetsu, I

    1988-04-18

    The activity of cellulase irradiated at various conditions has been studied. The activity of cellulase irradiated at low temperature (-78 /sup 0/C) increased by heating at 40 /sup 0/C, but that of cellulase irradiated at high temperature above 0 /sup 0/C decreased. The activity of cellulase irradiated in the dry state at room temperature increased with irradiation dose. The effect of adding biological substances such as amino acids, enzymes, and agar on the irradiation of cellulase was studied. It was shown that EDTA and p-benzoquinone have a protective ability against radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme.

  20. Behaviour of the activity of cellulase irradiated under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1988-01-01

    The activity of cellulase irradiated at various conditions has been studied. The activity of cellulase irradiated at low temperature (-78 0 C) increased by heating at 40 0 C, but that of cellulase irradiated at high temperature above 0 0 C decreased. The activity of cellulase irradiated in the dry state at room temperature increased with irradiation dose. The effect of adding biological substances such as amino acids, enzymes, and agar on the irradiation of cellulase was studied. It was shown that EDTA and p-benzoquinone have a protective ability against radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme. (author)

  1. In vitro and in vivo activities of posaconazole and amphotericin B in a murine invasive infection by Mucor circinelloides: poor efficacy of posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Valentina; Pastor, F Javier; Calvo, Enrique; Alvarez, Eduardo; Sutton, Deanna A; Mayayo, Emilio; Fothergill, Anette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Guarro, Josep

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 strains of Mucor circinelloides to amphotericin B and posaconazole was ascertained by using broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods and by determining the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). We evaluated the efficacy of posaconazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day and amphotericin B at 0.8 mg/kg/day in a neutropenic murine model of disseminated infection by M. circinelloides by using 6 different strains tested previously in vitro. In general, most of the posaconazole MICs were within the range of susceptibility or intermediate susceptibility, while the small inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) were indicative of nonsusceptibility for all isolates tested. The MFCs were ≥ 3 dilutions higher than the corresponding MICs. In contrast, amphotericin B showed good activity against all of the strains tested regardless of the method used. The in vivo studies demonstrated that amphotericin B was effective in prolonging survival and reducing the fungal load. Posaconazole showed poor in vivo efficacy with no correlation with the MIC values. The results suggested that posaconazole should be used with caution in the treatment of infections caused by Mucor circinelloides or by strains of Mucor not identified to the species level.

  2. Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Huber, Daniel; Ophir, Eran; Gutnisky, Diego; Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping; Svoboda, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual decisions involve distributed cortical activity. Does information flow sequentially from one cortical area to another, or do networks of interconnected areas contribute at the same time? Here we delineate when and how activity in specific areas drives a whisker-based decision in mice. A short-term memory component temporally separated tactile “sensation” and “action” (licking). Using optogenetic inhibition (spatial resolution, 2 mm; temporal resolution, 100 ms), we surveyed the neo...

  3. Moving Fingers under a Stick: A Laboratory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Taha; Lanir, Yuval; Gluck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We consider a demonstration in which pupils alternately slide and stop their fingers under a long horizontal rod which they support. The changeover is described in terms of the relevant kinetic and static friction. We present a model calculation, performed on a spreadsheet, which clarifies the process and describes graphically the stepwise…

  4. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Natalie; Choun, Kimcheng; Malhotra, Shelly; Koeut, Pichenda; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Colebunders, Robert; Lynen, Lut

    2015-01-01

    While community-based active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers. Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively. Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs. TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers to care in

  5. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers

  6. Aging and rejuvenation of active matter under topological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Liesbeth M C; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2017-07-18

    The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics. We quantify the crucial role of activity in these non-equilibrium processes, and rationalize the aging dynamics in terms of an absorbing-state transition toward a more stable active glassy state. Our results demonstrate both how concepts of passive glass phenomenology can carry over into the realm of active matter, and how topology can enrich the collective spatiotemporal dynamics in inherently non-equilibrium systems.

  7. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0.

  8. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Furgal, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    of triclosan- methyl was investigated in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The removal was found to occur mainly under aerobic conditions while under anoxic (nitrate reducing) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were...... determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor 75% of the triclosan was removed under aerobic conditions within 150 h, while no removal was observed under anaerobic or anoxic conditions. One percent of the triclosan was converted to triclosan-methyl under aerobic conditions, less under anoxic...

  9. New Potentially Active Pyrazinamide Derivatives Synthesized Under Microwave Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Jandourek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of 18 N-alkyl substituted 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxamides was prepared in this work according to previously experimentally set and proven conditions using microwave assisted synthesis methodology. This approach for the aminodehalogenation reaction was chosen due to higher yields and shorter reaction times compared to organic reactions with conventional heating. Antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antifungal and photosynthetic electron transport (PET inhibiting in vitro activities of these compounds were investigated. Experiments for the determination of lipophilicity were also performed. Only a small number of substances with alicyclic side chain showed activity against fungi which was the same or higher than standards and the biological efficacy of the compounds increased with rising lipophilicity. Nine pyrazinamide derivatives also inhibited PET in spinach chloroplasts and the IC50 values of these compounds varied in the range from 14.3 to 1590.0 μmol/L. The inhibitory activity was connected not only with the lipophilicity, but also with the presence of secondary amine fragment bounded to the pyrazine ring. Structure-activity relationships are discussed as well.

  10. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period....

  11. Aging and rejuvenation of active matter under topological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.M.C.; Kaiser, A.; Löwen, H.W.

    2017-01-01

    The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations.

  12. Monitoring active filters under automotive aging scenarios with embedded instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2012-01-01

    In automotive mixed-signal SoCs, the analogue/mixed-signal front-ends are of particular interest with regard to dependability. Because of the many electrical disturbances at the front-end, often (active) filters are being used. Due to the harsh environments, in some cases, degradation of these

  13. 78 FR 51810 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... security oversight activities. States also submit annual grant applications for Federal transit assistance... the States to monitor implementation of the program. If a State fails to comply with Section 5330, FTA... collection: 49 CFR part 659--Rail Fixed Guideway Systems; State Safety Oversight The information collected...

  14. 76 FR 71119 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... safety and security of each rail transit agency within the State's jurisdiction. To comply with Section... security oversight activities. FTA uses the annual information submitted by the States to monitor implementation of the program. If a State fails to comply with Section 5330, FTA may withhold up to five percent...

  15. 75 FR 81327 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... developing transportation plans and programs to serve the transportation needs of urbanized areas over 50,000... activities involved in developing the Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP), the Metropolitan Transportation... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration [FTA Docket No. FTA-2010-0048] Agency...

  16. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows unde...

  17. Catalase activity of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) plant under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated ...

  18. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  19. [Dynamics of aquic brown soil enzyme activities under no-tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Li, Qi; Liang, Wenju; Jiang, Yong; Wen, Dazhong

    2006-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of no-tillage on the dynamics of invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities in an aquic brown soil during maize growing season. The results showed that in 0 - 10 cm soil layer, the invertase activity at jointing, trumpet-shaped and ripening stages, urease activity at jointing and booting stages, and acid phosphatase activity at booting and ripening stages were significantly higher under no-tillage (NT) than under conventional tillage (CT). In 10 - 20 cm soil layer, the invertase activity at seedling, jointing and trumpet-shaped stages was significantly different between NT and CT, and the urease activity during whole growing season except at booting stage was significantly higher under NT than under CT. In 20 - 30 cm soil layer, the invertase activity during maize growing season was significantly lower under NT than under CT, and urease activity at seedling stage and acid phosphate activity at ripening stage were significantly different between these two treatments. Under NT, there was a decreasing trend of soil enzyme activities with increasing soil depth; while under CT, soil invertase and acid phosphatase activities increased, but urease activity decreased with increasing soil depth.

  20. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  1. Adaptive semi-active control of buildings under seismic solicitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberti, V.; Jezequel, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive semi-active control method whereby nonlinear distributed systems are identified by their dynamical response. Approximate procedures are proposed which take into account the nonlinear behavior of the dynamic system considered. It is shown that only slight knowledge of nonlinearities is needed to apply feedback and feedforward control laws. The method is implemented to a simple example of a building with three degrees of freedom and the numerical results are analyzed

  2. What if? Neural activity underlying semantic and episodic counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Natasha; Ruzic, Luka; Stewart, Gregory W; Spreng, R Nathan; De Brigard, Felipe

    2018-05-25

    Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is the process of mentally simulating alternative versions of known facts. In the past decade, cognitive neuroscientists have begun to uncover the neural underpinnings of CFT, particularly episodic CFT (eCFT), which activates regions in the default network (DN) also activated by episodic memory (eM) recall. However, the engagement of DN regions is different for distinct kinds of eCFT. More plausible counterfactuals and counterfactuals about oneself show stronger activity in DN regions compared to implausible and other- or object-focused counterfactuals. The current study sought to identify a source for this difference in DN activity. Specifically, self-focused counterfactuals may also be more plausible, suggesting that DN core regions are sensitive to the plausibility of a simulation. On the other hand, plausible and self-focused counterfactuals may involve more episodic information than implausible and other-focused counterfactuals, which would imply DN sensitivity to episodic information. In the current study, we compared episodic and semantic counterfactuals generated to be plausible or implausible against episodic and semantic memory reactivation using fMRI. Taking multivariate and univariate approaches, we found that the DN is engaged more during episodic simulations, including eM and all eCFT, than during semantic simulations. Semantic simulations engaged more inferior temporal and lateral occipital regions. The only region that showed strong plausibility effects was the hippocampus, which was significantly engaged for implausible CFT but not for plausible CFT, suggestive of binding more disparate information. Consequences of these findings for the cognitive neuroscience of mental simulation are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Determination of root activity pattern in citrus under irrigation (Tumbaco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizaga, Jorge; Calvache, Marcelo

    1992-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Tumbaco, province of Pichincha, from january to april 1991. The objective of the study was to determine the root activity patterns in citrus. Tangerine plants of two varieties(common and willowleaf on rugged lemon pattern) three years old were used. A solution of Na H 2 PO 4 labeled with 3 2 P was applied at four distances: 0.30, 0.60, 0.90 and 1.20 m, distributed in a circle around the trees. Leaf samples were taken at 20,37 and 64 days after application and 3 2 P activity was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a highly significant variation between treatments and two ranges of significance were defined: the first one included the treatments at 0.30 and 0.60 m, and the second, the treatments at 0.90 and 1.20 m. At the same time soil moisture data were collected. These data demonstrated the relation between soil moisture and root activity and efficiency. With the obtained information it can be concluded that in trees over three years old, and in Tumbaco conditions of citrus management and ecology, the best distance to apply fertilizer is in circles located at 0.30 to 0.60 . from the trunck of tree

  4. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  5. Abnormal neural activation patterns underlying working memory impairment in chronic phencyclidine-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosefu Arime

    Full Text Available Working memory impairment is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and is thought be caused by dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and associated brain regions. However, the neural circuit anomalies underlying this impairment are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to assess working memory performance in the chronic phencyclidine (PCP mouse model of schizophrenia, and to identify the neural substrates of working memory. To address this issue, we conducted the following experiments for mice after withdrawal from chronic administration (14 days of either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg: (1 a discrete paired-trial variable-delay task in T-maze to assess working memory, and (2 brain-wide c-Fos mapping to identify activated brain regions relevant to this task performance either 90 min or 0 min after the completion of the task, with each time point examined under working memory effort and basal conditions. Correct responses in the test phase of the task were significantly reduced across delays (5, 15, and 30 s in chronic PCP-treated mice compared with chronic saline-treated controls, suggesting delay-independent impairments in working memory in the PCP group. In layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex, the number of working memory effort-elicited c-Fos+ cells was significantly higher in the chronic PCP group than in the chronic saline group. The main effect of working memory effort relative to basal conditions was to induce significantly increased c-Fos+ cells in the other layers of prelimbic cortex and the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortex regardless of the different chronic regimens. Conversely, this working memory effort had a negative effect (fewer c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampus. These results shed light on some putative neural networks relevant to working memory impairments in mice chronically treated with PCP, and emphasize the importance of the layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex of the PFC.

  6. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators of attachment under active inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Friston, Karl; Edalat, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the formation of infant attachment types within the context of active inference: a holistic account of action, perception and learning in the brain. We show how the organised forms of attachment (secure, avoidant and ambivalent) might arise in (Bayesian) infants. Specifically, we show that these distinct forms of attachment emerge from a minimisation of free energy—over interoceptive states relating to internal stress levels—when seeking proximity to caregivers who have a varying impact on these interoceptive states. In line with empirical findings in disrupted patterns of affective communication, we then demonstrate how exteroceptive cues (in the form of caregiver-mediated AMBIANCE affective communication errors, ACE) can result in disorganised forms of attachment in infants of caregivers who consistently increase stress when the infant seeks proximity, but can have an organising (towards ambivalence) effect in infants of inconsistent caregivers. In particular, we differentiate disorganised attachment from avoidance in terms of the high epistemic value of proximity seeking behaviours (resulting from the caregiver’s misleading exteroceptive cues) that preclude the emergence of coherent and organised behavioural policies. Our work, the first to formulate infant attachment in terms of active inference, makes a new testable prediction with regards to the types of affective communication errors that engender ambivalent attachment. PMID:29621266

  8. Experimental investigation of activities and tolerance of denitrifying bacteria under alkaline and reducing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao

    2000-07-01

    In the geological disposal system of TRU wastes, nitrogen generation by denitrifying bacteria could provide significant impact on the assessment of this system, because nitrate contained in process concentrated liquid waste might be electron acceptor for denitrifying bacteria. In this study, the activities and tolerance of denitrifying under disposal condition were investigated. Pseudomonas denitrificans as denitrifying bacteria was used. The results showed that Pseudomonas denitrificans had activity under reducing condition, but under high pH condition (pH>9.5), the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans was not detected. It is possible that the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans would be low under disposal condition. (author)

  9. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp Justesen, Mogens; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor...... often rely heavily on services provided by governments. We test this proposition using micro-level survey data from the Afrobaromenter. Multilevel regressions across 18 countries show that poor people are much more prone to experience having to pay bribes to government officials....

  10. Julius Hallervorden's wartime activities: implications for science under dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, M I; Peiffer, J

    2001-08-01

    The eponym Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome recalls Julius Hallervorden's and Hugo Spatz's original description of this pediatric neurodegenerative disorder. Julius Hallervorden's important contribution to the practice of neuropathology over a long career cannot be underestimated. However, his work as a pathologist during the Third Reich put him in close proximity with the implementation of biologic solutions (i.e., euthanasia) targeting those individuals with significant intellectual or physical disabilities in chronic-care facilities. The Nazi program of active euthanasia provided a scientific opportunity to gain quick access to pathologic materials. This opportunity was recognized and used by Hallervorden to achieve personal scientific objectives and research efforts. These efforts resulted in a number of postwar scientific publications using materials obtained through the euthanasia program. The participation of distinguished academic physicians in such a program provides a cautionary tale of the potential results of ethical compromise and the effects of the abrogation of personal autonomy in the setting of a totalitarian dictatorship.

  11. Biomimetic propulsion under random heaving conditions, using active pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gerasimos; Politis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Marine mammals travel long distances by utilizing and transforming wave energy to thrust through proper control of their caudal fin. On the other hand, manmade ships traveling in a wavy sea store large amounts of wave energy in the form of kinetic energy for heaving, pitching, rolling and other ship motions. A natural way to extract this energy and transform it to useful propulsive thrust is by using a biomimetic wing. The aim of this paper is to show how an actively pitched biomimetic wing could achieve this goal when it performs a random heaving motion. More specifically, we consider a biomimetic wing traveling with a given translational velocity in an infinitely extended fluid and performing a random heaving motion with a given energy spectrum which corresponds to a given sea state. A formula is invented by which the instantaneous pitch angle of the wing is determined using the heaving data of the current and past time steps. Simulations are then performed for a biomimetic wing at different heave energy spectra, using an indirect Source-Doublet 3-D-BEM, together with a time stepping algorithm capable to track the random motion of the wing. A nonlinear pressure type Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge of the wing. With a mollifier-based filtering technique, the 3-D unsteady rollup pattern created by the random motion of the wing is calculated without any simplifying assumptions regarding its geometry. Calculated unsteady forces, moments and useful power, show that the proposed active pitch control always results in thrust producing motions, with significant propulsive power production and considerable beneficial stabilizing action to ship motions. Calculation of the power required to set the pitch angle prove it to be a very small percentage of the useful power and thus making the practical application of the device very tractable.

  12. Physical activity buffers fatigue only under low chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M; Ditzen, Beate; Linnemann, Alexandra; Skoluda, Nadine; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported complaints in the general population. As physical activity (PA) has been shown to have beneficial effects, we hypothesized that everyday life PA improves fatigue. Thirty-three healthy students (21 women, 22.8 ± 3.3 years, 21.7 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) completed two ambulatory assessment periods. During five days at the beginning of the semester (control condition) and five days during final examination preparation (examination condition), participants repeatedly reported on general fatigue (awakening, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm and 9 pm) by means of an electronic diary, collected saliva samples for the assessment of cortisol and α-amylase immediately after providing information on fatigue and wore a triaxial accelerometer to continuously record PA. Self-perceived chronic stress was assessed as a moderator. Using hierarchical linear modeling, including PA, condition (control vs. examination), sex and chronic stress as predictors, PA level during the 15 min prior to data entry did not predict momentary fatigue level. Furthermore, there was no effect of condition. However, a significant cross-level interaction of perceived chronic stress with PA was observed. In fact, the (negative) relationship between PA and fatigue was stronger in those participants with less chronic stress. Neither cortisol nor α-amylase was significantly related to physical activity or fatigue. Our study showed an immediate short-term buffering effect of everyday life PA on general fatigue, but only when experiencing lower chronic stress. There seems to be no short-term benefit of PA in the face of higher chronic stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering chronic stress when evaluating the effectiveness of PA interventions in different target populations, in particular among chronically stressed and fatigued subjects.

  13. Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric aerosol loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

    1981-08-01

    The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10 1 g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10 -3 of normal. We also infer from this result tha the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al. is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids of comets than previously estimated

  14. Characterizing Active Ingredients of eHealth Interventions Targeting Persons With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Mihiretu M; Liedtke, Tatjana P; Möllers, Tobias; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-10-12

    The behavior change technique taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1; Michie and colleagues, 2013) is a comprehensive tool to characterize active ingredients of interventions and includes 93 labels that are hierarchically clustered into 16 hierarchical clusters. The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients in electronic health (eHealth) interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relevant outcomes. We conducted a scoping review using the BCTTv1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), studies with or pre-post-test designs, and quasi-experimental studies examining efficacy and effectiveness of eHealth interventions for disease management or the promotion of relevant health behaviors were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility using predetermined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted following a data extraction sheet. The BCTTv1 was used to characterize active ingredients of the interventions reported in the included studies. Of the 1404 unique records screened, 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported results on the efficacy and or or effectiveness of interventions. Of the included 32 studies, 18 (56%) were Web-based interventions delivered via personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet, computer, and/or mobile phones; 7 (22%) were telehealth interventions delivered via landline; 6 (19%) made use of text messaging (short service message, SMS); and 1 employed videoconferencing (3%). Of the 16 hierarchical clusters of the BCTTv1, 11 were identified in interventions included in this review. Of the 93 individual behavior change techniques (BCTs), 31 were identified as active ingredients of the interventions. The most common BCTs identified were instruction on how to perform behavior, adding objects to the environment, information about health consequences, self-monitoring of the outcomes and/or and prefers to be

  15. Electrophysiologic studies of neronal activities under ischemia condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Ho; Wang, Ping-Hsien; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason

    2008-01-01

    Substrate with integrated microelectrode arrays (MEAs) provides an alternative electrophysiological method. With MEAS, one can measure the impedance and elicit electrical stimulation from multiple sites of MEAs to determine the electrophysiological conditions of cells. The aims of this research were to construct an impedance and action potential measurement system for neurons cultured on MEAs for observing the electrophysiological signal transmission in neuronal network during glucose and oxygen deprivation (OGD). An extracellular stimulator producing the biphasic micro-current pulse for neuron stimulation was built in this study. From the time-course recording of impedance, OGD condition effectively induced damage in neurons in vitro. It is known that the results of cell stimulation are affected by electrode impedance, so does the result of neuron cells covered on the electrode can measure the sealing resistance. For extracellular stimulation study, cortical neuronal activity was recorded and the suitable stimulation window was determined. However, the stimulation results were affected by electrode impedance as well as sealing impedance resulting from neuron cells covering the electrode. Further development of surface modification for cultured neuron network should provide a better way for in vitro impedance and electrophysiological measurements.

  16. Passive and active response of bacteria under mechanical compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Renata; Miller, Samantha; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Byophysics Team; Institute of Medical Sciences Collaboration

    Bacteria display simple but fascinating cellular structures and geometries. Their shapes are the result of the interplay between osmotic pressure and cell wall construction. Typically, bacteria maintain a high difference of osmotic pressure (on the order of 1 atm) to the environment. This pressure difference (turgor pressure) is supported by the cell envelope, a composite of lipid membranes and a rigid cell wall. The response of the cell envelope to mechanical perturbations such as geometrical confinements is important for the cells survival. Another key property of bacteria is the ability to regulate turgor pressure after abrupt changes of external osmotic conditions. This response relies on the activity of mechanosensitive (MS) channels: membrane proteins that release solutes in response to excessive stress in the cell envelope. We here present experimental data on the mechanical response of the cell envelope and on turgor regulation of bacteria subjected to compressive forces. We indent living cells with micron-sized beads attached to the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). This approach ensures global deformation of the cell. We show that such mechanical loading is sufficient to gate mechanosensitive channels in isosmotic conditions.

  17. Accounting for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Economists and other social scientists have long tried to understand the nature of poverty and how poor people make decisions. For example, T.W. Schultz, a Nobel Laureate, former professor of economics at the University of Chicago, and former president of the American Economic Association, spent his career working in development and agricultural economics. In his 1980 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Schultz suggests that there is some accounting for the behavior of the poor in agriculture. "Fa...

  18. Electrodermal Activity Is Sensitive to Cognitive Stress under Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Alvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2017-01-01

    When divers are at depth in water, the high pressure and low temperature alone can cause severe stress, challenging the human physiological control systems. The addition of cognitive stress, for example during a military mission, exacerbates the challenge. In these conditions, humans are more susceptible to autonomic imbalance. Reliable tools for the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) could be used as indicators of the relative degree of stress a diver is experiencing, which could reveal heightened risk during a mission. Electrodermal activity (EDA), a measure of the changes in conductance at the skin surface due to sweat production, is considered a promising alternative for the non-invasive assessment of sympathetic control of the ANS. EDA is sensitive to stress of many kinds. Therefore, as a first step, we tested the sensitivity of EDA, in the time and frequency domains, specifically to cognitive stress during water immersion of the subject (albeit with their measurement finger dry for safety). The data from 14 volunteer subjects were used from the experiment. After a 4-min adjustment and baseline period after being immersed in water, subjects underwent the Stroop task, which is known to induce cognitive stress. The time-domain indices of EDA, skin conductance level (SCL) and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS.SCRs), did not change during cognitive stress, compared to baseline measurements. Frequency-domain indices of EDA, EDASymp (based on power spectral analysis) and TVSymp (based on time-frequency analysis), did significantly change during cognitive stress. This leads to the conclusion that EDA, assessed by spectral analysis, is sensitive to cognitive stress in water-immersed subjects, and can potentially be used to detect cognitive stress in divers.

  19. Electrodermal Activity Is Sensitive to Cognitive Stress under Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When divers are at depth in water, the high pressure and low temperature alone can cause severe stress, challenging the human physiological control systems. The addition of cognitive stress, for example during a military mission, exacerbates the challenge. In these conditions, humans are more susceptible to autonomic imbalance. Reliable tools for the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS could be used as indicators of the relative degree of stress a diver is experiencing, which could reveal heightened risk during a mission. Electrodermal activity (EDA, a measure of the changes in conductance at the skin surface due to sweat production, is considered a promising alternative for the non-invasive assessment of sympathetic control of the ANS. EDA is sensitive to stress of many kinds. Therefore, as a first step, we tested the sensitivity of EDA, in the time and frequency domains, specifically to cognitive stress during water immersion of the subject (albeit with their measurement finger dry for safety. The data from 14 volunteer subjects were used from the experiment. After a 4-min adjustment and baseline period after being immersed in water, subjects underwent the Stroop task, which is known to induce cognitive stress. The time-domain indices of EDA, skin conductance level (SCL and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS.SCRs, did not change during cognitive stress, compared to baseline measurements. Frequency-domain indices of EDA, EDASymp (based on power spectral analysis and TVSymp (based on time-frequency analysis, did significantly change during cognitive stress. This leads to the conclusion that EDA, assessed by spectral analysis, is sensitive to cognitive stress in water-immersed subjects, and can potentially be used to detect cognitive stress in divers.

  20. 29 CFR 779.110 - Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act. 779.110 Section 779.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.110 Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the...

  1. Sleep duration moderates the association between insula activation and risky decisions under stress in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Jessica Phuong; Galván, Adriana

    2017-01-27

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with increased risk-taking and poor decision-making, enhanced physiological responses to stress, and attenuated anterior insula (AI) activity to risk. The AI has also been linked to risky decision-making under acute stress. However, it is yet unknown how naturalistic sleep habits affect risky decision-making and AI activity when individuals feel stressed. In the current study, a daily diary approach was used to document participants' daily stress. Adolescents and adults reported their recent sleep duration and completed two fMRI visits during which they performed a risky decision-making task: once each when they endorsed a high and low level of stress. Results revealed that, regardless of age, individuals who reported receiving more sleep took fewer non-advantageous risks during high stress relative to those who reported receiving fewer hours of sleep per night while sleep duration was not associated with risky behavior under low stress. Among individuals who reported less sleep, those who exhibited reduced AI activation during risk-taking under high stress also took more disadvantageous risks whereas this effect was attenuated for those who reported longer sleep duration. Moreover, longer sleep duration was associated with greater functional coupling between the AI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) under high stress whereas sleep duration was not associated with AI-DLPFC functional coupling under low stress. These findings suggest that naturalistic sleep duration may amplify the effects of daily stress and alter risky decision-making behavior through interactions with the AI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shalini; Szatkowski, Lisa; Sinha, Ranjeet; Yaron, Gil; Fogarty, Andrew; Allen, Stephen; Choudhary, Sunil; Smyth, Alan R

    2014-07-23

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include targets for the health of children under five years old. Poor health is linked to poverty and microfinance initiatives are economic interventions that may improve health by breaking the cycle of poverty. However, there is a lack of reliable evidence to support this. In addition, microfinance schemes may have adverse effects on health, for example due to increased indebtedness. Rojiroti UK and the Centre for Promoting Sustainable Livelihood run an innovative microfinance scheme that provides microcredit via women's self-help groups (SHGs). This pilot study, conducted in rural Bihar (India), will establish whether it is feasible to collect anthropometric and mortality data on children under five years old and to conduct a limited cluster randomized trial of the Rojiroti intervention. We have designed a cluster randomized trial in which participating tolas (small communities within villages) will be randomized to either receive early (SHGs and microfinance at baseline) or late intervention (SHGs and microfinance after 18 months). Using predesigned questionnaires, demographic, and mortality data for the last year and information about participating mothers and their children will be collected and the weight, height, and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children will be measured at baseline and at 18 months. The late intervention group will establish SHGs and microfinance support at this point and data collection will be repeated at 36 months.The primary outcome measure will be the mean weight for height z-score of children under five years old in the early and late intervention tolas at 18 months. Secondary outcome measures will be the mortality rate, mean weight for age, height for age, prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting among children under five years of age. Despite economic progress, marked inequalities in child health persist in India and Bihar is one of the worst affected states. There

  3. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Simos, George

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; → Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1α by impairing the MAPK pathway. → Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1α subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1α as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 = 5.16 μM). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1α protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC 50 = 4.75 μM). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 μΜ kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 μM) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  4. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece); Simos, George, E-mail: simos@med.uth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; {yields} Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1{alpha} by impairing the MAPK pathway. {yields} Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1{alpha} subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1{alpha} as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 5.16 {mu}M). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1{alpha} protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC{sub 50} = 4.75 {mu}M). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 {mu}{Mu} kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 {mu}M) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  5. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Majority (60%) of the patients were reviewed at least twice in the last 6 months at the time of the interview. 195 (83%) patients reported that drugs prescribed were not available at the hospital pharmacy, but 186 (79%) of. Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence. In Hypertensive Patients In Lusaka, Zambia. 1,4. 1.

  6. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  7. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life.

  8. Change of the regenerational activity of planaria under radiation and chemical pollution of aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verushkina, G.N.; Gordeeva, I.V.

    2008-01-01

    A significant reduction of the regenerational activity under zinc chloride water pollution with strength from 0.01 to 2.0 mg/l and under the exposure of gamma-rays with range from 0.01 to 100 Gy has been experimentally ascertained, which defines hyper sensitization of the used rate to low pollution levels. A linear reduction of the regenerational activity of planaria under the increase of zinc salt concentration in the water has been detected. In dependable of gamma-rays dose effect of reduction of planarian's regenerational activity in the range of low doses from 0.01 to 1 Gy has been discovered

  9. Heterogeneity of hydrolytic enzyme activities under drought: imaging and quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaullah, Muhammad; Razavi, Bahar S.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    The zymography-based "snap-shoot" of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere is challenging to detect the in situ microbial response to global climate change. We developed in situ soil zymography and used it for identification and localization of hotspots of β-glucosidase activity in the rhizosphere of maize under drought stress (30% of field capacity). The zymographic signals were especially high at root tips and were much stronger for activity of β-glucosidase under drought as compared with optimal moisture (70% of field capacity). This distribution of enzyme activity was confirmed by fluorogenically labelled substrates applied directly to the root exudates. The activity of β-glucosidase in root exudates (produced by root and microorganism associated on the root surface), sampled within 1 hour after zymography was significantly higher by drought stressed plants as compared with optimal moisture. In contrast, the β-glucosidase activity in destructively sampled rhizosphere soil was lower under drought stress compared with optimal moisture. Furthermore, drought stress did not affected β-glucosidase activity in bulk soil, away from rhizosphere. Consequently, we conclude that higher release of mucilage by roots und drought stimulated β-glucosidase activity in the rhizosphere. Thus, the zymography revealed plant-mediated mechanisms accelerating β-glucosidase activity under drought at the root-soil interface. So, coupling of zymography and enzyme assays in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil enables precise mapping the changes in two-dimensional distribution of enzyme activities due to climate change within dynamic soil interfaces.

  10. STUDY OF INDICATORS OF AMYLOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF MOUTH FLUID OF DENTAL HEALTHCARE WORKERS UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Melnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Amylolytic activity indicators of oral liquid of dentists in different conditions of professional activity at outpatient dental care and lectures have been studied. We observed an increase in amylolytic activity of oral liquid of dentists men and women after outpatient dental care, that indicates the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system in response to the professional stress. We also identified the gender-specific response to the α-amylase load in professional dentists: male amylolytic activity of oral fluid was higher than female. In the group of male and female dentist cadets we registered the decrease of amylolytic activity of oral fluid. The correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the level of α-amylase and rigidity in a group of male dentists. We suggested that male dentists reduced their adaptation to the psychosocial conditions under job stress. Keywords: dentist, professional activity, professional stress, outpatient dental care, lectures, amylolytic activity of oral fluid.

  11. 77 FR 71430 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline Assessment for Security Enhancement... voluntary site visits with security and operating officials of public transportation systems. This program...

  12. 78 FR 77484 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY... Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of...

  13. 75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joanna Johnson, Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation Security... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation... System Operator Security Information. Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number: Not yet...

  14. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration [Docket ID Number RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041 Title: Airline Service Quality Performance -Part 234. Form...

  15. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value on the day before a policyholder's 65th and... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...) of 1995 [[Page 40452

  16. 76 FR 40453 - Agency Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Education Benefits, VA Form 22-1990. b. Application for Family Member to Use Transferred Benefits, VA Form 22-1990E. [[Page 40454

  17. 77 FR 4822 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Flight Training for Aliens...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Flight Training for Aliens and Other... aliens and other designated individuals seeking flight instruction (``candidates'') from Federal Aviation.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals...

  18. 75 FR 29567 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... business card that directs customers to an online portal. All responses are voluntary and there is no... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  19. 78 FR 46594 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... business card that directs customers to an online portal, a customer satisfaction card with survey... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  20. 76 FR 71993 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Claims Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Claims Management Program AGENCY: Transportation... Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management... the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register...

  1. 78 FR 79079 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration...- 0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title...

  2. 77 FR 19680 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Rail Transportation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration [Docket No. TSA-2006-26514] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Rail Transportation Security AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the...

  3. 77 FR 15114 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security Officer (TSO) Medical Questionnaire AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  4. 75 FR 2556 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security Officer (TSO) Medical Questionnaire AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  5. 75 FR 33898 - Agency Information Collection (Monthly Certification of Flight Training) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... collection of information through http://www.Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources... Certification of Flight Training) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department... Flight Training (under Chapters 30 and 32, Title 38 U.S.C.; Chapters 1606 and 1607, Title 10 U.S.C.; and...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.244 - May the Secretary suspend construction activities under an AFA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... construction activities under an AFA? (a) The Secretary may require a Tribe/Consortium to suspend certain work under a construction portion of an AFA for up to 30 days only if: (1) Site conditions adversely affect health and safety; or (2) Work in progress or completed fails to substantially carry out the terms of the...

  7. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  8. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Distinct effects of reminding mortality and physical pain on the default-mode activity and activity underlying self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2018-06-01

    Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation. The default-mode activity and neural activity underlying self-reflection were identified by contrasting viewing a fixation vs. font judgment and trait judgments on oneself vs. a celebrity, respectively. The analyses of the pre-priming functional MRI (fMRI) data identified the default-mode activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and parahippocampal gyrus, and the activity underlying instructed self-reflection in both the ventral and dorsal regions of the MPFC. The analyses of the post-priming fMRI data revealed that, relative to leisure time priming, reminding mortality significantly reduced the default-mode PCC activity, and reminding physical pain significantly decreased the dorsal MPFC activity during instructed self-reflection. Our findings suggest distinct neural underpinnings of the effect of reminding morality and aversive emotion on default-mode and instructed self-reflection.

  10. An analysis of nonlinear dynamics underlying neural activity related to auditory induction in the rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, M; Nishikawa, J; Tateno, T

    2016-03-24

    A sound interrupted by silence is perceived as discontinuous. However, when high-intensity noise is inserted during the silence, the missing sound may be perceptually restored and be heard as uninterrupted. This illusory phenomenon is called auditory induction. Recent electrophysiological studies have revealed that auditory induction is associated with the primary auditory cortex (A1). Although experimental evidence has been accumulating, the neural mechanisms underlying auditory induction in A1 neurons are poorly understood. To elucidate this, we used both experimental and computational approaches. First, using an optical imaging method, we characterized population responses across auditory cortical fields to sound and identified five subfields in rats. Next, we examined neural population activity related to auditory induction with high temporal and spatial resolution in the rat auditory cortex (AC), including the A1 and several other AC subfields. Our imaging results showed that tone-burst stimuli interrupted by a silent gap elicited early phasic responses to the first tone and similar or smaller responses to the second tone following the gap. In contrast, tone stimuli interrupted by broadband noise (BN), considered to cause auditory induction, considerably suppressed or eliminated responses to the tone following the noise. Additionally, tone-burst stimuli that were interrupted by notched noise centered at the tone frequency, which is considered to decrease the strength of auditory induction, partially restored the second responses from the suppression caused by BN. To phenomenologically mimic the neural population activity in the A1 and thus investigate the mechanisms underlying auditory induction, we constructed a computational model from the periphery through the AC, including a nonlinear dynamical system. The computational model successively reproduced some of the above-mentioned experimental results. Therefore, our results suggest that a nonlinear, self

  11. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Simos, George

    2010-07-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1alpha subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1alpha as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=5.16microM). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1alpha protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC(50)=4.75microM). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10microM kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10microM) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial Activity in Forest Soil Under Beech, Spruce, Douglas Fir and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp. while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.. The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp. trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp., beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp.. The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.

  13. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  14. The 'poor man's laryngogram'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is reassessment of an old method improved by well-directed application of well-known maneuvers of laryngo-pharyngeal function. Although not as visually attractive as a dedicated laryngogram (now hardly ever requested), it does render similarly reliable diagnostic information, which, supported, as occasionally necessary, by conventional tomography, can even surpass that given by the older technique. Its main advantage lies in providing cheap, quick, noninvasive studies with minimal descomfort for the patient. Should further investigation be necessary, for analysis of deep extension, modern cross-sectional imaging methods (especially MR) far surpass even dedicated laryngography in diagnostic value and can be based adequately on 'poor mans's laryngography'. Ways in which this method may be optimised, especially those involving laryngopharyngeal function, are briefly presented - with emphasis on relevant practical aspects - as are normal and abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  15. REMO poor man's reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H.; Moseley, C.; Haensler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reanalyses depict the state of the atmosphere as a best fit in space and time of many atmospheric observations in a physically consistent way. By essentially solving the data assimilation problem in a very accurate manner, reanalysis results can be used as reference for model evaluation procedures and as forcing data sets for different model applications. However, the spatial resolution of the most common and accepted reanalysis data sets (e.g. JRA25, ERA-Interim) ranges from approximately 124 km to 80 km. This resolution is too coarse to simulate certain small scale processes often associated with extreme events. In addition, many models need higher resolved forcing data ( e.g. land-surface models, tools for identifying and assessing hydrological extremes). Therefore we downscaled the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the EURO-CORDEX-Domain for the time period 1989 to 2008 to a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The downscaling is performed by nudging REMO-simulations to lower and lateral boundary conditions of the reanalysis, and by re-initializing the model every 24 hours ("REMO in forecast mode"). In this study the three following questions will be addressed: 1.) Does the REMO poor man's reanalysis meet the needs (accuracy, extreme value distribution) in validation and forcing? 2.) What lessons can be learned about the model used for downscaling? As REMO is used as a pure downscaling procedure, any systematic deviations from ERA-Interim result from poor process modelling but not from predictability limitations. 3.) How much small scale information generated by the downscaling model is lost with frequent initializations? A comparison to a simulation that is performed in climate mode will be presented.

  16. Preparation of TiO2-Fullerene Composites and Their Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Katsumata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of visible light-sensitive photocatalytic materials is being investigated. In this study, the anatase and rutile-C60 composites were prepared by solution process. The characterization of the samples was conducted by using XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, Raman, and TEM. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the decolorization of the methylene blue. From the results of the Raman, FT-IR, and XRD, the existence of the C60 was confirmed in the samples. The C60 was modified on the anatase or rutile particle as a cluster. The C60 didn't have the photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light. The anatase and rutile-C60 composites exhibited lower photocatalytic activity than the anatase and rutile under UV light. The anatase-C60 exhibited also lower activity than the anatase under visible light. On the other hand, the rutile-C60 exhibited higher activity than the rutile under visible light. It is considered that the photogenerated electrons can transfer from the C60 to the rutile under visible light irradiation.

  17. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Brian J.; Papanikolaou, Niki D.; Wilcox, Ronah K.

    2005-01-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by 14 C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 μg kg -1 ) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk

  18. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk; Papanikolaou, Niki D. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Wilcox, Ronah K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk.

  19. Loss of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 function contributes to poor prognosis of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Yi; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Tzankov, A

    2017-01-01

    PRDM1/BLIMP-1, a master regulator of plasma-cell differentiation, is frequently inactivated in activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Little is known about its genetic aberrations and relevant clinical implications. A large series of patients with de novo DLBC...

  20. Group Work: Pleasure or Pain? An Effective Guidance Activity or a Poor Substitute for One-to-One Interactions with Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of personal learning and development (PLD) group work as a guidance activity in both career counselling and youth support practice. It introduces the FAAST model-a framework for planning, preparing and delivering PLD group sessions (Westergaard in Effective group work with young people. Open University, Maidenhead,…

  1. Time resolved amplified FRET identifies protein kinase B activation state as a marker for poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Miles

    2017-12-01

    General significance: The quantitative imaging technology based on Amplified-FRET can rapidly analyse protein activation states and molecular interactions. It could be used for prognosis and assess drug function during the early cycles of chemotherapy. It enables evaluation of clinical efficiency of personalised cancer treatment.

  2. Is a perceived supportive physical environment important for self-reported leisure time physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged women with poor psychosocial characteristics? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2013-03-27

    Over the past decade, studies and public health interventions that target the physical environment as an avenue for promoting physical activity have increased in number. While it appears that a supportive physical environment has a role to play in promoting physical activity, social-ecological models emphasise the importance of considering other multiple levels of influence on behaviour, including individual (e.g. self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment) and social (e.g. social support, access to childcare) factors (psychosocial factors). However, not everyone has these physical activity-promoting psychosocial characteristics; it remains unclear what contribution the environment makes to physical activity among these groups. This study aimed to examine the association between the perceived physical environment and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas demonstrating different psychosocial characteristics. In 2007-8, 3765 women (18-45 years) randomly selected from low socioeconomic areas in Victoria, Australia, self-reported LTPA, and individual, social and physical environmental factors hypothesised within a social-ecological framework to influence LTPA. Psychosocial and environment scores were created. Associations between environment scores and categories of LTPA (overall and stratified by thirds of perceived environment scores) were examined using generalised ordered logistic regression. Women with medium and high perceived environment scores had 20-38% and 44-70% greater odds respectively of achieving higher levels of LTPA than women with low environment scores. When stratified by thirds of psychosocial factor scores, these associations were largely attenuated and mostly became non-significant. However, women with the lowest psychosocial scores but medium or high environment scores had 76% and 58% higher odds respectively of achieving ≥120 minutes/week (vs. <120 minutes/week) LTPA

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of poor immune recovery among adult HIV patients attending care and treatment centre in northwestern Tanzania following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Daniel W; Kilonzo, Semvua B; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Rauya, Engelbert Z; Mpondo, Bonaventura C

    2017-06-08

    Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reverses the effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) by durably suppressing viral replication. This allows CD4 gain to levels that are adequate enough to restore the body's capability to fight against opportunistic infections (OIs). Patients with poor immune recovery have been shown to have higher risk of developing both AIDS and non AIDS related clinical events. This study aimed at assessing the proportions and risk factors of poor immune recovery in adult HIV-infected patients on 48 months of HAART attending care and treatment center (CTC) in northwestern Tanzania. A retrospective analysis of adult HIV patients' data attending CTC at Sekou Toure hospital and who initiated HAART between February 2004 and January 2008 was done. Poor immune recovery was defined as a CD4 count less than 350 cells/µl on follow up as used in other studies. A total of 734 patients were included in the study. In this study 50.25% of patients attending CTC at Sekou Toure hospital were found to have poor immune recovery. The risk of developing inadequate immune recovery was independently associated with male gender, age older than 50 years, low baseline CD4 counts, and advanced World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage. Poor immune recovery is prevalent among adult HIV patients attending CTC at Sekou Toure hospital in Northwestern part of Tanzania and opportunistic infections are common in this sub group of patients. Clinicians in resource limited countries need to identify these patients timely and plan them for targeted viral assessment and close clinical follow up to improve their long term clinical outcome.

  4. Atrazine degradation and enzyme activities in an agricultural soil under two tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahía, Jorge; Martín, Angela; Carballas, Tarsy; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2007-05-25

    The content of atrazine and its metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) as well as the activities of two soil enzymes (urease and beta-glucosidase) were evaluated in an acid agricultural soil, located in a temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain), with an annual ryegrass-maize rotation under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT). Samples were collected during two consecutive years from the arable layer at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) and different times after atrazine application. Hydroxyatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were the main metabolites resulting from atrazine degradation in the acid soil studied, the highest levels being detected in the surface layer of the NT treatment. A residual effect of atrazine was observed since hydroxyatrazine was detected in the arable layer (0-5 cm, 5-20 cm) even one year after the herbicide application. Soil enzyme activities in the upper 5 cm layer under NT were consistently higher than those in the same layer under CT. Urease and beta-glucosidase activities decreased with depth in the profile under NT but they did not show any differences between the two depths for the plots under CT. For both tillage systems enzyme activities also reflected temporal changes during the maize cultivation; however, no consistent effect of the herbicide application was observed.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Interacting Glucose-Sensing Mechanisms and Electrical Activity Underlying Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Riz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal L-cells sense glucose and other nutrients, and in response release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, peptide YY and other hormones with anti-diabetic and weight-reducing effects. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still poorly understood, although it is known that GLP-1 secreting cells use sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT and ATP-sensitive K+-channels (K(ATP-channels to sense intestinal glucose levels. Electrical activity then transduces glucose sensing to Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis. This particular glucose-sensing arrangement with glucose triggering both a depolarizing SGLT current as well as leading to closure of the hyperpolarizing K(ATP current is of more general interest for our understanding of glucose-sensing cells. To dissect the interactions of these two glucose-sensing mechanisms, we build a mathematical model of electrical activity underlying GLP-1 secretion. Two sets of model parameters are presented: one set represents primary mouse colonic L-cells; the other set is based on data from the GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cell line. The model is then used to obtain insight into the differences in glucose-sensing between primary L-cells and GLUTag cells. Our results illuminate how the two glucose-sensing mechanisms interact, and suggest that the depolarizing effect of SGLT currents is modulated by K(ATP-channel activity. Based on our simulations, we propose that primary L-cells encode the glucose signal as changes in action potential amplitude, whereas GLUTag cells rely mainly on frequency modulation. The model should be useful for further basic, pharmacological and theoretical investigations of the cellular signals underlying endogenous GLP-1 and peptide YY release.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Modulates miR-106b-5p to Control Cathepsin S Expression Resulting in Higher Pathogen Survival and Poor T-Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of tuberculosis (TB bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, relies on the ability to survive in host cells and escape to immune surveillance and activation. We recently demonstrated that Mtb manipulation of host lysosomal cathepsins in macrophages leads to decreased enzymatic activity and pathogen survival. In addition, while searching for microRNAs (miRNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation during mycobacteria infection of human macrophages, we found that selected miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p were specifically upregulated by pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we show that miR-106b-5p is actively manipulated by Mtb to ensure its survival in macrophages. Using an in silico prediction approach, we identified miR-106b-5p with a potential binding to the 3′-untranslated region of cathepsin S (CtsS mRNA. We demonstrated by luminescence-based methods that miR-106b-5p indeed targets CTSS mRNA resulting in protein translation silencing. Moreover, miR-106b-5p gain-of-function experiments lead to a decreased CtsS expression favoring Mtb intracellular survival. By contrast, miR-106b-5p loss-of-function in infected cells was concomitant with increased CtsS expression, with significant intracellular killing of Mtb and T-cell activation. Modulation of miR-106b-5p did not impact necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy arguing that miR-106b-5p directly targeted CtsS expression as a way for Mtb to avoid exposure to degradative enzymes in the endocytic pathway. Altogether, our data suggest that manipulation of miR-106b-5p as a potential target for host-directed therapy for Mtb infection.

  7. Catalyst-free activation of peroxides under visible LED light irradiation through photoexcitation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yaowen [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Li, Yixi; Yao, Linyu; Li, Simiao; Liu, Jin [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Zhang, Hui, E-mail: eeng@whu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen, 518057 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Persulfate could decolorize Rhodamine B (RhB) directly via non-radical reactions. • LED lamps emitting white light were utilized as the visible light source. • Dyes could activate peroxides through photoexcitation pathway. • Decolorization of dyes and production of radicals were achieved simultaneously. • The catalyst-free peroxide/dye/Vis process was effective in a broad pH range. - Abstract: Catalysts are known to activate peroxides to generate active radicals (i.e., hydroxyl radical (·OH) and sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}·{sup −})) under certain conditions, but the activation of peroxides in the absence of catalysts under visible light irradiation has been rarely reported. This work demonstrates a catalyst-free activation of peroxides for the generation of ·OH and/or SO{sub 4}·{sup −} through photoexcited electron transfer from organic dyes to peroxides under visible LED light irradiation, where Rhodamine B (RhB) and Eosin Y (EY) were selected as model dyes. The formation of ·OH and/or SO{sub 4}·{sup −} in the reactions and the electron transfer from the excited dyes to peroxides were validated via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The performance of the peroxide/dye/Vis process was demonstrated to be altered depending on the target substrate. Meanwhile, the peroxide/dye/Vis process was effective for simultaneous decolorization of dyes and production of active radicals under neutral even or basic conditions. The findings of this study clarified a novel photoexcitation pathway for catalyst-free activation of peroxides under visible light irradiation, which could avoid the secondary metal ion (dissolved or leached) pollution from the metal-based catalysts and expand the application range of the peroxide-based catalytic process.

  8. ACTIVITY OF LICHENS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SNOW AND ICE (18th Symposium on Polar Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    Ludger, KAPPEN; Burkhard, SCHROETER

    1997-01-01

    A major aim of our investigations is to explain the adaptation of vegetation to the peculiar environmental conditions in polar regions. Our concept describes the main limiting and favorable factors influencing photosynthetic production of cryptogams, mainly lichens. Snow and ice-usually stress factors to the activity of plants-can be effectively used by lichens because of their poikilohydrous nature. Light, the basic driving force for photosynthetic activity, may be deleterious under certain ...

  9. Activation of the Serotonin Pathway is Associated with Poor Outcome in COPD Exacerbation: Results of a Long-Term Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Marc A; Ottiger, Manuel; Vögeli, Alaadin; Steuer, Christian; Bernasconi, Luca; Thomann, Robert; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Henzen, Christoph; Hoess, Claus; Zimmerli, Werner; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2017-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. An increase of its activity is associated with severity in patients with pneumonia. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, an elevation of serotonin has been reported. Experimental models showed that cigarette smoke inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) leading to higher levels of serotonin. We investigated the prognostic ability of tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine, IDO, and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) to predict short- and long-term outcomes in patients with a COPD exacerbation. We measured tryptophan, serotonin, and kynurenine on admission plasma samples in patients with a COPD exacerbation from a previous trial by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). IDO and TPH were calculated as ratios of kynurenine over tryptophan, and serotonin over tryptophan, respectively. We studied their association with parameters measured in clinical routine at emergency department admission representing inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), infection (procalcitonin [PCT]), oxygenation (SpO 2 ), as well as patients' clinical outcome, confirmed by structured phone interviews. Mortality in the 149 included patients was 53.7% within six years of follow-up. While IDO activity showed strong positive correlations, tryptophan was negatively correlated with CRP and PCT. For 30-day adverse outcome defined as death and/or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age and comorbidities found strong associations for IDO activity (adjusted odds ratios of 31.4 (95%CI 1.1-857), p = 0.041) and TPH (adjusted odds ratios 27.0 (95%CI 2.2-327), p = 0.010). TPH also showed a significant association with mortality at 18 months, (hazard ratio 2.61 (95%CI 1.2-5.8), p = 0.020). In hospitalized patients with a COPD exacerbation, higher IDO and TPH activities independently predicted adverse short-term outcomes and TPH levels were also

  10. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Senwo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the soil rhizosphere has been limited by the lack of robust assessments that can explore the vast complex structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Our objective was to combine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and pyrosequencing techniques to evaluate soil microbial community structure and diversity. In addition, we evaluated biogeochemical functionality of the microbial communities via enzymatic activities of nutrient cycling. Samples were taken from a silt loam at 0–10 and 10–20 cm in an organic farm under lettuce (Lactuca sativa, potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa L, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Tall fescue pasture grass (Festuca arundinacea. Several FAMEs (a15:0, i15:0, i15:1, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0, 10Me17:0, cy17:0, 16:1ω5c and 18:1ω9c varied among the crop rhizospheres. FAME profiles of the soil microbial community under pasture showed a higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to the soil under lettuce, potato, onion, and broccoli. Soil under potato showed higher sum of fungal FAME indicators compared to broccoli, onion and lettuce. Microbial biomass C and enzyme activities associated with pasture and potato were higher than the other rhizospheres. The lowest soil microbial biomass C and enzyme activities were found under onion. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences regarding the maximum operational taxonomic units (OTU at 3% dissimilarity level (roughly corresponding to the bacterial species level at 0–10 cm (581.7–770.0 compared to 10–20 cm (563.3–727.7 soil depths. The lowest OTUs detected at 0–10 cm were under broccoli (581.7; whereas the lowest OTUs found at 10–20 cm were under potato (563.3. The predominant phyla (85% in this soil at both depths were Bacteroidetes (i.e., Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were predominant under broccoli. Rhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae were more

  11. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis cases, if the conventional stain-based HP detection is negative. Moreover, we recommend to use IHC more widely as basic HP stain. Helicobacter pylori FISH technique is primarily recommended to determine bacterial clarithromycin resistance. Furthermore, it is another accurate diagnostic tool for HP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality... Reports'' pursuant to 14 CFR 234.4 and 234.6. These reports are used to monitor the quality of air service.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234...

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    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration [Docket ID Number RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality...: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234. Form No.: BTS Form 234. Type Of Review: Re-instatement of...

  14. 77 FR 18306 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality...'' pursuant to 14 CFR 234.4 and 234.6. These reports are used to monitor the quality of air service that... INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service Quality Performance Reports--Part 234. Form No...

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    2011-11-28

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    2012-02-10

    ... Perception Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Acquisition, Logistics and Construction... Veterans Affairs Supplier Perception Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-2900-0751. Type of Review: Extension... and logistics operations across VA enterprise. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is...

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    ... Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 4) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... INFORMATION: Titles: Cranial Nerve Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960C3. Narcolepsy Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960C6. Fibromyalgia Disability Benefits...

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  1. 76 FR 33417 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 2) Activity Under OMB Review

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    ... Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 2) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960A-2. b. Hypertension Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960A-3. c. Non-ischemic Heart Disease (including Arrhythmias and Surgery, Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA...

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    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Services. ACTION: Proposed Minor Action under the NIH Guidelines. SUMMARY: The Office of Biotechnology....nih.gov , telephone (301-496-9838), or mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  11. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0712] Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0712.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction...

  12. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0712] Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0712.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction...

  13. 77 FR 56712 - Agency Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503, (202) 395... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0554.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Homeless Providers...

  14. 77 FR 3844 - Agency Information Collection (Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0208] Agency Information Collection (Architect--Engineer Fee Proposal) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0208.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Architect--Engineer...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6225 - Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under a Core Program Cooperative Agreement, activities must develop and maintain a recipient's abilities... safety plans, quality assurance project plans, and community relation plans); (2) Provisions for... staff to manage publicly-funded cleanups, oversee responsible party-lead cleanups, and provide clerical...

  16. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Treatment in Hospital) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of Treatment in Hospital) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below... Treatment in Hospital, VA FL 29-551. OMB Control Number: 2900-0119. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  17. 20 CFR 641.630 - What private sector training activities are allowable under section 502(e)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What private sector training activities are... Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.630 What private sector training...: (a) Providing participants with services leading to transition to private sector employment...

  18. 76 FR 70469 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Airspace Waiver Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Airspace Waiver Program AGENCY: Transportation Security... Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment...

  19. 78 FR 37561 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Customer Comment Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Customer Comment Card AGENCY: Transportation Security... Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment...

  20. 77 FR 4054 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Customer Comment Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Customer Comment Card AGENCY: Transportation Security... Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment...

  1. 78 FR 43969 - Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0585] Agency Information Collection (Brand Name or Equal) Activities Under OMB Review Correction Notice document 2013-17006, appearing on page 42593, in the issue of Tuesday, July 16, 2013 was withdrawn by the Department of Veterans Affairs. It...

  2. 77 FR 25188 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... general aviation (GA) aircraft operators who wish to fly into and/or out of Ronald Reagan Washington.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Enhanced Security Procedures at Ronald Reagan Washington National...] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security Procedures at Ronald...

  3. 75 FR 21012 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Highway Corporate Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Highway Corporate Security Review (CSR) AGENCY... (ICR), OMB control number 1652-0036, abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... collection to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. Comments...

  4. 75 FR 74063 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Convener of Active Medical Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... the program expansion including the availability of appropriate staff and sufficient funding. 4. The...] Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Convener of Active Medical Product Surveillance... expansion of its Conference Cooperative Agreement Program (U13), awarded to the Engelberg Center for Health...

  5. Monitoring of biofilm formation and activity in drinking water distribution networks under oligotrophic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Martiny, Adam Camillo; Arvin, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the construction a model distribution system suitable for studies of attached and suspended microbial activity in drinking water under controlled circumstances is outlined. The model system consisted of two loops connected in series with a total of 140 biofilm sampling points...

  6. 77 FR 7242 - Agency Information Collection (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans): Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ..., OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the...

  7. 75 FR 32539 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (VA Form 10-0503)] Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health...).'' Title: Survey of Healthcare Experiences, Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10-0503. OMB...

  8. 34 CFR 609.10 - What activities may be carried out under a grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management, and acquisition of equipment for use in strengthening funds management; (8) Joint use of... contributions from alumni and the private sector; and (14) Establishing and maintaining an institutional endowment under 34 CFR part 628 to facilitate financial independence. (b) Unallowable activities. A grantee...

  9. 76 FR 78673 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS) AGENCY: Transportation Security... burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to serve... Requirement Title: Exercise Information System (EXIS). Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control Number...

  10. 77 FR 15757 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...)) authorize the Federal Reserve to require the information collection and recordkeeping requirements set forth... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated Authority and Submission to OMB AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System...

  11. 78 FR 73237 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...-0088] Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB... entities over which the agency exercises regulatory authority. Recent trends lead the agency to estimate.... Requesters are not required to keep copies of any records or reports [[Page 73238

  12. 76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... for Transportation Expense Reimbursement (38 CFR 21.8370). OMB Control Number: 2900-0580. Type of... transportation expenses. To be eligible, the child must provide supportive documentation of actual expenses...

  13. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Management, Department of Veterans....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Status Report, VA Form 5655. OMB Control Number: 2900-0165. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: Claimants complete VA Form 5655 to report...

  14. 77 FR 56714 - Agency Information Collection (Annual-Final Report and Account) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0017] Agency Information Collection (Annual-Final Report and Account) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of...

  15. 77 FR 18304 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Financial and Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... current financial position of the carrier. Financial trend lines are extended into the future to analyze... RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Financial and... Desk Officer. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0013 Title: Report of Financial and...

  16. The use of neutron activation to detect a photographic image under a painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.; Bird, R.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation followed by autoradiography has been used in a number of studies of oil paintings to reveal brush technique, overpainting, pigment types and other information. The facilities of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment have been used to investigate whether there is a photographic image underlying a painting by the Swedish born artist Carl Magnus Oscar Fristrom (1856-1919)

  17. 76 FR 31683 - Agency Information Collection (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage) Activity under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0115] Agency Information Collection (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage) Activity under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Marriage, VA Form 21-4171. OMB Control Number: 2900-0115. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved...

  18. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...-0059] Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports AGENCY... Transportation on whether a manufacturer will comply with an applicable average fuel economy standard for the... R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs...

  19. Activity of oxidizing processes in introduced plants under low hardening temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of oxidative enzymes’ activity at the dormancy phenological stage under conditions of low positive temperature were studied. Most effective methods (NPK, zircon growth regulator for enhancing the cold tolerance of the Swida, Deutzia, Buddleja and Hibiscus species have been determined. It has been established that activity of catalase and peroxidase depends on the cold adaptation of introduced arbo-real plants of different winter-resistance. The possibility to use the ratio of enzymatic activities Acold./Anorm. as a test-parameter in forecasting the winter-resistance of plants is displayed.

  20. Cadmium Phytoavailability and Enzyme Activity under Humic Acid Treatment in Fluvo-aquic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Su, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the cadmium (Cd) availability to pakchois (Brassica chinensis L.) as well as the enzyme activities in fluvo-aquic soil under humic acid treatment. The results showed that the phytoavailability of Cd in soil decreased gradually as humic acid concentration rose (0 to 12 g·kg-1), while the activities of urease (UE), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and catalase (CAT) kept increasing (P enzymes due to the Cd pollution. In conclusion, humic acid is effective for the reduction of both Cd phytoavailability and the damage to enzyme activities due to Cd pollution in fluvo-aquic soil

  1. Retention of elemental 131I by activated carbons under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1984-09-01

    Under simulated accident conditions (maximum temperature: 130 0 C) no significant difference was found in the retention of I-131 loaded as elemental iodine, by various fresh and aged commercial activated carbons. In all the cases, the I-131 passing through deep beds of activated carbon was in a non-elemental form. It is concluded that a minimum retention of 99.99% for elemental radioiodine, as required by the RSK guidelines for PWR accident filters, can be equally well achieved with various commercial activated carbons. (orig.) [de

  2. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  3. Evaluating the Validity of Current Mainstream Wearable Devices in Fitness Tracking Under Various Physical Activities: Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junqing; Wen, Dong; Liang, Lizhong; Jia, Yuxi; Gao, Li; Lei, Jianbo

    2018-04-12

    Wearable devices have attracted much attention from the market in recent years for their fitness monitoring and other health-related metrics; however, the accuracy of fitness tracking results still plays a major role in health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a host of latest wearable devices in measuring fitness-related indicators under various seminatural activities. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited, and each subject was asked to simultaneously wear 6 devices (Apple Watch 2, Samsung Gear S3, Jawbone Up3, Fitbit Surge, Huawei Talk Band B3, and Xiaomi Mi Band 2) and 2 smartphone apps (Dongdong and Ledongli) to measure five major health indicators (heart rate, number of steps, distance, energy consumption, and sleep duration) under various activity states (resting, walking, running, cycling, and sleeping), which were then compared with the gold standard (manual measurements of the heart rate, number of steps, distance, and sleep, and energy consumption through oxygen consumption) and calculated to determine their respective mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs). Wearable devices had a rather high measurement accuracy with respect to heart rate, number of steps, distance, and sleep duration, with a MAPE of approximately 0.10, whereas poor measurement accuracy was observed for energy consumption (calories), indicated by a MAPE of up to 0.44. The measurements varied for the same indicator measured by different fitness trackers. The variation in measurement of the number of steps was the highest (Apple Watch 2: 0.42; Dongdong: 0.01), whereas it was the lowest for heart rate (Samsung Gear S3: 0.34; Xiaomi Mi Band 2: 0.12). Measurements differed insignificantly for the same indicator measured under different states of activity; the MAPE of distance and energy measurements were in the range of 0.08 to 0.17 and 0.41 to 0.48, respectively. Overall, the Samsung Gear S3 performed the best for the measurement of heart rate under

  4. Muscles Activity in the elderly with Balance Impairments in walking under Dual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Azadian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Each step during gait requires different attention demands that will affect muscles activity. The study of changes in the timing and intensity of the muscles activity in walking with dual task has received less attention from researchers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in electromyography patterns of gait with cognitive dual tasks in balance impaired elderly. Methods: Thirty older adults were recruited for this study. People were selected through berg balance test. Subjects walked 12-meters in two conditions, normal walking and walking with a cognitive dual task. Spatial-temporal kinematic parameters were recorded through the motion analysis and muscles activities were recorded through electromyography system. The data obtained was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA at a significant level of p< 0.05.  Results: The results showed that walking under dual tasks would decrease gait speed and increase stride time and stance time. Also muscle activity in Tibialis anterior and Vastus lateralis in stance-phase would decrease significantly in dual tasks as compared with single task (p< 0.05, but timing of muscle activity would not change in dual task conditions.  Conclusions: Based on the results, it can be argued that walking under a dual task can change spatial-temporal parameters and muscle activity in gait pattern in the elderly with balance impairment. One explanation could be that the decreased control of the central nervous system on muscle activity in stance phase due to the performing of a dual task.

  5. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Papanikolaou, Niki D; Wilcox, Ronah K

    2005-02-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by (14)C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 microg kg(-1)) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant.

  6. Investigation on the rapid degradation of congo red catalyzed by activated carbon powder under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohong; Shan Yabo; Wang Jun; Ling Hongjie; Zang Shuliang; Gao Wei; Zhao Zhe; Zhang Huachun

    2007-01-01

    Azo dyestuff-congo red in aqueous solution can be degraded rapidly under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon powder. The results showed that the degradation ratio could reach 87.79% for 25 mL total volume with 50 mg/L congo red and 2.0 g/L activated carbon powder under 1.5 min microwave irradiation. Furthermore, within the same irradiation time, congo red could be degraded fully by increasing addition amount (e.g. 3.6 g/L) of activated carbon powder and the degradation ratio was up to 96.49%. Otherwise, with the same addition amount, congo red also could be degraded completely by prolonging irradiation time (e.g. 2.5 min) and the degradation ratio was up to 97.88%. In addition, the influences of microwave irradiation time, initial concentration of congo red, addition amount and used times of activated carbon powder as well as solution acidity on the degradation were discussed in details adopting UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, ion chromatography, high phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TOC analysis technologies. Here, the method using activated carbon powder as catalyst under microwave irradiation shows many advantages including high degradation ratios, short reaction time, low costs, no intermediates and no secondary pollution. Therefore, it may be fit for dealing with various azo dyestuff wastewaters on a large scale

  7. Synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes under acute and continuous gamma-irradiation - fluorescent microspectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhova, N.A.; Sergiyevich, L.A.; Aksenova, G.Y.; Karnaukhov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of acute and continuous gamma-irradiation on the synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes stained with acridine orange were studied by fluorescent microspectrometry. Male rats were exposed to acute gamma-irradiation with doses of 7.5, 4 and 3 Gy, or to continuous irradiation with dose rates of 14.4, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.43 cGy/day, respectively. The changes of the synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes occurred in three main stages after acute gamma-irradiation and in four stages under continuous irradiation. The stages reflect the processes of depression and activation of the immune system under irradiation. Essential differences between the acute and continuous effects were observed in the first stage. After acute gamma-irradiation, the synthetic activity decreased sharply, indicating the predominant contribution of the damaging effect of irradiation, whereas under continuous irradiation, as a result of the stimulatory effect of low-dose irradiation, the synthetic activity increased during the first stage. (orig.)

  8. New digital reference current generation for shunt active power filter under distorted voltage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdusalam, Mohamed; Karimi, Shahram; Saadate, Shahrokh [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), CNRS UMR 7037 (France); Poure, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), EA 3440, Universite Henri Poincare - Nancy Universite, B.P. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, a new reference current computation method suitable for shunt active power filter control under distorted voltage conditions is proposed. The active power filter control is based on the use of self-tuning filters (STF) for the reference current generation and on a modulated hysteresis current controller. This active filter is intended for harmonic compensation of a diode rectifier feeding a RL load under distorted voltage conditions. The study of the active filter control is divided in two parts. The first one deals with the harmonic isolator which generates the harmonic reference currents and is experimentally implemented in a DS1104 card of a DSPACE prototyping system. The second part focuses on the generation of the switching pattern of the inverter by using a modulated hysteresis current controller, implemented in an analogue card. The use of STF instead of classical extraction filters allows extracting directly the voltage and current fundamental components in the {alpha}-{beta} axis without phase locked loop (PLL). The performances are good even under distorted voltage conditions. First, the effectiveness of the new proposed method is mathematically studied and verified by computer simulation. Then, experimental results are presented using a DSPACE system associated with the analogue current controller for a real shunt active power filter. (author)

  9. Nutritional status in the era of target therapy: poor nutrition is a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehhoon; Park, Seongyeol; Lee, Se-Hoon; Suh, Beomseok; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young Whan; Heo, Dae Seog

    2016-11-01

    Pretreatment nutritional status is an important prognostic factor in patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the era of target therapies, its value is overlooked and has not been investigated. The aim of our study is to evaluate the value of nutritional status in targeted therapy. A total of 2012 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were reviewed and 630 patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) were enrolled for the final analysis. Anemia, body mass index (BMI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were considered as nutritional factors. Hazard ratio (HR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for each group were calculated by Cox proportional analysis. In addition, scores were applied for each category and the sum of scores was used for survival analysis. In univariable analysis, anemia (HR, 1.29; p = 0.015), BMI lower than 18.5 (HR, 1.98; p = 0.002), and PNI lower than 45 (HR, 1.57; p nutritional status is a prognostic marker in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Hence, baseline nutritional status should be more carefully evaluated and adequate nutrition should be supplied to these patients.

  10. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. PMID:25921649

  11. Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organization under LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-15

    Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies. Interestingly, the frequency distribution of the active repertoire of brain states under LSD closely follows power-laws indicating a re-organization of the dynamics at the edge of criticality. Beyond the present findings, these methods open up for a better understanding of the complex brain dynamics in health and disease.

  12. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  13. Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD. We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD.

  14. Central Hemodynamics and Oxygen Transport in Various Activation of Patients Operated On Under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dzybinskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance, and the parameters of oxygen transport in various activation of patients after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. Thirty-four patients aged 57.8±2.5 years who had coronary heart disease were divided into 2 groups: 1 those with late activation (artificial ventilation time 157±9 min and 2 those with immediate activation (artificial ventilation time 33±6 min. Group 2 patients were, if required, given fentanyl, midazolam, or myorelaxants. Results. During activation, there were no intergroup differences in the mean levels of the major parameters of cardiac pump function, in the determinants of coronary blood flow (coronary perfusion gradients and myocardial oxygen demand (the product of heart rate by systolic blood pressure, and in the parameters of oxygen transport, including arterial lactatemia. After tracheal extubation, the left ventricular pump coefficient was increased considerably (up to 3.8±0.2 and 4.4±0.2 gm/mm Hg/m2 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively; p<0.05 with minimum inotropic support (dopamine and/or dobutamine being used at 2.7±0.3 and 2.4±0.3 mg/kg/min, respectively. In both groups, there were no close correlations between the indices of oxygen delivery and consumption at all stages of the study, which was indicative of no transport-dependent oxygen uptake. Conclusion. When the early activation protocol was followed up, the maximum acceleration of early activation, including that using specific antagonists of anesthetics, has no negative impact on central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance and transport in patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation. Key words: early activation, surgery under extracorporeal circulation, tracheal extubation in the operating-room, central hemodynamics, oxygen transport.

  15. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments: full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E, photosynthesis (A, and cambial activity (CA (xylem, cambium, and phloem. Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. The highest values of biomass production, gs,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba.

  16. [Collagenolytic activity in several species of deuteromycetes under various storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M B; Khoang, T L; Nikitina, Z K

    2006-01-01

    The ability of deuteromycetes of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Botrytis to retain collagenolytic activity was studied after both 2 and 10 years of storage on a Czapek medium under a layer of mineral oil at 4 degrees C, as well as in silica gel granules at 20 and -60 degrees C. The enzymatic activity of several species, including Botrytis terrestris, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, was retained under both conditions of storage. Aspergillus repens retained enzymatic activity only if stored under a layer of mineral oil. The viability of conidia and the collagenolytic activity of Botrytis terrestris, P. janthinellum, P. chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, maintained on silica gel for 10 years, depended on the storage temperature. The viability of the test strains improved after storage on a silica gel at -60 degrees C. A strain of Aspergillus repens lost its ability to dissolve collagen at various storage temperatures on the silica gel. The index of lysis for three strains of Penicillium deuteromycetes (Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum) increased after a 10-year storage on silica gel at -60 degrees C.

  17. Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA in Groundwater under Acidic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghua Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA using activated persulfate under mild conditions was investigated. The impact of different factors on persulfate activity, including pH, temperature (25 °C–50 °C, persulfate dosage and reaction time, was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Contrary to the traditional alkaline-activated persulfate oxidation, it was found that PFOA can be effectively degraded using activated persulfate under acidic conditions, with the degradation kinetics following the pseudo-first-order decay model. Higher temperature, higher persulfate dosage and increased reaction time generally result in higher PFOA degradation efficiency. Experimental results show that a PFOA degradation efficiency of 89.9% can be achieved by activated persulfate at pH of 2.0, with the reaction temperature of 50 °C, molar ratio of PFOA to persulfate as 1:100, and a reaction time of 100 h. The corresponding defluorination ratio under these conditions was 23.9%, indicating that not all PFOA decomposed via fluorine removal. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer analysis results indicate that both SO4−• and •OH contribute to the decomposition of PFOA. It is proposed that PFOA degradation occurs via a decarboxylation reaction triggered by SO4−•, followed by a HF elimination process aided by •OH, which produces one-CF2-unit-shortened perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, Cn−1F2n−1COOH. The decarboxylation and HF elimination processes would repeat and eventually lead to the complete mineralization all PFCAs.

  18. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  19. Early Activation of Patients after Surgery for Coronary Heart Disease under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the safety and clinical efficiency of early activation of patients operated on for coronary heart disease under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. The data available in the case histories of 673 patients aged 29—76 years, operated on in 1995, 2004, and 2006, were analyzed. The study excluded patients with severe intraoperative complications (acute myocardial infarction, a need for extracorporeal circulation, and surgical bleeding. Early activation was made on an operating table if there were no contraindications. Some sections of the study were performed in the matched patient groups. Results. With early activation, the dosages of fentanyl were reduced by 2.5-3 times as compared with the 1995 data; the use of ketamine and diazepam was stopped. Instead of the latter, the currently available inhalational agents are coming into use: midazolam has been introduced and the rate of propofol use has increased. The higher activation rate required the use of flumazenil, naloxone, and proserin. The goal-oriented study of central hemodynamics with emphasis on early activation has indicated that lower dosages of fentanyl have no negative impact on cardiac pump function or myocardial oxygen balance. When the trachea was extubated on the operating table, there was appropriate central hemodynamic stabilization. It was found that the incidence of postoperative myocardial infarctions did not depend on the rate of activation. The frequency of cardiovascular complications was 38.8±5.9% and 22.9±5.0% in the prolonged artificial ventilation (AV and early activation groups, respectively (p<0.05; that of pulmonary complications was 16.4±4.5% and 5.7±2.8%, respectively (p<0.05. Early activation halved the length of stay at an intensive care unit (p<0.05 and reduced postoperative hospitalization at surgery units by 5 days (p< 0.05. Introduction of early activation caused a decrease in the duration of postoperative AV in the

  20. The development and testing of a modular containment system under plutonium active conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.J.; Pengelly, M.G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A Modular Containment System has been designed, constructed and tested under plutonium active conditions at AEE Winfrith. The unit consists of a portable self-contained pressurised suit area, complete with shower entry tunnel and ventilation plant which can be assembled to enclose active plant to enable active operations to be carried out safely by operators dressed in standard pressurised suits. A fundamental feature of the system is the use of strippable coatings which are used to treat the interior surfaces prior to active operations to prevent permanent contamination of the structure. Details of construction are given together with results of trials. Whilst this report describes work with plutonium, the system has clear applications wherever temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is needed. (U.K.)

  1. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in rat organs and tissues under artificial hypobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyonova, G E; Logvinovich, O S; Fialkovskaya, L A; Afanasyev, V N; Ignat'ev, D A; Kolomiytseva, I K

    2010-09-01

    The influence of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) activities in rat organs and tissues and also on the thymocyte distribution throughout the cell cycle stages was studied. The state of artificial hypobiosis in rats on decrease in the body temperature to 14.4-18.0°C during 3.0-3.5 h was accompanied by drops in the ODC activities in the neocortex and liver by 50-60% and in rapidly proliferating tissues (thymus, spleen, and small intestine mucosa) by 80% of the control value. In kidneys the ODC activity raised to 200% of the control level. Twenty-four hours after termination of the cooling and replacing the rats under the standard conditions, the ODC activities in the neocortex, liver, kidneys, spleen, and intestinal mucosa returned to the control values, but remained decreased in the thymus. Forty-eight hours later the ODC activities in the thymus and spleen exceeded the normal level. The distribution of thymocytes throughout the cell cycle stages did not change in rats in the state of hypothermia (hypobiosis); 24 and 48 h after termination of the cooling the fraction of thymocytes in the S stage was decreased and the fraction of the cells in the G(0)+G(1) stage was increased. The normal distribution of thymocytes throughout the cell cycle stages recovered in 72 h. Thus, in the thymus the diminution of the ODC activity preceded the suppression of the cell proliferation rate. The tissue-specific changes in the ODC activity are suggested to reflect adaptive changes in the functional and proliferative activities of organs and tissues during the development of hypobiosis under conditions of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia.

  2. Study on acoustic emission signals of active defect in pressure piping under hydraulic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Qiong; Liu Caixue; Wang Yao; He Pan; Song Jian

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations of acoustic emission (AE) of active defect in pressure piping with a prefabricated crack under hydraulic pressure tester were conducted. AE signals of fatigue-crack-growth in pressure piping were monitored incessantly in all processes, and all signals recorded were analyzed and processed. The result of signal processing show that the amplitude and energy of acoustic emission signals from defect in pressure pipeline increase gradually with the load time, and thus the active defects in pipeline can be identified; the amplitude, energy and count of acoustic emission signals increase sharply before the defect runs through, and we can forecast the penetrated leakage of pipeline. (authors)

  3. Preparation of sensitized ZnS and its photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Chen Xinyi; Li Zhaosheng; Kou Jiahui; Yu Tao; Zou Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, sensitized ZnS with visible light driven photocatlytic ability was successfully prepared. The obtained ZnS was characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The photocatalytic property of the prepared ZnS was evaluated by decomposing methyl orange (MO). These sensitized ZnS powders with a proper molar ratio showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 (P25) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. A possible explanation for the visible light activity of the prepared ZnS was proposed

  4. Calorigenic effect of adrenaline in rats under conditions of restricted motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, L.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, it was demonstrated that long term restricted motor activity in rats induces a decrease in body weight, an increase in release of adrenaline, and a decrease in the release of noradrenaline with the urine, as well as a reduction in activity of the thymus gland and level of thyroxin in the blood. At the same time, a decrease was found in the internal body temperature that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of metabolism in the state of rest. An investigation is presented which attempts to clarify whether the calorigenic effect of adrenaline under conditions of increased metabolism in the period of immobility is exposed to changes.

  5. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study...... is to evaluate the impact on thermal comfort of horizontal and vertical free-hanging porous sound absorbers placed in rooms of a building cooled by Thermo-Active Building System (TABS), under real operation conditions. A design comparing five different ceiling coverage ratios and two room types has been...... implemented during three measurement periods. A clear correlation between increase of ceiling coverage ratio and reduction of thermal comfort could not be derived systematically for each measurement period and room type, contrarily to what was expected from literature. In the first two monitoring periods...

  6. 34 CFR 379.11 - What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional types of project activities may be... EDUCATION PROJECTS WITH INDUSTRY What Kinds of Activities Does the Department of Education Assist Under This Program? § 379.11 What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program? The...

  7. 34 CFR 403.70 - How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Leadership Activities? 403.70 Section 403.70 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.70 How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? A State shall use funds reserved under section...

  8. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  9. On nature of spontaneous elongation of polymers preliminarily stretched in adsorption-active media under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinevich, E.A.; Prazdnichnyj, A.M.; Tikhomirov, V.S.; Bakeev, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of the spontaneous elongation under irradiation with fast electrons of polymers preliminary stretched in adsorption-active media has been studied. This effect is related with radiation-induced heating of microporous polymer samples. Its manifestation in amorphous PETP requires the presence of crazes having well developed microfibrillar structure. The spontaneous elongation effect is shown to be a result of crystallization of partially oriented material in transitional regions relating the oriented material of microfibrils inside crazes with nonstrained polymer between them

  10. Changes in gene expression and catalase activity in Oryza sativa L. under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighi, I L; Benitez, L C; do Amaral, M N; Auler, P A; Moraes, G P; Rodrigues, G S; da Maia, L C; Pinto, L S; Braga, E J B

    2016-11-03

    Different rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes were subjected to high salinity and low temperature (150 mM NaCl and 13°C, respectively) for 0, 6, 24, 48, or 72 h. We evaluated the simultaneous expression of the genes OsCATA, OsCATB, and OsCATC, correlated gene expression with enzyme activity, and verified the regulation of these genes through identification of cis-elements in the promoter region. The hydrogen peroxide content increased in a tolerant genotype and decreased in a sensitive genotype under both stress conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the tolerant genotype when exposed to cold, and in the sensitive genotype when exposed to high salinity. Catalase activity significantly increased in both genotypes when subjected to 13°C. In the tolerant genotype, OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to high salinity and cold, while in the sensitive genotype, OsCATA and OsCATC responded positively to saline stress, as did OsCATA and OsCATB to low temperature. Cis-element analysis identified different regulatory sequences in the catalase promoter region of each genotype. The sensitive genotype maintained a better balance between hydrogen oxyacid levels, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation under low temperature than the resistant genotype. OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive in the salt-tolerant genotype to cold, OsCATA and OsCATC were the most responsive to saline stress, and OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to chilling stress in the sensitive genotype. There were positive correlations between catalase activity and OsCATB expression in the tolerant genotype under saline stress and in the sensitive genotype under cold stress.

  11. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    1994-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author)

  12. Dynamics of ozone layer under Serbia and solar activity: Previous statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducić Vladan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify ozone layer dynamics under Serbian area, as well as possible relations of change in stratospheric ozone concentration with some parameters of solar activity. During the period 1979-2005, the statistical decrease of ozone concentration was noticed under Serbian territory cumulatively for 24.5 DU (7.2%, apropos 9.4 DU (2.8% by decade. These changes are consistent with the changes in surrounding countries. From absolute minimum 1993, flexible trend of ozone layer pentad values validate hypotheses of its recovery. Correspondence of ozone thickness extreme period with Wolf's number and with the greatest volcanic eruptions shows that interannual variations of stratospheric ozone concentration are still in the function of natural factors above all, as are solar and volcanic activities. Investigation of larger number solar activity parameters shows statistically important antiphase synchronous between the number of polar faculae on the Sun and stratospheric ozone dynamics under Serbia. Respecting that relation between these two features until now isn't depicted, some possible causal mechanisms are proposed.

  13. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  14. Theobromine increases NAD⁺/Sirt-1 activity and protects the kidney under diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Silva, Kamila C; Peixoto, Elisa B M I; Borges, Cynthia M; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M; Lopes de Faria, José B

    2015-02-01

    Reduction in sirtuin 1 (Sirt-1) is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in the diabetic kidney. Theobromine may reduce kidney ECM accumulation in diabetic rats. In the current study, we aimed to unravel, under diabetic conditions, the mechanism of kidney ECM accumulation induced by a reduction in Sirt-1 and the effect of theobromine in these events. In vitro, we used immortalized human mesangial cells (iHMCs) exposed to high glucose (HG; 30 mM), with or without small interfering RNA for NOX4 and Sirt-1. In vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were rendered diabetic by means of streptozotocin and studied after 12 wk. The effects of treatment with theobromine were investigated under both conditions. HG leads to a decrease in Sirt-1 activity and NAD(+) levels in iHMCs. Sirt-1 activity could be reestablished by treatment with NAD(+), silencing NOX4, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) blockade, or with theobromine. HG also leads to a low AMP/ATP ratio, acetylation of SMAD3, and increased collagen IV, which is prevented by theobromine. Sirt-1 or AMPK blockade abolished these effects of theobromine. In diabetic SHR, theobromine prevented increases in albuminuria and kidney collagen IV, reduced AMPK, elevated NADPH oxidase activity and PARP-1, and reduced NAD(+) levels and Sirt-1 activity. These results suggest that in diabetes mellitus, Sirt-1 activity is reduced by PARP-1 activation and NAD(+) depletion due to low AMPK, which increases NOX4 expression, leading to ECM accumulation mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling. It is suggested that Sirt-1 activation by theobromine may have therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Serum GGT activity and hsCRP level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with good and poor glycemic control: An evidence linking oxidative stress, inflammation and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh G; Chacko, Anusha N

    2013-12-20

    Diabetes is undoubtedly one of the most challenging health problems in 21st century. Understanding the pathogenesis and preventing long term complications have been major goals of research in diabetes mellitus (DM). Research in the past few years has linked oxidative stress and inflammation to beta cell dysfunction. Aim of this study is to evaluate serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity (marker of oxidative stress) and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) level (an inflammatory marker) in type 2 DM subjects with good and poor glycemic control. Further, we investigated correlation between serum GGT and hsCRP level with glycemic control (FBS, PP2BS, HbA1c) in subjects. A cross sectional study consists of 150 patients out of them 50 patients having type 2 DM with good control (Group II), 50 patients with type 2 DM with poor control (Group III) and 50 normal healthy control (Group I) were selected. Serum GGT, serum hsCRP, FBS, PP2BS, HbA1c, and other biochemical investigations include serum liver enzymes and lipids were measured. Mean serum GGT and hsCRP concentration were statistically significantly higher in group III patients compared to group I and group II subjects as well as increased in group II compared to group I (p stress and inflammation appears to be a key component and also associated with poor glycemic control and further pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. All our finding suggesting a link between oxidative stress, inflammation and glycemic control in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness during longwall mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wojtecki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground longwall mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently being carried out under increasingly difficult geological and mining conditions. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants are the main factors responsible for the most significant rockburst hazard, which can be minimized via the use of active and passive rockburst prevention. Active rockburst prevention in longwalls is usually based on blasting, in order to either destress local stress concentrations in the rock mass or to fracture the thick layers of strong roof rocks to prevent or minimize the impact of high energy tremors on excavations. The accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is particularly important when mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which are associated with high levels of this hazard. The efficiency of blasting applied for this purpose is typically evaluated from the seismic effect, which is calculated based on seismic monitoring data and the weight of the charged explosive. This method, as used previously in the Czech Republic, was adopted in the present study to analyze conditions occurring in a Polish hard coal mine in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Parameters of long hole destress blastings in roof rocks (torpedo blastings from the face of the assigned longwall in coal seam no. 507 were correct a success according to the seismic effect method and corresponded to observations made in situ. The analytical method presented enables the rapid estimation of destress blasting effectiveness and could also be useful when determining appropriate active rockburst prevention.

  17. Soil 137Cs activity in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Oliva, F.; Maass, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil profiles of 137 Cs were measured in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Soil samples were taken from unperturbed forest, and from pasture plots following forest conversion. The average total 137 Cs areal activity of non-eroded forest sites indicated a base level of 5 315 ± 427 Bq m -2 . On average, total areal activity on hill-tops was significantly higher (range 10-47%) in the forest than in the pastures. A significant correlation was found between the total 137 Cs areal activity and soil organic matter content (r 2 = 0.16). This correlation can be explained by a soil physical-protection hypothesis. The redistribution of 137 Cs in the landscape is explained by soil erosion processes. (author)

  18. Activation of TRPM7 channels by small molecules under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, T; Schäfer, S; Linseisen, M; Sytik, L; Gudermann, T; Chubanov, V

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) is a cation channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates key cellular processes such as Mg(2+) homeostasis, motility, and proliferation. TRPM7 is involved in anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, and tumor growth. The goal of this work was to identify small molecule activators of the TRPM7 channel and investigate their mechanism of action. We used an aequorin bioluminescence-based assay to screen for activators of the TRPM7 channel. Valid candidates were further characterized using patch clamp electrophysiology. We identified 20 drug-like compounds with various structural backbones that can activate the TRPM7 channel. Among them, the δ opioid antagonist naltriben was studied in greater detail. Naltriben's action was selective among the TRP channels tested. Naltriben activates TRPM7 currents without prior depletion of intracellular Mg(2+) even under conditions of low PIP2. Moreover, naltriben interfered with the effect of the TRPM7 inhibitor NS8593. Finally, our experiments with TRPM7 variants carrying mutations in the pore, TRP, and kinase domains indicate that the site of TRPM7 activation by this small-molecule ligand is most likely located in or near the TRP domain. In conclusion, we identified the first organic small-molecule activators of TRPM7 channels, thus providing new experimental tools to study TRPM7 function in native cellular environments.

  19. Activation of selected shoulder muscles during unilateral wall and bench press tasks under submaximal isometric effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Helga T; Ciol, Marcia A; de Araújo, Rodrigo C; de Andrade, Rodrigo; Martins, Jaqueline; McQuade, Kevin J; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2011-07-01

    Controlled laboratory study. To assess the activation of 7 shoulder muscles under 2 closed kinetic chain (CKC) tasks for the upper extremity using submaximal isometric effort, thus providing relative quantification of muscular isometric effort for these muscles across the CKC exercises, which may be applied to rehabilitation protocols for individuals with shoulder weakness. CKC exercises favor joint congruence, reduce shear load, and promote joint dynamic stability. Additionally, knowledge about glenohumeral and periscapular muscle activity elicited during CKC exercises may help clinicians to design protocols for shoulder rehabilitation. Using surface electromyography, activation level was measured across 7 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy males, during the performance of a submaximal isometric wall press and bench press. Signals were normalized to the maximal voluntary isometric contraction, and, using paired t tests, data were analyzed between the exercises for each muscle. Compared to the wall press, the bench press elicited higher activity for most muscles, except for the upper trapezius. Levels of activity were usually low but were above 20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction for the serratus anterior on both tasks, and for the long head triceps brachii on the bench press. Both the bench press and wall press, as performed in this study, led to relatively low EMG activation levels for the muscles measured and may be considered for use in the early phases of rehabilitation.

  20. [Influence of titanium dioxide activated under visible light on survival of mold fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kądziołka, Daria; Rokicka, Paulina; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata; Morawski, Antoni W

    2018-01-01

    In public and residential buildings, fungi are usually found in the dust or growing on building materials medium such. It has been known that a number of their spores may contaminate the indoor environment and deteriorate air quality in accommodation spaces. Previously designed air cleaning systems do not guarantee a complete removal of agents harmful to humans and animals. Therefore, there is a great need to develop a new solution to remove molds from indoor air. In recent years, photocatalysis based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been proposed as an effective method for air pollutants removal. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of TiO2 activated under artificial sun light (UV-VIS - ultraviolet - visible spectroscopy) on survival of fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. The commercial P 25 (Aeroxide P 25, Evonik, Germany) and nitrogen modified titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) were used. The microbiological study was performed using Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger fungi. The survival of fungi was determined on the basis of changes in their concentration. It was found that N-TiO2 has a stronger antifungal activity against P. chrysogenum and A. niger than P 25. For N-TiO2, the complete elimination of molds was possible after 3 h under artificial solar light activation. The minimal concentration of photocatalyst was 0.01 g×dm-3 (P. chrysogenum) and 0.1 g×dm-3 (A. niger). The nitrogen modification of titanium dioxide produced expected results and N-TiO2 presented good antifungal activity. The findings of the presented investigation can lead to the development of air filter to be used for removal of harmful agents (including molds) from indoor environment. Med Pr 2018;69(1):59-65. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. [L-arginine metabolism enzyme activities in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyl'chuk, G P; Buchkovskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    The features of arginase and NO-synthase pathways of arginine's metabolism have been studied in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation. During the experimental period (28 days) albino male rats were kept on semi synthetic casein diet AIN-93. The protein deprivation conditions were designed as total absence of protein in the diet and consumption of the diet partially deprived with 1/2 of the casein amount compared to in the regular diet. Daily diet consumption was regulated according to the pair feeding approach. It has been shown that the changes of enzyme activities, involved in L-arginine metabolism, were characterized by 1.4-1.7 fold decrease in arginase activity, accompanied with unchanged NO-synthase activity in cytosol. In mitochondrial fraction the unchanged arginase activity was accompanied by 3-5 fold increase of NO-synthase activity. At the terminal stages of the experiment the monodirectional dynamics in the studied activities have been observed in the mitochondrial and cytosolfractions in both experimental groups. In the studied subcellular fractions arginase activity decreased (2.4-2.7 fold with no protein in the diet and 1.5 fold with partly supplied protein) and was accompanied by NO-synthase activity increase by 3.8 fold in cytosole fraction, by 7.2 fold in mitochondrial fraction in the group with no protein in the diet and by 2.2 and 3.5 fold in the group partialy supplied with protein respectively. The observed tendency is presumably caused by the switch of L-arginine metabolism from arginase into oxidizing NO-synthase parthway.

  2. Study on Al2O3 extraction from activated coal gangue under different calcination atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Liang, Xinxing; Song, Qiang; Gao, Gewu; Song, Lihua; Shu, Yuanfeng; Shu, Xinqian

    2017-12-01

    Coal gangue was calcinated under air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air-hydrogen, and hydrogen atmospheres. The effects of different calcination temperatures and atmospheres on the mineral composition of activated coal gangue were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the acid leaching kinetics of aluminum oxide from coal gangue was investigated with sulfuric acid. It showed that the air atmosphere promoted kaolinite decomposition during coal gangue calcination. The hydrogen atmosphere promoted the activation and decomposition of kaolinite at reaction temperatures exceeding 650°C. The carbon dioxide atmosphere eliminated the influence of residual carbon on coal gangue. When the ratio of acid/coal gangue was 1.5 and reaction temperature was 650°C, the sulfuric acid leaching rate under air, air-hydrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres were 93.66%, 90.90%, 84.06%, 81.91% and 77.54% respectively. The acid leaching reaction process conformed to unreacted shrinking core model of particle unchanged, and was controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction. The reaction kinetic equation for the leaching process was 1-(1-x)1/3=kt with an apparent activation energy of 48.97 kJ/mol.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, He; Han, Chong; Xue, Xiangxin

    2014-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) over Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light was investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results show that the doping with Fe significantly promoted the light absorption ability of CaTiO₃ in the visible light region. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than CaTiO₃ for the degradation of MB. However, the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped CaTiO₃ was greatly influenced by the calcination temperature during the preparation process. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ prepared at 500°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity, with degradation of almost 100% MB (10ppm) under UV-visible light for 180 min. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  5. A halotolerant Enterobacter sp. displaying ACC deaminase activity promotes rice seedling growth under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anumita; Ghosh, Pallab Kumar; Pramanik, Krishnendu; Mitra, Soumik; Soren, Tithi; Pandey, Sanjeev; Mondal, Monohar Hossain; Maiti, Tushar Kanti

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined. Among them, strain P23, identified as an Enterobacter sp. based on phenotypic characteristics, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry data and the 16S rDNA sequence, was selected as the best-performing isolate for several PGP traits, including phosphate solubilization, IAA production, siderophore production, HCN production, etc. Enterobacter sp. P23 was shown to promote rice seedling growth under salt stress, and this effect was correlated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes and stress-induced ethylene. Isolation of an acdS mutant strain enabled concluding that the reduction in stress-induced ethylene content after inoculation of strain P23 was linked to ACC deaminase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Modelling on Flow and Water Quality Under the Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on flooding in the UK, inducing more intense and prolonged storms. Frequent flooding due to climate change already exacerbates catchment water quality. Land use is another contributing factor to poor water quality. For example, the move to intensive farming could cause an increase in faecal coliforms entering the water courses. In an effort to understand better the effects on water quality from land use and climate change, the hydrological and estuarine processes are being modelled using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), linked to a 2-D hydrodynamic model DIVAST(Depth Integrated Velocity and Solute Transport). The coupled model is able to quantify how much of each pollutant from the catchment reaches the harbour and the impact on water quality within the harbour. The work is focused on the transportation and decay of faecal coliforms from agricultural runoff into the rivers Frome and Piddle in the UK. The impact from the agricultural land use and activities on the catchment river hydrology and water quality are evaluated. The coupled model calibration and validation showed the good model performance on flow and faecal coliform in the watershed and estuary.

  7. Solution Behavior and Activity of a Halophilic Esterase under High Salt Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Zhao, Xiubo; Pan, Fang; Li, Yin; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Lu, Jian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. Methodology/Principal Findings A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2−16), with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45°C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22°C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the α-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. Conclusions/Significance The solution α-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers and dimers. Given that

  8. Climatology of GNPs ionospheric scintillation at high and mid latitudes under different solar activity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; De Franceschi, G.; Romano, V.; Aquino, M.H.O.; Dodson, A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze data of ionospheric scintillation over North European regions for the same period (October to November) of two different years (2003 and 2008), characterized by different geomagnetic conditions. The work aims to develop a scintillation climatology of the high- and mid-latitude ionosphere, analyzing the behaviour of the scintillation occurrence as a function of the magnetic local time (MLT) and of the altitude adjusted corrected magnetic latitude (M lat), to characterize scintillation scenarios under different solar activity conditions. The results shown herein are obtained merging observations from a network of GISTMs (GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor) located over a wide range of latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Our findings confirm the associations of the occurrence of the ionospheric irregularities with the expected position of the auroral oval and of the ionospheric trough walls and show the contribution of the polar cap patches even under solar minimum conditions.

  9. Effect of glucocorticoids on melatonin receptor expression under T-cell activated immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschanova, P.; Georgiev, G.; Manchev, S.; Konakchieva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the stress response in rats under conditions of T-cell antigen-activated immune function and to investigate the specific melatonin (MEL) receptor binding in primary and secondary immune tissue of rats employing 2-( 125 I)-iodo melatonin autoradiography and in vitro ligand binding assay. The study revealed that melatonin receptor binding was specifically expressed in discrete areas of the lymphoid sheath of the spleen and in a network of interdigitating cells of the experimental rats. Demonstration of the modulation of MEL receptor binding in the course of a primary immune response under hypercorticalemic conditions indicate that the pineal hormone might interfere in the processes of glucocorticoid-dependent immune competency. (authors)

  10. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  11. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonexercise activities (NAs are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models. The average (mean ± SD mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p>0.05 with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition.

  12. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijie; Tang, Qiang; Quan, Haiying; Lu, Qi; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition.

  13. Evaluation of Macerating Pectinase Enzyme Activity under Various Temperature, pH and Ethanol Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Reynolds

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polygalacturonase (PGU, hemicellulase (mannanase and protease enzyme activities in commercial macerating, pectinase-enzyme preparations commonly used by wineries in Ontario (Scottzyme Color X and Color Pro were measured under various simulated process conditions (temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration. Treatments included three temperatures (15, 20 and 30 °C; pH = 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0; ethanol = 0%, four pH levels (3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0; temperature = 15, 20, 30 and 50 °C; ethanol = 0%, and four ethanol concentrations ((2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%; temperature = 20 °C and pH = 3.5. Polygalacturonase enzyme activity in Color X increased linearly with temperature at all pH levels, and increased with pH at all temperature regimes. Polygalacturonase activity decreased with increasing ethanol. Color X mannanase activity increased with temperatures between 15 and 40 °C, and decreased with increased pH between 3.0 and 5.0. Response of mannanase to ethanol was cubic with a sharp decrease between 8 and 10% ethanol. Protease activity increased linearly with temperatures between 20 and 40 °C. These data suggest that the PGU, mannanase and protease components in these enzyme products provide sufficient activities within the ranges of pH, temperature, and ethanol common during the initial stages of red wine fermentations, although low must temperatures (<20 °C and presence of ethanol would likely lead to sub-optimal enzyme activities.

  14. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Peifang Wang; Lingxiao Ren; Chao Wang; Jin Qian; Jun Hou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River). Va...

  15. Antileishmanial effect of silver nanoparticles and their enhanced antiparasitic activity under ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdiyev AM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Adil M Allahverdiyev1, Emrah Sefik Abamor1, Malahat Bagirova1, Cem B Ustundag2, Cengiz Kaya2, Figen Kaya2, Miriam Rafailovich3 1Department of Bioengineering; 2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan vector-borne disease and is one of the biggest health problems of the world. Antileishmanial drugs have disadvantages such as toxicity and the recent development of resistance. One of the best-known mechanisms of the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs is the production of reactive oxygen species to which Leishmania parasites are very sensitive. So far no information about the effects of Ag-NPs on Leishmania tropica parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, exists in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ag-NPs on biological parameters of L. tropica such as morphology, metabolic activity, proliferation, infectivity, and survival in host cells, in vitro. Consequently, parasite morphology and infectivity were impaired in comparison with the control. Also, enhanced effects of Ag-NPs were demonstrated on the morphology and infectivity of parasites under ultraviolet (UV light. Ag-NPs demonstrated significant antileishmanial effects by inhibiting the proliferation and metabolic activity of promastigotes by 1.5- to threefold, respectively, in the dark, and 2- to 6.5-fold, respectively, under UV light. Of note, Ag-NPs inhibited the survival of amastigotes in host cells, and this effect was more significant in the presence of UV light. Thus, for the first time the antileishmanial effects of Ag-NPs on L. tropica parasites were demonstrated along with the enhanced antimicrobial activity of Ag-NPs under UV light. Determination of the antileishmanial effects of Ag-NPs is very important for the further

  16. Structural reliability analysis under evidence theory using the active learning kriging model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufeng; Liu, Yongshou; Ma, Panke

    2017-11-01

    Structural reliability analysis under evidence theory is investigated. It is rigorously proved that a surrogate model providing only correct sign prediction of the performance function can meet the accuracy requirement of evidence-theory-based reliability analysis. Accordingly, a method based on the active learning kriging model which only correctly predicts the sign of the performance function is proposed. Interval Monte Carlo simulation and a modified optimization method based on Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions are introduced to make the method more efficient in estimating the bounds of failure probability based on the kriging model. Four examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. COMPONENT SUPPLY MODEL FOR REPAIR ACTIVITIES NETWORK UNDER CONDITIONS OF PROBABILISTIC INDEFINITENESS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yurievich Stroganov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the systematization of the major production functions of repair activities network and the list of planning and control functions, which are described in the form of business processes (BP. Simulation model for analysis of the delivery effectiveness of components under conditions of probabilistic uncertainty was proposed. It has been shown that a significant portion of the total number of business processes is represented by the management and planning of the parts and components movement. Questions of construction of experimental design techniques on the simulation model in the conditions of non-stationarity were considered.

  18. Photocatalytic antibacterial activity of copper-based nanoparticles under visible light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zong-Yan; Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2018-04-01

    Copper oxide and sulfide nanoparticles after annealing treatment at 400 °Chave been characterized and tested for their bactericidal properties toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli under the dark and LED light illuminated conditions. It was found that the nanoparticles with the formation of CuS/Cu2S/CuO nanoheterostructuresexhibited a great capability of killing Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with or without light illumination. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was demonstrated and simply observed with colony counting method. A mechanism of the antibacterial behaviour had been proposed and elucidated in this work.

  19. Plant Cell Protolytic Enzymes Activity under Exposure to Lectins of Endophytic and Epiphytic Azospirillum Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Alen’kina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of lectins isolated from the surface of the two strains of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, A. brasilense Sp7 (epiphytic and A. brasilense Sp245 (endophytic, to show have a regulating effect on the activity of pectinolytic enzymes in the roots of wheat seedlings. Research results showed that the lectins under study can cause the induction of the activity of polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, pectatlyase from the plant cell wall, thereby ensuring the bacteria penetration in the plant tissues, as well as the induction of plants responses which, being combined with growth-stimulating effect of bacteria, contributes to the formation of plants stability and productivity.

  20. 20 CFR 641.640 - How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the private sector training activities... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Private Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.640 How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...

  1. Underlying mechanism of antimicrobial activity of chitosan microparticles and implications for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Jeon

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms is a great public health concern and has triggered an urgent need to develop alternative antibiotics. Chitosan microparticles (CM, derived from chitosan, have been shown to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in a cattle model, indicating potential use as an alternative antimicrobial agent. However, the underlying mechanism of CM on reducing the shedding of this pathogen remains unclear. To understand the mode of action, we studied molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of CM using in vitro and in vivo methods. We report that CM are an effective bactericidal agent with capability to disrupt cell membranes. Binding assays and genetic studies with an ompA mutant strain demonstrated that outer membrane protein OmpA of E. coli O157:H7 is critical for CM binding, and this binding activity is coupled with a bactericidal effect of CM. This activity was also demonstrated in an animal model using cows with uterine diseases. CM treatment effectively reduced shedding of intrauterine pathogenic E. coli (IUPEC in the uterus compared to antibiotic treatment. Since Shiga-toxins encoded in the genome of bacteriophage is often overexpressed during antibiotic treatment, antibiotic therapy is generally not recommended because of high risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome. However, CM treatment did not induce bacteriophage or Shiga-toxins in E. coli O157:H7; suggesting that CM can be a potential candidate to treat infections caused by this pathogen. This work establishes an underlying mechanism whereby CM exert antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo, providing significant insight for the treatment of diseases caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens including antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

  2. Research regarding biodegradable properties of food polymeric products under microorganism activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opran, Constantin; Lazar, Veronica; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2018-02-01

    Aim of this research is the structural analysis by comparison of the biodegradable properties of two polymeric products made by non-biodegradable polymeric material (polypropylene TIPPLEN H949 A) and biodegradable polymeric material (ECOVIO IS 1335), under microorganism activity in order to give the best solution for the manufacture of food packaging biodegradable products. It presents the results of experimental determinations on comparative analysis of tensile strength for the two types of polymers. The sample weight variations after fungal biodegradation activity revealed that, after 3 months, there are no significant changes in polymeric substratum for non-biodegradable polymeric. The microscopically analysis showed that the fungal filaments did not strongly adhered on the non-biodegradable polymeric material, instead, both filamentous fungi strains adhered and covered the surface of the biodegradable sample with germinated filamentous conidia. The spectral analysis of polymer composition revealed that non-biodegradable polymer polypropylene spectra are identical for control and for samples that were exposed to fungal activity, suggesting that this type of sample was not degraded by the fungi strains. Instead, for biodegradable polymer sample, it was observed significant structural changes across multiple absorption bands, suggesting enzyme activity manifested mainly by Aspergillus niger strain. Structural analysis of interdisciplinary research results, lead, to achieving optimal injection molded technology emphasizing technological parameters, in order to obtain food packaging biodegradable products.

  3. The behavior of active bactericidal and antifungal coating under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Su, Haijia, E-mail: suhj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-02-15

    In the present paper, the novel active bactericidal and antifungal coatings (ABAC) have been prepared through the immobilization of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) with chitosan. The characterization of ABAC using optical microscope imaging, SEM, AFM and FTIR shows that the Fe doped TiO{sub 2} is embedded into the chitosan coating with favorable dispersion through the hydrogen bonds interaction between chitosan molecules and TiO{sub 2}. The contact angle measurement demonstrated the hydrophilicity of ABAC (θ = 34.5 ± 4.1°). The bactericidal activity of ABAC has been evaluated by inactivating three different test strains: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger which illustrates the apparently higher bactericidal ability than chitosan, Fe-TiO{sub 2} and chitosan/TiO{sub 2} (pure) under visible light irradiation and its bactericidal activity is lasting for at least 24 h. ABAC showed rapid and efficient antibacterial ability for the three tested strains and its antibacterial ratio in 2 h for E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger was 99.9%, 97.0% and 95.0%, respectively. The prepared chitosan/TiO{sub 2} composite emulsion shows favorable storage stability and can be stored up to 1 year without losing its bactericidal activity. ABAC is a low-cost and eco-friendly antibacterial coating products and promising for domestic, medical and industrial applications.

  4. The role in masseter muscle activities of functionally elicited periodontal afferents from abutment teeth under overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushimoto, E

    1981-09-01

    Five overdenture wearers with a small number of remaining natural teeth were selected to evaluate the effect of the afferent input from periodontal mechanoreceptors on masseter activity in man. As a control, a full denture wearer was included. The subjects were instructed to chew a piece of gum, and/or tap their teeth. Surface EmG from the bilateral masseter muscles were recorded and analysed. When functional pressure was applied, during chewing, to the abutment teeth as well as to mucosa through the denture base, masseter activities were encouraged. Following application of anaesthesia to the periodontal membrane of the abutments, masseter activities were reduced. The duration of the silent period (SP) appearing in the EMG burst following tooth tapping was significantly increased with root support compared to mucosal support only. With topical anaesthesia of the periodontal tissues, SP duration decreased significantly. In conclusion, it has become apparent that the pressure sensibility of abutment teeth bearing functional pressure under an overdenture base is capable of facilitating masseter activity, as one of the sources of oral sensory input during mastication.

  5. Gasification under CO2–Steam Mixture: Kinetic Model Study Based on Shared Active Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, char gasification of two coals (i.e., Shenfu bituminous coal and Zunyi anthracite and a petroleum coke under a steam and CO2 mixture (steam/CO2 partial pressures, 0.025–0.075 MPa; total pressures, 0.100 MPa and CO2/steam chemisorption of char samples were conducted in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA. Two conventional kinetic models exhibited difficulties in exactly fitting the experimental data of char–steam–CO2 gasification. Hence, a modified model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and assuming that char–CO2 and char–steam reactions partially shared active sites was proposed and had indicated high accuracy for estimating the interactions in char–steam–CO2 reaction. Moreover, it was found that two new model parameters (respectively characterized as the amount ratio of shared active sites to total active sites in char–CO2 and char–steam reactions in the modified model hardly varied with gasification conditions, and the results of chemisorption indicate that these two new model parameters mainly depended on the carbon active sites in char samples.

  6. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  7. Analysis of Spring Flow Change in the Jinan City under Influences of Recent Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Litang; Sun, Kangning

    2018-06-01

    Jinan city, the capital of Shandong Province in China, is famous for its beautiful springs. With the rapid development of the economy in recent years, water demand in Jinan city has been increasing rapidly. The over-exploitation of groundwater has caused a decline in groundwater level and, notably, dried up springs under extreme climate conditions. To keep the springs gushing perennially and sustainably use groundwater resources, the local government has implemented many measures to restore the water table, such as the Sponge City Construction Project in Jinan. Focusing on changes in spring flow and its impact factors in Jinan, this paper analyzes the changes in observed spring flow in the most recent 50 years and then discusses the causes of decreases in the spring flow with the consideration of climate and human activities. Spring flow in the study area was changed from the natural state to a period of multiwater source management. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to demonstrate the relationship among spring flow, precipitation, and groundwater abstraction to predict the variations of spring flow under the conditions of climate change and human activities. The good agreement between the simulated and observed results indicates that both precipitation and exploitation are important influence factors. However the effective infiltration of precipitation into groundwater is the most influential factor. The results can provide guidance for groundwater resource protection in the Jinan spring catchment.

  8. RESEARCHING FACTORS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF AGRARIAN BUSINESS OF UKRAINE UNDER GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Sidorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern processes of reforming the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine, a large part of which belongs to the agrarian sector, under the globalization of world economic processes in the agricultural market require that domestic agroindustrial enterprises improve and rationally manage innovative activities (IА. The effective solution of problems that arise in this context in the rapidly changing economic and social and political environment requires that analytical methods in the management of the enterprises of the agroindustrial complex (AIC be used on the basis of the tools of economic and mathematical modelling, taking into account characteristics of agrarian production. The main approaches to modelling systems related to IА management are either descriptive or insufficiently formalized, and suggest virtual experimenting with IA management, avoiding the possibility of assessing the impact and consequences of different management options in the long view, minimizing IA risks when making managerial decisions. The subject matter of the article is the tools of economic and mathematical simulation of the development of innovative activities of the domestic agroindustrial complex. The goal is to develop tools for modelling innovative activities of enterprises of the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine in the form of analytical dependencies of impact factors. The objective is to research the dynamics of innovative activities of enterprises of the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine in terms of its components under the globalization of world economic processes in the market of agricultural products. General scientific methods are used, such as system analysis – to determine the peculiarities of development of IА of agroindustrial production in Ukraine, factor analysis – to formalize the cause-and-effect relationships of the investigated factors of AIC enterprises impact on IA. The following results were obtained: on the basis of the analysis of the

  9. Mechanical properties of cellulose electro-active paper under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Jung, Woochul; Ampofo, Joshua; Craft, William; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) are investigated under various environmental conditions. Cellulose EAPap has been discovered as a smart material that can be used as both sensor and actuator. Its advantages include low voltage operation, light weight, low power consumption, biodegradability and low cost. EAPap is made with cellulose paper coated with thin electrodes. EAPap shows a reversible and reproducible bending movement as well as longitudinal displacement under an electric field. However, EAPap is a complex anisotropic material which has not been fully characterized. This study investigates the mechanical properties of cellulose-based EAPap, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and creep, along with orientation directions, humidity and temperature levels. To test the materials in different humidity and temperature levels, a special material testing system was made that can control the testing environmental conditions. The initial Young's modulus of EAPap is in the range of 4–9 GPa, which was higher than that of other polymer materials. Also, the Young's modulus is orientation dependent, which may be associated with the piezoelectricity of EAPap materials. The elastic strength and stiffness gradually decreased when the humidity and temperature were increased. Creep and relaxation were observed under constant stress and strain, respectively. Through scanning electron microscopy, EAPap is shown to exhibit both layered and oriented cellulose macromolecular structures that impact both the elastic and plastic behavior

  10. Evaluation of Supplementary Nutrition Activities under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS at Anganwadi Centres of Different Districts of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. The present study was conducted to assess supplementary nutrition (SN activities and its related issues at anganwadi centres. Material and methods: Total 60 anganwadi centres were selected including 46 anganwadi centres (AWCs from rural area and 14 AWCs from urban area during April 2012 to March 2013 from 12 districts of Gujarat. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information was collected related to beneficiary’s coverage for SN, type of food provided under SN, and various issues related to supplementary nutrition at anganwadi centres.Results: High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant mothers (88.3%, lactating mothers (91.7% and adolescents (86.7%. Only 25% AWCs were providing hot cooked food (HCF to 3 to 6 years children. Less than half of the AWCs were providing ready to eat (RTE food to 6 months to 3 years children (48.3%, pregnant (46.7% and lactating (46.7% mothers, and adolescents (45.0%. Total 38.3% AWCs reported shortage of SN supply, more in rural (41.3% compare to urban (28.6%. Various problems were reported by anganwadi workers related to SN like lack of storage facility, non availability of separate kitchen, poor quality of food, irregular supply, inadequate supply, and fuel problem. Conclusion: The regular and adequate supply of SN will improve the provision of hot cooked food, ready to eat food and take home ration to the beneficiaries as per the norms, leading to improvement of overall nutritional status of the community.

  11. Role of Integrated Outreach Activities in Improving Nutritional Status among Under-Five Children in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhwahi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to review the feasibility of scaling-up nutrition activities through integrated outreach activities to respond to development challenges. Evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of current packages of outreach services during the period of 2006-2014 is the aim of this review for better access to basic and social services and economic opportunities in Yemen. The two components of health system performance are related to: (i) the levels of coverage for health interventions; and (ii) financial risk protection, with a focus on equity. In this sense, Yemen's intervention coverage indicators of the health-related MDGs, such as immunization, integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI), reproductive health (RH) and disease control including non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have shown good progress. Yet, malnutrition is still highly prevalent among under-five children in the country. Coverage indicators of the outreach approach in Yemen, which started in 2006, indicate a strong role of the integrated services in reaching under-five children of the most vulnerable communities with basic health services including preventive and curative ones. As well, these activities respond to the financial risk protection challenges with enhancing efficiency in the provision of health services. Considering that nutrition is part of the package of integrated outreach services, inter-related measures of universal coverage in Yemen are to be addressed together with setting the impact indicators for essential health services coverage targeting the neediest populations. Coverage of health services encompasses the full targeted population in the most malnutrition-affected areas, especially the west coast of the country, for intervention and for the age group these services are directed to.

  12. Are the energy poor also income poor? Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach is applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The objective is to determine if the energy poor are also income poor and whether and how energy policies help reduce energy poverty, independent of income. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57% of households are energy poor, versus 22% that are income poor. But in urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28% compared to 20% that are income poor. That is, energy policies are expected to play some roles in mitigating energy poverty. We find that reducing energy poverty requires not only support for rural electrification, but also more use of modern cooking fuels such as LPG. While income growth matters, a combination of energy related programs can play an independent and substantial role in reducing energy poverty. - Highlights: ► This paper applies a new approach to measuring energy poverty to rural and urban India. ► It also compares and contrasts income poverty with energy poverty in the context of India. ► Findings suggest that income poverty tracks energy poverty in urban India, but not in rural India. ► Income growth is very important in reducing energy poverty. ► In addition, access to and reliability of modern sources (electricity, LPG) are also helpful.

  13. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  14. Photosynthesis, photoprotection and antioxidant activity of purging nut under drought deficit and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompelli, Marcelo F.; Santos, Mauro G.; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. [Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Botany, Plant Physiology Laboratory, Prof. Moraes Rego Av. s/n, Cidade Universitaria 50670901, Recife, PE (Brazil); Barata-Luis, Ricardo [Superior Institute of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Vitorino, Hermerson S.; Goncalves, Eduardo R.; Rolim, Eduardo V.; Ferreira, Vilma M.; Lemos, Eurico E.; Endres, Lauricio [Plant Physiology Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum diesel fuel. It is a renewable, a biodegradable, and also a non-toxic fuel. The general interest to produce biodiesel from Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds oil has increased but its ability to grow on drought-prone areas has barely been investigated. The objective of this work was to identify some physiological processes that allow the Jatropha to produce in severe arid conditions by studying its leaf gas exchange and antioxidant systems under drought stress and recovering. It measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenge of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutamine synthetase (GS), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. It was also analyzed the chlorophyll (CHL), carotenoids, amino acids and soluble proteins contents. Net photosynthesis (A) and stomata conductance (g{sub s}) decreased associate with drought stress and dropped to zero in soil water beneath 5%. Drought induced decrease in stomatal and non-stomatal photosynthetic activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GS and MDA content in leaves were significantly higher in the water-stressed plants compared to well-watered plants and decreased when the plants were rewatered. These observations suggest that oxidative stress resulting from drought deficit in Jatropha could result in the production of antioxidative enzymes to counteract the oxidative damage, and the enzymes may contribute to its ability to survive in the adverse arid environment. (author)

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  16. Single Machine Problem with Multi-Rate-Modifying Activities under a Time-Dependent Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The single machine scheduling problem with multi-rate-modifying activities under a time-dependent deterioration to minimize makespan is studied. After examining the characteristics of the problem, a number of properties and a lower bound are proposed. A branch and bound algorithm and a heuristic algorithm are used in the solution, and two special cases are also examined. The computational experiments show that, for the situation with a rate-modifying activity, the proposed branch and bound algorithm can solve situations with 50 jobs within a reasonable time, and the heuristic algorithm can obtain the near-optimal solution with an error percentage less than 0.053 in a very short time. In situations with multi-rate-modifying activities, the proposed branch and bound algorithm can solve the case with 15 jobs within a reasonable time, and the heuristic algorithm can obtain the near-optimal with an error percentage less than 0.070 in a very short time. The branch and bound algorithm and the heuristic algorithm are both shown to be efficient and effective.

  17. Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying its Anti-amnesic Activity in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Umukoro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amnesia or loss of memory is the cardinal hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with ageing process. Although, AD had been discovered over a century ago, drugs which could cure or halt the progression of the disease are yet to see the light of the day. However, there has been a growing interest in the use of phytomedicines with multipronged mechanisms of action that could target various aspects of the pathologies of AD. Jobelyn (JB is a potent antioxidant African polyherbal formulation with active components that have been acclaimed to show neuroprotection. This investigation was carried out to evaluate whether JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant activities. Methods: The alteration of alternation behavior in the Y-maze paradigm was utilized as the test for memory function in mice.  The effect of JB on acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed in rats as means of providing insight into the mechanism underlying its anti-amnesic activity. The animals were given JB (1, 2.5 or 5mg/kg, i.p. daily for 7 days before the biochemical assays or test for memory functions were carried out.  Results: JB was found to produce a signi.cant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a signi.cant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property.  In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it signi.cantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect against AChE activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus

  18. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  19. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  20. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe{sup +}) and sequential-beam (Fe{sup +} plus He{sup +}) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C.

  1. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  2. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  3. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  4. Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of β-Ga2O3 Nanorods under Simulated Solar Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Ga2O3 nanorods are prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra. The results reveal that high crystallinity, monoclinic phase of β-Ga2O3 nanorods were prepared with a diameter of about 60 nm and length of 500 nm. Photoluminescence study indicates that the β-Ga2O3 nanorods exhibit a broad blue light emission at room temperature. The β-Ga2O3 nanorods displayed high photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation; after 2 h irradiation, over 95% of methylene blue solution and over 90% of methyl orange solution were decolorized. Since this process does not require additional hydrogen peroxide and uses solar light, it can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to treat dye effluent.

  5. Sub-soil microbial activity under rotational cotton crops in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polain, Katherine; Knox, Oliver; Wilson, Brian; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial communities contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation, stabilisation and destabilisation, through nutrient cycling and biodegradation. The majority of soil microbial research examines the processes occurring in the top 0 cm to 30 cm of the soil, where organic nutrients are easily accessible. In soils such as Vertosols, the high clay content causes swelling and cracking. When soil cracking is coupled with rain or an irrigation event, a flush of organic nutrients can move down the soil profile, becoming available for subsoil microbial community use and potentially making a significant contribution to nutrient cycling and biodegradation in soils. At present, the mechanisms and rates of soil nutrient turnover (such as carbon and nitrogen) at depth under cotton rotations are mostly speculative and the process-response relationships remain unclear, although they are undoubtedly underpinned by microbial activity. Our research aims to determine the contribution and role of soil microbiota to the accumulation, cycling and mineralisation of carbon and nitrogen through the whole root profile under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and cotton-maize rotations in regional New South Wales, Australia. Through seasonal work, we have established both baseline and potential microbial activity rates from 0 cm to 100 cm down the Vertosol profile, using respiration and colourimetric methods. Further whole soil profile analyses will include determination of microbial biomass and isotopic carbon signatures using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methodology, identification of microbial communities (sequencing) and novel experiments to investigate potential rates of nitrogen mineralisation and quantification of associated genes. Our preliminary observations and the hypotheses tested in this three-year study will be presented.

  6. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  7. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Wang Xiaomei; Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Hongsheng; Liu Baozhong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 μg L -1 ). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  8. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED.

  9. Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder

  10. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniyandi Velusamy

    Full Text Available In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%, volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL, and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s. The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications.

  11. CFD simulation of fluid dynamic and biokinetic processes within activated sludge reactors under intermittent aeration regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F; Rey, H; Viedma, A; Nicolás-Pérez, F; Kaiser, A S; Martínez, M

    2018-08-01

    Due to the aeration system, biological reactors are the most energy-consuming facilities of convectional WWTPs. Many biological reactors work under intermittent aeration regime; the optimization of the aeration process (air diffuser layout, air flow rate per diffuser, aeration length …) is necessary to ensure an efficient performance; satisfying the effluent requirements with the minimum energy consumption. This work develops a CFD modelling of an activated sludge reactor (ASR) which works under intermittent aeration regime. The model considers the fluid dynamic and biological processes within the ASR. The biological simulation, which is transient, takes into account the intermittent aeration regime. The CFD modelling is employed for the selection of the aeration system of an ASR. Two different aeration configurations are simulated. The model evaluates the aeration power consumption necessary to satisfy the effluent requirements. An improvement of 2.8% in terms of energy consumption is achieved by modifying the air diffuser layout. An analysis of the influence of the air flow rate per diffuser on the ASR performance is carried out. The results show a reduction of 14.5% in the energy consumption of the aeration system when the air flow rate per diffuser is reduced. The model provides an insight into the aeration inefficiencies produced within ASRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO 4 2- and Ni but in negative with NH 4 + , suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  13. Bioluminescence imaging of β cells and intrahepatic insulin gene activity under normal and pathological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokio Katsumata

    Full Text Available In diabetes research, bioluminescence imaging (BLI has been applied in studies of β-cell impairment, development, and islet transplantation. To develop a mouse model that enables noninvasive imaging of β cells, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mouse in which a mouse 200-kbp genomic fragment comprising the insulin I gene drives luciferase expression (Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mouse. BLI of mice was performed using the IVIS Spectrum system after intraperitoneal injection of luciferin, and the bioluminescence signal from the pancreatic region analyzed. When compared with MIP-Luc-VU mice [FVB/N-Tg(Ins1-lucVUPwrs/J] expressing luciferase under the control of the 9.2-kbp mouse insulin I promoter (MIP, the bioluminescence emission from Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice was enhanced approximately 4-fold. Streptozotocin-treated Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice developed severe diabetes concomitant with a sharp decline in the BLI signal intensity in the pancreas. Conversely, mice fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks showed an increase in the signal, reflecting a decrease or increase in the β-cell mass. Although the bioluminescence intensity of the islets correlated well with the number of isolated islets in vitro, the intensity obtained from a living mouse in vivo did not necessarily reflect an absolute quantification of the β-cell mass under pathological conditions. On the other hand, adenovirus-mediated gene transduction of β-cell-related transcription factors in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice generated luminescence from the hepatic region for more than 1 week. These results demonstrate that BLI in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice provides a noninvasive method of imaging islet β cells and extrapancreatic activity of the insulin gene in the liver under normal and pathological conditions.

  14. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  15. Understanding the superior photocatalytic activity of noble metals modified titania under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumajdad, Ali; Madkour, Metwally

    2014-04-28

    Although TiO2 is one of the most efficient photocatalysts, with the highest stability and the lowest cost, there are drawbacks that hinder its practical applications like its wide band gap and high recombination rate of the charge carriers. Consequently, many efforts were directed toward enhancing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and extending its response to the visible region. To head off these attempts, modification of TiO2 with noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) received considerable attention due to their role in accelerating the transfer of photoexcited electrons from TiO2 and also due to the surface plasmon resonance which induces the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation. This insightful perspective is devoted to the vital role of TiO2 photocatalysis and its drawbacks that urged researchers to find solutions such as modification with NMNPs. In a coherent context, we discussed here the characteristics which qualify NMNPs to possess a great enhancement effect for TiO2 photocatalysis. Also we tried to understand the reasons behind this effect by means of photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Then the mechanism of action of NMNPs upon deposition on TiO2 is presented. Finally we introduced a survey of the behaviour of these noble metal NPs on TiO2 based on the particle size and the loading amount.

  16. Gas exchange and antioxidant activity in seedlings of C opaifera langsdorffii Desf. under different water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Derek B C J; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Cremon, Thais; Ceccon, Felipe; Dresch, Daiane M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gas exchange, efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, and antioxidant activity in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. The seedlings were cultivated under different conditions of water availability, in order to improve the utilization efficiency of available water resources. The seedlings were cultivated in four different water retention capacities (WRC- 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), and evaluated at four different time (T- 30, 60, 90, and 120 days). During the experimental period, seedlings presented the highest values for carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (A/Ci), intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE = A/gs), chlorophyll index, and stomatal opening, when grown in the substrate with 75% WRC, but the stomatal index (SI) was less the 25% WRC. The efficiency of photosystem II was not significantly altered by the treatments. Comparison between the extreme treatments in terms of water availability, represented by 25% and 100% WRC, represent stress conditions for the species. Water availability causes a high activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) in the plant.

  17. Gas exchange and antioxidant activity in seedlings of C opaifera langsdorffii Desf. under different water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREK B.C.J. ROSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate gas exchange, efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, and antioxidant activity in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. The seedlings were cultivated under different conditions of water availability, in order to improve the utilization efficiency of available water resources. The seedlings were cultivated in four different water retention capacities (WRC- 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, and evaluated at four different time (T- 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. During the experimental period, seedlings presented the highest values for carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (A/Ci, intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE = A/gs, chlorophyll index, and stomatal opening, when grown in the substrate with 75% WRC, but the stomatal index (SI was less the 25% WRC. The efficiency of photosystem II was not significantly altered by the treatments. Comparison between the extreme treatments in terms of water availability, represented by 25% and 100% WRC, represent stress conditions for the species. Water availability causes a high activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in the plant.

  18. Mycorrhizal fungi modulate phytochemical production and antioxidant activity of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) under metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, P; Wężowicz, K; Stojakowska, A; Malarz, J; Surówka, E; Sobczyk, Ł; Anielska, T; Ważny, R; Miszalski, Z; Turnau, K

    2014-10-01

    Cichorium intybus (common chicory), a perennial plant, common in anthropogenic sites, has been the object of a multitude of studies in recent years due to its high content of antioxidants utilized in pharmacy and food industry. Here, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants under toxic metal stress was studied. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and non-inoculated were grown on non-polluted and toxic metal enriched substrata. The results presented here indicate that AMF improves chicory fitness. Fresh and dry weight was found to be severely affected by the fungi and heavy metals. The concentration of hydroxycinnamates was increased in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants cultivated on non-polluted substrata, but no differences were found in plants cultivated on metal enriched substrata. The activity of SOD and H2O2 removing enzymes CAT and POX was elevated in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants regardless of the cultivation environment. Photochemical efficiency of inoculated chicory was significantly improved. Our results indicate that R. irregularis inoculation had a beneficial role in sustaining the plants ability to cope with the deleterious effects of metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of co-existing plant specie on soil microbial activity under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwuche, C. O.; Ugoji, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of plant primary compounds on the activity of soil microbial communities under heavy metal stress was studied in a pot-culture field experiment conducted in a green house. Amaranthus spinosus was cultivated in an agricultural soil previously amended in the laboratory with solutions of different trace elements in two separate treatment modes: singly and in combination. Culture-independent metabolism based indices such as the rate of carbon and nitrogen mineralization, microbial biomass carbon and soil basal respiration were monitored fortnightly over a period of six weeks. Result shows that plant detritus have significant modifying effect on soil microbe-metal interactions. Data on microbial and biochemical processes in the respective mesocosms did not vary from control; not even in mesocosms containing very high concentrations of copper, zinc and nickel. The soil microbial biomass carbon and the rate of carbon and nitrogen cycling were not impeded by the respective metal treatment while the respiration responses increased as a result of increase in metabolic activity of the soil microbes. The plant based substrates enabled the soil microflora to resist high metal contamination because of its tendency to absorb large amounts of inorganic cations.

  20. Compartmentalized Epidermal Activation of β-Catenin Differentially Affects Lineage Reprogramming and Underlies Tumor Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kretzschmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult epidermis can induce new hair follicle formation and tumor development. We used lineage tracing to uncover the relative contribution of different stem cell populations. LGR6+ and LRIG1+ stem cells contributed to ectopic hair follicles formed in the sebaceous gland upon β-catenin activation, whereas LGR5+ cells did not. Lgr6, but not Lrig1 or Lgr5, was expressed in a subpopulation of interfollicular epidermal cells that were competent to form new hair follicles. Oncogenic β-catenin expression in LGR5+ cells led to formation of pilomatricomas, while LRIG1+ cells formed trichoadenomas and LGR6+ cells formed dermatofibromas. Tumor formation was always accompanied by a local increase in dermal fibroblast density and transient extracellular matrix remodeling. However, each tumor had a distinct stromal signature in terms of immune cell infiltrate and expression of CD26 and CD44. We conclude that compartmentalization of epidermal stem cells underlies different responses to β-catenin and skin tumor heterogeneity.

  1. Activity and stability of a complex bacterial soil community under simulated Martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Merrison, Jonathan; Nørnberg, Per; Aagaard Lomstein, Bente; Finster, Kai

    2005-04-01

    A simulation experiment with a complex bacterial soil community in a Mars simulation chamber was performed to determine the effect of Martian conditions on community activity, stability and survival. At three different depths in the soil core short-term effects of Martian conditions with and without ultraviolet (UV) exposure corresponding to 8 Martian Sol were compared. Community metabolic activities and functional diversity, measured as glucose respiration and versatility in substrate utilization, respectively, decreased after UV exposure, whereas they remained unaffected by Martian conditions without UV exposure. In contrast, the numbers of culturable bacteria and the genetic diversity were unaffected by the simulated Martian conditions both with and without UV exposure. The genetic diversity of the soil community and of the colonies grown on agar plates were evaluated by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on DNA extracts. Desiccation of the soil prior to experimentation affected the functional diversity by decreasing the versatility in substrate utilization. The natural dominance of endospores and Gram-positive bacteria in the investigated Mars-analogue soil may explain the limited effect of the Mars incubations on the survival and community structure. Our results suggest that UV radiation and desiccation are major selecting factors on bacterial functional diversity in terrestrial bacterial communities incubated under simulated Martian conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that forward contamination of Mars is a matter of great concern in future space missions.

  2. Thyroid disorders in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis is associated with poor initial treatment response evaluated by disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Hangaard, Jørgen; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    peptide antibody (anti-CCP), and antinuclear antibody (ANA), and also disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein at the time of diagnosis and after 4 months (±1–2 months) of treatment initiation were extracted from Danish Danbio Registry. Patients’ electronic hospital records for the past 10...... years were reviewed to reveal if they had been diagnosed with thyroid disorders or they had abnormal thyroid test.In all, 439 patients were included, female 60.1%, mean age 64.6 ± 15.0 years and disease duration 2.6 ± 1.7 years. Prevalence of thyroid disorders was 69/439 (15.7%) and hypothyroidism...... treatment compared with patients with isolated RA after 4 months of treatment (P = .02). There were no associations between thyroid disorders and age, disease duration, and also IgM RF positivity.Presence of thyroid disorders in RA patients is suggestive of a more aggressive disease and poor outcome...

  3. Cellular variability of RpoS expression underlies subpopulation activation of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Conjugative transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICEclc in the bacterium Pseudomonas knackmussii is the consequence of a bistable decision taken in some 3% of cells in a population during stationary phase. Here we study the possible control exerted by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS on the bistability decision. The gene for RpoS in P. knackmussii B13 was characterized, and a loss-of-function mutant was produced and complemented. We found that, in absence of RpoS, ICEclc transfer rates and activation of two key ICEclc promoters (P(int and P(inR decrease significantly in cells during stationary phase. Microarray and gene reporter analysis indicated that the most direct effect of RpoS is on P(inR, whereas one of the gene products from the P(inR-controlled operon (InrR transmits activation to P(int and other ICEclc core genes. Addition of a second rpoS copy under control of its native promoter resulted in an increase of the proportion of cells expressing the P(int and P(inR promoters to 18%. Strains in which rpoS was replaced by an rpoS-mcherry fusion showed high mCherry fluorescence of individual cells that had activated P(int and P(inR, whereas a double-copy rpoS-mcherry-containing strain displayed twice as much mCherry fluorescence. This suggested that high RpoS levels are a prerequisite for an individual cell to activate P(inR and thus ICEclc transfer. Double promoter-reporter fusions confirmed that expression of P(inR is dominated by extrinsic noise, such as being the result of cellular variability in RpoS. In contrast, expression from P(int is dominated by intrinsic noise, indicating it is specific to the ICEclc transmission cascade. Our results demonstrate how stochastic noise levels of global transcription factors can be transduced to a precise signaling cascade in a subpopulation of cells leading to ICE activation.

  4. Spatiotemporal dissociation of brain activity underlying threat and reward in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Richey, John; Ghane, Merage; Valdespino, Andrew; Coffman, Marika C; Strege, Marlene V; White, Susan W; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) involves abnormalities in social motivation, which may be independent of well-documented differences in fear and arousal systems. Yet, the neurobiology underlying motivational difficulties in SAD is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to spatiotemporally dissociate reward circuitry dysfunction from alterations in fear and arousal-related neural activity during anticipation and notification of social and non-social reward and punishment. During fMRI acquisition, non-depressed adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N = 21) and age-, sex- and IQ-matched control subjects (N = 22) completed eight runs of an incentive delay task, alternating between social and monetary outcomes and interleaved in alternating order between gain and loss outcomes. Adults with SAD demonstrated significantly reduced neural activity in ventral striatum during the anticipation of positive but not negative social outcomes. No differences between the SAD and control groups were observed during anticipation of monetary gain or loss outcomes or during anticipation of negative social images. However, consistent with previous work, the SAD group demonstrated amygdala hyper-activity upon notification of negative social outcomes. Degraded anticipatory processing in bilateral ventral striatum in SAD was constrained exclusively to anticipation of positive social information and dissociable from the effects of negative social outcomes previously observed in the amygdala. Alterations in anticipation-related neural signals may represent a promising target for treatment that is not addressed by available evidence-based interventions, which focus primarily on fear extinction and habituation processes. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Bioconversion and enzymatic activities of neurospora sitophila grown under solid state and submerged fermentation on Sago Hamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaosadati, S. A.; Vikineswary, S.; Looi, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    N.Sitophila was grown under controlled conditions of solid state and submerged fermentation on Sago Hampas. The optimum conditions of protein enrichment previously established for sugar beet pulp was used for this study. Under this condition the protein content of Sago Hampas under solid state increased from 1.4 to 14.45% (W/W) whereas for Sago Hampas and Sago starch, the protein content under submerged condition increased from 1.4% (W/W) and 0.7% (W/W) to 18.56% (W/W) and 43/16% (W/W) based on dry weight of product respectively. The cellulase, a-amylase and glucoamylase activities of N.Sitophila under solid state condition on Sago Hampas were, 9.0, 0.6 and 11.8 U/g of wet fermented solid respectively. the enzymatic activities were also measured under submerged fermentation using both Sago Hampas and Sago starch as substrate

  6. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  7. Photocatalytic Activity and Optical Properties of Blue Persistent Phosphors under UV and Solar Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blue phosphorescent strontium aluminosilicate powders were prepared by combustion synthesis route and a postannealing treatments at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that phosphors are composed of two main hexagonal phases: SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al32O51. The morphology of the phosphors changed from micrograins (1000°C to a mixture of bars and hexagons (1200°C and finally to only hexagons (1300°C as the annealing temperature is increased. Photoluminescence spectra showed a strong blue-green phosphorescent emission centered at λem=455 nm, which is associated with 4f65d1→4f6  (8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+. The sample annealed at 1200°C presents the highest luminance value (40 Cd/m2 with CIE coordinates (0.1589, 0.1972. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB under UV light (at 365 nm was monitored. Samples annealed at 1000°C and 1300°C presented the highest percentage of degradation (32% and 38.5%, resp. after 360 min. In the case of photocatalytic activity under solar irradiation, the samples annealed at 1000°C, 1150°C, and 1200°C produced total degradation of MB after only 300 min. Hence, the results obtained with solar photocatalysis suggest that our powders could be useful for water cleaning in water treatment plants.

  8. Electrical conductivity of activated carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites under compression: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2014-12-07

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal oxide (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) precursors, two series of AC-metal oxide nanocomposites were prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 °C, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in an inert atmosphere. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The DC electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays suggest that the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density were relatively small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most nanocomposites. In contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the intrinsic conductivity, mean crystallite size, content and chemical nature of the supported phases, which ultimately depend on the metal oxide precursor and heat treatment temperature. The supported nanoparticles may be considered to act as electrical switches either hindering or favouring the effective electron transport between the AC cores of neighbouring composite particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values as a rule were lower for the nanocomposites than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of semiconductor materials. With the increase in heat treatment temperature, the trend is toward the improvement of conductivity due to the increase in the crystallite size and, in some cases, to the formation of metals in the elemental state and even metal carbides. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure

  9. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva D. Bhatter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome, Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf, Piper nigrum L. (seed, and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549 infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity.

  10. Electrical conductivity of metal (hydr)oxide–activated carbon composites under compression. A comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A., E-mail: adrianbogeat@unex.es [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Alexandre-Franco, M.; Fernández-González, C. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Sánchez-González, J. [Department of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Gómez-Serrano, V. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal (hydr)oxide precursors, including Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, SnCl{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, a broadly varied series of metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites were prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent oven-drying at 120 °C. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The dc electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays show that the mechanical properties of the composites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density under compression were very small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most composites. By contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the nature, content and intrinsic conductivity of the supported metal phases, which act as insulating thin layers thereby hindering the effective electron transport between AC cores of neighbouring sample particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values for the composites were lower than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of typical semiconductor materials. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure effects rather than the volume ones. - Highlights: • Pressure-dependent conductivity is studied for metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites. • Mechanical properties of the composites are essentially determined by AC. • Supported metal (hydr)oxides determine the bulk conductivity of the composites. • Metal (hydr)oxides act as insulating thin layers hindering the

  11. Analysis of Microbial Activity Under a Supercritical CO{sub 2} Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Janelle

    2012-11-30

    Because the extent and impact of microbial activity in deep saline aquifers during geologic sequestration is unknown, the objectives of this proposal were to: (1) characterize the growth requirements and optima of a biofilm-producing supercritical CO{sub 2}-tolerant microbial consortium (labeled MIT0212) isolated from hydrocarbons recovered from the Frio Ridge, TX carbon sequestration site; (2) evaluate the ability of this consortium to grow under simulated reservoir conditions associated with supercritical CO{sub 2} injection; (3) isolate and characterize individual microbial strains from this consortium; and (4) investigate the mechanisms of supercritical CO{sub 2} tolerance in isolated strains and the consortium through genome-enabled studies. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in the consortium MIT0212 revealed a predominance of sequences closely related to species of the spore-forming genus Bacillus. Strain MIT0214 was isolated from this consortium and characterized by physiological profiling and genomic analysis. We have shown that the strain MIT0214 is an aerobic spore-former and capable of facultative anaerobic growth under both reducing N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmospheres by fermentation and possibly anaerobic respiration. Strain MIT0214 is best adapted to anaerobic growth at pressures of 1 atm but is able to growth at elevated pressures After 1 week growth was observed at pressures as high as 27 atm (N{sub 2}) or 9 atm (CO{sub 2}) and after 26-30 days growth can be observed under supercritical CO{sub 2}. In addition, we have determined that spores of strain B. cereus MIT0214 are tolerant of both direct and indirect exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. Additional physiological characterization under aerobic conditions have revealed MIT0214 is able to grow from temperature of 21 to 45 °C and salinities 0.01 to 40 g/L NaCl with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and from 1 - 5 g NaCl/L. The genome sequence of B. cereus MIT0214 shared 89 to 91% of genes

  12. The Nuclear Safeguards and Security Activities under Euratom Research and Training Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abousahl, S.; Palajova, Z.; Janssens, W.A.M.; Luetzenkirchen, K.; Goncalves, J.G.M.; Aregbe, Y.; )

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards and security are absolute priorities for the EU. At technical level, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) as the European Commission's in-house science service plays an important role in the field of nuclear research, training and education that include nuclear safety, safeguards and security. The JRC's nuclear research activities are defined in a Council Regulation on the research and training programme of the European Atomic Energy Community. The JRC works closely with EC safeguards authority, whose mission is to ensure that nuclear material within the EU is not diverted from its intended use according to Euratom treaty. Technologies, methodologies and trainings are developed according to the Euratom Safeguards inspectorate's needs. In the area of nuclear security, the JRC contributes to the development of specific expertise in the field of nuclear forensics and border security detection as well as related training efforts for first front-line responders and national experts. The JRC provides its expert support for the implementation of internal EU action plans mainly in the field of radiological and nuclear security. At an international level, the JRC cooperates with the IAEA mainly through the EC support programme on the control of nuclear materials and facilities in order to avoid proliferation or diversion. Close cooperation with IAEA nuclear security is developed through the recent signature of a dedicated practical arrangement. Key partnerships have also been developed in the field of safeguards and security with the US-DoE, Russia, Japan and China. In addition, JRC contributes significantly to the EU nuclear safeguards and security outreach activities implemented under the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation and Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace. In this paper we will highlight some of the JRC contributions to the enhancement of nuclear safeguards and security at EU and international levels. (author)

  13. 34 CFR 403.150 - What activities does the Secretary support under the Consumer and Homemaking Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the...; (ix) Conserving limited resources; (x) Understanding the impact of new technology on life and work... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary support under the...

  14. 49 CFR 17.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 17.6 Section 17.6 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.6 What...

  15. Brutality under cover of ambiguity: activating, perpetuating, and deactivating covert retributivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    Five studies tested four hypotheses on the drivers of punitive judgments. Study 1 showed that people imposed covertly retributivist physical punishments on extreme norm violators when they could plausibly deny that is what they were doing (attributional ambiguity). Studies 2 and 3 showed that covert retributivism could be suppressed by subtle accountability manipulations that cue people to the possibility that they might be under scrutiny. Studies 4 and 5 showed how covert retributivism can become self-sustaining by biasing the lessons people learn from experience. Covert retributivists did not scale back punitiveness in response to feedback that the justice system makes false-conviction errors but they did ramp up punitiveness in response to feedback that the system makes false-acquittal errors. Taken together, the results underscore the paradoxical nature of covert retributivism: It is easily activated by plausible deniability and persistent in the face of false-conviction feedback but also easily deactivated by minimalist forms of accountability. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Is anatomic complexity associated with renal tumor growth kinetics under active surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrazin, Reza; Smaldone, Marc C; Egleston, Brian; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Concodora, Charles W; Ito, Timothy K; Abbosh, Philip H; Chen, David Y T; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Linear growth rate (LGR) is the most commonly employed trigger for definitive intervention in patients with renal masses managed with an initial period of active surveillance (AS). Using our institutional cohort, we explored the association between tumor anatomic complexity at presentation and LGR in patients managed with AS. Enhancing renal masses managed expectantly for at least 6 months were included for analysis. The association between Nephrometry Score and LGR was assessed using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the age, Charlson score, race, sex, and initial tumor size. Overall, 346 patients (401 masses) met the inclusion criteria (18% ≥ cT1b), with a median follow-up of 37 months (range: 6-169). Of these, 44% patients showed progression to definitive intervention with a median duration of 27 months (range: 6-130). On comparing patients managed expectantly to those requiring intervention, no difference was seen in median tumor size at presentation (2.2 vs. 2.2 cm), whereas significant differences in median age (74 vs. 65 y, P anatomic tumor complexity at presentation and renal masses of LGR of clinical stage 1 under AS may afford a clinically useful cue to tailor individual patient radiographic surveillance schedules and warrants further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lightning under water: Diverse reactive environments and evidence of synergistic effects for material treatment and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Bazaka, Kateryna; Baranov, Oleg; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Nomine, Alexandre; Belmonte, Thierry; Xu, Shuyan

    2018-06-01

    This focused review aims to reveal and illustrate some unique features of processes triggered by high-density energy applied to liquids and gas-liquid interfaces and to highlight a wide spectrum of their technological applications capable of producing various advantageous effects, ranging from nanosynthesis to biological and medical applications. Plasma, electric discharges, laser, and ultrasound power effects were selected as representative examples of high-density energy and liquid interactions, yet the available possibilities are not limited by these quite different types of power and thus the reader could extrapolate the outlined features and effects to other kinds of powerful impacts. The basic physical mechanisms are briefly reviewed with the aim to familiarize the readers with the potential capabilities of high-density energy processes in liquids. These will be of direct interest to researchers tasked with the development, optimization, and characterization of processes and highly reactive environments for highly controlled transformation of matter in abiotic and biological systems. It could also be highly useful for under- and post-graduate students specializing in the related fields and general physical audience involved in various plasma, materials, energy conversion, and other concurrent research activities.

  19. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal model (activity-based anorexia, ABA). Female rats had 24 h/day running wheel access and received reduced food intake until a 25% weight reduction was reached and maintained for 2 weeks. In ABA rats, the volumes of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum were significantly reduced compared to controls by 6% and 9%, respectively. The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes in these regions decreased by 39% and 23%, total astrocyte-covered area by 83% and 63%. In neurons no changes were observed. The findings were complemented by a 60% and 49% reduction in astrocyte (GFAP) mRNA expression. Volumetric brain changes in ABA animals mirror those in human AN patients. These alterations are associated with a reduction of GFAP-positive astrocytes as well as GFAP expression. Reduced astrocyte functioning could help explain neuronal dysfunctions leading to symptoms of rigidity and impaired learning. Astrocyte loss could constitute a new research target for understanding and treating semi-starvation and AN.

  20. Semi-active control of monopile offshore wind turbines under multi-hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper studies the control of monopile offshore wind turbines subjected to multi-hazards consisting of wind, wave and earthquake. A Semi-active tuned mass damper (STMD) with tunable natural frequency and damping ratio is introduced to control the dynamic response. A new fully coupled analytical model of the monopile offshore wind turbine with an STMD is established. The aerodynamic, hydrodynamic and seismic loading models are derived. Soil effects and damage are considered. The National Renewable Energy Lab monopile 5 MW baseline wind turbine model is employed to examine the performance of the STMD. A passive tuned mass damper (TMD) is utilized for comparison. Through numerical simulation, it is found that before damage occurs, the wind and wave induced response is more dominant than the earthquake induced response. With damage presence in the tower and the foundation, the nacelle and the tower response is increased dramatically and the natural frequency is decreased considerably. As a result, the passive TMD with fixed parameters becomes off-tuned and loses its effectiveness. In comparison, the STMD retuned in real-time demonstrates consistent effectiveness in controlling the dynamic response of the monopile offshore wind turbines under multi-hazards and damage with a smaller stroke.

  1. Behavior of Jatropha curcas L. seeds under osmotic stress: germination and cell cycle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Dantas de Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is an oil-rich Euphorbiaceae seed species renowned for its apparent tolerance to environmental stresses. It is considered a promising source of renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in the Brazilian semiarid region where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to proper seed and plant behavior under water restrictive conditions. This study describes physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds imbibed in water restriction conditions by means of osmotic stress or osmoconditioning. Seeds were characterized by size, weight, moisture content and dry mass, germinability, and cell cycle activation by means of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton accumulation. Osmoconditioning at -0.8 MPa did not induce priming effects as it did not improve the physiological quality of the seed lots. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis revealed an increasing accumulation of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton in seeds imbibed in water for 48h onwards, culminating in the onset of mitotic configurations after germination. Only cortical microtubules were observed during seed osmoconditioning, whereas mitotic microtubules only occurred after re-imbibition of osmoconditioned seeds in water and subsequent germination.

  2. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  3. [Response of soil hydrolase and oxidoreductase activities to free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) under rice-wheat rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie

    2004-06-01

    This paper studied the response of soil urease, phosphatase, arylsulphatase and dehydrogenase to 200 micromol x mol(-1) CO2 elevation under rice-wheat rotation. The results showed that under CO2 elevation, the urease activity in 0-10 cm soil layer was decreased at the early growth stages of wheat but increased at its booting stage; the activity increased at the early growth stages of rice but decreased at its ripening stage. Phosphatase activity was increased during the whole growth period of wheat; the activity increased at the tillering stage of rice but decreased at its later growth stages. Arylsulphatase activity was decreased at the over-wintering and booting stages of wheat but increased at its tillering and ripening stages. Dehydrogenase activity was decreased at the early growth stages of wheat and rice, but increased at their late growth stages.

  4. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  5. Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3/MEKK3) overexpression is an early event in esophageal tumorigenesis and is a predictor of poor disease prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Raghibul; Sharma, Rinu; Saraya, Anoop; Chattopadhyay, Tushar K; DattaGupta, Siddartha; Walfish, Paul G; Chauhan, Shyam S; Ralhan, Ranju

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase3 (MAP3K3/MEKK3) was identified to be differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using cDNA microarrays by our laboratory. Here in we determined the clinical significance of MEKK3 in ESCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of MEKK3 expression was carried out in archived tissue sections from 93 ESCCs, 47 histologically normal and 61 dysplastic esophageal tissues and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease prognosis over up to 7.5 years for ESCC patients. MEKK3 expression was significantly increased in esophageal dysplasia and ESCC in comparison with normal mucosa (p trend < 0.001). Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed significantly reduced median disease free survival median DFS = 10 months in patients with MEKK3 positive ESCCs compared to patients with no immunopositivity (median DFS = 19 months, p = 0.04). ESCC patients with MEKK3 positive and lymph node positive tumors had median DFS = 9 months, as compared to median DFS = 21 months in patients who did not show the alterations (p = 0.01). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, combination of MEKK3 overexpression and node positivity [p = 0.015, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.082, 95% CI = 1.154 - 3.756] emerged as important predictor of reduced disease free survival and poor prognosticator for ESCC patients. Alterations in MEKK3 expression occur in early stages of development of ESCC and are sustained during disease progression; MEKK3 in combination with lymph node positivity has the potential to serve as adverse prognosticator in ESCC

  6. Disruption of Relational Processing Underlies Poor Memory for Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2015-01-01

    McDaniel and Bugg (2008) proposed that relatively uncommon stimuli and encoding tasks encourage elaborative encoding of individual items (item-specific processing), whereas relatively typical or common encoding tasks encourage encoding of associations among list items (relational processing). It is this relational processing that is thought to…

  7. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in children under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data generated by questionnaire and anthropometric indices were used to construct a logistic regression model, taking into account hierarchical relationships of risk factors to determine the odds of a child being stunted, underweight or overweight. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Factors ...

  8. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in children under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-25

    Jun 25, 2010 ... 35% of the total South African population.10 In 1995, the South ... is likely to provide better estimates of child malnutrition levels. Both the EC and KZN provinces had an average breastfeeding rate of 78% ... In the original study, a stratified random sample of 4 000 children ..... For attainment of optimal.

  9. Separation of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protein activities; identification of mutants that retain efficient self-processing activity but poorly induce eIF4G cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su Hua; Belsham, Graham J

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus is a picornavirus and its RNA genome encodes a large polyprotein. The N-terminal part of this polyprotein is the leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed Lpro. The virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis within infected cells. This results from the Lpro-dependent cleavage of the cellular translation initiation factor eIF4G. Lpro also releases itself from the virus capsid precursor by cleaving the L/P1 junction. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the Lpro coding sequence, we have investigated the role of 51 separate amino acid residues in the functions of this protein. These selected residues either are highly conserved or are charged and exposed on the protein surface. Using transient expression assays, within BHK-21 cells, it was found that residues around the active site (W52, L53 and A149) of Lpro and others located elsewhere (K38, K39, R44, H138 and W159) are involved in the induction of eIF4G cleavage but not in the processing of the L/P1 junction. Modified viruses, encoding such amino acid substitutions within Lpro, can replicate in BHK-21 cells but did not grow well in primary bovine thyroid cells. This study characterizes mutant viruses that are deficient in blocking host cell responses to infection (e.g. interferon induction) and can assist in the rational design of antiviral agents targeting this process and in the production of attenuated viruses.

  10. Dynamics of brain activity underlying working memory for music in a naturalistic condition

    OpenAIRE

    Burunat Pérez, Iballa

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is at the core of any cognitive function as it is necessary for the integration of information over time. Despite WM’s critical role in high-level cognitive functions, its implementation in the neural tissue is poorly understood. Preliminary studies on auditory WM show differences between linguistic and musical memory, leading to the speculation of specific neural networks encoding memory for music. Moreover, in neuroscience WM has not been studied in naturalistic listenin...

  11. The equine herpesvirus-1 IR3 gene that lies antisense to the sole immediate-early (IE) gene is trans-activated by the IE protein, and is poorly expressed to a protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Chul; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Kim, Seong K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The unique IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is expressed as a late 1.0-kb transcript. Previous studies confirmed the IR3 transcription initiation site and tentatively identified other cis-acting elements specific to IR3 such as a TATA box, a 443 base pair 5'untranslated region (UTR), a 285 base pair open reading frame (ORF), and a poly adenylation (A) signal [Holden, V.R., Harty, R.N., Yalamanchili, R.R., O'Callaghan, D.J., 1992. The IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene regulated by sequences within the intron of the immediate-early gene. DNA Seq. 3, 143-152]. Transient transfection assays revealed that the IR3 promoter is strongly trans-activated by the IE protein (IEP) and that coexpression of the IEP with the early EICP0 and IR4 regulatory proteins results in maximal trans-activation of the IR3 promoter. Gel shift assays revealed that the IEP directly binds to the IR3 promoter region. Western blot analysis showed that the IR3 protein produced in E. coli was detected by antibodies to IR3 synthetic peptides; however, the IR3 protein was not detected in EHV-1 infected cell extracts by these same anti-IR3 antibodies, even though the IR3 transcript was detected by northern blot. These findings suggest that the IR3 may not be expressed to a protein. Expression of an IR3/GFP fusion gene was not observed, but expression of a GFP/IR3 fusion gene was detected by fluorescent microscopy. In further attempts to detect the IR3/GFP fusion protein using anti-GFP antibody, western blot analysis showed that the IR3/GFP fusion protein was not detected in vivo. Interestingly, a truncated form of the GFP/IR3 protein was synthesized from the GFP/IR3 fusion gene. However, GFP/IR3 and IR3/GFP fusion proteins of the predicted sizes were synthesized by in vitro coupled transcription and translation of the fusion genes, suggesting poor expression of the IR3 protein in vivo. The possible role of the IR3 transcript in EHV-1 infection is discussed

  12. Pentagalloyl glucose increases elastin deposition, decreases reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinase activity in pulmonary fibroblasts under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasaram, Vaideesh; Nosoudi, Nasim; Chowdhury, Aniqa; Vyavahare, Naren

    2018-04-30

    Emphysema is characterized by degradation of lung alveoli that leads to poor airflow in lungs. Irreversible elastic fiber degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity leads to loss of elasticity and drives the progression of this disease. We investigated if a polyphenol, pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can increase elastin production in pulmonary fibroblasts. We also studied the effect of PGG treatment in reducing MMP activity and ROS levels in cells. We exposed rat pulmonary fibroblasts to two different types of inflammatory environments i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to mimic the disease. Parameters like lysyl oxidase (LOX) and elastin gene expression, MMP-9 activity in the medium, lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity and ROS levels were studied to assess the effect of PGG on pulmonary fibroblasts. CSE inhibited lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity that resulted in a decreased elastin formation. Similarly, TNF-α treated cells showed less elastin in the cell layers. Both these agents caused increase in MMP activity and ROS levels in cells. However, when supplemented with PGG treatment along with these two inflammatory agents, we saw a significant increase in elastin deposition, reduction in both MMP activity and ROS levels. Thus PGG, which has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant properties coupled with its ability to aid in elastic fiber formation, can be a multifunctional drug to potentially arrest the progression of emphysema. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  14. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, W.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO 3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO 2 -containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu 2 O 3 . By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO 3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  15. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  16. Energy poor or fuel poor: What are the differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kang; Lloyd, Bob; Liang, Xiao-Jie; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Energy poverty and fuel poverty are descriptors of problems of households' energy consumption, they are both distinct problems and have been addressed by many researchers, organizations and governments. Cross use of the terms of energy poverty and fuel poverty in published papers is common. As an accurate descriptor is the presupposition of research and policy development, especially for those who just started to pay attention to this issue, this paper compares the definitions, research priorities, status quo, and problems of these two concepts, and summarizes the relationship between them. The paper suggests that only when the research targets are households who are living in a cold climate and have difficulty in getting access to electricity or modern cooking facilities, and in supplying indoor heating with appropriate cost, the concepts of energy poverty and fuel poverty have the chance to be broadened and mutually integrated. - Highlights: • Address energy poverty and fuel poverty simultaneously. • Compare energy poverty and fuel poverty from 4 perspectives. • Summarize the relationship between energy poverty and fuel poverty. • Divide energy poor and fuel poor into three categories

  17. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  18. Neural activity changes underlying the working memory deficit in alpha-CaMKII heterozygous knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Matsuo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII is expressed abundantly in the forebrain and is considered to have an essential role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previously, we reported that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of α-CaMKII (α-CaMKII+/- have profoundly dysregulated behaviors including a severe working memory deficit, which is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In addition, we found that almost all the neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG of the mutant mice failed to mature at molecular, morphological and electrophysiological levels. In the present study, to identify the brain substrates of the working memory deficit in the mutant mice, we examined the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs, c-Fos and Arc, in the brain after a working memory version of the eight-arm radial maze test. c-Fos expression was abolished almost completely in the DG and was reduced significantly in neurons in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, central amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. However, c-Fos expression was intact in the entorhinal and visual cortices. Immunohistochemical studies using arc promoter driven dVenus transgenic mice demonstrated that arc gene activation after the working memory task occurred in mature, but not immature neurons in the DG of wild-type mice. These results suggest crucial insights for the neural circuits underlying spatial mnemonic processing during a working memory task and suggest the involvement of α-CaMKII in the proper maturation and integration of DG neurons into these circuits.

  19. Modulation of attention network activation under antidepressant agents in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Heiko; Abler, Birgit; Hartmann, Antonie; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While antidepressants are supposed to exert similar effects on mood and drive via various mechanisms of action, diverging effects are observed regarding side-effects and accordingly on neural correlates of motivation, emotion, reward and salient stimuli processing as a function of the drugs impact on neurotransmission. In the context of erotic stimulation, a unidirectional modulation of attentional functioning despite opposite effects on sexual arousal has been suggested for the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine and the selective dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake-inhibitor (SDNRI) bupropion. To further elucidate the effects of antidepressant-related alterations of neural attention networks, we investigated 18 healthy males under subchronic administration (7 d) of paroxetine (20 mg), bupropion (150 mg) and placebo within a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during an established preceding attention task. Neuropsychological effects beyond the fMRI-paradigm were assessed by measuring alertness and divided attention. Comparing preceding attention periods of salient vs. neutral pictures, we revealed congruent effects of both drugs vs. placebo within the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, anterior insula and the thalamus. Relatively decreased activation in this network was paralleled by slower reaction times in the divided attention task in both verum conditions compared to placebo. Our results suggest similar effects of antidepressant treatments on behavioural and neural attentional functioning by diverging neurochemical pathways. Concurrent alterations of brain regions within a fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular attention network for top-down control could point to basic neural mechanisms of antidepressant action irrespective of receptor profiles.

  20. Effect of termite activity on soil under different land management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Barreto Alves Pinheiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mound-building termites are important agents of soil bioperturbation, but these species have not been extensively studied thus far. The present study aimed to evaluate the soil particle-size and the chemical attributes of termite mounds and the surrounding soil under different land use strategies. A one-hectare plot was defined for an unmanaged degraded pasture, planted pasture, and for a eucalyptus Corymbia citriodora plantation. In each plot, the top, center, and base sections of five Cornitermes cumulans mounds, and the surrounding soil at the depths of 0-5; 5-10; 10-20 cm, were sampled in the Pinheiral, Rio de Janeiro state. In the three areas, the center of the mounds contained higher clay content, organic carbon, phosphorous, calcium and magnesium, total bases, and cation exchangeable capacity, when compared to the top, base, and the surrounding soils. However, the center had lower values of exchangeable acidity and potassium, of the three areas. In the eucalyptus plantation, the values of pH, total bases, calcium, and magnesium were lower, whereas aluminum, exchangeable acidity, sodium, and cation exchange capacity were higher both in the mounds and in the surrounding soil, in relation to the pastures. There were no differences among the three areas in terms of organic carbon, potassium, phosphorous, and total bases, in the mounds and adjacent soil. Thus, the termite activity altered the clay content and most of the soil chemical properties in all of the studied areas, but only for the center of the mounds. However, the effect of these organisms was different in the eucalyptus plantation in relation to the pasture areas.

  1. Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Могилатов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  3. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA) to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration) could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG)) were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  4. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle (Xc, which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP, is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx to zeaxanthin (Zx via antheraxanthin (Ax. However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  5. 78 FR 44620 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... (OMB) for review and comment. The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its... August 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Piazza, National Highway Traffic Safety... criminal prosecutions under 49 U.S.C. 30170, given the lack of prosecutions under the statute to date...

  6. Differences in autonomic physiological responses between good and poor inductive reasoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, C; van Boxtel, A

    2001-11-01

    We investigated individual- and task-related differences in autonomic physiological responses induced by time limited figural and verbal inductive reasoning tasks. In a group of 52 participants, the percentage of correctly responded task items was evaluated together with nine different autonomic physiological response measures and respiration rate (RR). Weighted multidimensional scaling analyses of the physiological responses revealed three underlying dimensions, primarily characterized by RR, parasympathetic, and sympathetic activity. RR and sympathetic activity appeared to be relatively more important response dimensions for poor reasoners, whereas parasympathetic responsivity was relatively more important for good reasoners. These results suggest that poor reasoners showed higher levels of cognitive processing intensity than good reasoners. Furthermore, for the good reasoners, the dimension of sympathetic activity was relatively more important during the figural than during the verbal reasoning task, which was explained in terms of hemispheric lateralization in autonomic function.

  7. [The study on metabolic difference of human body affected by active stress and passive stress under special events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-hong; Gu, Feng; Dong, Zhen-nan; Yuan, Xin-hong; Wang, Ling; Tian, Ya-ping

    2010-05-01

    To study the metabolic difference of body influenced by active stress and passive stress under special events. To detect serum multiple biochemistry index of 57 earthquake rescue medical team and 13 victims of a natural calamity in Wenchuan earthquake by using Hitachi 7600 automatic analyzer. Stress affected biochemistry index deeply. To compared with rescue medical team, the serum ADA, ALP and TG of victims increased obviously and TP, ALB, MAO, Cr, UA, K, Na, Cl, Ca, ApoA1 and HDL decreased obviously. Many biochemistry index have been changed under stress and it relate with stress extent. The human body function status was better in active stress than in passive stress.

  8. Nitrogenase activity of Herbaspirillum seropedicae grown under low iron levels requires the products of nifXorf1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Giseli; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; de Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, M Geoffrey; Rigo, Liu Un

    2003-07-29

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae strains mutated in the nifX or orf1 genes showed 90% or 50% reduction in nitrogenase activity under low levels of iron or molybdenum respectively. Mutations in nifX or orf1 genes did not affect nif gene expression since a nifH::lacZ fusion was fully active in both mutants. nifX and the contiguous gene orf1 are essential for maximum nitrogen fixation under iron limitation and are probably involved in synthesis of nitrogenase iron or iron-molybdenum clusters.

  9. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  10. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  11. Transformation of the Terminological Apparatus of Economic Development of Innovation Activity under Conditions of Dynamic Changes in the External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharko Margarita V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the content interpretation of categorical concepts of economic development of production functioning under conditions of dynamic changes in the exploitation of the external environment. The article presents the author’s interpretation of the concepts of economic development and economic growth under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment. The urgency of unification and systematization of the main interpretations of economic growth as a means of choosing and using certain management solutions under specific production conditions is substantiated. Based on the construction of the Ishikawa diagram, the reasons and difficulties of the economic growth of enterprises are graded. The conditions and factors of the conceptual apparatus of innovation activity under uncertainty are structured. It is shown that the complex application of iterative methods and methods of factor analysis provides a holistic perception of the dominant tendencies of economic development under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment.

  12. Local increase of anticyclonic wave activity over northern Eurasia under amplified Arctic warming: WAVE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO ARCTIC MELTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Daokai [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sun, Lantao [CIRES, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; PSD, ESRL, NOAA, Boulder Colorado USA; Chen, Gang [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles California USA; Zhang, Yaocun [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China

    2017-04-10

    In an attempt to resolve the controversy as to whether Arctic sea ice loss leads to more mid-latitude extremes, a metric of finite-amplitude wave activity is adopted to quantify the midlatitude wave activity and its change during the observed period of the drastic Arctic sea ice decline in both ERA Interim reanalysis data and a set of AMIP-type of atmospheric model experiments. Neither the experiment with the trend in the SST or that with the declining trend of Arctic sea ice can simulate the sizable midlatitude-wide reduction in the total wave activity (Ae) observed in the reanalysis, leaving its explanation to the atmospheric internal variability. On the other hand, both the diagnostics of the flux of the local wave activity and the model experiments lend evidence to a possible linkage between the sea ice loss near the Barents and Kara seas and the increasing trend of anticyclonic local wave activity over the northern part of the central Eurasia and the associated impacts on the frequency of temperature extremes.

  13. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  14. 75 FR 38096 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

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    2010-07-01

    ... (Board) under OMB delegated authority, as per 5 CFR 1320.16 (OMB Regulations on Controlling Paperwork... collection beyond what is made publicly available, no confidentiality issue arises with regard to the FR 4102...

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    2010-02-03

    ... applicable in the jurisdiction in which that person is located. In essence, a petitioner under Regulation 30... defined by the Paperwork Reduction Act. In compliance with the Act, the Commission, through this...

  16. 75 FR 6637 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for New Collection-3038-NEW, Registration Under...

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    2010-02-10

    ... applicable in the jurisdiction in which that person is located. In essence, a petitioner under Regulation 30... information as defined by the Paperwork Reduction Act. In compliance with the Act, the Commission, through...

  17. 77 FR 73736 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements: Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light vehicles since 1978 under the statutory authority of the Energy... saved at the pump due to improvements in fuel economy. With the 2017-2025 MY light-duty vehicle CAFE...

  18. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  19. Investigation of Adsorption Thermodynamics on Removal of Reactive Blue 19 onto Activated Carbon under Ultrasonic Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayan, E.; Nuri, O.; Edecan, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption thermodynamics of reactive blue 19, which is commonly used in textile industry, has been studied onto activated carbon. The adsorption experiments have been carried out using combined ultrasound/activated carbon. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium parameter, RL indicates that adsorption of reactive blue 19 onto activated carbon is favorable for all the concentrations studied. Thermodynamics parameters, Gads, Hads, Sads have also been calculated from the slope and intercept of the plot of ln Kd vs. 1/T. The thermodynamic parameters studied show that the adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 onto activated carbon is endothermic. (author)

  20. 77 FR 30291 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ..., partnerships, interests conferring ownership rights, participating loans), binding commitments, capital contributions, and subordinated debt; the amount of the investment; the percentage ownership; activities...

  1. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enterprise zone vouchering services, (4) Active participation in local business resource centers (incubators... employers for the purpose of placement of WIA participants; (2) Participation in business associations (such as chambers of commerce); joint labor management committees, labor associations, and resource centers...

  2. 28 CFR 30.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 30.6 Section 30.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... consult with local elected officials. (b) Each state that adopts a process shall notify the Attorney...

  3. 20 CFR 669.680 - What activities and services may be provided under the MSFW youth program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the MSFW youth program? 669.680 Section 669.680 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... provide activities and services to MSFW youth that include: (1) Intensive services and training services... interpersonal skills development; (3) Community service projects; (4) Small business development technical...

  4. 76 FR 44089 - Agency Information Collection (Offer To Purchase and Contract of Sale) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Purchase and Contract of Sale) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the... Purchase and Contract of Sale, VA Form 26-6705. b. Credit Statement of Prospective Purchaser, VA Form 26...

  5. 20 CFR 641.335 - How should the Governor address the coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM The State Senior Employment Services Coordination Plan § 641.335 How... Agencies on Aging in the State and the State and Local Boards established under title I of WIA. (OAA sec... State Plan must describe the steps being taken to ensure that the SCSEP is an active partner in each One...

  6. 34 CFR 426.5 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Program for Model Consumer and Homemaking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the impact of new technology on life and work; (k) Applying consumer and homemaking education skills... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary fund under the Program for Model Consumer and Homemaking Education Projects? 426.5 Section 426.5 Education Regulations of...

  7. CNET and APT : a comparison of two methods for measuring mental representations underlying activity-travel choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeni, O.; Arentze, T.A.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and compares the potential of online versions of two interview techniques (APT and CNET) which have been developed for measuring mental representations underlying activity-travel choices. The comparison is based on the results of a first online survey administered in the

  8. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  9. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  10. 77 FR 26824 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Submission of Audit Reports-Part 248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Submission of Audit Reports.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0004. Title: Submission of Audit Reports--Part 248. Form No...: BTS collects independent audited financial reports from U.S. certificated air carriers. Carriers not...

  11. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activ...

  12. 78 FR 6107 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Derivatives Market Activity (FR 3036; OMB No. 7100-0285). The FR 2436 collects similar data on the outstanding... of Foreign Exchange and Derivative Market Activity. Agency form number: FR 3036. OMB control number... and derivatives market and dealers. Estimated annual reporting hours: Turnover Survey, 2,275 hours...

  13. Influence of adhesion to activated carbon particles on the viability of waterborne pathogenic bacteria under flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Jager, Debbie; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2008-01-01

    In rural areas around the world, people often rely on water filtration plants using activated carbon particles for safe water supply. Depending on the carbon surface, adhering microorganisms die or grow to form a biofilm. Assays to assess the efficacy of activated carbons in bacterial removal do not

  14. Design and analysis of active power control strategies for distributed generation inverters under unbalanced grid faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed power generation systems are expected to deliver active power into the grid and support it without interruption during unbalanced grid faults. Aiming to provide grid-interfacing inverters the flexibility to adapt to the coming change of grid requirements, an optimised active power

  15. 75 FR 21008 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Biotechnology Activities (OBA) published a proposal to revise the NIH Guidelines for Research with Recombinant... by fax to 301-496-9839 or mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of...

  16. 78 FR 12074 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Actions Under the NIH Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... recommendations of the RAC, the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) concluded that more specific guidance... address or by fax at 301-496-9839 or by mail to the Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  17. 76 FR 62816 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology.... SUMMARY: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) is updating Appendix B of the NIH Guidelines to... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2011-26224 Filed 10-7-11; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  18. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... rodent). On July 20, 2010 the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) published a proposed action... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, MSC 7985, Bethesda...

  19. 75 FR 28811 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Yersinia pestis has been submitted to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) by the Institutional... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-12453 Filed 5-21-10; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  20. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment services, job retention services, unsubsidized employment, subsidized public or private sector..., alternative education, post secondary education, job readiness activity, job search, job skills training, training and employment activities, job development and placement, on-the-job training (OJT), employer work...

  1. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  2. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siczek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  3. Drug-like properties and the causes of poor solubility and poor permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, C A

    2000-01-01

    There are currently about 10000 drug-like compounds. These are sparsely, rather than uniformly, distributed through chemistry space. True diversity does not exist in experimental combinatorial chemistry screening libraries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and chemical reactivity-related toxicity is low, while biological receptor activity is higher dimensional in chemistry space, and this is partly explainable by evolutionary pressures on ADME to deal with endobiotics and exobiotics. ADME is hard to predict for large data sets because current ADME experimental screens are multi-mechanisms, and predictions get worse as more data accumulates. Currently, screening for biological receptor activity precedes or is concurrent with screening for properties related to "drugability." In the future, "drugability" screening may precede biological receptor activity screening. The level of permeability or solubility needed for oral absorption is related to potency. The relative importance of poor solubility and poor permeability towards the problem of poor oral absorption depends on the research approach used for lead generation. A "rational drug design" approach as exemplified by Merck advanced clinical candidates leads to time-dependent higher molecular weight, higher H-bonding properties, unchanged lipophilicity, and, hence, poorer permeability. A high throughput screening (HTS)-based approach as exemplified by unpublished data on Pfizer (Groton, CT) early candidates leads to higher molecular weight, unchanged H-bonding properties, higher lipophilicity, and, hence, poorer aqueous solubility.

  4. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of carbon ion irradiation on survival rate, catalase and peroxidase activity of alfalfa M1 under low temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyang; Li Jinghua; Jiang Boling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three kinds of alfalfa including Zhonglan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng were treated with different doses of "1"2C"6"+ (75 keV) heavy ion radiation, and then the influence of survival rate, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity of M1 with low temperature stress were tested. The results showed that under the condition of 400 Gy radiation dose, the survival rate and CAT activity of Zhonglan 1 under low temperature stress have increased by 33.3%, 56.3% respectively compared with those of the control group, while there was no difference in POD activity between those two groups. The survival rate, CAT and POD activity of BC-04-477 treated with low temperature have been improved by 33.3%, 69.2%, 5.1% respectively compared with those of the control group when the radiation dose was 400 Gy. Compared with those of the control group, the survival rate, CAT and POD activity of Ta Cheng under low temperature stress have been improved by 25%, 26%,22.8% respectively when the radiation dose was 800 Gy. These results indicate that the viability and the cold resistance ability of Zhong Lan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng can be improved by "1"2C"6"+ radiation. (authors)

  6. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington’s disease mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xueyi; Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B.; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Primary Huntington’s disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. ► Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. ► Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. ► We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington’s disease. -- Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD 140Q/140Q ). Primary HD 140Q/140Q cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  7. The hTERT promoter enhances the antitumor activity of an oncolytic adenovirus under a hypoxic microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuri Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor that contributes to the invasion, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. Hypoxic tumor cells often show more resistance to conventional chemoradiotherapy than normoxic tumor cells, suggesting the requirement of novel antitumor therapies to efficiently eliminate the hypoxic tumor cells. We previously generated a tumor-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-301: Telomelysin, in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT promoter drives viral E1 expression. Since the promoter activity of the hTERT gene has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia, we hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, the antitumor effect of OBP-301 with the hTERT promoter would be more efficient than that of the wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of OBP-301 and Ad5 against human cancer cells under a normoxic (20% oxygen or a hypoxic (1% oxygen condition. Hypoxic condition induced nuclear accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and upregulation of hTERT promoter activity in human cancer cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under hypoxic condition. Consistent with their cytopathic activity, the replication of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under the hypoxic condition. OBP-301-mediated E1A was expressed within hypoxic areas of human xenograft tumors in mice. These results suggest that the cytopathic activity of OBP-301 against hypoxic tumor cells is mediated through hypoxia-mediated activation of the hTERT promoter. Regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses by the hTERT promoter is a promising antitumor strategy, not only for induction of tumor-specific oncolysis, but also for efficient elimination of hypoxic tumor cells.

  8. The Byways of the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologiens mål er at vise, hvordan fattige i udviklingsverdenen afbøder effekten af fattigdom og lindrer deres lidelser og afsavn. Bogens bidrag udfordrer de traditionelle tilgange til studiet af fattigdom og udviklingslande ved at undersøge måden, hvorpå forskellige ressourcer, såsom jord, arbe...

  9. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  10. 78 FR 27977 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) SUMMARY: The NIH Office of Biotechnology... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda...

  11. Activity modeling under uncertainty by trace of objects in smart homes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A typical resident of a smart home can be an Alzheimer patient that forgets sometimes to complete the activities that he begins. The key point to assist the smart...

  12. Research activities of MPA, Stuttgart University, for enhanced safety and reliability of components under complex load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Maile, K.

    2004-01-01

    MPA research activities focus on fracture prevention and on the development of a generally applicable method of component integrity testing which, independent of the safety relevance of the components involved, is also part of ageing management. (orig.) [de

  13. Spatial-temporal patterns of retinal waves underlying activity-dependent refinement of retinofugal projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ben K; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Feldheim, David A

    2009-10-29

    During development, retinal axons project coarsely within their visual targets before refining to form organized synaptic connections. Spontaneous retinal activity, in the form of acetylcholine-driven retinal waves, is proposed to be necessary for establishing these projection patterns. In particular, both axonal terminations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the size of receptive fields of target neurons are larger in mice that lack the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (beta2KO). Here, using a large-scale, high-density multielectrode array to record activity from hundreds of RGCs simultaneously, we present analysis of early postnatal retinal activity from both wild-type (WT) and beta2KO retinas. We find that beta2KO retinas have correlated patterns of activity, but many aspects of these patterns differ from those of WT retina. Quantitative analysis suggests that wave directionality, coupled with short-range correlated bursting patterns of RGCs, work together to refine retinofugal projections.

  14. Recent activation of the plaque immune response in coronary lesions underlying acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Piek, J. J.; de Boer, O. J.; Koch, K. T.; Teeling, P.; van der Loos, C. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discriminate between chronic inflammation and acute activation of the plaque immune response in culprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndromes. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. SUBJECTS: 71 patients having coronary atherectomy were classified

  15. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albacete, A.; Cantero-Navarro, E.; Balibrea, M. E.; Grosskinsky, D. K.; de la Cruz Gonzalez, M.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Smigocki, A. C.; Roitsch, Thomas; Pérez-Alfocea, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 20 (2014), s. 6081-6095 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cell wall invertase * cytokinins * fruit * salinity * sink activity * tomato Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  16. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I; Crow, Yanick J; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2'3' cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2'3'-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus.

  17. Entecavir Exhibits Inhibitory Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus under Conditions of Reduced Viral Challenge▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Zhang, Sharon; Wang, Chunfu; Fan, Li; Dicker, Ira; Gali, Volodymyr; Higley, Helen; Parkin, Neil; Tenney, Daniel; Krystal, Mark; Colonno, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) was developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is globally approved for that indication. Initial preclinical studies indicated that ETV had no significant activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultured cell lines at physiologically relevant ETV concentrations, using traditional anti-HIV assays. In response to recent clinical observations of anti-HIV activity of ETV in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), additional investigative studies were conducted to expand upon earlier results. An extended panel of HIV-1 laboratory and clinical strains and cell types was tested against ETV, along with a comparison of assay methodologies and resistance profiling. These latest studies confirmed that ETV has only weak activity against HIV, using established assay systems. However, a >100-fold enhancement of antiviral activity (equivalent to the antiviral activity of lamivudine) could be obtained when assay conditions were modified to reduce the initial viral challenge. Also, the selection of a M184I virus variant during the passage of HIV-1 at high concentrations of ETV confirmed that ETV can exert inhibitory pressure on the virus. These findings may have a significant impact on how future assays are performed with compounds to be used in patients infected with HIV. These results support the recommendation that ETV therapy should be administered in concert with HAART for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:18316521

  18. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  19. 75 FR 51329 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... and comment. The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. The... CONTACT: John Piazza, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of the Chief Counsel (NCC-111.... 30170, given the lack of prosecutions under the statute to date. Accordingly, it is not likely to be a...

  20. 75 FR 59717 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ..., New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503. Final approval under OMB delegated... a bank shall establish and maintain written policies and procedures to prevent excessive exposure to... selecting correspondents and terminating those relationships. The policies and procedures should be reviewed...

  1. 76 FR 33027 - Agency Information Collection (Statement of Marital Relationship) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... collection. Abstract: VA Form 21-4170 is completed by individuals claiming to be common law widows/widowers of deceased veterans and by veterans and their claimed common law spouses to establish marital status. VA uses the information collected to determine whether a common law marriage was valid under the law...

  2. 76 FR 55730 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... foreign commerce and desire ``tax'' benefits under the Construction Reserve Fund (CRF) program, are required to submit to MARAD an application for benefits. The annual statement provided to MARAD officials... the U.S. domestic or foreign commerce. Forms: None. Abstract: In accordance with Section 511 of the...

  3. 75 FR 69665 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... minutes. Affiliate marketing opt-out notice, financial institutions, 18 hours; consumer response, 5...,000 financial institutions. Affiliate marketing opt-out notice, 2,619 financial institutions; 638,380... comply with this notice requirement. Under the affiliate marketing provisions of Regulation V, financial...

  4. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900-0710. Type of Review: Extension of a... power of attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic health records...

  5. Genetic activity of plant growth regulators, cartolin and benzilandenin, under ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenskij, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Protective effects of a new cytokinin-type growth regulator cartolin (CRT) are established on a genetic test system of waxy-changes in pollen barley grains under acute irradiation of growing plants. It is shown that the CRT effect is similar to that of synthetic cytokinin benziladenin

  6. 77 FR 47841 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... District or for those operating under operational convenience. For calculation of required reserves on net.... 6. Report title: Consumer Financial Stability Surveys. Agency form Number: FR 3053. OMB Control.... Estimated annual reporting hours: 6,550 hours. Estimated average time per response: Consumer studies...

  7. 78 FR 62016 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    .... Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) users may contact (202) 263-4869, Board of Governors of the Federal...- generated survey. First, under the guidance of Board economists, the Federal Reserve Banks survey business... use online survey tools to collect responses to the survey. The frequency and content of the questions...

  8. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal

  9. 76 FR 4362 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... airports, passenger aircraft operators, foreign air carriers, indirect air carriers operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. These five categories are: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening...

  10. 75 FR 9919 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. These five categories are: security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo... Verification Form, Aircraft Operator or Air Carrier Reporting Template, Security Threat Assessment Application...

  11. 77 FR 24506 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... air carriers, indirect air carriers and all-cargo carriers operating under a TSA-approved security program. These five categories are: Security programs, security threat assessments (STAs), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting, and evidence of...

  12. Cortical activation during mental rotation in male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals under hormonal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Beatriz; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Rametti, Giuseppina; Junque, Carme; Gomez, Angel; Karadi, Kazmer; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    There is strong evidence of sex differences in mental rotation tasks. Transsexualism is an extreme gender identity disorder in which individuals seek cross-gender treatment to change their sex. The aim of our study was to investigate if male-to-female (MF) and female-to-male (FM) transsexuals receiving cross-sex hormonal treatment have different patterns of cortical activation during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task. An fMRI study was performed using a 3-T scan in a sample of 18 MF and 19 FM under chronic cross-sex hormonal treatment. Twenty-three males and 19 females served as controls. The general pattern of cerebral activation seen while visualizing the rotated and non-rotated figures was similar for all four groups showing strong occipito-parieto-frontal brain activation. However, compared to control males, the activation of MF transsexuals during the task was lower in the superior parietal lobe. Compared to control females, MF transsexuals showed higher activation in orbital and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions and lower activation in the left prefrontal gyrus. FM transsexuals did not differ from either the MF transsexual or control groups. Regression analyses between cerebral activation and the number of months of hormonal treatment showed a significant negative correlation in parietal, occipital and temporal regions in the MF transsexuals. No significant correlations with time were seen in the FM transsexuals. In conclusion, although we did not find a specific pattern of cerebral activation in the FM transsexuals, we have identified a specific pattern of cerebral activation during a mental 3D rotation task in MF transsexuals under cross-sex hormonal treatment that differed from control males in the parietal region and from control females in the orbital prefrontal region. The hypoactivation in MF transsexuals in the parietal region could be due to the hormonal treatment or could reflect a priori cerebral differences between MF transsexual

  13. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ze-Bing; Huang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  14. On activation of cholesterologenesis under the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomijtseva, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    The assumption is made that ionizing radiation induces cholesterologenesis activation in different cells of mammalian organism as an early reaction to the harmful effect necessary for restoration of biomembranes. Liver cells activate adaptively the cholesterol synthesis in the animal body irradiated with lethal doses in response to the injury to radiosensitive cells in order to make them recover and compensate for their functions (with the gastrointestinal syndrome, for instance, to compensate for the cholesterol-producing function of the intestine and to make it recover). With lethal radiation doses, a change in the lipid content and metabolism of microsomal membrane lipids of the liver is associated with activation of synthetic functions of the liver due to compensation of the injury to radiosensitive tissues

  15. Bromelain enzyme from pineapple: in vitro activity study under different micropropagation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova Neta, Jaci Lima; da Silva Lédo, Ana; Lima, Aloisio André Bonfim; Santana, José Carlos Curvelo; Leite, Nadjma Souza; Ruzene, Denise Santos; Silva, Daniel Pereira; de Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of bromelain in pineapple plants (Ananas comosus var. Comosus), Pérola cultivar, produced in vitro in different culture conditions. This enzyme, besides its pharmacological effects, is also employed in food industries, such as breweries and meat processing. In this work, the enzymatic activity was evaluated in the tissues of leaves and stems of plants grown in culture medium without plant growth regulator. The most significant levels of bromelain were observed in leaf tissue after 4 months of culture in vitro in medium with a filter paper bridge, followed by medium gelled by the agar. The results of this study, regarding the different structures of the pineapple (leaves and stems) in vitro showed that the activity of bromelain varied depending on the culture conditions, the time and structure of which was quantified, ensuring a viable strategy in the production of seedlings with high levels of bromelain in subsequent phases of micropropagation.

  16. Electrical Activity in a Time-Delay Four-Variable Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of electromagnetic induction on the electrical activity of neuron, the variable for magnetic flow is used to improve Hindmarsh–Rose neuron model. Simultaneously, due to the existence of time-delay when signals are propagated between neurons or even in one neuron, it is important to study the role of time-delay in regulating the electrical activity of the neuron. For this end, a four-variable neuron model is proposed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic induction and time-delay. Simulation results suggest that the proposed neuron model can show multiple modes of electrical activity, which is dependent on the time-delay and external forcing current. It means that suitable discharge mode can be obtained by selecting the time-delay or external forcing current, which could be helpful for further investigation of electromagnetic radiation on biological neuronal system.

  17. Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Stamatov, D.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 ) of gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction. What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats. (orig.) [de

  18. Scheduling a maintenance activity under skills constraints to minimize total weighted tardiness and late tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Hedjazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skill management is a key factor in improving effectiveness of industrial companies, notably their maintenance services. The problem considered in this paper concerns scheduling of maintenance tasks under resource (maintenance teams constraints. This problem is generally known as unrelated parallel machine scheduling. We consider the problem with a both objectives of minimizing total weighted tardiness (TWT and number of tardiness tasks. Our interest is focused particularly on solving this problem under skill constraints, which each resource has a skill level. So, we propose a new efficient heuristic to obtain an approximate solution for this NP-hard problem and demonstrate his effectiveness through computational experiments. This heuristic is designed for implementation in a static maintenance scheduling problem (with unequal release dates, processing times and resource skills, while minimizing objective functions aforementioned.

  19. Prefrontal, posterior parietal and sensorimotor network activity underlying speed control during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Bulea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests cortical circuits may contribute to control of human locomotion. Here, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG recorded from able-bodied volunteers during a novel treadmill walking paradigm was used to assess neural correlates of walking. A systematic processing method, including a recently developed subspace reconstruction algorithm, reduced movement-related EEG artifact prior to independent component analysis and dipole source localization. We quantified cortical activity while participants tracked slow and fast target speeds across two treadmill conditions: an active mode that adjusted belt speed based on user movements and a passive mode reflecting a typical treadmill. Our results reveal frequency specific, multi-focal task related changes in cortical oscillations elicited by active walking. Low γ band power, localized to the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, was significantly increased during double support and early swing phases, critical points in the gait cycle since the active controller adjusted speed based on pelvis position and swing foot velocity. These phasic γ band synchronizations provide evidence that prefrontal and posterior parietal networks, previously implicated in visuo-spatial and somotosensory integration, are engaged to enhance lower limb control during gait. Sustained μ and β band desynchronization within sensorimotor cortex, a neural correlate for movement, was observed during walking thereby validating our methods for isolating cortical activity. Our results also demonstrate the utility of EEG recorded during locomotion for probing the multi-regional cortical networks which underpin its execution. For example, the cortical network engagement elicited by the active treadmill suggests that it may enhance neuroplasticity for more effective motor training.

  20. Patterns of muscle activity underlying object-specific grasp by the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, T; Spinks, R L; Umilta, M A; Lemon, R N

    2004-09-01

    During object grasp, a coordinated activation of distal muscles is required to shape the hand in relation to the physical properties of the object. Despite the fundamental importance of the grasping action, little is known of the muscular activation patterns that allow objects of different sizes and shapes to be grasped. In a study of two adult macaque monkeys, we investigated whether we could distinguish between EMG activation patterns associated with grasp of 12 differently shaped objects, chosen to evoke a wide range of grasping postures. Each object was mounted on a horizontal shuttle held by a weak spring (load force 1-2 N). Objects were located in separate sectors of a "carousel," and inter-trial rotation of the carousel allowed sequential presentation of the objects in pseudorandom order. EMG activity from 10 to 12 digit, hand, and arm muscles was recorded using chronically implanted electrodes. We show that the grasp of different objects was characterized by complex but distinctive patterns of EMG activation. Cluster analysis shows that these object-related EMG patterns were specific and consistent enough to identify the object unequivocally from the EMG recordings alone. EMG-based object identification required a minimum of six EMGs from simultaneously recorded muscles. EMG patterns were consistent across recording sessions in a given monkey but showed some differences between animals. These results identify the specific patterns of activity required to achieve distinct hand postures for grasping, and they open the way to our understanding of how these patterns are generated by the central motor network.

  1. Assessment of the Performance of Several Roadway Mixes under Rain, Snow, and Winter Maintenance Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Flintsch, Gerardo W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative functional performance, including skid resistance and splash and spray, of five hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) surfaces and a tinned portland cement concrete highway surface during controlled wet and wintry weather events. The study compared the way that these surfaces respond to various deicing and anti-icing snow removal and ice control techniques under artificial wintry conditions. In addition, the splash and spray characteristics of the surfaces...

  2. Expression of novel rice gibberellin 2-oxidase gene is under homeostatic regulation by biologically active gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Miho; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Tamio; Matsuoka, Makoto; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2003-04-01

    We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. These results indicate that OsGA2ox3 is involved in the homeostatic regulation of the endogenous level of biologically active GA in rice.

  3. NOx reduction over metal-ion exchanged novel zeolite under lean conditions. Activity and hydrothermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, Ayyappan; Gujar, Amit; Price, Geoffrey L.; Cho, Byong K.; Blint, Richard J.; Yie, Jae E.

    2003-01-01

    Zeolite SUZ-4 was synthesized and tested for its hydrothermal stability using a standard aging procedure coupled with NMR spectroscopy, and was identified as a promising support for lean-NO x catalysts for high temperature applications. Various metals such as Cu, Ag, Fe, Co were ion exchanged onto the SUZ-4 zeolite, and their catalytic activity for NO/NO x conversion was measured in the presence of excess oxygen using ethylene as the reducing agent. Among the metal-ions exchanged, copper proved to be the best metal cation for lean-NO x catalysis with the optimum level of exchange at 29-42%. The optimized, fresh Cu/SUZ-4 catalyst achieved 70-80% of NO/NO x conversion activity over a wide range of temperature from 350 to 600C with the maximum conversion temperature at 450C. The presence of H 2 O and SO 2 reduced the NO/NO x conversion by about 30% of the fresh Cu/SUZ-4 catalyst due possibly to the blocking of active sites for NO/NO x adsorption. Substitution of gasoline vapor for ethylene as the reductant improved the NO x reduction activity of the fresh Cu/SUZ-4 catalyst at high temperatures above 350C. Aging the Cu/SUZ-4 catalyst resulted in a slight shift of activity profile toward higher temperatures, yielding an increase of NO conversion by 16% and a decrease of NO x conversion by 15% at 525C. The effect of H 2 O and SO 2 on the aged catalyst was to reduce the NO activity by 20% and NO x activity by 30% at 500C. The effect of space velocity change was not significant except in the low temperature range where the reaction light-off occurs. Adsorption/desorption measurements indicate that aging Cu/SUZ-4 results in partial migration/agglomeration of Cu particles in the pores thereby reducing the NO/NO x activity. Overall, the NO x conversion efficiency of Cu/SUZ-4, for both fresh and aged, is much better than the benchmark Cu/ZSM-5 in the presence of H 2 O and/or SO 2

  4. The activity of neutral DNAase in rat tissue under radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerova, N.I.; Pukhova, G.G.; Chebotarev, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Activity of a neutral DNA-ase and its natural inhibitor of protein nature in liver, brain and spleen of rats with malignant neoplasms, which have appeared 14-20 months after animal irradiation with fast neutrons in the dose 0.5-1.0 Gy, have been studied. Increase of free DNA-ase activity and its inhibitor with a simultaneous decrease of their ability to complexing in liver and brain supernatants is shoWn. The changes are mostly manifested in liver and in spleen they are inconsiderable and statistically unreliable

  5. Thermal decomposition of solder flux activators under simulated wave soldering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    /methodology/approach: Changes in the chemical structure of the activators were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique and were correlated to the exposure temperatures within the range of wave soldering process. The amount of residue left on the surface was estimated using standardized acid-base...... titration method as a function of temperature, time of exposure and the substrate material used. Findings: The study shows that there is a possibility of anhydride-like species formation during the thermal treatment of fluxes containing weak organic acids (WOAs) as activators (succinic and DL...

  6. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  7. The radiological evaluation of a prototype posting-in hatch under conditions of high alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.I.; Hollick, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    A prototype posting-in hatch, mounted vertically in the top panel of a highly active glovebox has been radiologically evaluated in the Fuels Laboratory, AEEW. This simple, air-lock type system of 100 mm diameter has pneumatically operated and interlocked lids and a low velocity, inward purge, supplied by the glovebox depression. The hatch proved extremely reliable and very easy to operate. More than 1200 simulated posting movements were carried out and a > 8 order of magnitude reduction in aerosol concentration was recorded from the active glovebox to the monitoring environment. (author)

  8. Investigation of glutathione peroxidase activity in chicken meat under different experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that previous studies on the enzymatic activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px diverge widely in their methodology and results, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different analytical conditions on GSH-Px activity in chicken thighs from broilers that were fed different diets with different sources and concentrations of selenium. GSH-Px activity was evaluated six hours after slaughter and 120 days after frozen storage at -18 ºC. The different analytical conditions included time of pre-incubation (0, 10 and 30 minutes, reaction medium, types of substrate (H2O2 (0.72 mM, 7.2 mM, and 72 mM and Terc-butil hydroperoxide 15 mM, and different buffer concentrations (buffer 1, potassium phosphate 50 mM pH 7.0 + EDTA 1 mM + mercaptoethanol 1 mM, and buffer 2, tris-HCl 50 mM pH 7.6 + EDTA 1 mM + mercapthanol 5 mM. The results show that the highest GSH-Px activity was observed when enzyme and substrate were in contact at 22 ºC without any pre-incubation, and that, when used at concentrations above 0.72 mM, hydrogen peroxide saturated the GSH-Px enzyme and inhibited its activity. The enzyme presented higher affinity to hydrogen peroxide when compared to terc-butil peroxide, and the addition of a buffer containing mercaptoethanol did not increase GSH-Px enzymatic activity. The activity of GSH-Px was not influenced by the source and concentration of selenium in the diet either. The obtained results allowed the determination of the best temperature of contact between the enzyme and substrate (22 ºC, the optimum concentration, and the type of substrate and buffer to be used. This information is extremely useful for future studies on GSH-Px activity in meat due to the divergence and little information found in the literature.

  9. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13–18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale -11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal

  10. Carbon, nitrogen and biomass activity under different managements system in Rio Verde – Goias State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciniro Costa Junior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was verify alterations in soil biologic attributes under different management systems at Cerrado. Soil samples were taken at dry (july 2006 and wet (february 2007 season at Red distrofic Oxisol (50 – 70 % clay in Rio Verde, Brazil (17o39’07’’S - 51o06’49’’O under: native Cerrado (CE, 20 years old pasture (PA, 29 years old conventional tillage (CT, and 10 and 15 years old no-tillage (NT - 10 and NT - 15. Were analysed: soil and microbial carbon and nitrogen levels (C, N, Cmic and Nmic, Cmic:C and Nmic:N ratios, basal respiration (BR and metabolic quotient (qCO2. Higher soil moisture at wet season led 100 % higher Cmic and Nmic and lower qCO2 level than dry season. Among the management systems, the grass cultivation, animal wastes and area reform were possibly majors factors with which led to higher Cmic e Nmic values in PA, indeed under degradation, than any other one. NT adoption was important to increase Cmic and Nmic, and at least after 10 years pointed out higher values than CT.C and N microbial were more sensitive than total C and N, while other biological parameters also did not show differences.

  11. Influence of preliminary reactor irradiation on defect formation in quartz fibers under γ- ray activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Baydjanov, M.I.; Ibragimov, J.D.; Rustamov, I.R.; Islamov, A.Kh.; Nuritdinov, I.; Gasanov, E.M.; Yuldashev, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: For study of influence of preliminary structure defects and type of cladding material on additional defects accumulation kinetics we investigated the absorption spectra of optical fibers (OF) marked FVP-400 (quartz core and quartz clad) and FSHA-800 (quartz core and polymeric clad) preliminary irradiated by fast neutrons fluencies 10 12 , 10 13 , 10 14 , 10 15 cm -2 before and after additional irradiation by γ-rays of 60 Co source. Preliminary irradiation of samples was conducted in cadmium-plated channel of the reactor. Dose rate of accompanying γ-radiation is determined as 1250 R/s using KI quartz glass based dosimeter. The spectra of the induced absorption (losses) were calculated by an expression A(λ)=(10/L)x lg[T(λ)/T 0 (λ)], where T 0 (λ) and (λ) are transmissions of samples before and after irradiation, L-sample length [m], A(λ)- optical losses [dB/m]. It's established that the transformation processes of previously existing structure damages arising during fiber drawing into other ones and creations of additional defects under influence of neutrons depends on hydroxyl content and type of fibers cladding material. It's shown that under influence of γ-rays at doses 10 5 , 5·10 5 , 10 6 , 5.10 6 , 10 7 , 5·10 7 and 10 8 R the two-stage accumulation of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) is observed in preliminary neutron-irradiated OF. The first stage is caused by appearance of potential NBOHC arising during fiber drawing and irradiation of OF by neutrons. The dose value of γ-rays at the beginning of the second stage that is connected to creation of additional NBOHC under γ-rays action decreases with growth of preliminary irradiation fluence. We suppose that under neutron irradiation of OF along with transformation of previously existing damages and creation of additional point defects there is formation of areas with the higher density than in quartz glass which concentration increases with growth of irradiation fluence. Hence

  12. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  13. 77 FR 42752 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Generic Clearance for the Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... information collection activity provides a means to gather qualitative customer and stakeholder feedback in an... customer and stakeholder feedback in an efficient, timely manner, in accordance with the Administration's commitment to improving service delivery. From the TSA perspective, qualitative feedback from customers and...

  14. Coastal proximity and physical activity: Is the coast an under-appreciated public health resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Wheeler, Benedict W; Herbert, Stephen; Alcock, Ian; Depledge, Michael H

    2014-12-01

    Recent findings suggest that individuals living near the coast are healthier than those living inland. Here we investigated whether this may be related to higher levels of physical activity among coastal dwellers in England, arising in part as a result of more visits to outdoor coastal settings. Participants (n=183,755) were drawn from Natural England's Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey (2009-2012). Analyses were based on self-reported physical activity for leisure and transport. A small, but significant coastal proximity gradient was seen for the likelihood of achieving recommended guidelines of physical activity a week after adjusting for relevant area and individual level controls. This effect was statistically mediated by the likelihood of having visited the coast in the last seven days. Stratification by region, however, suggested that while the main effect was relatively strong for west coast regions, it was not significant for those in the east. In general, our findings replicate and extend work from Australia and New Zealand. Further work is needed to explain the marked regional differences in the relationship between coastal proximity and physical activity in England to better understand the coast's potential role as a public health resource. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of

  16. How Do Tertiary Education Students Perceive Co-Curricular Activities under the New Education System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Helen; Leung, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Co-curricular activities in general are believed to be useful for students' development, such as improvement in academic performance, higher retention rate, enhancement of social and competency skills, and assistance of youth development and employment. With the expansion of the education sector and the implementation of a new 3-3-4 education…

  17. 77 FR 71592 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Announcement of Board Approval Under Delegated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... serve as an early warning mechanism to identify FHCs whose activities in this area are growing rapidly... Holding Company Report of Equity Investments in Nonfinancial Companies, and the Annual Report of Merchant...: Bank holding companies (BHCs), financial holding companies (FHCs) and savings and loan holding...

  18. Short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast and nodal targets under active breathing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moran, Jean M.; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B.; van Herk, Marcel; Pierce, Lori J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients

  19. 34 CFR 608.10 - What activities may be carried out under a grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program of teacher education designed to qualify students to teach in a public elementary or secondary school in the State that shall include, as part of the program, preparation for teacher certification... UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Kind of Projects Does the Secretary Fund? § 608.10 What activities may be carried out...

  20. Soil microbial activity under conventional and organic production of bean and maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Jelena B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of conventional and organic production system on microbial activity in the soil cultivated with bean and maize crops. The trial in Đurđevo was set up according to the conventional farming system, while organic farming system was used in Futog. Two maize hybrids and two bean cultivars were used in the trial. Soil samples were collected in two periods during 2014 (before sowing, at flowering stage of bean crops, and at 9-11 leaf stage of maize at two depths, at both locations. The following microbiological parameters were tested: the total number of micro­organisms, number of ammonifiers, Azotobacter sp., free nitrogen fixing bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and activity of dehydrogenase enzyme. The results showed that the total number of microorganisms, number of free N-fixers and dehydrogenase activity were higher within organic production, while Azotobacter sp. was more abundant in conventional production. Variations in the number of ammonifiers, fungi and actinomycetes in relation to the type of production were not obtained. Significant differences in microbial activity were also obtained between period and depths of sampling.