Sample records for activation analysis principles

  1. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    Cohn, S.H.


    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  2. Principle Component Analysis of Birkeland Currents Determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.


    Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.

  3. Pharmaceutical gel analysis by NIR spectroscopy. Determination of the active principle and low concentration of preservatives.

    Blanco, M; Alcalá, M; Bautista, M


    Near infrared spectroscopy has proved highly suitable for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. However, its limited sensitivity can severely restrict its scope of application. In this work, we determine the active principle and two preservatives in a pharmaceutical preparation available as a hydrogel. The matrix of the pharmaceutical preparation exhibits strong absorption in the NIR spectral region; also, the two preservatives (parabens) are very similar in chemical and spectral terms, and present at low concentrations in the pharmaceutical. These complications make it rather difficult to accurately quantify the active principle and the preservatives, which can only be accomplished by using an effective design in order to prepare the samples to be included in the calibration set and select the optimum spectral range for measuring each analyte. The evaporation of solvents during the measurement process produces increasing errors related with sample's air exposition; the introductions of new samples with a wider range of the volatile components correct this effect. An ANOVA of the predictions obtained with the new models shows that correct the error due to evaporation. The proposed method was validated for the analytical control of the studied preparation.

  4. Principles of Fourier analysis

    Howell, Kenneth B


    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  5. Principles of harmonic analysis

    Deitmar, Anton


    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  6. Principles of Language Learning Activity Design Based on Constructivism



    <正>This essay introduces constructivism and its four key theories in learning and explores its applications in language learning activity design.Following the theoretical background analysis,it proposes three principles concerning English language teaching activity design,namely interactive thinking principle,I + 1 principle and authentic communication principle.This paper also provides some practical teaching activities such as supporting examples of how these three principles can work in language teaching.

  7. Anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Bidens tripartita and quantitative analysis on its active principles

    Orhan, Nilüfer; İçöz, Ülkü Gökçen; Altun, Levent; Aslan, Mustafa


    Objective(s): Bidens species are used for their antidiabetic properties traditionally in many countries. Aim of this study is to evaluate hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity of Bidens tripartita extract and to identify its active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycaemic effects of B. tripartita extract and its sub-extracts were investigated in normal and glucose-hyperglycaemic rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were used to examine antidiabetic activity of the extract and its sub-extracts after acute and sub-acute administration. Additionally, in vitro enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities were evaluated. HPLC analyses were carried out to determine the active constituents of the extract and its sub-extracts. Results: Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation process, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol sub-extracts were found to have potent antidiabetic activity. In vitro enzyme inhibitory activities of the same sub-extracts were found to be potent. The highest total phenol, flavonoid contents and radical scavenging activity was determined in ethyl acetate sub-extract. According to LC-MS analyses, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and 7-O-glucoside of luteolin (cynaroside) were determined as the main components of the active sub-extracts. Conclusion: According to our results, B. tripartita has potent antidiabetic activity and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. PMID:27872708

  8. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    I.M. Rjabchenko


    Full Text Available The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic positions, characteristics for all pricing system. The essence of such pricing principles as scientific substantiation of prices, target direction of prices, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process, interrelation between pricing policy and general enterprise strategy, principle of legality, planned character, proportionality, adequacy, principle of interdependence between types and forms of selling, flexibility principle is considered.The table of the resulted principles allows us to group them after the followings descriptions:general principles: planned character principle, principle of legality, principle of proportionality, principle of adequacy, principle of flexibility;main principles: principle of scientific prices substantiation, principle of prices target direction, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process;specific principles: principle of connection between pricing policy and general strategy of enterprise, principle of interrelation between types and forms of selling, principle connected with the features of products which will be distribute, principle connected with buyers quality maintenance;individual principles: principle connected with market structure, principle that applies to the choice of reaction type and market conditions change and so on.Conclusions and directions of further researches. Research of theoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing forming

  9. Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis

    Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith


    It is possible to enhance our understanding of what has happened on a computer system by using forensic techniques that do not require prediction of the nature of the attack, the skill of the attacker, or the details of the system resources or objects affected. These techniques address five fundamental principles of computer forensics. These principles include recording data about the entire operating system, particularly user space events and environments, and interpreting events at differen...

  10. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  11. XAFS Spectroscopy : Fundamental Principles and Data Analysis

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Mojet, B.L.; Dorssen, G.E. van; Ramaker, D.E.


    The physical principles of XAFS spectroscopy are given at a sufficiently basic level to enable scientists working in the field of catalysis to critically evaluate articles dealing with XAFS studies on catalytic materials. The described data-analysis methods provide the basic tools for studying the

  12. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska


    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  13. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Roman, Harry T.


    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  14. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M


    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  15. When old principles face new challenges: a critical analysis of the principle of diplomatic inviolability


    This thesis aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the principle of diplomatic inviolability. The principle of diplomatic inviolability is generally regarded by international law scholars as one of the oldest established principles of international law. The concept of inviolability in contemporary international law contains two distinct aspects: in terms of the duty of the receiving State, the first aspect involves the negative duty of not taking any enforcement action against the inviol...

  16. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.


    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  17. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    Gozani, Tsahi


    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  18. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    Szajkowska, A.


    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  19. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M


    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline are

  20. Guideline Principles for Designing Astronomy Activities

    Strubbe, Linda


    We astronomy outreachers are passionate about sharing astronomy widely-but many astronomy outreach activities are designed more by how we hope things will work than in a careful intentional way. We also rarely evaluate how well our activities are achieving our goals. As a result, many educational activities must be significantly less effective than they could be. Fortunately, there is a large body of education research on how people learn. If we are serious about sharing astronomy widely and effectively, we must treat our teaching like research: (1) Have clear goals for our outreach, evaluate how well we are achieving our goals, and revise our strategies in light of what we learn; and (2) Use appropriate teaching techniques supported by education research wherever possible.

  1. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    I.M. Rjabchenko; V.V. Bozhkova


    The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic posit...

  2. Vibrational optical activity principles and applications

    Nafie, Laurence A


    This unique book stands as the only comprehensive introduction to vibrational optical activity (VOA) and is the first single book that serves as a complete reference for this relatively new, but increasingly important area of molecular spectroscopy. Key features:A single-source reference on this topic that introduces, describes the background and foundation of this area of spectroscopy.Serves as a guide on how to use it to carry out applications with relevant problem solving.Depth and breadth of the subject is presented in a logical, complete and progressive fashion. A

  3. Mathematic principle of active jamming against wideband LFM radar

    Shixian Gong; Xizhang Wei; Xiang Li; Yongshun Ling


    The inherent mathematic principle of active jamming against the wideband linear frequency modulated (LFM) radar is investigated. According to different generation strategies, the active jamming methods are reclassified into three groups, i.e., non-coherent jamming (NCJ), convolution jamming (CJ) and mul-tiplying jamming (MJ). Based on the classification, the mathematic principles of different active jamming groups are put forward, which describe the relationships between the modulated signals and the jamming results. The advantages and disadvantages of different groups are further analyzed, which provides a new perspective for the study of jamming/anti-jamming methods and a potential for engineers to integrate similar jamming methods into one jam-mer platform. The analyses and simulation results of some typical active jamming methods prove the validity of the proposed mathe-matics principle.

  4. A Tentative Analysis on Politeness Principles



    Different people hold different views about politeness in communication. To be polite, Leech thinks you should folow Politeness Principle(PP) while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' Face Wants. This paper attempts to shed light on some of the important application of PP in cultures.

  5. Proof-of-principle results for identifying the composition of dust particles and volcanic ash samples through the technique of photon activation analysis at the IAC

    Mamtimin, Mayir; Cole, Philip L.; Segebade, Christian


    Instrumental analytical methods are preferable in studying sub-milligram quantities of airborne particulates collected in dust filters. The multi-step analytical procedure used in treating samples through chemical separation can be quite complicated. Further, due to the minute masses of the airborne particulates collected on filters, such chemical treatment can easily lead to significant levels of contamination. Radio-analytical techniques, and in particular, activation analysis methods offer a far cleaner alternative. Activation methods require minimal sample preparation and provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting the vast majority of the elements throughout the periodic table. In this paper, we will give a general overview of the technique of photon activation analysis. We will show that by activating dust particles with 10- to 30-MeV bremsstrahlung photons, we can ascertain their elemental composition. The samples are embedded in dust-collection filters and are irradiated "as is" by these photons. The radioactivity of the photonuclear reaction products is measured with appropriate spectrometers and the respective analytes are quantified using multi-component calibration materials. We shall provide specific examples of identifying the elemental components of airborne dust particles and volcanic ash by making use of bremsstrahlung photons from an electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho.

  6. Principle analysis of IP wavelength router

    王勇; 殷洪玺; 徐安士; 吴德明


    Combining IP with WDM is an attractive direction for research. WDM will play an important role in IP network in future. Now, an urgent problem is how to introduce wavelength routing in an IP network. We solve this problem by designing IP wavelength router, implementing DPDP (default path and dedicated path) method. We prove the reasonableness and feasibility of this design by a principle experiment. A lot of problems related to this design are also discussed.

  7. Application of Cooperative Principle in Discourse Analysis

    左改玲; 赵秋萍


    @@ 1.Introduction Cooperative Principle (CP) was first proposed by the U.S. linguist and philosopher Grice in the late 1960s. H.P. Grice lectures "Logic and Conversation" concept. "Logic and Conversation" points out that our conversation is subject to certain restricted conditions. Our talk exchanges do not normally consist of a succession of disconnected remarks, and would not be rational if they did. They are characteristically, to some degree at least.

  8. Experimental analysis of the quantum complementarity principle

    Auccaise, R; Filgueiras, J G; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Céleri, L C


    One of the milestones of quantum mechanics is Bohr's complementarity principle. It states that a single quantum can exhibit a particle-like \\emph{or} a wave-like behaviour, but never both at the same time. These are mutually exclusive and complementary aspects of the quantum system. This means that we need distinct experimental arrangements in order to measure the particle or the wave nature of a physical system. One of the most known representations of this principle is the single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer. When the interferometer is closed an interference pattern is observed (wave aspect of the quantum) while if it is open, the quantum behaves like a particle. Here, using a molecular quantum information processor and employing nuclear magnetic resonant (NMR) techniques, we analyze the quantum version of this principle by means of an interferometer that is in a quantum superposition of being closed and open, and confirm that we can indeed measure both aspects of the system with the same experimental...

  9. Faecal gas analysis by electronic nose as novel, non-invasive method for assessment of active and quiescent paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Proof of principle study.

    de Meij, Tim G J; de Boer, Nanne K H; Benninga, Marc A; Lentferink, Yvette E; de Groot, Evelien F J; van de Velde, Mirjam E; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; van der Schee, Marc P


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its two phenotypes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are essentially assessed by endoscopy, both in initial diagnostic work-up and during follow-up. This carries a high burden, especially on paediatric patients. Faecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered potential non-invasive biomarkers for intestinal diseases linked to gut microbiota alterations. We hypothesized that faecal VOC analysis by electronic nose allows discrimination of children with CD, UC and controls during active disease and remission. Faecal VOC patterns of children with newly diagnosed IBD and controls were studied by an electronic nose (Cyranose 320®), at baseline and upon achieving remission at 6-weeks of follow-up. Disease activity was assessed by global physician's assessment, substantiated by serum C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin. Internally cross-validated receiver-operator-characteristic curves and corresponding sensitivity and specificity for detection of IBD were calculated RESULTS: Faecal VOC profiles of patients with UC (26) and CD (29) differed from controls (28); in active disease (AUC±95% CI, p-value, sensitivity, specificity: 1.00±0.00; p<0.001, 100%, 100%) and (0.85±0.05, p<0.001, 86%, 67%) and in clinical remission (0.94±0.06, p<0.001, 94%, 94%) and (0.94±0.06, p<0.001, 94%, 94%), respectively. Furthermore, CD-patients differed from UC-patients during active disease (0.96±0.03; p<0.001, 97%, 92%), and upon achieving clinical remission (0.81±0.08, p=0.002, 88%, 72%). Faecal VOC analysis allowed discrimination of paediatric patients with IBD from controls, both during active disease and remission. It therefore has potential as non-invasive test, in both diagnostic work-up and assessment of disease activity in IBD. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    Marius-Costel, Esi


    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…


    V.V. Morozov


    The strategy principles and main directions of regional investment activity financement mechanism improvement are formulated and worked out in the article. The contemporary conditions are analyzed, the factors are researched, the priority directions are defined, the suggestions on the better use of investment sources are worked out, and on this base the suggestions on the investment process activization in the territorial systems are worked out.

  12. Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness

    Babaeva, Yuliya D.


    Full Text Available This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study, which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activity approach and its prospects for solving actual problems in the psychology of giftedness in light of the creation of new diagnostic procedures and methods of education and the development of gifted children.

  13. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    Kisner, H J


    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  14. Cultivating the Grapevine: An Analysis of Rumor Principles and Concepts


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CULTIVATING THE...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CULTIVATING THE GRAPEVINE: AN ANALYSIS OF RUMOR PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS 5...Specifically, this study draws from a review of current and historical literature on rumor theory to distill a set of principles to guide the successful

  15. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima


    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Principle-based concept analysis: Caring in nursing education

    Salehian, Maryam; Heydari, Abbas; Aghebati, Nahid; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Mazloom, Seyed Reza


    Introduction The aim of this principle-based concept analysis was to analyze caring in nursing education and to explain the current state of the science based on epistemologic, pragmatic, linguistic, and logical philosophical principles. Methods A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze the nursing literature. The dataset included 46 English language studies, published from 2005 to 2014, and they were retrieved through PROQUEST, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, SCOPUS, and SID scientific databases. The key dimensions of the data were collected using a validated data-extraction sheet. The four principles of assessing pragmatic utility were used to analyze the data. The data were managed by using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The scientific literature that deals with caring in nursing education relies on implied meaning. Caring in nursing education refers to student-teacher interactions that are formed on the basis of human values and focused on the unique needs of the students (epistemological principle). The result of student-teacher interactions is the development of both the students and the teachers. Numerous applications of the concept of caring in nursing education are available in the literature (pragmatic principle). There is consistency in the meaning of the concept, as a central value of the faculty-student interaction (linguistic principle). Compared with other related concepts, such as “caring pedagogy,” “value-based education,” and “teaching excellence,” caring in nursing education does not have exact and clear conceptual boundaries (logic principle). Conclusion Caring in nursing education was identified as an approach to teaching and learning, and it is formed based on teacher-student interactions and sustainable human values. A greater understanding of the conceptual basis of caring in nursing education will improve the caring behaviors of teachers, create teaching-learning environments, and help experts in curriculum development

  17. Theoretical bases analysis of scientific prediction on marketing principles

    A.S. Rosohata


    The article presents an overview categorical apparatus of scientific predictions and theoretical foundations results of scientific forecasting. They are integral part of effective management of economic activities. The approaches to the prediction of scientists in different fields of Social science and the categories modification of scientific prediction, based on principles of marketing are proposed.

  18. Theoretical bases analysis of scientific prediction on marketing principles

    A.S. Rosohata


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview categorical apparatus of scientific predictions and theoretical foundations results of scientific forecasting. They are integral part of effective management of economic activities. The approaches to the prediction of scientists in different fields of Social science and the categories modification of scientific prediction, based on principles of marketing are proposed.

  19. Introducing Dynamic Analysis Using Malthus's Principle of Population.

    Pingle, Mark


    Declares the use of dynamic models is increasing in macroeconomics. Explains how to introduce dynamic models to students whose technical skills are modest or varied. Chooses Malthus's Principle of Population as a natural context for introducing dynamic analysis because it provides a method for reviewing the mathematical tools and theoretical…

  20. Principles and Rules of Conduct in the Internal Audit Activity

    Mihaela Iuliana Dumitru


    Full Text Available The objectives of the paper are to present the basic principles governing the internal audit mission as well as the code of conduct that must be observed in exercising such a mission, because the completion of a professional audit mission implies precisely the compliance with the two category of elements. Consequently, this paper is meant to be added to the practice specific to this field as support in exercising the internal audit according to the market requirements. For this purpose, we analysed the above-mentioned elements, presenting brief examples in support of the importance of the approached topics. Thus, from the practical point of view, we can notice the mechanisms used to apply these principles and how the compliance with the audit specific audit conduct lead to a more efficient activity. For these reasons, we can say that the paper is an element of interest both for the academic field (as a starting point for the support of practical approaches and also for the future researches in order to improve the specific audit activity.

  1. Safety of spanish nuclear park. Analysis of the fundamental principles of security of nuclear facilities and activities; Seguridad del parque nuclear espanol. Analisis de los principios fundamentales de ls seguridad de las instalaciones y actividades nucleares



    The aim of this study is to analyze the fundamental principles underlying the safety of nuclear installations and activities, which defined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These principles determine the roles of government and responsibilities of the holders of power, explain how to achieve security and nuclear energy to justify the society, present and future and the environment from the risks of ionizing radiation, both and explain natural and man must be managed as waste that occur or have occurred in the past. (Author)

  2. Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy

    Schwartz, Todd A.


    I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…

  3. 78 FR 64064 - Agency Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint System Intake) Activity Under...


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint System Intake) Activity Under... Excellence Complaint System Intake).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Principles of Excellence Complaint... System Intake) in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise...

  4. Application of the VALUE communication principles in ACTIVE hospice team meetings.

    Washington, Karla T; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Parker Oliver, Debra; Demiris, George; Shaunfield, Sara; Crumb, Edith


    The ACTIVE (Assessing Caregivers for Team Intervention through Video Encounters) intervention uses technology to enable family caregivers to participate in hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) meetings from geographically remote locations. Previous research has suggested that effective communication is critical to the success of these meetings. The purpose of this study was to explore communication in ACTIVE IDT meetings involving family caregivers and to assess the degree to which hospice teams use specific communication principles (summarized in the mnemonic VALUE: value, acknowledge, listen, understand, and elicit), which have been supported in previous research in intensive care settings. Researchers analyzed team-family communication during 84 video- and/or audio-recorded care plan discussions that took place during ACTIVE team meetings, using a template approach to text analysis to determine the extent and quality of VALUE principles. The total content analyzed was 9 hours, 28 minutes in length. Hospice clinicians routinely employed the VALUE communication principles in communication during ACTIVE IDT meetings with family caregivers, but the quality of this communication was frequently rated moderate or poor. The majority of such communication was task-focused. Less often, communication centered on emotional concerns and efforts to gain a more holistic understanding of patients and families. This analysis suggests an opportunity for improving support for family members during ACTIVE IDT meetings. Members of hospice IDTs should remain aware of the opportunity for additional attention to the emotional realities of the hospice experience for family caregivers and could improve support for family caregivers during IDT meetings by ensuring that messages used to exemplify VALUE principles during team-family communication are of a high quality.


    N. K. Chapaev


    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is a philosophical-pedagogical conceptualization and the discovery of the mechanism of application of the principle while solving problems of program-methodological support of vocational education on the basis of summarizing the scientific heritage of N. E. Jerganova.Methods. The research is based on the hermeneutic methodology. The leading methods of analysis are the following: interpretation, conceptualization, understanding, as well as analysis, comparing, contrasting, synthesis, generalization.Results. Based on the analysis of the texts of the works of N. E. Jerganova, interpretational model of actualization principle of activity in developing methods of professional education is developed. According to this model, personal and professional development of man is attained primarily due to the actualization of his/her intellectual and creative potential, turning it into relatively self-sufficient entity of educational activity.Scientific novelty. Philosophical-methodological foundations and technological tools of the application of the principle activities in the process of problem solving of software and methodological support of professional education are disclosed; the expediency of development of activity-based strategy of professional education in modern conditions is proved.Practical significance. The thesis and conclusions of the article can be used in the development of the modern concept of methodological activities, in the process of program-methodological support of educational activity in professional education organizations.

  6. Protein structure similarity from principle component correlation analysis

    Chou James


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to rapid expansion of protein structure databases in recent years, methods of structure comparison are becoming increasingly effective and important in revealing novel information on functional properties of proteins and their roles in the grand scheme of evolutionary biology. Currently, the structural similarity between two proteins is measured by the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD in their best-superimposed atomic coordinates. RMSD is the golden rule of measuring structural similarity when the structures are nearly identical; it, however, fails to detect the higher order topological similarities in proteins evolved into different shapes. We propose new algorithms for extracting geometrical invariants of proteins that can be effectively used to identify homologous protein structures or topologies in order to quantify both close and remote structural similarities. Results We measure structural similarity between proteins by correlating the principle components of their secondary structure interaction matrix. In our approach, the Principle Component Correlation (PCC analysis, a symmetric interaction matrix for a protein structure is constructed with relationship parameters between secondary elements that can take the form of distance, orientation, or other relevant structural invariants. When using a distance-based construction in the presence or absence of encoded N to C terminal sense, there are strong correlations between the principle components of interaction matrices of structurally or topologically similar proteins. Conclusion The PCC method is extensively tested for protein structures that belong to the same topological class but are significantly different by RMSD measure. The PCC analysis can also differentiate proteins having similar shapes but different topological arrangements. Additionally, we demonstrate that when using two independently defined interaction matrices, comparison of their maximum

  7. Student Engagement: A Principle-Based Concept Analysis.

    Bernard, Jean S


    A principle-based concept analysis of student engagement was used to examine the state of the science across disciplines. Four major perspectives of philosophy of science guided analysis and provided a framework for study of interrelationships and integration of conceptual components which then resulted in formulation of a theoretical definition. Findings revealed student engagement as a dynamic reiterative process marked by positive behavioral, cognitive, and affective elements exhibited in pursuit of deep learning. This process is influenced by a broader sociocultural environment bound by contextual preconditions of self-investment, motivation, and a valuing of learning. Outcomes of student engagement include satisfaction, sense of well-being, and personal development. Findings of this analysis prove relevant to nursing education as faculty transition from traditional teaching paradigms, incorporate learner-centered strategies, and adopt innovative pedagogical methodologies. It lends support for curricula reform, development of more accurate evaluative measures, and creation of meaningful teaching-learning environments within the discipline.

  8. Principles of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography applied in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Hancu, Gabriel; Simon, Brigitta; Rusu, Aura; Mircia, Eleonora; Gyéresi, Arpád


    Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  9. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Árpád Gyéresi


    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  10. Principle-based concept analysis: intentionality in holistic nursing theories.

    Aghebati, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri


    This is a report of a principle-based concept analysis of intentionality in holistic nursing theories. A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze seven holistic theories. The data included eight books and 31 articles (1998-2011), which were retrieved through MEDLINE and CINAHL. Erickson, Kriger, Parse, Watson, and Zahourek define intentionality as a capacity, a focused consciousness, and a pattern of human being. Rogers and Newman do not explicitly mention intentionality; however, they do explain pattern and consciousness (epistemology). Intentionality has been operationalized as a core concept of nurse-client relationships (pragmatic). The theories are consistent on intentionality as a noun and as an attribute of the person-intentionality is different from intent and intention (linguistic). There is ambiguity concerning the boundaries between intentionality and consciousness (logic). Theoretically, intentionality is an evolutionary capacity to integrate human awareness and experience. Because intentionality is an individualized concept, we introduced it as "a matrix of continuous known changes" that emerges in two forms: as a capacity of human being and as a capacity of transpersonal caring. This study has produced a theoretical definition of intentionality and provides a foundation for future research to further investigate intentionality to better delineate its boundaries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Screening for antibacterial principle and activity of Aerva javanica (Burm .f) Juss. ex Schult.

    P Srinivas; S Ram Reddy


    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial principle and activity of Aerva javanica, a medicinal plant. Methods: Crude extracts of different parts of Aerva javanica were made with hexane, chloroform and methanol. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts was done by following the standard methodology, and antibacterial activity was evaluated by inhibition zone and MIC values. Crude extracts were resolved through HPTLC and the antibacterial activity of the separated compounds was evaluated by bioautography. Results: The yields of crude extracts made from different plant parts varied both with plant part and solvent. Methanolic extracts of leaf and flower have shown a wide range of phytochemicals and more antibacterial activity. HPTLC separation of extracts coupled with bioautography studies revealed that apigenin followed by rutin and kaempferol has shown antibacterial activity against more number of bacteria. Conclusions:The present study supports the use of Aerva javanica in the traditional medicine, and it can be used against bacterial infections.

  12. Microcalorimeter pulse analysis by means of principle component decomposition

    de Vries, C P; van der Kuur, J; Gottardi, L; Akamatsu, H


    The X-ray integral field unit for the Athena mission consists of a microcalorimeter transition edge sensor pixel array. Incoming photons generate pulses which are analyzed in terms of energy, in order to assemble the X-ray spectrum. Usually this is done by means of optimal filtering in either time or frequency domain. In this paper we investigate an alternative method by means of principle component analysis. This method attempts to find the main components of an orthogonal set of functions to describe the data. We show, based on simulations, what the influence of various instrumental effects is on this type of analysis. We compare analyses both in time and frequency domain. Finally we apply these analyses on real data, obtained via frequency domain multiplexing readout.

  13. Principles for microscale separations based on redox-active surfactants and electrochemical methods.

    Rosslee, C A; Abbott, N L


    We report principles for microscale separations based on selective solubilization and deposition of sparingly water-soluble compounds by an aqueous solution of a redox-active surfactant. The surfactant, (11-ferrocenylundecyl)trimethylammonium bromide, undergoes a reversible change in micellization upon oxidation or reduction. This change in aggregation is exploited in a general scheme in which micelles of reduced surfactant are formed and then put in contact with a mixture of hydrophobic compounds leading to selective solubilization of the compounds. The micelles are then electrochemically disrupted, leading to the selective deposition of their contents. We measured the selectivity of the solubilization and deposition processes using mixtures of two model drug-like compounds, o-tolueneazo-beta-naphthol (I) and 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (II). By repeatedly solubilizing and depositing a mixture that initially contained equal mole fractions of each compound, we demonstrate formation of a product that contains 98.4% of I after six cycles. Because the aggregation states of redox-active surfactants are easily controlled within simple microfabricated structures, including structures that define small stationary volumes (e.g., wells of a microtiter plate) or flowing volumes of liquids (e.g., microfabricated channels), we believe these principles may be useful for the purification or analysis of compounds in microscale chemical process systems. When used for purification, these principles provide separation of surfactant and product.

  14. Wear Debris Analysis:Fundamental Principle of Wear-Graphy

    陈铭; 王伟华; 殷勇辉; 王成焘


    A new wear-graphy technology was developed, which can simultaneously identify the shape and composition of wear debris, for both metals and non-metals.The fundamental principles of the wear-graphy system and its wear-gram system are discussed here.A method was developed to distribute wear debris on a slide uniformly to reduce overlapping of wear debris while smearing.The composition identification analyzes the wear debris using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy spectrum, infrared-thermal imaging and X-ray imaging technology.A wear debris analysis system based on database techniques is demonstrated, and a visible digitized wear-gram is acquired based on the information of wear debris with image collection and processing of the wear debris.The method gives the morphological characteristics of the wear debris, material composition identification of the wear debris, intelligent recognition of the wear debris, and storage and management of wear debris information.

  15. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz


    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of Calotropis procera active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes

    Subramanian Velmurugan; Vijayaragavan Thanga Viji; Mariavincent Michael Babu; Mary Josephine Punitha; Thavasimuthu Citarasu


    Objective: To study the influence of Calotropis procera (C. procera) active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes. Methods: C. procera leaf powder was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and screened by antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity against aquatic pathogens which isolated from shrimp/fish. After initial screening, the active extract was purified through column chromatography and again screened. Finally the active fractions were characterized by phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis. Results: In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral screening revealed that, the ethyl acetate extracts were effectively suppressed the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Vibrio harveyi (V. harveyi) and Aeromons hydrophila (A. hydrophila) of more than 20 mm zone of inhibition; the fungi Fusarium sp and the killer virus WSSV. The ethyl acetate extracts of C. procera incubated WSSV was failed to multiply its progeny in the in vivo system of shrimp P. monodon. The shrimp had 80% survival after WSSV challenge from the control group significantly (P<0.001) and also PCR detection confirmed that no WSSV transcription found in shrimp haemolymph. After purified the ethyl acetate extracts again antimicrobial screening performed and it concluded that the fraction namely F-II was effectively suppressed the bacterial growth and WSSV due to its enriched active principles such as cardiac glycosides, Phenols, alkaloids, Tannin and quinines. Surprisingly this fraction, F-II was effectively controlled the WSSV at 90% level at a highest significant level (P<0.001). Finally the structural characterization by GC-MS analysis revealed that, the F-II fraction contained Phenols including several other compounds such as 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Methyl tetradecanoate, Bicyclo[3.1.1] heptane, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, (1α,2β,5α)-and Hexadecanoic acid etc. Conclusions: The present study revealed

  17. Analysis on Phase Transformation (ATP) Using Computational Thermal Principles (CTP)

    N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja; V. Soundararajan


    Computer analysis based on computational thermal principles to predict the transformation kinetics in steels at varying temperatures is of great practical importance in different areas of heat treatment. As a result, using the theory of transient state heat conduction with convective boundary conditions, an efficient program named "ATP" (Analysis on Phase Transformation) has been developed to determine the temperature distribution under different quenching conditions for different geometries such as plate, cylinder and sphere. In addition to these the microstructures and the corresponding hardness developed during quenching are predicted using Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagram incorporated in the analysis. To approve our work, dilation curves, Heisler charts and time-temperature history curve have been generated. This paper deals with basic objective of the program (ATP) determination of temperature, microstructure and hardness distribution and also includes an online prediction of austenite-pearlite and austenite-martensite transformation in steels along with the corresponding retained fractions. The quenching of a cylinder in gases, liquids and liquid metals is analyzed to show the non-liner effect of cylinder diameter on the temperature and microstructures. Further in the program we have considered a typical 1080 steel cylinders quenched in water for predicting and comparing the program results with experimental values and can be extended even to other grades of steels. The numerical results of program are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Finally the quenching process analysis described in the study appears to be a promising tool for the design of heat-treatment process parameters for steels.

  18. Prediction of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity with first-principles descriptors

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan


    In this work we demonstrate that the experimentally measured area specific resistance and oxygen surface exchange of solid oxide fuel cell cathode perovskites are strongly correlated with the first-principles calculated oxygen p-band center and vacancy formation energy. These quantities...... are therefore descriptors of catalytic activity that can be used in the first-principles design of new SOFC cathodes....

  19. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    Buchanan, John D.


    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  20. Mathematical principles of signal processing Fourier and wavelet analysis

    Brémaud, Pierre


    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools in many applied sciences. The recent developments of wavelet analysis indicates that in spite of its long history and well-established applications, the field is still one of active research. This text bridges the gap between engineering and mathematics, providing a rigorously mathematical introduction of Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis and related mathematical methods, while emphasizing their uses in signal processing and other applications in communications engineering. The interplay between Fourier series and Fourier transforms is at the heart of signal processing, which is couched most naturally in terms of the Dirac delta function and Lebesgue integrals. The exposition is organized into four parts. The first is a discussion of one-dimensional Fourier theory, including the classical results on convergence and the Poisson sum formula. The second part is devoted to the mathematical foundations of signal processing - sampling, filtering, digital signal proc...

  1. A Brief Analysis of Translation Principles in English Advertisements



    Advertising English, as an application language, has become universal and dependent. In this thesis, the author summarizes 3 translation principles in English advertisements, which provide the reference to the advertising translation.

  2. Thermodynamic principles governing metabolic operation : inference, analysis, and prediction

    Niebel, Bastian


    The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included

  3. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo


    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  4. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    He, Bin


    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  5. Principled Analysis of Economic Development and adoption by the State

    Francisco Carlos Duarte


    Full Text Available This paper consists of a study about the effectiveness of the constitutional principles related to the economic development, which proved to be the principles that justify the State’s decision to act through regulatory agencies, balancing the public interest and the private sector. It is a revisitation of the reform of the State’s apparatus, with a new prin- cipiologic and hermeneutic approach in accordance to the complex factual, ethical and axiological situations of the contemporary society that saw its’ social rights shaken by the economic instability scenario that has affected the whole world in recent years. It will be developed a reflection on the interaction of these principles with each other, and conclu- sively, how is the effectiveness managed by the State.

  6. Analysis of the optimality principles responsible for vascular network architectonics

    Lubashevsky, I A


    The equivalence of two optimality principles leading to Murray's law has been discussed. The first approach is based on minimization of biological work needed for maintaining the blood flow through the vessels at required level. The second one is the principle of minimal drag and lumen volume. Characteristic features of these principles are considered. An alternative approach leading to Murray's law has been proposed. For that we model the microcirculatory bed in terms of delivering vascular network with symmetrical bifurcation nodes, embedded uniformly into the cellular tissue. It was shown that Murray's law can be regarded as a direct consequence of the organism capacity for controlling the blood flow redistribution over the microcirculatory beds.

  7. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    Schou, L


    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...

  8. An Analysis of the Economy Principle Applied in Cyber Language



    With the development of network technology,cyber language,a new social dialect,is widely used in our life.The author analyzes how the economy principle is applied in cyber language from three aspects—word-formation,syntax and non-linguistic symbol.And the author collects,summarizes and analyzes the relevant language materials to prove the economy principle’s real existence in chat room and the reason why the economy principle is applied widely in cyber space.

  9. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Robin Mesnage


    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  10. Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles.

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric


    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300-600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  11. Design principles for data- and change-oriented organisational analysis in workplace health promotion.

    Inauen, A; Jenny, G J; Bauer, G F


    This article focuses on organizational analysis in workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. It shows how this analysis can be designed such that it provides rational data relevant to the further context-specific and goal-oriented planning of WHP and equally supports individual and organizational change processes implied by WHP. Design principles for organizational analysis were developed on the basis of a narrative review of the guiding principles of WHP interventions and organizational change as well as the scientific principles of data collection. Further, the practical experience of WHP consultants who routinely conduct organizational analysis was considered. This resulted in a framework with data-oriented and change-oriented design principles, addressing the following elements of organizational analysis in WHP: planning the overall procedure, data content, data-collection methods and information processing. Overall, the data-oriented design principles aim to produce valid, reliable and representative data, whereas the change-oriented design principles aim to promote motivation, coherence and a capacity for self-analysis. We expect that the simultaneous consideration of data- and change-oriented design principles for organizational analysis will strongly support the WHP process. We finally illustrate the applicability of the design principles to health promotion within a WHP case study.

  12. Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles

    Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.


    The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

  13. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…



    Sampling principle and characteristics and edge effect of orthogonal wavelet transform of signals are researched. Two samples of signals and wavelet bases must be taken in wavelet transform. In the second sample sampling interval or sampling length in different frequency range will be automatically adjusted. Wavelet transform can detect singular points. Both ends of signals are singular points. Edge effect is not avoidable.

  15. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  16. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique


    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  17. Principles of Quantitative Estimation of the Chaperone-Like Activity


    Molecular chaperones are able to interact with unfolded states of the protein molecule preventing their aggregation and facilitating folding of the polypeptide chain into the native structure. An understanding of the mechanism of protein aggregation is required to estimate the efficiency of action of chaperones in the test-systems based on the suppression of aggregation of protein substrates. The kinetic regimes of aggregation of proteins are discussed. The analysis of the aggregation kinetics of proteins shows that after passing the lag phase, aggregation follows, as a rule, first order kinetics. The quantitative characterization methods of the ability of chaperones to prevent aggregation of protein substrates have been elaborated.

  18. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    Yun Wen; Chee-Kit Looi; Wenli Chen


      This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student...


    Mironchuk V. A.


    Full Text Available The article provides and justifies the most preferred principle of innovative activity in agro-industrial complex - the development of multilevel model based on marketing concept of spheres and its approaches to managing innovation. The concept aims to create a competitive scientific and technical production, demand in the market through active marketing of the scientific-technical and innovation industry

  20. [Analysis of efficiency of human sleep by Pareto principle].

    Verbitskiĭ, E V; Grachev, G A


    The results of system assessment efficiency of human night sleep which was registered on a large number of people without health problems, and data on the modeling of sleep structure by Pareto principle were showed. In contrast to the assessment of sleep efficiency, as the ratio of the duration of electrophysiological sleep to the total time of sleep, the introduced method increase adequacy assessment by taking into gender factor in the somnology and personalized medicine.

  1. Alanna Conners and the Origins of Principled Data Analysis

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.


    Alanna was one of the most important pioneers in the development of not just sophisticated algorithms for analyzing astronomical data but more importantly an overall viewpoint emphasizing the use of statistically sound principles in place of blind application of cook-book recipes, or black boxes. I will outline some of the threads of this viewpoint, emphasizing time series data, with a focus on the importance of these developments for the Age of Digital Astronomy that we are entering.

  2. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  3. Concepts and principles in the analysis of brain networks.

    Wig, Gagan S; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E


    The brain is a large-scale network, operating at multiple levels of information processing ranging from neurons, to local circuits, to systems of brain areas. Recent advances in the mathematics of graph theory have provided tools with which to study networks. These tools can be employed to understand how the brain's behavioral repertoire is mediated by the interactions of objects of information processing. Within the graph-theoretic framework, networks are defined by independent objects (nodes) and the relationships shared between them (edges). Importantly, the accurate incorporation of graph theory into the study of brain networks mandates careful consideration of the assumptions, constraints, and principles of both the mathematics and the underlying neurobiology. This review focuses on understanding these principles and how they guide what constitutes a brain network and its elements, specifically focusing on resting-state correlations in humans. We argue that approaches that fail to take the principles of graph theory into consideration and do not reflect the underlying neurobiological properties of the brain will likely mischaracterize brain network structure and function.

  4. An Analysis of Yusuf (AS's Counter-Cyclical Principle and its Implementation in the Modern World

    Jameel Ahmed


    Full Text Available Objective - This study examines the present-day implementation of the counter-cyclical principle suggested by Yusuf (AS around four thousand years ago, in response to the King of Egypt's dream, to overcome the famine of seven years through saving grain during seven years of abundance. In general, the counter-cyclical principle encourages saving during times of plenty and spending during times of scarcity, activities which today help to stabilise the business-cycle.Method - Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. This paper reviews the commodity-based currency systems proposed before, during and after the Second World War by several prominent economists (particularly Keynes, 1938; Graham, 1940; Hayek, 1943; Grondona, 1950 and Lietaer, 2001 all of which basically incorporated the counter-cyclical principle of Prophet Yusuf (AS. The primary purpose of these commodity-based currency systems is to stabilise the real value of money in order to improve macroeconomic stability. Additionally, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility.Results - The Grondona system would partially stabilise the real value of each country's national currency in terms of a range of durable, essential, basic imported commodities, thereby also partially stabilising the prices of the selected commodities in terms of the national currency of each country implementing the system.Conclusion - The Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility as compared to other commodity-based currency systems is more practical. Its primary advantage in comparison to other proposals of commodity reserve currency is that it could be implemented in parallel with the existing monetary system. Accordingly, it could be taken as a preliminary step towards a monetary system based on real money such as gold dinar.Keywords : Counter-cyclical principle

  5. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    Bouchet, Dominique


    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  6. Did Osler suffer from "paranoia antitherapeuticum baltimorensis"?: A comparative content analysis of The Principles and Practice of Medicine and Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 11th edition


    One of the most important legacies of Sir William Osler was his textbook The Principles and Practice of Medicine. A common criticism of the book when it was first published was its deficiency in the area of therapeutics. In this article, the 1st edition of The Principles and Practice of Medicine is compared with the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The analysis focuses on the treatment recommendations for 4 conditions that were covered in both books (diabetes mellit...

  7. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    Valdir Cechinel Filho


    Full Text Available This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents.

  8. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  9. Activity-Based Management principles and implementation opportunities of the ABM system

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I


    This article describes the principles of Activity-Based Management and treats the implementation stages of it in enterprises from steel industry of Romania. The ABC method becomes the main tool of providing information for the ABM method. Thus, the ABM method becomes an important tool of obtaining performances in business.

  10. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng


    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  11. Modeling Hurricanes using Principle Component Analysis in conjunction with Non-Response Analysis

    Wooten, Rebecca D


    This paper demonstrates how principle component analysis can be used to determine the distinct factors that house the terms that explain the variance among the co-dependent variables and how non-response analysis can be applied to model the non-functional relationship that exist in a dynamic system. Moreover, the analysis indicates that there are pumping actions or ebb and flow between the pressure and the water temperature readings near the surface of the water days before a tropical storm forms in the Atlantic Basin and that there is a high correlation between storm conditions and buoy conditions three-four days before a storm forms. Further analysis shows that that the relationship among the variables is conical.

  12. Three-way component analysis : Principles and illustrative application

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Van Mechelen, Iven


    Three-way component analysis techniques are designed for descriptive analysis of 3-way data, for example, when data are collected on individuals, in different settings, and on different measures. Such techniques summarize all information in a 3-way data set by summarizing, for each way of the 3-way

  13. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F


    Forest management practices on Federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have been the center of intense controversy. Conflicting value systems, new information, and new perspectives have fueled the debate over the balance between timber production and preservation of natural ecosystems. In this paper we consider examples from three aspects of forest management: (1) management of forest stands, (2) management of the patchwork of forest stands at the landscape scale, and (3) management of streams and riparian networks. In each of these cases we examine: management practices and perspectives of the recent past, findings from ecosystem research that are leading to change in those practices, resulting changes in management practices, and future research directions. We also suggest a path for future change, including systems for managing in the face of uncertainty. Results of research in natural and managed forest and stream ecosystems have been pivotal in reassessment and redesign of management practices to provide a broader range of management options for society to consider. Results of studies of natural disturbance processes and their effects are used as reference points for management systems intending to sustain biological diversity and ecosystem productivity. Stand management practices, for example, are being modified to retain some live trees and greater amounts of dead woody debris, both standing and down, in areas that would instead be clear-cut under intensive plantation forestry practices. The motivations for these modified practices are to sustain biological diversity, including key wildlife species, and to maintain soil productivity. Models of alternative forest-cutting patterns at a landscape scale are being used to examine their effects on ecosystem structure and function. One result of this analysis has been to shift from the previous system of dispersing cutting units to a system involving greater aggregation of units using designs to

  14. Artificial olfaction systems: principles and applications to food analysis

    Antonella Macagnano; Roberto Paolesse; Arnaldo D’Amico; Corrado Di Natale


    .... On the other hands, since human senses are strongly involved in the interaction with foods the analysis of food provides an excellent field to compare the performances of natural and artificial olfaction systems...

  15. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis.

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G


    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis.

  16. Information needs analysis principles and practice in information organizations

    Dorner, Daniel G; Calvert, Philip J


    If you want to provide an information service that truly fulfils your users' needs, this book is essential reading. The book supports practitioners in developing an information needs analysis strategy and offers the necessary professional skills and techniques to do so.

  17. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Árpád Gyéresi; Eleonora Mircia; Brigitta Simon; Aura Rusu; Gabriel Hancu


    Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve...

  18. Principles and tools for collaborative entity-based intelligence analysis.

    Bier, Eric A; Card, Stuart K; Bodnar, John W


    Software tools that make it easier for analysts to collaborate as a natural part of their work will lead to better analysis that is informed by more perspectives. We are interested to know if software tools can be designed that support collaboration even as they allow analysts to find documents and organize information (including evidence, schemas, and hypotheses). We have modified the Entity Workspace system, described previously, to test such designs. We have evaluated the resulting design in both a laboratory study and a study where it is situated with an analysis team. In both cases, effects on collaboration appear to be positive. Key aspects of the design include an evidence notebook optimized for organizing entities (rather than text characters), information structures that can be collapsed and expanded, visualization of evidence that emphasizes events and documents (rather than emphasizing the entity graph), and a notification system that finds entities of mutual interest to multiple analysts. Long-term tests suggest that this approach can support both top-down and bottom-up styles of analysis.

  19. A Historical Analysis of Primary Mathematics Curricula in Terms of Teaching Principles

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih


    This study carries out a comparative analysis of primary mathematics curricula put into practice during Turkish Republican period. The data for this study are composed of official curricula documents which are examined in terms of teaching principles. The study adopts a qualitative approach and employs document analysis method. The official…

  20. Quality assessment of cortex cinnamomi by HPLC chemical fingerprint, principle component analysis and cluster analysis.

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Qin; Lai, Mao-Xiang; Wang, Qiang


    HPLC fingerprint analysis, principle component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis were introduced for quality assessment of Cortex cinnamomi (CC). The fingerprint of CC was developed and validated by analyzing 30 samples of CC from different species and geographic locations. Seventeen chromatographic peaks were selected as characteristic peaks and their relative peak areas (RPA) were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. The correlation coefficients of similarity in chromatograms were higher than 0.95 for the same species while much lower than 0.6 for different species. Besides, two principal components (PCs) have been extracted by PCA. PC1 separated Cinnamomum cassia from other species, capturing 56.75% of variance while PC2 contributed for their further separation, capturing 19.08% variance. The scores of the samples showed that the samples could be clustered reasonably into different groups corresponding to different species and different regions. The scores and loading plots together revealed different chemical properties of each group clearly. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of PCA analysis. Therefore, HPLC fingerprint in combination with chemometric techniques provide a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines.

  1. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Luzia Zorzal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  2. The juridical nature of the European Court of Justice and the principles of its activity

    Vilma Hasneziri


    In this work, especially in the second part, there shall be presented several decisions of the European Court of Justice as well, that have to do with its interpretation on the dispositions of the establishing Treaties as well as the analysis of the above mentioned principles. At the end of this work, there will be given its conclusions as well as the bibliography where it is based on.

  3. On the neglect of causality principles in solar activity - climate relations.

    Stauning, Peter


    Many research papers have claimed to demonstrate close relations between solar activity and the terrestrial climate. In most cases the relations have been based on comparisons between time series of solar activity parameters, for instance sunspot numbers, and climate parameters, for instance terrestrial temperatures. However, many of the reported close relations are based on skilfully manipulated data and neglect of basic causality principles. For cause-effect relations to be reliably established, the cause must obviously happen prior to the effects. Thus it is problematic to use, for instance, running averages of parameters if the result depends too much on posterior elements of the causative time series or precursory elements of the effects. Even more neglected are the causality principles for cause-effect relations with a strongly varying source function. Damping of source variations by smoothing data handling introduces additional implied delays, which should be considered in the judgement of apparent correlations between processed time series of cause and effect parameters. The presentation will discuss examples of frequently quoted solar activity-climate relations (e.g., by Reid, Friis-Christensen, and Svensmark), which violate basic causality principles.

  4. A Tentative Analysis on the Principles of Subtitling Translation



    Thanks to rapidly development on information technologies and economy globalization, the international culture inter⁃actions through movies and TV sequels have changed audiences viewing experience greatly. Accompanying with the actors ’and the actresses’own voices and natural breathing, the subtitled ones enable almost all the audiences to have a genuine, authentic movie time. Whereas the dubbed ones are comparatively costly and time consuming in the process of reproduction, it have gradu⁃ally faded out from our sights. This thesis conducts a brief survey and a tentative analysis on the strategies of subtitling translation with the case study of the famous TV series Emma, which is recomposed from one of greatest British Romantic Author Jane Aus⁃tin’s masterpieces.

  5. An introduction to DNA chips: principles, technology, applications and analysis.

    Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G


    This review describes the recently developed GeneChip technology that provides efficient access to genetic information using miniaturised, high-density arrays of DNA or oligonucleotide probes. Such microarrays are powerful tools to study the molecular basis of interactions on a scale that would be impossible using conventional analysis. The recent development of the microarray technology has greatly accelerated the investigation of gene regulation. Arrays are mostly used to identify which genes are turned on or off in a cell or tissue, and also to evaluate the extent of a gene's expression under various conditions. Indeed, this technology has been successfully applied to investigate simultaneous expression of many thousands of genes and to the detection of mutations or polymorphisms, as well as for their mapping and sequencing.

  6. Laminar flow and convective transport processes scaling principles and asymptotic analysis

    Brenner, Howard


    Laminar Flow and Convective Transport Processes: Scaling Principles and Asymptotic Analysis presents analytic methods for the solution of fluid mechanics and convective transport processes, all in the laminar flow regime. This book brings together the results of almost 30 years of research on the use of nondimensionalization, scaling principles, and asymptotic analysis into a comprehensive form suitable for presentation in a core graduate-level course on fluid mechanics and the convective transport of heat. A considerable amount of material on viscous-dominated flows is covered.A unique feat

  7. Analysis of variable-rate well-test pressure data using Duhamel's principle

    Thompson, L.G.; Reynolds, A.C.


    This work considers the use of Duhamel's principle to analyze pressure drawdown and buildup data when both bottomhole pressures (BHP's) and sandface flow rates are available. This analysis procedure uses Duhamel's principle to convert pressure data obtained when the sandface rate is variable to the equivalent pressure data that would be obtained for a constant sandface rate of production. The equivalent constant-rate pressure data then can be analyzed with standard procedures (semilog analysis of type-curve matching).

  8. A new ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with background

    Giunti, C


    Inspired by the recent proposal by Feldman and Cousins of a ``unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals'' based on a choice of ordering in Neyman's construction of classical confidence intervals, I propose a new ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with background which minimizes the effect on the resulting confidence intervals of the observation of less background events than expected. The new ordering principle is applied to the calculation of the confidence region implied by the recent null result of the KARMEN neutrino oscillation experiment.

  9. New ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with background

    Giunti, C.


    Inspired by the recent proposal by Feldman and Cousins of a ``unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals'' based on a choice of ordering in Neyman's construction of classical confidence intervals, I propose a new ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with a background which minimizes the effect on the resulting confidence intervals of the observation of fewer background events than expected. The new ordering principle is applied to the calculation of the confidence region implied by the recent null result of the KARMEN neutrino oscillation experiment.

  10. Preclinical evaluation of Luffa operculata Cogn. and its main active principle in the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Silva, Leonardo; Costa, Henrique Olival; Souza, Flávia Coelho de; Lopes, Elaine Monteiro Cardoso; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko


    The prevalence of rhinosinusitis is quite high. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis, there are other forms of treatment, including phytotherapy. One of the most widely used herbal medicines for treatment of rhinosinusitis is Luffa operculata. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata, determining the toxicity to its use and identifying the active principles presented in the aqueous extract. The secondary objective was to evaluate the action of active principles on bacteria commonly involved in acute rhino sinusitis. The study was conducted in experimental model of sinusitis. Three different concentrations of L. operculata were used as local treatment of rhino sinusitis. The results were compared with those observed in control groups that received nasal saline solution. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, spleen, myocardium, brain and lungs of all animals evaluated the toxicity of L. operculata. The aqueous extract used was subjected to chromatographic analysis and an active principle was isolated and tested for in vitro inhibition of bacterial colonies usually found in rhino sinusitis. Intranasal treatment of sinusitis with L. operculata showed better clinical evolution than control group. Statistically significant difference (p>0.10) between the treated group and the control group was observed in the histologic evaluation for inflammatory pattern. The aqueous extract of L. operculata used presented a predominance of 2,3-dicafeoilglicaric acid, a substance not yet described in the literature. There was a significant difference in bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes on blood-agar plates when under the influence of both the aqueous extract and the active substance. Topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata is effective compared to the application of saline solution for the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis in an experimental model. L

  11. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-Based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli


    This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student learning with sufficient flexibility and creativity. A set of pedagogical patterns for networked Second language (L2) learning, categorized and…

  12. Value of Earth Observations: Key principles and techniques of socioeconomic benefits analysis (Invited)

    Friedl, L.; Macauley, M.; Bernknopf, R.


    Internationally, multiple organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal benefits that governments, businesses, and NGOs can derive from applications of Earth-observing satellite observations, research, and models. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services by companies, agencies, and civil society. There are, however, significant efforts needed to bridge the Earth sciences and social and economic sciences fields to build capacity, develop case studies, and refine analytic techniques in quantifying socioeconomic benefits from the use of Earth observations. Some government programs, such as the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program have initiated activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from applications of Earth observations research, and to develop multidisciplinary models for organizations' decision-making activities. A community of practice has conducted workshops, developed impact analysis reports, published a book, developed a primer, and pursued other activities to advance analytic methodologies and build capacity. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to pursue a research agenda on analytic techniques, develop a body of knowledge, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  13. Application of the comparison principle to analysis of nonlinear systems. [using Lipschitz condition and differential equations

    Gunderson, R. W.


    A comparison principle based on a Kamke theorem and Lipschitz conditions is presented along with its possible applications and modifications. It is shown that the comparison lemma can be used in the study of such areas as classical stability theory, higher order trajectory derivatives, Liapunov functions, boundary value problems, approximate dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear systems, and bifurcation analysis.

  14. The Operating Principle of a Fully Solid State Active Magnetic Regenerator

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL


    As an alternative refrigeration technology, magnetocaloric refrigeration has the potential to be safer, quieter, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than the conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. This paper presents an operating principle of a fully solid state AMR, in which an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink is proposed. The operating principle of the fully solid state AMR is based on moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron or aluminum), which are employed to replace the heat transfer fluid. Such fully solid state AMR would provide a significantly higher heat transfer rate than a conventional AMR because the conductivity of moving solid rods/plates is high and it enables the increase in the machine operating frequency hence the cooling capacity. The details of operating principle are presented and discussed here. One of the key enabling features for this technology is the contact between the moving rods/sheets and magnetocaloric material, and heat exchange mechanism at the heat source/sink. This paper provides an overview of the design for a fully solid state magnetocaloric refrigeration system along with guidelines for their optimal design.


    Zhang Hongwu; Wang Hui; Chen Biaosong; Xie Zhaoqian


    A new algorithm is developed based on the parametric variational principle for elastic-plastic analysis of Cosserat continuum. The governing equations of the classic elastic-plastic problem are regularized by adding rotational degrees of freedom to the conventional translational degrees of freedom in conventional continuum mechanics. The parametric potential energy principle of the Cosserat theory is developed, from which the finite element formulation of the Cosserat theory and the corresponding parametric quadratic programming model are constructed. Strain localization problems are computed and the mesh independent results are obtained.

  16. Analysis on the Shift of Personal Pronoun in the Chinese Language - in Terms of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle



    Personal pronoun shift is a common phenomenon that by using second or third personal pronoun, the speaker means first personal pronoun;or speaker means second personal pronoun but uses first or third personal pronoun instead. Since the phe⁃nomenon frequently appears in the Chinese language, a great number of linguists have studied the personal pronoun and the inter⁃pretation of their usage. However, the study for the causes of the phenomenon is not so systemic. This paper aims to explain the personal pronoun shift from the perspective of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle, which can help to discover the rela⁃tionship between Cooperative principle and politeness in the shift of personal pronoun.

  17. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Marlen Lopez


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  


    Monika Maříková


    Full Text Available Nowadays, enterprises are challenged with continuously changing environment and they have to react quickly to these changes. Process management can be a tool that greatly helps businesses in this difficult time to survive (Hora, 2010. Process Management brings a relatively new perspective on corporate governance. According to McCoy et al. (2007 enterprises which implemented rules of process management have a competitive advantage over others. The paper presents the application of the principles of process management in relation to the legal form of business enterprise and business activity. For determining the level of principles of process management the indicator MPP was used (Rolśnek, 2012; Truneček, 2005. Based on statistical analysis, it can be argued that there is a relationship between the application of the principles of process management, business legal forms and also business activities.

  19. Use of maximum entropy principle with Lagrange multipliers extends the feasibility of elementary mode analysis.

    Zhao, Quanyu; Kurata, Hiroyuki


    Elementary mode (EM) analysis is potentially effective in integrating transcriptome or proteome data into metabolic network analyses and in exploring the mechanism of how phenotypic or metabolic flux distribution is changed with respect to environmental and genetic perturbations. The EM coefficients (EMCs) indicate the quantitative contribution of their associated EMs and can be estimated by maximizing Shannon's entropy as a general objective function in our previous study, but the use of EMCs is still restricted to a relatively small-scale networks. We propose a fast and universal method that optimizes hundreds of thousands of EMCs under the constraint of the Maximum entropy principle (MEP). Lagrange multipliers (LMs) are applied to maximize the Shannon's entropy-based objective function, analytically solving each EMC as the function of LMs. Consequently, the number of such search variables, the EMC number, is dramatically reduced to the reaction number. To demonstrate the feasibility of the MEP with Lagrange multipliers (MEPLM), it is coupled with enzyme control flux (ECF) to predict the flux distributions of Escherichia coli and Saccharomycescerevisiae for different conditions (gene deletion, adaptive evolution, temperature, and dilution rate) and to provide a quantitative understanding of how metabolic or physiological states are changed in response to these genetic or environmental perturbations at the elementary mode level. It is shown that the ECF-based method is a feasible framework for the prediction of metabolic flux distribution by integrating enzyme activity data into EMs to genetic and environmental perturbations.

  20. Blackboard electrophoresis: An Inexpensive Exercise on the Principles of DNA Restriction Analysis.

    Costa, M J


    Undergraduates with little training on molecular biology may find the technical level of the typical introductory restriction laboratory too challenging and have problems with mastering the underlying concepts and processes. Blackboard electrophoresis is an active learning exercise, which focuses student attention on the sequences and principles of DNA restriction. Students convert short strings of letters of A, C, G, and Ts into blackboard electrophoresis profiles analogous to gel electrophoresis of restriction digests. Students work in teams to i) invent short strings of letters representing polynucleotides; ii) identify and count the number of specific restriction sequences in each string; iii) fractionate the strings in restriction fragments and count their size; and iv) predict blackboard electrophoretic patterns in which fragments are represented by sizes. The exercise is inexpensive, since it does not require laboratory equipment or supplies and accommodates a plethora of introductory contexts that can be explored to bring in relevance to students. The exercise has been used with high school and university audiences with very positive outcomes. Blackboard electrophoresis is a valuable complement or alternative to other instructional approaches to teach restriction analysis and DNA diversity. Copyright © 2007 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    O.O. Poplavskiy


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  2. The principles of the Brazilian Unified Health System, studied based on similitude analysis

    Ana Paula Munhen de Pontes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze and compare the incorporation of the ethical-doctrinal and organizational principles into the social representations of the Unified Health System (SUS among health professionals. METHOD: a study grounded in Social Representations Theory, undertaken with 125 subjects, in eight health institutions in Rio de Janeiro. The free word association technique was applied to the induction term "SUS", the words evoked being analyzed using the techniques of the Vergès matrix and similitude analysis. RESULTS: it was identified that the professionals' social representations vary depending on their level of education, and that those with higher education represent a subgroup responsible for the process of representational change identified. This result was confirmed through similitude analysis. CONCLUSION: a process of representational change is ongoing, in which it was ascertained that the professionals incorporated the principles of the SUS into their symbolic constructions. The similitude analysis was shown to be a fruitful technique for research in nursing.

  3. Design Principles of Biological Oscillators through Optimization: Forward and Reverse Analysis

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Banga, Julio R.


    From cyanobacteria to human, sustained oscillations coordinate important biological functions. Although much has been learned concerning the sophisticated molecular mechanisms underlying biological oscillators, design principles linking structure and functional behavior are not yet fully understood. Here we explore design principles of biological oscillators from a multiobjective optimization perspective, taking into account the trade-offs between conflicting performance goals or demands. We develop a comprehensive tool for automated design of oscillators, based on multicriteria global optimization that allows two modes: (i) the automatic design (forward problem) and (ii) the inference of design principles (reverse analysis problem). From the perspective of synthetic biology, the forward mode allows the solution of design problems that mimic some of the desirable properties appearing in natural oscillators. The reverse analysis mode facilitates a systematic exploration of the design space based on Pareto optimality concepts. The method is illustrated with two case studies: the automatic design of synthetic oscillators from a library of biological parts, and the exploration of design principles in 3-gene oscillatory systems. PMID:27977695

  4. Principles of sustainable development of the territory and priorities of architectural and urban construction activity

    Dontsov, Dmitry; Yushkova, Natalia


    The paper is aimed at detecting conceptual conflicts within the architectural and urban construction activity (AUCA), defining their reasons and substantiating ways to decrease adverse effects they caused. Methods of causes and effects analyses are used, as well as evolutional and comparative analyses. They allow defining the laws to form activity model in modern environment, whose elements are ranked. Relevance of the paper is based on defining scientific and theoretical grounds of necessity to improve methodology of AUCA via its adaption to the imperatives of state management. System analyses enabled to prove practicability of considering factors of institution environment for reorganization of the model of AUCA, which provide the fullest implementation of sustainable development principles. It was proved that territorial planning is not only the leading type of AUCA, but also integrator for functioning structures of state management within planning of social and economic development. As main result of the paper consist in detection of the perspective ways for evolution of modern methodology due to increasing interdisciplinary aspect leading to the qualitative renewal of territorial management principles.

  5. Activating Mg acceptors in AlN by oxygen: first principles calculations

    Wu, R Q


    First principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) are performed to study the electronic properties of Mg acceptors in AlN at the presence of oxygen. It is found that Mg and O tend to form complexes like Mg-O, Mg$_2$-O, Mg$_3$-O and Mg$_4$-O which have activation energies about 0.23 eV lower than that of Mg (except of the passive Mg-O). The lower activation energies originate from the extra states over valence band top of AlN induced by the passive Mg-O. By comparing to the well-established case of GaN, it is possible to fabricate Mg and O codoped AlN without MgO precipitate. These results suggest the possibility of achieving higher hole concentration in AlN by Mg and O codoping.

  6. First-Principles Study of Photochemical Activation of CO2 by Ti-based Oxides

    He, Haiying; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry


    The photochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into energy-bearing hydrocarbon fuels provides an attractive way of mitigating the green-house gas CO2 and utilizing solar energy as a sustainable energy source. However, due to the high reduction potential and chemical inertness of CO2 molecules, the conversion rate of CO2 is impractically low. The activation of CO2 is critical in facilitating further reactions. By carrying out first-principles calculations of reaction pathways from CO2 to CO2-anions on Ti-based oxides including zeolites in the presence of photoexcited electrons, we have studied the initial step of CO2 activation via 1e transfer. It is shown that the CO2 reactivity of these surfaces strongly depends on the crystal structure, surface orientation, and presence of defects. This opens a new dimension in surface structure modification to enhance the CO2 adsorption and reduction on semiconductor surfaces.

  7. Clustering of frequency spectrums from different bearing fault using principle component analysis

    Yusof M.F.M.


    Full Text Available In studies associated with the defect in rolling element bearing, signal clustering are one of the popular approach taken in attempt to identify the type of defect. However, the noise interruption are one of the major issues which affect the degree of effectiveness of the applied clustering method. In this paper, the application of principle component analysis (PCA as a pre-processing method for hierarchical clustering analysis on the frequency spectrum of the vibration signal was proposed. To achieve the aim, the vibration signal was acquired from the operating bearings with different condition and speed. In the next stage, the principle component analysis was applied to the frequency spectrums of the acquired signals for pattern recognition purpose. Meanwhile the mahalanobis distance model was used to cluster the result from PCA. According to the results, it was found that the change in amplitude at the respective fundamental frequencies can be detected as a result from the application of PCA. Meanwhile, the application of mahalanobis distance was found to be suitable for clustering the results from principle component analysis. Uniquely, it was discovered that the spectrums from healthy and inner race defect bearing can be clearly distinguished from each other even though the change in amplitude pattern for inner race defect frequency spectrum was too small compared to the healthy one. In this work, it was demonstrated that the use of principle component analysis could sensitively detect the change in the pattern of the frequency spectrums. Likewise, the implementation of mahalanobis distance model for clustering purpose was found to be significant for bearing defect identification.

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of teaching and learning guiding principles instrument among teacher educators in higher education institutions

    Masuwai, Azwani; Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Saad, Noor Shah


    The purpose of this study is to develop and establish the validity and reliability of an instrument to generate teaching and learning guiding principles using Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles Instrument (TLGPI). Participants consisted of 171 Malaysian teacher educators. It is an essential instrument to reflect in generating the teaching and learning guiding principles in higher education level in Malaysia. Confirmatory Factor Analysis has validated all 19 items of TLGPI whereby all items indicated high reliability and internal consistency. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis also confirmed that a single factor model was used to generate teaching and learning guiding principles.

  9. Principles of ESCA and applications to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Wheeler, D. R.


    The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) are described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques are evaluated. The use of ESCA is illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. Finally, a bibliography of material that is useful for further study of ESCA is presented and commented upon.

  10. Overseas and Domestic Research Status of Analysis of Humor from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle



    In Harvard University in 1967, an American linguistic philosopher, Grice, firstly put forward Cooperative Principle. From then on, overseas and domestic scholars began to pay much attention on CP, and analysis of humor from CP also became popular among researchers. The thesis reviews overseas and domestic research status of the research field from the violation of CP, in order to offer some constructive suggestions and research directions.

  11. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M


    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  12. Antifeedant activity of ethanolic extract from Flourensia oolepis and isolation of pinocembrin as its active principle compound.

    Diaz Napal, Georgina N; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M


    The ethanolic extract from Flourensia oolepis aerial parts showed strong antifeedant activity against the pest larvae, Epilachna paenulata, with an antifeedant index (AI%) of 99.1% at 100 microg/cm(2). Based on chromatographic fractionation of the extract, guided by bioassays on E. paenulata, the flavanone pinocembrin (1) was isolated as the most active principle. In a choice assay, compound 1 showed strong antifeedant activity against E. paenulata, Xanthogaleruca luteola and Spodoptera frugiperda with an AI% of 90, 94 and 91% (p<0.01) respectively, at 50 microg/cm(2). The dosages necessary for 50% feeding inhibition of the insects (ED(50)) were 7.98, 6.13 and 8.86 microg/cm(2), respectively. The feeding inhibitory activity of 1 against E. paenulata was compared with the activity of other structurally related flavonoids like naringenin, which was inactive up to 100 microg/cm(2), catechin which was nearly 6 times less active than 1, and quercetin which was equally active as 1. The effect of these on the feeding behavior of E. paenulata was also studied.

  13. Oncogenic and tumor-promoting Spermatophytes and Pteridophytes and their active principles.

    Farnsworth, N R; Bingel, A S; Fong, H H; Saleh, A A; Christenson, G M; Saufferer, S M


    A survey and discussion are presented of plants classified as Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, extracts of which have been shown to be oncogenic or tumor-promoting in animals. The active oncogenic and tumor-promoting principles, where known, have been identified. They represent tannins; pyrrolizidine, indole, tropolone, quinoline, purine, and benzophenanthridine alkaloids; nitroso compounds; triterpene glycosides; lignans; isoflavans; allyl benzenoids; simple (nu-pyrenes; and carbocyclic hydroxy acids. A total of 28 compounds of known structure have been identified as oncogens and several phorbol esters as tumor-promoters. Plants known to contain any of the 28 oncogens (excluding shikimic acid and caffeine) have been tabulated; they represent at least 454 species, 110 genera, and 34 families of Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta.

  14. Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study

    David, Bertrand; Chalon, René


    M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

  15. Analysis of Mixing Principle and Optimization of Parameter on the Single-shaft Horizontal Total Mixed Ration Mixer

    ZHANG Yu; WANG Defu


    The main structure and working principle of the single-shaft horizontal total mixed ration mixer was discussed.For studying the mixing principle,the analysis of force and motion of the material on the paddle were made,and paddle angle and rotational speed of the rotor were determined by the experiment,the main mixing ways were explained.

  16. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E


    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Bakhrouf Amina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  18. The Principle of Mass Understood: A Qualitative Analysis for the Operational Planner



  19. Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Active Principle Isolated from Eugenia jambolana in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Reenu Singh Tanwar


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiatherosclerotic effect of active principle (FIIc isolated from aqueous fruit pulp extract of Eugenia jambolana. Crude aqueous extract of E. jambolana was subjected to purification using chromatographic techniques which yielded purified active compound (FIIc. Purity of FIIc was tested by HPLC. Phytochemical investigation of FIIc by NMR, IR, and UV spectra showed that the purified compound is α-hydroxy succinamic acid. The streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats were fed atherosclerotic (Ath diet containing 1.5 mL olive oil containing 8 mg (3, 20,000 IU vitamin D2 and 40 mg cholesterol for 5 consecutive days. The STZ-induced diabetic rats receiving Ath diet were orally administered FIIc at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, and results were compared with reference drug, that is, glibenclamide (600 μg/mg and healthy control. 30-day treatment with FIIc resulted in significant (P<.001 improvement in blood glucose, serum lipid profile, apolipoproteins (Apo A1 and apoB100, and endothelial dysfunction parameters. Histomorphological studies also confirmed biochemical findings. Our results showed that FIIc has protective effect on hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis.

  20. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning

    Lamorgese, Lydia, E-mail:; Geneletti, Davide, E-mail:


    This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed.

  1. Analysis on the Foucault pendulum by De Alembert Principle and Numerical Simulation

    Zheng, Zhiwu


    In this paper, we handle the problem of the motion of the Foucault pendulum. We explore a new method induced from the De Alembert Principle giving the motional equations without small-amplitude oscillation approximation. The result of the problem is illustrated by numerical analysis showing the non-linear features and then with a comparison with a common method, showing the merit of this new original method. The result also shows that the argument changes in near-harmonic mode and the swing plane changes in pulsing way.

  2. English Euphemism and its Linguistic Analysis from the Cooperative Principle Perspective



    Euphemism is a common phenomenon in languages. It’s a more mild and polite way to say something unpleasant and embarrassing. It’s a figure of speech as well as a cultural phenomenon. Euphemism functions to enhance the effect of communica-tion and maintain harmonious interpersonal relations. With the development of modern society, it has become an indispensable element in people's interactions. Many linguists and scholars have studied this linguistic phenomenon from different angles. Based on their achievements, the author has a tentative analysis of the three kinds of negative effects by using euphemism from the per-spective of Cooperative Principle.

  3. Global Analysis of New Malaria Intrahost Models with a Competitive Exclusion Principle

    Iggidr, Abderrahman; Sallet, Gauthier; Tewa, Jean-Jules; 10.1137/050643271


    In this paper we propose a malaria within-host model with k classes of age for the parasitized red blood cells and n strains for the parasite. We provide a global analysis for this model. A competitive exclusion principle holds. If R0, the basic reproduction number, satisfies R0 1, then generically there is a unique endemic equilibrium which corresponds to the endemic stabilization of the most virulent parasite strain and to the extinction of all the other parasites strains. We prove that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable on the positive orthant if a mild sufficient condition is satisfied.

  4. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Charu M. Marya


    Full Text Available The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29% and eugenyl acetate (19.10%. Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Data were analyzed using student t-test (<0.05. CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy.

  5. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Marya, Charu M.; Satija, Gunjan; J., Avinash; Nagpal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Rohtash; Ahmad, Aijaz


    The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29%) and eugenyl acetate (19.10%). Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Data were analyzed using student t-test (P < 0.05). CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy. PMID:22997520

  6. First-principles analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for transition metal complex oxides

    Ikeno, Hidekazu


    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is widely used for the characterization of magnetism of materials. However, information from XMCD related to the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures is not fully utilized due to the lack of reliable theoretical tools for spectral analysis. In this work, the first-principles configuration interaction (CI) calculations for X-ray absorption spectra developed by the author were extended for the calculation of XMCD, where the Zeeman energy was taken into the Hamiltonian of the CI to mimic magnetic polarization in the solid state. This technique was applied to interpret the L2,3 XMCD from 3d transition metal complex oxides, such as NiFe2O4 and FeTiO3. The experimental XMCD spectra were quantitatively reproduced using this method. The oxidation states as well as the magnetic ordering between transition metal ions on crystallographically different sites in NiFe2O4 can be unambiguously determined. A first-principles analysis of XMCD in FeTiO3 revealed the presence of Fe3+ and Ti3+ ions, which indicates that the charge transfer from Fe to Ti ions occurs. The origin of magnetic polarization of Ti ions in FeTiO3 was also discussed.

  7. First-principles analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for transition metal complex oxides

    Ikeno, Hidekazu, E-mail: [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)


    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is widely used for the characterization of magnetism of materials. However, information from XMCD related to the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures is not fully utilized due to the lack of reliable theoretical tools for spectral analysis. In this work, the first-principles configuration interaction (CI) calculations for X-ray absorption spectra developed by the author were extended for the calculation of XMCD, where the Zeeman energy was taken into the Hamiltonian of the CI to mimic magnetic polarization in the solid state. This technique was applied to interpret the L{sub 2,3} XMCD from 3d transition metal complex oxides, such as NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and FeTiO{sub 3}. The experimental XMCD spectra were quantitatively reproduced using this method. The oxidation states as well as the magnetic ordering between transition metal ions on crystallographically different sites in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be unambiguously determined. A first-principles analysis of XMCD in FeTiO{sub 3} revealed the presence of Fe{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 3+} ions, which indicates that the charge transfer from Fe to Ti ions occurs. The origin of magnetic polarization of Ti ions in FeTiO{sub 3} was also discussed.

  8. Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge

    Appels, Lise; Degreve, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. De Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Baeyens, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dewil, Raf [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. De Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Chemical Engineering, Associated Faculty of Technology and Biosciences, Campus De Nayer, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Jan De Nayerlaan 5, B-2860 Sint-Katelijne-Waver (Belgium)


    When treating municipal wastewater, the disposal of sludge is a problem of growing importance, representing up to 50% of the current operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant. Although different disposal routes are possible, anaerobic digestion plays an important role for its abilities to further transform organic matter into biogas (60-70 vol% of methane, CH{sub 4}), as thereby it also reduces the amount of final sludge solids for disposal whilst destroying most of the pathogens present in the sludge and limiting odour problems associated with residual putrescible matter. Anaerobic digestion thus optimises WWTP costs, its environmental footprint and is considered a major and essential part of a modern WWTP. The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade quality and to enhance energy use. The present paper extensively reviews the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems. After having reviewed the basic principles and techniques of the anaerobic digestion process, modelling concepts will be assessed to delineate the dominant parameters. Hydrolysis is recognised as rate-limiting step in the complex digestion process. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion is complex and delicate, involving several bacterial groups, each of them having their own optimum working conditions. As will be shown, these groups are sensitive to and possibly inhibited by several process parameters such as pH, alkalinity, concentration of free ammonia, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, volatile fatty acids and others. To accelerate the digestion and enhance the production of biogas, various pre-treatments can be used to improve the rate-limiting hydrolysis. These treatments include

  9. Active Ageing: An Analysis

    Alina-Cristina Nuta


    Full Text Available The problem of ageing is a highly topical for Romania and for European Union. In this framework, to create and implement some strategies for active ageing is an important objective. The international and regional forums set (supported by official statistics that the number of older people growing rapidly. Romania needs some programmes (with labour, social, economic, health care aspects to deal with the demographic changes, programs that will reform the existing working life structures and legislation. Despite the actual pension reform, which tries to close the opportunity of early retirement (by penalizing the total pension flows, or increasing the retirement age, etc., the labour system does not sets some important targets for this area.

  10. Multivariate statistical analysis: Principles and applications to coorbital streams of meteorite falls

    Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.


    Multivariate statistical analysis techniques (linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression) can provide powerful discrimination tools which are generally unfamiliar to the planetary science community. Fall parameters were used to identify a group of 17 H chondrites (Cluster 1) that were part of a coorbital stream which intersected Earth's orbit in May, from 1855 - 1895, and can be distinguished from all other H chondrite falls. Using multivariate statistical techniques, it was demonstrated that a totally different criterion, labile trace element contents - hence thermal histories - or 13 Cluster 1 meteorites are distinguishable from those of 45 non-Cluster 1 H chondrites. Here, we focus upon the principles of multivariate statistical techniques and illustrate their application using non-meteoritic and meteoritic examples.

  11. 无过错责任原则的经济分析%An Economic Analysis on Strict Liability Principle



    This paper tries to use the law of economic analysis method to study strict liability principle, with a view of highlighting the prevention function of the tort law and the efficiency. According to the analysis, strict liability principle in its applicable fields can make the externalities of infringement cost internalize better, prompt the tort-feasor to reduce active measures to prevent infringement, reduce the harm of the infringing act, prompt the infringer to pursue their own benefit and to achieve the optimal level of social prevention in the process; what is more, it can save the judicial resources, and make more victims get compensation for damage through exempting the cost of offering proofs that the tortfeasor is negligent or intentional. Therefore, strict liability principle has more advantages than fault liability principle in efficiency.%采用法律经济学的分析方法,以效率为视角并突出侵权责任法的预防功能来研究无过错责任原则,可以发现无过错责任原则在其适用的领域内,不仅能使侵权行为的外部性成本更好内部化,促使侵权人积极预防以减少侵权行为、降低侵权行为的危害程度,促使侵权人在追求自己利益最大化的过程中实现了社会的最优预防水平;而且还能节约司法资源,并通过免除了受害人举证过错的成本支出而使更多受害人能获得损害赔偿。从效率考察.无过错责任原则比过错责任原则更具优越性。

  12. Did Osler suffer from "paranoia antitherapeuticum baltimorensis"? A comparative content analysis of The Principles and Practice of Medicine and Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 11th edition.

    Hogan, D B


    One of the most important legacies of Sir William Osler was his textbook The Principles and Practice of Medicine. A common criticism of the book when it was first published was its deficiency in the area of therapeutics. In this article, the 1st edition of The Principles and Practice of Medicine is compared with the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The analysis focuses on the treatment recommendations for 4 conditions that were covered in both books (diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, pneumonia and typhoid fever). Osler's textbook dealt with typhoid fever and pneumonia at greater length, whereas Harrison's placed more emphasis on diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. Notwithstanding Osler's reputation as a therapeutic nihilist, the 2 books devoted equivalent space to treatment (in terms of proportion of total sentences for the conditions). For all conditions except ischemic heart disease, Osler concentrated on general measures and symptomatic care. Throughout Osler's textbook numerous negative comments are made about the medicinal treatment of various conditions. A more accurate statement about Osler's therapeutic approach was that he was a "medicinal nihilist." His demand for proof of efficacy before use of a medication remains relevant.

  13. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I. Active-Field Inspection


    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I...scientific principles governing both active-field and residual-field variants of MRT were examined. The results of theoretical and experimental...investigations into active-field MRT are documented in the current report, which describes the principles of active-field MRT, and then examines both the basis


    Olha KHUDYK


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical and methodological principles of strategic financial analysis of capital. The necessity of strategic financial analysis of capital as a methodological basis for study strategies is proved in modern conditions of a high level of dynamism, uncertainty and risk. The methodological elements of the strategic financial analysis of capital (the object of investigation, the indicators, the factors, the methods of study, the subjects of analysis, the sources of incoming and outgoing information are justified in the system of financial management, allowing to improve its theoretical foundations. It is proved that the strategic financial analysis of capital is a continuous process, carried out in an appropriate sequence at each stage of capital circulation. The system of indexes is substantiated, based on the needs of the strategic financial analysis. The classification of factors determining the size and structure of company’s capital is grounded. The economic nature of capital of the company is clarified. We consider that capital is a stock of economic resources in the form of cash, tangible and intangible assets accumulated by savings, which is used by its owner as a factor of production and investment resource in the economic process in order to obtain profit, to ensure the growth of owners’ prosperity and to achieve social effect.

  15. Studying of the standardization principles of pharmacological activity of recombinant erythropoietin preparations

    A. K. Yakovlev


    Full Text Available Analysis of the publications devoted to the structure, functions, mechanism of action of erythropoietin is given in the article. Erythropoietin preparations derived from recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, which determine the biological properties pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of medicinal product. Erythropoietin preparations derived by using recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, that determine the biological properties, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, safety and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. However, at production of erythropoietin, its pharmacological activity is controlled only by the ability to stimulate erythropoiesis, despite the multiplicity of different directions of action of drugs erythropoietin. The drug is dispensed and applied on this indicator. The international reference standard, a European reference biologic drug or calibrated by him enterprise standard samples are used by manufacturers to assess the quality of erythropoietin in the Russian Federation. The urgency of developing domestic standard samples for the evaluation of biological activity and physico-chemical characteristics of erythropoietin preparations produced by recombinant DNA technology.

  16. Principles of multilevel analysis and its relevance to studies of antimicrobial resistance.

    Vellinga, Akke; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin


    When studying antimicrobial resistance it is clear that individuals do not exist in isolation and are often clustered into groups. Data within groups are generally not independent, but standard statistical approaches assume independence of observations. When data are clustered (e.g. students in schools, patients in general practices, etc.) multilevel analysis can be used. The overall idea of multilevel analysis is that the clustering is taken into account in the analysis and provides additional information on the interactions between individuals and groups. The lowest level is often the individual and additional levels are formed by clustering in groups (the higher levels). This article introduces the principles behind multilevel modelling. The approach is to provide readers with sufficient information to understand outcomes in which this statistical technique is used, without expecting the reader to be able to perform such an analysis. As multilevel modelling can be seen as an extension of linear regression analysis, this is the starting point of the article. Other concepts and terms are introduced throughout, resulting in the explanation of the accompanying article on antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in Irish general practice (Vellinga A, Tansey S, Hanahoe B et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67: 2523-30).

  17. The principle and Application of the Multiple and Partial Coherence Analysis



    The basic principles of the partial and multiple coherence ananlysis and their utilization on vibration source idenfification are discussed in detail in this paper,The partial coherence analysis is the effective method of vibration source identification in multiple input-single output systems.Formerly,there was not any this kind of unction in the signal processor,and there was not and special software too.The software which we developed and used in the 7T 17S signal processor has this function.This software can be used not only for the parial and multiple coherence analysis of signal,but also for the correlation analysis,power spectrum analysis,transfer function analysis et al.We used this software to make the identifcation of the vibration source of the car floor board of electrical measuring vehicle,and to find the main factors which effect the vibration of the ear board.The excellent result was obtained.This method can also be used for making the identifications of noise source and other sources.


    Olha KHUDYK


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical and methodological principles of strategic financial analysis of capital. The necessity of strategic financial analysis of capital as a methodological basis for study strategies is proved in modern conditions of a high level of dynamism, uncertainty and risk. The methodological elements of the strategic indicators, the factors, the methods of study, the subjects of analysis, the sources of incoming and outgoing information are justified in the system of financial management, allowing to improve its theoretical foundations. It is proved that the strategic financial analysis of capital is a continuous process, carried out in an appropriate sequence at each stage of capital circulation. The system of indexes is substantiated, based on the needs of the strategic financial analysis. The classification of factors determining the size and structure of company’s capital is grounded. The economic nature of capital of the company is clarified. We consider that capital is a stock of economic resources in the form of cash, tangible and intangible assets accumulated by savings, which is used by its owner as a factor of production and investment resource in the economic process in order to obtain profit, to ensure the growth of owners’ prosperity and to achieve social effect.

  19. The stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria - Comparing the thermodynamic approach with the energy principle

    Brinkmann, R. P.


    This paper is a contribution to the stability analysis of current-carrying plasmas, i.e., plasma systems that are forced by external mchanisms to carry a nonrelaxing electrical current. Under restriction to translationally invariant configurations, the thermodynamic stability criterion for a multicomponent plasma is rederived within the framework of nonideal MHD. The chosen dynamics neglects scalar resistivity, but allows for other types of dissipation effects both in Ohm's law and in the equation of motion. In the second section of the paper, the thermodynamic stability criterion is compared with the ideal MHD based energy principle of Bernstein et al. With the help of Schwarz's inequality, it is shown that the former criterion is always more 'pessimistic' than the latter, i.e., that thermodynamic stability implies stability according to the MHD principle, but not vice versa. This reuslt confirms the physical plausible idea that dissipational effects tend to weaken the stability properties of current-carrying plasma equilibria by breaking the constraints of ideal MHD and allowing for possibly destabilizing effects such as magnetic field line reconfiguration.

  20. Analysis of environment elements in specific reservation of nature Stari Begej: Carska bara and principles of protection

    Mrkša Milutin


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is presentation a realistic status of environment elements in specific reservation of nature Stari Begej - Carska Bara. This article is present exchanged status of elements whose after effect operated the tourism activity. Principles of protection is present, too. Specific reservation of nature is area which comprehend one or more extra value of nature. Principles of protection are necessary for route, control and following.

  1. Novel synthesis of nanosilver particles using plant active principle aloin and evaluation of their cytotoxic effect against Staphylococcus aureus

    Thota Venkata Chaitanya Kumar


    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a reliable, eco-friendly and easy process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aloin, the active principle of medicinal plant ‘Aloe vera ’ and to evaluate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, a causative organism of most of the diseases in livestock and to standardize the level of safety of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Methods: Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometry, DLS technique, FT-IR and SEM. Tube dilution method was carried out to evaluate the MIC of the compound against S. aureus. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the level of safety of nanoparticles. Results: UV-vis absorption spectrum showed a maximum absorption around 200 nm for aloin mediated silver nanoparticles (ANS. The size of the particles as measured by DLS technique was 67.8 nm. The results of FT-IR analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine and nitrile groups in the synthesis and stabilization of aloin mediated silver nanoparticles. SEM images showed that ANS with cubical, rectangular, triangular and spherical morphology and measured sizes of the agglomerated nanoparticles are in a range of 287.5 to 293.2 nm, however the average size of an individual particle is estimated to be approximately 70 nm. The compound (ANS showed a MIC of 21.8 ng/mL against S. aureus and showed an in vitro spleenocyte viability of more than 80% at the highest concentration of 87.5 mg/L per well. Conclusions: Aloin consists of functional groups which reduced Ag+ ions to Ago ions and helped in synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis process has further enhanced the antimicrobial activity of nanosilver. The compound is also proved to be safe at the level many times higher than the MIC.

  2. Study on Effect of IH764-3, an Active Principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, in Inducing Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis

    赵东强; 姜慧卿; 修贺明; 张晓岚


    Objective: To explore the anti-fibrotic mechanism of Salviae miltiorrhizae from the view of proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSC).Methods: IH764-3, an active principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, was used to intervene in the cultured HSC in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the cell apoptosis was examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling method (TUNEL).Results: MTT showed that IH764-3 has obvious inhibition on the proliferation of HSC. Specific cell apoptosis figures of HSC, such as chromatin agglutination, were seen under electron microscopy in the IH764-3 treated group. By flow cytometer, it was shown that the HSC apoptosis rate in the IH764-3 treated group was higher than that in the control group, and the apoptosis inducing effect of IH764-3 was dose- and time-dependent. TUNEL analysis showed that the HSC apoptotsis rate was 28.3±1.5% after being incubated for 48 hrs with IH764-3, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.7±0.6%, P<0.05).Conclusion: IH764-3 could inhibit the proliferation of HSC and induce its apoptosis. These effects may be one of the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of Salviae miltiorrhizae.

  3. An Intrusion Detection System Model Based on Immune Principle and Performance Analysis

    CHEN Zhi-xian; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Shao-di; SUN Zhi-xin


    The study of security in computer networks is a key issue,which is a rapidly growing area of interest because of its importance.Main network security problems are analyzed in this paper above all,which currently are confronted with network systems and existing works in intrusion detection.And then an intrusion detection system model based on Immune Principle(IPIDS)is presented.Meanwhile,it expatiates detailed implementation of the methods how to reduce the high false positive and negative alarms of the traditional Intrusion Detection System(IDS).At last a simple simulation is performed on this model just using string match algorithm as binding mechanism.The simulation results indicate that the model can detect malicious activity effectively,and consequently the security and steadiness of the whole network system are improved also.


    ZHANG Hong-wu; WANG Hui


    The Voronoi cell finite element method (VCFEM) is adopted to overcome the limitations of the classic displacement based finite element method in the numerical simulation of heterogeneous materials. The parametric variational principle and quadratic programming method are developed for elastic-plastic Voronoi finite element analysis of two-dimensional problems. Finite element formulations are derived and a standard quadratic programming model is deduced from the elastic-plastic equations. Influence of microscopic heterogeneities on the overall mechanical response of heterogeneous materials is studied in detail. The overall properties of heterogeneous materials depend mostly on the size, shape and distribution of the material phases of the microstructure. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the method developed.

  5. Exploring mitochondrial evolution and metabolism organization principles by comparative analysis of metabolic networks.

    Chang, Xiao; Wang, Zhuo; Hao, Pei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yi-Xue


    The endosymbiotic theory proposed that mitochondrial genomes are derived from an alpha-proteobacterium-like endosymbiont, which was concluded from sequence analysis. We rebuilt the metabolic networks of mitochondria and 22 relative species, and studied the evolution of mitochondrial metabolism at the level of enzyme content and network topology. Our phylogenetic results based on network alignment and motif identification supported the endosymbiotic theory from the point of view of systems biology for the first time. It was found that the mitochondrial metabolic network were much more compact than the relative species, probably related to the higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation of the specialized organelle, and the network is highly clustered around the TCA cycle. Moreover, the mitochondrial metabolic network exhibited high functional specificity to the modules. This work provided insight to the understanding of mitochondria evolution, and the organization principle of mitochondrial metabolic network at the network level.

  6. Block Based Video Watermarking Scheme Using Wavelet Transform and Principle Component Analysis

    Nisreen I. Yassin


    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive approach for digital video watermarking is introduced, where a binary watermark image is embedded into the video frames. Each video frame is decomposed into sub-images using 2 level discrete wavelet transform then the Principle Component Analysis (PCA transformation is applied for each block in the two bands LL and HH. The watermark is embedded into the maximum coefficient of the PCA block of the two bands. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility where there is no noticeable difference between the watermarked video frames and the original frames. The computed PSNR achieves high score which is 44.097 db. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment.

  7. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke


    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4).

  8. SafetyBarrierManager, a software tool to perform risk analysis using ARAMIS's principles

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    of the ARAMIS project, Risø National Laboratory started developing a tool that could implement these methodologies, leading to SafetyBarrierManager. The tool is based on the principles of “safety‐barrier diagrams”, which are very similar to “bowties”, with the possibility of performing quantitative analysis......The ARAMIS project resulted in a number of methodologies, dealing with among others: the development of standard fault trees and “bowties”; the identification and classification of safety barriers; and including the quality of safety management into the quantified risk assessment. After conclusion....... The tool allows constructing comprehensive fault trees, event trees and safety‐barrier diagrams. The tool implements the ARAMIS idea of a set of safety barrier types, to which a number of safety management issues can be linked. By rating the quality of these management issues, the operational probability...

  9. The General Principles of EU Administrative Law - An in-depth analysis


    SUMMARY: 1. What are General Principles of EU Administrative Procedural Law? — 1.1. Sources of General Principles of EU Administrative Procedural Law. — 1.2. Nature of general principles of EU administrative procedural law. — 2. Why Formulate General Principles of EU Administrative Procedural Law as Recitals of a Regulation? — 2.1. Reasons in favour of recitals as a locus for general principles. — 2.2. Structure and wording of recitals. — 3. Proposed Recitals on General Princip...

  10. Targeted principle component analysis: A new motion artifact correction approach for near-infrared spectroscopy

    Meryem A. Yücel


    Full Text Available As near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS broadens its application area to different age and disease groups, motion artifacts in the NIRS signal due to subject movement is becoming an important challenge. Motion artifacts generally produce signal fluctuations that are larger than physiological NIRS signals, thus it is crucial to correct for them before obtaining an estimate of stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses. There are various methods for correction such as principle component analysis (PCA, wavelet-based filtering and spline interpolation. Here, we introduce a new approach to motion artifact correction, targeted principle component analysis (tPCA, which incorporates a PCA filter only on the segments of data identified as motion artifacts. It is expected that this will overcome the issues of filtering desired signals that plagues standard PCA filtering of entire data sets. We compared the new approach with the most effective motion artifact correction algorithms on a set of data acquired simultaneously with a collodion-fixed probe (low motion artifact content and a standard Velcro probe (high motion artifact content. Our results show that tPCA gives statistically better results in recovering hemodynamic response function (HRF as compared to wavelet-based filtering and spline interpolation for the Velcro probe. It results in a significant reduction in mean-squared error (MSE and significant enhancement in Pearson's correlation coefficient to the true HRF. The collodion-fixed fiber probe with no motion correction performed better than the Velcro probe corrected for motion artifacts in terms of MSE and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Thus, if the experimental study permits, the use of a collodion-fixed fiber probe may be desirable. If the use of a collodion-fixed probe is not feasible, then we suggest the use of tPCA in the processing of motion artifact contaminated data.


    Виктор Макарович Заернюк


    Full Text Available In article established practices of the organization of control and supervision of Bank of Russia of activity of the Russian commercial banks are considered.  The analysis is carried out and the assessment of a level of development of a substantial component of bank regulation and supervision is given.Purpose: Research of tendencies and problems in the organization of control and supervising activity of Bank of Russia at the present stage.Methodology: General scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparisons, generalizations, system approach. In the course of use of the actual material methods of the economical and statistical analysis were used.Results: The conclusion that the excessive and bureaucratized control from the Central bank interferes with dynamic development of the banking sector is drawn. It is required to generation of the new thinking which is expressing in transfer of accent from need of strict, in many respects of formal, application of bank instructions and regulations on formation of professional opinion of the controler, increase of its responsibility for results of checks.DOI:

  12. Antibacterial activity of propolis and its active principles alone and in combination with macrolides, beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections.

    Speciale, A; Costanzo, R; Puglisi, S; Musumeci, R; Catania, M R; Caccamo, F; Iauk, L


    Propolis is produced by bees and is reported to have several pharmaceutical properties. Its antibacterial activity against strains causing upper respiratory tract infections is particularly important: propolis might be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent the bacterial infections that sometimes overlap viral infections. In this study the in vitro activity of both an alcoholic solution and a hydroglyceric extract of propolis, as well as its active principles, was tested against bacteria responsible for respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes). We also evaluated the in vitro activity of a combination of propolis and its active principles and some beta-lactams, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Our results, though not demonstrating a clearly synergistic activity between antibiotics and propolis and its constituents, show the possibility of using natural preparations, due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, to enhance antibacterial therapy.

  13. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...


    ... Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD65 School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and... rule entitled School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles... Program (SBP) to develop a school food safety program for the preparation and service of school meals...

  14. Methodological principles outline discipline "Organization studies-tourism activity" using information technologies.

    Kozina Zh.L.


    Full Text Available The basic methodological principles of the disciplines of tourism and local history with information technology. 15 analyzed the literature and experience of leading experts in the field of sports and health tourism, and orienteering. Identified principles of academic disciplines of tourism and local history: the shift in emphasis from sports tourism to the cognitive, health tourism, the development of spiritual qualities, acquisition of life skills in nature, discovery and development of pedagogical and psychological abilities, character traits through the study of native land, the development of cognitive-research abilities, physical abilities, motor skills, application of modern information technology.

  15. [Civil responsibility of medical care activities in regard to the precautionary principle].

    Le Foyer de Costil, H


    In the absence of a legal body regulating the precaution, do we have to confine the principle to public health? A negative answer is required at a time the medical liability is increasing more and more and the obligation to take all means is slipping toward to a strict obligation as to the result. The respect of the principle of precaution can be found in the obligation for the doctor to prove that he has fully informed the patient, but the medicine specificity requires delimitation of this obligation outlines.

  16. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu


    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  17. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter


    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  18. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.


    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T......, which is shown to be approximated by a χ2 distribution. Application of this test to the results of determinations of manganese in human serum by a method of established precision, led to the detection of airborne pollution of the serum during the sampling process. The subsequent improvement in sampling...... conditions was shown to give not only increased precision, but also improved accuracy of the results....




    Full Text Available Each extension of the scope of laws and principles that allow both mathematical and statistical remodeling as well as reaffirming the appropriateness of proven methods, stirs up a special study interest. The ever-expanding computational power of laws of power offers to the scientific universe possibility of new approach to the crucial relationship between quantity and quality, between micro and macro dimensions. Boosting broadening the use of quasi-universal value theories in research in order to deepen the analysis of sustainable development indicators can lead to a greater understanding of all aspects of this area and to facilitate understanding of the arguments which underlie any responsible decision making. This assumption underlies the logical conclusion that sustainability becomes even stronger as it benefits from scientific arguments support resulting from research. Although we have confined ourselves in drafting some coordinates for application of each method presented to particular issues of sustainable development, this research theme will be strengthened and pursued through appropriate extensive analysis.

  20. Research of principles for estimating the freshness of meat products by color analysis method

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Petukhova, Daria B.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.


    Color is one of the most important metrics of foodstuffs quality. It gives an indication of freshness, ingredient composition as well as about the presence or absence of falsification. Most often, the color is estimated visually, and thus, the evaluation is subjective. By automating the color analysis a wide application for this method could be found. The aim of this research is to study the principles of color analysis as applied to the task of evaluating the freshness of meat products using modern machine vision systems. From a scientific point of view, the color of meat depends on the proportion of myoglobin and its derivatives. It's the main pigment that characterizes the freshness of meat. Further color of meat can change due to oxidation of myoglobin during storage. Myoglobin exists in three forms. There are oxygenated form, oxidized form and form without oxygen. The meat color changes not only due to the conversion of one form into another. The content of amino acids and ammonia are another characteristics and constant signs of meat products spoilage. The paper presents the results of meat color computer simulation based on data on the content of various forms of myoglobin in different proportions. The spectral characteristic of the light source used to illuminate the meat sample is taken into account. Also the experimental studies were conducted using samples of beef. As a result the correlations between said biochemical indicators of the quality and color of the meat obtained with the help of machine vision system were found.

  1. Stein manifolds and holomorphic mappings the homotopy principle in complex analysis

    Forstnerič, Franc


    This book, now in a carefully revised second edition, provides an up-to-date account of Oka theory, including the classical Oka-Grauert theory and the wide array of applications to the geometry of Stein manifolds. Oka theory is the field of complex analysis dealing with global problems on Stein manifolds which admit analytic solutions in the absence of topological obstructions. The exposition in the present volume focuses on the notion of an Oka manifold introduced by the author in 2009. It explores connections with elliptic complex geometry initiated by Gromov in 1989, with the Andersén-Lempert theory of holomorphic automorphisms of complex Euclidean spaces and of Stein manifolds with the density property, and with topological methods such as homotopy theory and the Seiberg-Witten theory. Researchers and graduate students interested in the homotopy principle in complex analysis will find this book particularly useful. It is currently the only work that offers a comprehensive introduction to both the Oka t...

  2. Mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy.

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Nho, Hyuchul C.; Salton, Jonathan Robert


    In the past decade, a great deal of effort has been focused in research and development of versatile robotic ground vehicles without understanding their performance in a particular operating environment. As the usage of robotic ground vehicles for intelligence applications increases, understanding mobility of the vehicles becomes critical to increase the probability of their successful operations. This paper describes a framework based on conservation of energy to predict the maximum mobility of robotic ground vehicles over general terrain. The basis of the prediction is the difference between traction capability and energy loss at the vehicle-terrain interface. The mission success of a robotic ground vehicle is primarily a function of mobility. Mobility of a vehicle is defined as the overall capability of a vehicle to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission. A mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy is described in this document. The tool is a graphical user interface application. The mobility analysis tool has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The tool is at an initial stage of development. In the future, the tool will be expanded to include all vehicles and terrain types.

  3. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor.

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng


    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor.

  4. Analysis on Phase Transformation (ATP) Using Computational Thermal Principles (CTP)

    N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja; V.Soundararajan


    Computer analysis based on computational thermal principles to predict the transformation kinetics in steels at varying temperatures is of great practical importance in different areas of heat treatment. As a result, using the theory of transient state heat conduction with convective boundary conditions, an efficient program named "ATP" (Analysis on Phase Transformation) has been developed to determine the temperature distribution under different quenching conditions for different geometries such as plate, cylinder and sphere. In addition to these the microstructures and the corresponding hardness developed during quenching are predicted using Time Temperature Transformation (TYF) diagram incorporated in the analysis. To approve our work, dilation curves, Heisler charts and time-temperature history curve have been generated. This paper deals with basic objective of the program (ATP) determination of temperature, microstructure and hardness distribution and also includes an online prediction of austenite-pearlite and anstenite-martensite transformation in steels along with the corresponding retained fractions. The quenching of a cylinder in gases, liquids and liquid metals is analyzed to show the non-liner effect of cylinder diameter on the temperature and microstructures. Further in the program we have considered a typical 1080 steel cylinders quenched in water for predicting and comparing the program results with experimental values and can be extended even to other grades of steels. The numerical results of program are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Finally the quenching process analysis described in the study appears to be a promising tool for the design of heat-treatment process pararneters for steels.

  5. Solar neutrino results and Violation of the Equivalence Principle An analysis of the existing data and predictions for SNO

    Majumdar, D; Sil, A; Majumdar, Debasish; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Sil, Arunansu


    Violation of the Equivalence Principle (VEP) can lead to neutrino oscillation through the non-diagonal coupling of neutrino flavor eigenstates with the gravitational field. The neutrino energy dependence of this oscillation probability is different from that of the usual mass-mixing neutrino oscillations. In this work we explore, in detail, the viability of the VEP hypothesis as a solution to the solar neutrino problem in a two generation scenario with both the active and sterile neutrino alternatives, choosing these states to be massless. To obtain the best-fit values of the oscillation parameters we perform a chi square analysis for the total rates of solar neutrinos seen at the Chlorine (Homestake), Gallium (Gallex and SAGE), Kamiokande, and SuperKamiokande (SK) experiments. We find that the goodness of these fits is never satisfactory. It markedly improves if the Chlorine data is excluded from the analysis, especially for VEP transformation to sterile neutrinos. The 1117-day SK data for recoil electron sp...

  6. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in Friends from the Perspective of Coopera-tive Principle



    Friends is a classical situation comedy in America in which humorous dialogues abound. With the theoretical frame-work of Cooperative Principle, this thesis extracts typical dialogues in American situation comedy Friends as data and discusses the characters’violation of maxims of Cooperative Principle together with the derived humorous effect.

  7. Basic Principles of the Activity and Synergetic Approach as a Means of Interdisciplinary Research

    Bolsunovskaya L.M.


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of interdisciplinarity as the main tendency of today’s science to unite the methodology and terminology and adapt them to any academic field in order to achieve more objective results in the study of complex phenomena. This article is a descriptive one and it deals with problems of terms’ interpretations and their adaptation to the anthropocentric research viewed by scientists of different academic schools. The main idea of the article is to find the most relevant and systemic definition of the given terms, which could be used as a tool in further linguistic analysis applied to the coming research of the authors. Special attention is paid to the description of the Activity Theory from different aspects of its interpretation: psychological, sociological, linguistic; to the explanation of the correlation between the epistemic structure of knowledge and an open non-linear synergetic bilateral (conceptual and lexical-semantic system influenced and motivated by processual factors to evolution in the modern discourse as the communicative activity of the interpreter and the constructor of discourse.

  8. The Factors and Transversal Reorganizations Principles of Romanian Textile Industry Enterprises using Activity-Based Costing Method

    Sorinel Capusneanu


    Full Text Available This article describes the factors and the principles of transversal reorganization of the enterprises from the Romanian textile industry by adapting the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC to its specific. There are presented and analyzed the real possibilities of reorganization of the enterprises in Romania by elaboration of methodological phases that will be covered until the implementation of their transversal organization. Are we ready to adapt the Activity-Based Costing method to the specific of the Romanian textile industry and not only? Here is the question whose response we will find in this article.

  9. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B; Shao-Horn, Yang


    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ-orbital (e(g)) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O(2)(2-)/OH(-) displacement and OH(-) regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  10. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Jinghui Zheng; Jian Liang; Xin Deng; Xiaofeng Chen; Fasheng Wu; Xiaofang Zhao; Yuan Luo; Lei Fu; Zuling Jiang


    Our preliminary studies confirmed that an active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction, comprising alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycon, glucoside and volatile oil, can induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neurons. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was identified as one of the key pathways underlying this differentiation process. The present study shows phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphorylated p38 protein expression was increased after differentiation. Cellular signaling pathway blocking agents, PD98059 and SB203580, inhibited extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways respectively. mRNA and protein expression of the neuronal marker, neuron specific enolase, and neural stem cell marker, nestin, were decreased in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after treatment with the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction. Experimental findings indicate that, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neuron-like cells, induced by the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction.

  11. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: part I. Refining practices by using motion and time study principles.

    Tebbetts, John B


    , lift their arms above their heads, lift normal-weight objects, and drive their car without any narcotic medications, drains, bandages, special bras, or other adjunctive treatments within 24 hours after their partial retropectoral breast augmentation. Applying motion and time study principles to analysis and refinement of surgeon and personnel actions and surgical techniques resulted in a substantial reduction in perioperative morbidity and a simpler, shorter 24-hour return to normal activities without intercostal blocks, narcotic pain medications, drains, bandages, or other adjunctive devices in 96 percent of 627 augmentation patients.

  12. Microcalorimetric Evaluation of the Effect of Kanamycin: An Analysis Based on the Median-Effect Principle

    WANG,Li-Heng; FAN,Dai-Di; SHANG,Long-An; SHI,Hui-Juan; MA,Xiao-Xuan; MI,Yu; GU,Li-Feng; XU,Kang-Zhen


    A study of the effect of drug, kanamycin, on the growth metabolism of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 was carried out by microcalorimeter monitoring of the metabolic activity of treated cells. Power-time curves of growing recombinant Escherichia coli cell suspensions, treated with different kanamycin doses, were recorded. The extent of the effect was evaluated by changes in the slopes of the microcalorimetric curves and the kinetics of the drug action was interpreted from the time at which these changes reached their maximum values and maintained their maximum values. Experimental dose-effect relationships conform to the median-effect principle of the mass-action law:fa/(1-fa)=(D/D50)m. A plot of y=lg[(fa)1- 1]-1 versus x=lg D gives the slope m, D50 and R∞. The experimental results revealed that high concentration of kanamycin had an inhibitory effect on the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 in the lg phase, and had a promoting effect in the stationary period. Moreover, it was demonstrated that microcalorimetry was a reliable method for the detection of modulatory effects in biology.

  13. Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleaching Products with Flower Extracts to Demonstrate the Principles of Flow Injection Analysis

    Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Prieto, Katia Roberta; Carvalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Carvalheiro, Carla Cristina Schmitt


    The use of crude flower extracts to the principle of analytical chemistry automation, with the flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure developed to determine hypochlorite in household bleaching products was performed. The FIA comprises a group of techniques based on injection of a liquid sample into a moving, nonsegmented carrier stream of a…

  14. Application of a principle of synchronicity to an analysis of climatic processes

    Tartakovsky, V. A.; Krutikov, V. A.; Volkov, Y. V.; Cheredko, N. N.


    Geospheric processes are largely initiated and controlled by external influences. The Sun is the main source of energy, and it contributes to those processes directly and as a regulator of some cosmic influences. The forcing effects synchronize the oscillatory processes in the solar system. Specific processes differ in energy. However, they show similar essential signs. Components, which differ in coincidence and non-coincidence of the essential signs, are introduced. Based on a synchronous analysis of the monthly averaged Wolf numbers series and temperatures registered at 818 weather stations in the Northern Hemisphere (1955-2010), we show that the above-introduced components of the series under consideration have extreme properties. The histograms of the primary temperature series coincide with those of their components, except for a range of ± 3°C. The second initial moments of the Wolf numbers correspond to the climate geography and can be divided into two zones, the width and the distance between them are about one third of all possible changes. A synchronicity principle allows performing a decomposition of the original set into subsets containing strongly related elements. The relationship between the synchronization features of geospheric processes initiated by external forcing and the physical and geographical hierarchy allows solving some problems of classification. Some experimental results for the temperature field are presented. The approach has revealed some new properties of the solar-terrestrial relations. No inconsistencies with the known notions of climatic processes have been found.

  15. Principles of transcriptome analysis and gene expression quantification: an RNA-seq tutorial.

    Wolf, Jochen B W


    Genome-wide analyses and high-throughput screening was long reserved for biomedical applications and genetic model organisms. With the rapid development of massively parallel sequencing nanotechnology (or next-generation sequencing) and simultaneous maturation of bioinformatic tools, this situation has dramatically changed. Genome-wide thinking is forging its way into disciplines like evolutionary biology or molecular ecology that were historically confined to small-scale genetic approaches. Accessibility to genome-scale information is transforming these fields, as it allows us to answer long-standing questions like the genetic basis of local adaptation and speciation or the evolution of gene expression profiles that until recently were out of reach. Many in the eco-evolutionary sciences will be working with large-scale genomic data sets, and a basic understanding of the concepts and underlying methods is necessary to judge the work of others. Here, I briefly introduce next-generation sequencing and then focus on transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq). This article gives a broad overview and provides practical guidance for the many steps involved in a typical RNA-seq work flow from sampling, to RNA extraction, library preparation and data analysis. I focus on principles, present useful tools where appropriate and point out where caution is needed or progress to be expected. This tutorial is mostly targeted at beginners, but also contains potentially useful reflections for the more experienced.

  16. Multiple scales combined principle component analysis deep learning network for face recognition

    Tian, Lei; Fan, Chunxiao; Ming, Yue


    It is well known that higher level features can represent the abstract semantics of original data. We propose a multiple scales combined deep learning network to learn a set of high-level feature representations through each stage of convolutional neural network for face recognition, which is named as multiscaled principle component analysis (PCA) Network (MS-PCANet). There are two main differences between our model and the traditional deep learning network. On the one hand, we get the prefixed filter kernels by learning the principal component of images' patches using PCA, nonlinearly process the convolutional results by using simple binary hashing, and pool them using spatial pyramid pooling method. On the other hand, in our model, the output features of several stages are fed to the classifier. The purpose of combining feature representations from multiple stages is to provide multiscaled features to the classifier, since the features in the latter stage are more global and invariant than those in the early stage. Therefore, our MS-PCANet feature compactly encodes both holistic abstract information and local specific information. Extensive experimental results show our MS-PCANet model can efficiently extract high-level feature presentations and outperform state-of-the-art face/expression recognition methods on multiple modalities benchmark face-related datasets.

  17. Image Denoising Algorithm Using Second Generation Wavelet Transformation and Principle Component Analysis

    Asem Khmag


    Full Text Available This study proposes novel image denoising algorithm using combination method. This method combines both Wavelet Based Denoising (WBD and Principle Component Analysis (PCA to increase the superiority of the observed image, subjectively and objectively. We exploit the important property of second generation WBD and PCA to increase the performance of our designed filter. One of the main advantages of the second generation wavelet transformation in noise reduction is its ability to keep the signal energy in small amount of coefficients in the wavelet domain. On the other hand, one of the main features of PCA is that the energy of the signal concentrates on a very few subclasses in PCA domain, while the noise’s energy equally spreads over the entire signal; this characteristic helps us to isolate the noise perfectly. Our algorithm compares favorably against several state-of-the-art filtering systems algorithms, such as Contourlet soft thresholding, Scale mixture by WT, Sparse 3D transformation and Normal shrink. In addition, the combined algorithm achieves very competitive performance compared with the traditional algorithms, especially when it comes to investigating the problem of how to preserve the fine structure of the tested image and in terms of the computational complexity reduction as well.

  18. Review of Transducer Principles for Label-Free Biomolecular Interaction Analysis

    Janos Vörös


    Full Text Available Label-free biomolecular interaction analysis is an important technique to study the chemical binding between e.g., protein and protein or protein and small molecule in real-time. The parameters obtained with this technique, such as the affinity, are important for drug development. While the surface plasmon resonance (SPR instruments are most widely used, new types of sensors are emerging. These developments are generally driven by the need for higher throughput, lower sample consumption or by the need of complimentary information to the SPR data. This review aims to give an overview about a wide range of sensor transducers, the working principles and the peculiarities of each technology, e.g., concerning the set-up, sensitivity, sensor size or required sample volume. Starting from optical technologies like the SPR and waveguide based sensors, acoustic sensors like the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM and the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR, calorimetric and electrochemical sensors are covered. Technologies long established in the market are presented together with those newly commercially available and with technologies in the early development stage. Finally, the commercially available instruments are summarized together with their sensitivity and the number of sensors usable in parallel and an outlook for potential future developments is given.

  19. The Health Monitoring Method of Concrete Dams Based on Ambient Vibration Testing and Kernel Principle Analysis

    Lin Cheng


    Full Text Available The ambient vibration testing (AVT measurement of concrete dams on full-scale can show the practical dynamic properties of structure in the operation state. For most current researches, the AVT data is generally analyzed to identify the structural vibration characteristics, that is, modal parameters. The identified modal parameters, which can provide the global damage information or the damage location information of structure, can be used as the basis of structure health monitoring. Therefore, in this paper, the health monitoring method of concrete dams based on the AVT is studied. The kernel principle analysis (KPCA based method is adopted to eliminate the effect of environmental variables and monitor the health of dam under varying environments. By taking full advantage of the AVT data obtained from vibration observation system of dam, the identification capabilities and the warning capabilities of structural damage can be improved. With the simulated AVT data of the numerical model of a concrete gravity dam and the measured AVT data of a practical engineering, the performance of the dam health monitoring method proposed in this paper is verified.

  20. Anxiolytic activity and active principles of Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a medicinal plant used by the Q'eqchi' Maya to treat susto, a culture-bound illness.

    Mullally, M; Cayer, C; Muhammad, A; Walshe-Roussel, B; Ahmed, F; Sanchez-Vindas, P E; Otarola Rojas, M; Merali, Z; Cal, V; Durst, T; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T


    The medicinal plant, Piper amalago L. (Piperaceae), is used traditionally by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for the treatment of "susto" a culture-bound syndrome. Previous research suggests that susto symptoms may be a manifestation of anxiety. The objectives were to characterize the effect of ethanolic extract of P. amalago in behavioral assays of anxiety at doses representative of traditional use and to isolate active principles. Rats treated orally with low dose ethanolic extracts of P. amalago leaves (8-75mg/kg) were tested in several behavioral paradigms including the elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction (SI), and conditioned emotional response (CER) tests, and compared to diazepam, a positive control. The active anxiolytic principle was isolated by bioassay guided isolation using an in vitro GABAA competitive binding assay. Extracts had significant anxiolytic activity in all behavioral tests, with the strongest activity in the SI and the CER paradigms. In an in vitro GABAA competitive binding assay, a 66.5µg/mL concentration of P. amalago ethanol extract displaced 50% of the GABAA-BZD receptor ligand [(3)H]-Flunitrazepam. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified a furofuran lignan, a molecule with structural similarity to yangambin, with high affinity for the GABAA-BZD receptor as the principle bioactive. The results suggest that the ethnobotanical use of this plant may have a pharmacological basis in its anxiolytic activity, as demonstrated in animal behaviour tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ISLAMISM & DEMOCRACY: A Gender Analysis on PKS’s Application of Democratic Principles and Values

    Lanny Octavia


    Full Text Available The increasing popular support for Islamist parties in democratic countries incites public suspicion concerning whether the Islamists’ participation in procedural democracy guarantees their commitment for substantial democracy, which in principle requires equality of rights among citizens regardless of their religion and gender. Indeed, gender politics often appears at the centre of the lslamist agenda, as they seek to construct a new moral order based on a conservative gender perspective. A greater concern arises on whether the Islamists will eventually lead society towards democracy or, conversely, towards theocracy. In Indonesia, the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS shows a remarkable development and significant electoral achievement. Some observers viewed that PKS is opportunistically using democratic means to “hijack” it for their Islamist agenda waiting for when political power is in their hands. Others believe PKS’s involvement in real politics will, in the end, lead to a “gradual secularisation” of their Islamist agenda. Based on a gender analysis, this paper examines whether PKS’s fulfillment of the formalist criteria of democracy is compatible with their application of democratic principles and values.[Semakin menguatnya dukungan terhadap partai Islam memincu kecurigaan publik yang mempertanyakan apakah partisipasi kalangan islamis dalam demokrasi prosedural menjamin komitmen mereka bagi tegaknya demokrasi substansial, demokrasi yang mensyaratkan kesetaraan bagi semua orang tanpa terkecuali. Sebenarnya, agenda politik gender yang didengungkan oleh kalangan islamis tidak bisa dilepaskan dari perspektif konservatif mereka mengenai relasi gender. Pertanyaannya kemudian, apakah yang mereka agendakan akan berlabuh pada pemantapan demokrasi atau --sebaliknya‍‑­‑ menuju teokrasi. Di Indonesia, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS adalah satu-satunya partai Islam di Indonesia yang berhasil berkembang pesat

  2. Characterization of deep aquifer dynamics using principle component analysis of sequential multilevel data

    D. Kurtzman


    Full Text Available Two sequential multilevel profiles were obtained in an observation well opened to a 130 m thick, unconfined, contaminated aquifer, in Tel Aviv, Israel. While the general profile characteristics of major ions, trace elements, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC were maintained in the two sampling campaigns conducted 295 days apart, the vertical locations of high concentration gradients were shifted between the two profiles. Principle Component Analysis (PCA of the chemical variables resulted in a first Principal Component (PC which was responsible for ∼60% of the variability, and was highly correlated with depth. PCA revealed three distinct depth-dependent water bodies in both multilevel profiles, which were found to be shifted vertically between the sampling events. This shift cut across a clayey bed which separated between the top and intermediate water bodies in the first profile, and was located entirely within the intermediate water body in the second profile. Continuous Electrical Conductivity (EC monitoring in a packed off section of the observation well revealed an event in which a distinct water body flowed through the monitored section (v ∼ 150 m yr−1. Compilation of the aforementioned data and analysis lead to a conclusion that the observed changes in the profiles resulted from dominantly lateral flow of water bodies in the aquifer rather than vertical flow. The significance of this study is twofold: (a it demonstrates the utility of sequential multilevel observations from deep wells and the efficacy of PCA for evaluating this data. (b The fact that distinct water bodies of 10–100 m vertical and horizontal dimensions flow under contaminated sites has implications for monitoring and remediation.

  3. The neural circuits for arithmetic principles.

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Han; Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Hui; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin


    Arithmetic principles are the regularities underlying arithmetic computation. Little is known about how the brain supports the processing of arithmetic principles. The current fMRI study examined neural activation and functional connectivity during the processing of verbalized arithmetic principles, as compared to numerical computation and general language processing. As expected, arithmetic principles elicited stronger activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus than did language processing, and stronger activation in left middle temporal lobe and left orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus than did computation. In contrast, computation elicited greater activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus (extending to posterior superior parietal lobule) than did either arithmetic principles or language processing. Functional connectivity analysis with the psychophysiological interaction approach (PPI) showed that left temporal-parietal (MTG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principle and language than during computation, whereas parietal-occipital connectivities were stronger during computation than during the processing of arithmetic principles and language. Additionally, the left fronto-parietal (orbital IFG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principles than during computation. The results suggest that verbalized arithmetic principles engage a neural network that overlaps but is distinct from the networks for computation and language processing.

  4. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Daniela VÎRJAN


    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.


    GU Chong-shi; SONG Jing-xiang; FANG Hai-ting


    The effect zones of layer face for RCC (rolled control concrete) dam have gradual change characteristics. Based on the analysis thought of complex material, a model was built to analyze above principle of RCC dam by use of series-wound and shunt-wound connection. Some methods were proposed to determine the instantaneous Young's modulus, delayed Young's modulus and viscosity coefficient of effect zones of layer face. Above models and methods were used to mine the principle of gradual change of key calculation parameters which can response the characteristics of effect zones. The principle of gradual change was described. A model was established to analyze the threedimensional viscoelastic problem of RCC dam. Above programs were developed. The examples show that the proposed models and methods to determine the key calculation parameters of effect zones can reflect the status of RCC darn accurately.


    Dhruba Das


    Full Text Available In this article, based on Zadeh’s extension principle we have apply the parametric programming approach to construct the membership functions of the performance measures when the interarrival time and the service time are fuzzy numbers based on the Baruah’s Randomness- Fuzziness Consistency Principle. The Randomness-Fuzziness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of fuzziness using two different laws of randomness. In this article, two fuzzy queues FM/M/1 and M/FM/1 has been studied and constructed their membership functions of the system characteristics based on the aforesaid principle. The former represents a queue with fuzzy exponential arrivals and exponential service rate while the latter represents a queue with exponential arrival rate and fuzzy exponential service rate.

  7. Content Analysis and Readibility Formulas as Applied To The Accounting Principles Board "Opinions"

    Stead, Bette Ann


    Discusses a study analyzing twenty-four of the Accounting Principles Board "Opinions" (APB Opinions) and concludes that the APB context is very difficult to read and understand for both accounting and nonaccounting majors. (MH)

  8. Principles and indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research: results of a Delphi study and subgroup analysis.

    Boote, Jonathan; Barber, Rosemary; Cooper, Cindy


    Consumer involvement in NHS research is Department of Health policy within the UK. Despite the existence of policy directives and guidance, until recently there has been no consensus among consumers and researchers about what it means to involve consumers successfully in NHS research. This paper discusses the value of consensus research in this policy area, and presents the detailed findings of a Delphi study carried out to reach consensus on principles and indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research. Study participants, comprising consumers, researchers and consumer-researchers, were identified using a purposive sampling strategy. Consensus was reached on eight clear and valid principles of successful consumer involvement in NHS research, with each principle having at least one clear and valid indicator. Subgroup analysis revealed few significant differences in how consumers, researchers and consumer-researchers rated the principles and indicators. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. Further research is needed to assess: (1) the usefulness of the principles and indicators for differing models of consumer involvement, health research methodologies, and subject areas within health research; and (2) the impact of 'successful' consumer involvement on health research processes and outcomes.

  9. Legal Analysis of the Korea Radioactive Waste Management Act in the aspect of IAEA Principles

    Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    According to the Principles of Radioactive Waste Management, the IAEA SAFETY SERIES NO-111-F, IAEA declared 9 doctrines. The IAEA advised a country that operates nuclear power plant to adopt the principles. As a member of the IAEA, Korea has also discussed about a unified policy and enacting law for radioactive waste management to follow the doctrines. This study analyzed the recently enacted Korea Radioactive Waste Management Act and verified whether the Act successfully follows the doctrine or not.

  10. The patient-centered medical home: an ethical analysis of principles and practice.

    Braddock, Clarence H; Snyder, Lois; Neubauer, Richard L; Fischer, Gary S


    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH), with its focus on patient-centered care, holds promise as a way to reinvigorate the primary care of patients and as a necessary component of health care reform. While its tenets have been the subject of review, the ethical dimensions of the PCMH have not been fully explored. Consideration of the ethical foundations for the core principles of the PCMH can and should be part of the debate concerning its merits. The PCMH can align with the principles of medical ethics and potentially strengthen the patient-physician relationship and aspects of health care that patients value. Patient choice and these ethical considerations are central and at least as important as the economic and practical arguments in support of the PCMH, if not more so. Further, the ethical principles that support key concepts of the PCMH have implications for the design and implementation of the PCMH. This paper explores the PCMH in light of core principles of ethics and professionalism, with an emphasis both on how the concept of the PCMH may reinforce core ethical principles of medical practice and on further implications of these principles.

  11. Interpreting the Geochemistry of the Northern Peninsula Ranges Batholith Using Principle Component Analysis and Spatial Interpolation

    Pompe, L.; Clausen, B. L.; Morton, D. M.


    The Cretaceous northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) exemplifies emplacement in a combination oceanic arc / continental margin arc setting. Two approaches that can aid in understanding its statistical and spatial geochemistry variation are principle component analysis (PCA) and GIS interpolation mapping. The data analysis primarily used 287 samples from the large granitoid geochemical data set systematically collected by Baird and Welday. Of these, 80 points fell in the western Santa Ana block, 108 in the transitional Perris block, and 99 in the eastern San Jacinto block. In the statistical analysis, multivariate outliers were identified using Mahalanobis distance and excluded. A centered log ratio transformation was used to facilitate working with geochemical concentration values that range over many orders of magnitude. The data was then analyzed using PCA with IBM SPSS 21 reducing 40 geochemical variables to 4 components which are approximately related to the compatible, HFS, HRE, and LIL elements. The 4 components were interpreted as follows: (1) compatible [and negatively correlated incompatible] elements indicate extent of differentiation as typified by SiO2, (2) HFS elements indicate crustal contamination as typified by Sri and Nb/Yb ratios, (3) HRE elements indicate source depth as typified by Sr/Y and Gd/Yb ratios, and (4) LIL elements indicate alkalinity as typified by the K2O/SiO2ratio. Spatial interpolation maps of the 4 components were created with Esri ArcGIS for Desktop 10.2 by interpolating between the sample points using kriging and inverse distance weighting. Across-arc trends on the interpolation maps indicate a general increase from west to east for each of the 4 components, but with local exceptions as follows. The 15km offset on the San Jacinto Fault may be affecting the contours. South of San Jacinto is a west-east band of low Nb/Yb, Gd/Yb, and Sr/Y ratios. The highest Sr/Y ratios in the north central area that decrease further east may

  12. Principles of image processing in machine vision systems for the color analysis of minerals

    Petukhova, Daria B.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.


    At the moment color sorting method is one of promising methods of mineral raw materials enrichment. This method is based on registration of color differences between images of analyzed objects. As is generally known the problem with delimitation of close color tints when sorting low-contrast minerals is one of the main disadvantages of color sorting method. It is can be related with wrong choice of a color model and incomplete image processing in machine vision system for realizing color sorting algorithm. Another problem is a necessity of image processing features reconfiguration when changing the type of analyzed minerals. This is due to the fact that optical properties of mineral samples vary from one mineral deposit to another. Therefore searching for values of image processing features is non-trivial task. And this task doesn't always have an acceptable solution. In addition there are no uniform guidelines for determining criteria of mineral samples separation. It is assumed that the process of image processing features reconfiguration had to be made by machine learning. But in practice it's carried out by adjusting the operating parameters which are satisfactory for one specific enrichment task. This approach usually leads to the fact that machine vision system unable to estimate rapidly the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method. This paper presents the results of research aimed at addressing mentioned shortcomings in image processing organization for machine vision systems which are used to color sorting of mineral samples. The principles of color analysis for low-contrast minerals by using machine vision systems are also studied. In addition, a special processing algorithm for color images of mineral samples is developed. Mentioned algorithm allows you to determine automatically the criteria of mineral samples separation based on an analysis of representative mineral samples. Experimental studies of the proposed algorithm

  13. Application of bioreactor design principles and multivariate analysis for development of cell culture scale down models.

    Tescione, Lia; Lambropoulos, James; Paranandi, Madhava Ram; Makagiansar, Helena; Ryll, Thomas


    A bench scale cell culture model representative of manufacturing scale (2,000 L) was developed based on oxygen mass transfer principles, for a CHO-based process producing a recombinant human protein. Cell culture performance differences across scales are characterized most often by sub-optimal performance in manufacturing scale bioreactors. By contrast in this study, reduced growth rates were observed at bench scale during the initial model development. Bioreactor models based on power per unit volume (P/V), volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kL a), and oxygen transfer rate (OTR) were evaluated to address this scale performance difference. Lower viable cell densities observed for the P/V model were attributed to higher sparge rates and reduced oxygen mass transfer efficiency (kL a) of the small scale hole spargers. Increasing the sparger kL a by decreasing the pore size resulted in a further decrease in growth at bench scale. Due to sensitivity of the cell line to gas sparge rate and bubble size that was revealed by the P/V and kL a models, an OTR model based on oxygen enrichment and increased P/V was selected that generated endpoint sparge rates representative of 2,000 L scale. This final bench scale model generated similar growth rates as manufacturing. In order to take into account other routinely monitored process parameters besides growth, a multivariate statistical approach was applied to demonstrate validity of the small scale model. After the model was selected based on univariate and multivariate analysis, product quality was generated and verified to fall within the 95% confidence limit of the multivariate model.

  14. Investigation of variation in gene expression profiling of human blood by extended principle component analysis.

    Qinghua Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood is a promising material for biomedical research. However, various kinds of biological and technological factors result in a large degree of variation in blood gene expression profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human peripheral blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and analysed using the Human Genome U133Plus2 Microarray. We applied a novel approach using the Principle Component Analysis and Eigen-R(2 methods to dissect the overall variation of blood gene expression profiles with respect to the interested biological and technological factors. The results indicated that the predominating sources of the variation could be traced to the individual heterogeneity of the relative proportions of different blood cell types (leukocyte subsets and erythrocytes. The physiological factors like age, gender and BMI were demonstrated to be associated with 5.3% to 9.2% of the total variation in the blood gene expression profiles. We investigated the gene expression profiles of samples from the same donors but with different levels of RNA quality. Although the proportion of variation associated to the RNA Integrity Number was mild (2.1%, the significant impact of RNA quality on the expression of individual genes was observed. CONCLUSIONS: By characterizing the major sources of variation in blood gene expression profiles, such variability can be minimized by modifications to study designs. Increasing sample size, balancing confounding factors between study groups, using rigorous selection criteria for sample quality, and well controlled experimental processes will significantly improve the accuracy and reproducibility of blood transcriptome study.

  15. Growth inhibition and differentiation of promyelocytic cells (HL-60) induced by BC-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii Birdw.

    Jing, Y; Xia, L; Han, R


    The induction of cell differentiation and growth inhibition of HL-60 cells by Bc-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii, was studied in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of HL-60 cells was found to be inhibited by Bc-4 at a concentration of 5-10 micrograms/ml. Under the action of Bc-4, the acid phosphatase and NBT reduction activities in HL-60 cells were increased, and phagocytosis of cells was also induced. All these activities were concentration dependent. The HL-60 cells were induced by Bc-4 to differentiate into more mature cells morphologically. The in vivo growth of HL-60 cells in mouse subrenal capsules (SRC) and in diffusion chambers inoculated into mice was inhibited by Bc-4 at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The morphology of HL-60 cells treated by Bc-4 in diffusion chambers exhibited characteristics of mature granulocytic cells.

  16. Performance Analysis for Dispensing Mechanism of Active Code


    The dispensing mechanism of active code is a key technology in an active network. Conventional capsule and programmable switch approaches have their own shortcomings. The DCCAN(distributed code caching for active network) mechanism presented in this paper overcomes these shortcomings. In this paper, capsule and programmable switch approaches are introduced, and their shortcomings are analyzed. The principle of the DCCAN mechanism is described. The theory analysis in transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism and capsule approach are described. The theory analysis shows that the DCCAN mechanism has many good characteristics and can improve the efficiency of an active network. Key factors which affect the transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism are discussed. The using condition of the DCCAN mechanism is also discussed.

  17. "JCE" Classroom Activity #108. Using Archimedes' Principle to Explain Floating and Sinking Cans

    Sanger, Michael J.


    In this activity, students (working alone or in groups) measure the mass of several soda cans (diet and regular soda) along with the mass of water that each can displaces. The students are then asked to compare these two mass values for the sinking cans and for the floating cans. The purpose of this activity is for students to determine that the…

  18. "JCE" Classroom Activity #108. Using Archimedes' Principle to Explain Floating and Sinking Cans

    Sanger, Michael J.


    In this activity, students (working alone or in groups) measure the mass of several soda cans (diet and regular soda) along with the mass of water that each can displaces. The students are then asked to compare these two mass values for the sinking cans and for the floating cans. The purpose of this activity is for students to determine that the…

  19. Distributed smart home activity recommender system using hidden Markov model principles

    Lynggaard, Per


    A smart home is able to propose learned activities to its user and learn new activities by observing the user’s behavioral patterns, that is, the user’s actions. Most of today’s discussed systems use some more or less complex classifier algorithms to predict user activities from contextual...... information provided by sensors. However, an alternative concept using a distributed framework is presented in this paper. It offers the possibility of combining simple low level activity classifiers with a more sophisticated one. The high level classifier has been modeled in Java and tested on a publicly...... available data set that offers approximately seven months of annotated activity including 6468 sensor events produced by a women living in the test home. Using this data set, it has been shown that this system can achieve good performance with a recognition probability of 75%....

  20. The ethics of secondary data analysis: considering the application of Belmont principles to the sharing of neuroimaging data.

    Brakewood, Beth; Poldrack, Russell A


    The sharing of data is essential to increasing the speed of scientific discovery and maximizing the value of public investment in scientific research. However, the sharing of human neuroimaging data poses unique ethical concerns. We outline how data sharing relates to the Belmont principles of respect-for-persons, justice, and beneficence. Whereas regulators of human subjects research often view data sharing solely in terms of potential risks to subjects, we argue that the principles of human subject research require an analysis of both risks and benefits, and that such an analysis suggests that researchers may have a positive duty to share data in order to maximize the contribution that individual participants have made.

  1. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation.

    Meyer, N Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele


    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism.

  2. A Cu-amyloid β complex activating Fenton chemistry in Alzheimer's disease: Learning with multiple first-principles simulations

    La Penna, Giovanni; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter


    Amyloid β peptides form complexes with copper, both in vitro and in vivo, relatively soluble in water as oligomers and active as catalysts for oxidation of organic substrates by hydrogen peroxide, a species always present in cells and in their aerobic environment. All these species are present in the synapse, thus making a connection between the amyloid cascade hypothesis and the oxidative damages by reactive oxygen species in neurons, when pathological dishomeostasis of amyloid peptides and metal ions occur. In order to understand the structural features of these toxic complexes, we built several models of Cu-Aβ peptides in monomeric and dimeric forms and we found, performing multiple first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, that Cu-induced dimers are more active than monomers in converting hydrogen peroxide into aggressive hydroxyl radicals.

  3. Strategic consistency of enterprise logistics activities on the bases of ecological principles

    N.M. Mashchak


    Full Text Available The consistency of logistics enterprises with environmental strategies investigated. Examples of foreign experience and results of such consistency in practice are given. The necessity and strategic advantages of logistic activities on environmental grounds proved.

  4. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.


    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  5. An Analysis of the Syllabic Structure of English Mute in the Light of Sonority Sequencing Principle



    Syllable is the hierarchic natural feature of a language,and there are rules of the phonological sequences of the syllabic structure.Based on the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP),this paper will try to discuss and analyze phonological sequences of the syllabic structure of English mutes.

  6. An Analysis of the Syllabic Structure of English Mute in the Light of Sonority Sequencing Principle



    Syllable is the hierarchic natural feature of a language,and there are rules of the phonological sequences of the syllabic structure.Based on the Sonority Sequencing Principle(SSP),this paper will try to discuss and analyze phonological sequences of the syllabic structure of English mutes.

  7. Concrescent Conversations: Generating a Cooperative Learning Experience in Principles of Management--A Postmodern Analysis

    Akan, Obasi Haki


    By taking a postmodern ontology that elevates becoming over the modern ontology of being, the author of this article proposes a theory and describes a method that teachers can use to enhance students' cooperative learning of management principles. The author asserts that the social construction of learning groups is an effect of organizing…

  8. Concrescent Conversations: Generating a Cooperative Learning Experience in Principles of Management--A Postmodern Analysis

    Akan, Obasi Haki


    By taking a postmodern ontology that elevates becoming over the modern ontology of being, the author of this article proposes a theory and describes a method that teachers can use to enhance students' cooperative learning of management principles. The author asserts that the social construction of learning groups is an effect of organizing…

  9. Analysis of Characters’Utterances in Bianxingji From the Perspective of Politeness Principle

    颜寒箫; 王珏


    Bianxingji is a role-exchange reality show developed by Hunan Satellite TV. Based on Leech’s Politeness Principle, the author analyzes the actual language of Bianxingji. The author hopes this article will help the readers employ PP in daily communication to achieve a more harmonious interpersonal relationship.

  10. Analysis of Characters’ Utterances in BianxingjiFrom the Perspective of Politeness Principle

    颜寒箫; 王珏


    Bianxingji is a role-exchange reality show developed by Hunan Satellite TV.Based on Leech’s Politeness Principle,the author analyzes the actual language of Bianxingji.The author hopes this article will help the readers employ PP in daily communication to achieve a more harmonious interpersonal relationship.

  11. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.


    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  12. Pomegranate juice and prostate cancer: importance of the characterisation of the active principle.

    Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Vlachojannis, Christian; Zimmermann, Benno


    Two exploratory clinical studies investigating proprietary pomegranate products showed a trend of effectiveness in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. A recent clinical study did not support these results. We therefore analysed a lot of the marketed pomegranate blend for co-active pomegranate compounds. The high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to detect punicalagin, ellagic acid and anthocyanins. Total polyphenoles were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as reference. The results show that the co-active compounds in the daily dose of the pomegranate blend were far below those previously tested and that the photometric assessment is not reliable for the standardisation of study medications. Not pomegranate but the low amount of co-active compounds in the proprietary pomegranate blend was responsible for its clinical ineffectiveness.

  13. Principles of the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens (Julianaceae) with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Oviedo-Chávez, I; Ramírez-Apan, T; Soto-Hernández, M; Martínez-Vázquez, M


    Despite the fact that Amphipterygium adstringens (usually known as "cuachalalate") is used intensively in traditional medicine throughout México, there are, to our knowledge, no previous studies concerning the actual therapeutic, anti-inflammatory properties of this species. This lack of data prompted us to evaluate the aqueous (AE) and hexane (HE) extracts from A. adstringens in two models of acute inflammation: 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that HE possesses dose-dependent activity, while AE showed no anti-inflammatory effect on TPA-induced edema. Reverse effects were found in the carrageenan test, wherein AE showed a 73.5% of inhibition of edema, while HE showed only a 14.4% activity at 100 mg/kg body weight. These results could indicate that AE and HE possess different anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. On the other hand, it is known that masticadienonic (1) and 3alpha-hydroxymasticadienonic (2) acids are the main constituents of the organic extract of A. adstringens bark. Because of this knowledge, we tested 1 and 2 in the same experimental models. The results showed that 2 possesses a dose-dependent effect, while 1 does not show a dose-dependent response in TPA-induced edema. In carrageenan-induced edema tests, both 1 and 2 showed almost the same activity (approximately 44% inhibition at 100 mg/kg body weight). In order to determine whether the anti-inflammatory activities of AE, HE, 1 and 2 are involved in the alteration of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, we evaluated these substances by examining nitric oxide generation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that 1 presented the highest activity (93.3%), followed by 2 (86.5%), while AE (57%) and HE (33.6%) showed the lowest. In the cytotoxic MTT assay, however only 1 and 2 showed any activity whatsoever.

  14. Current parallel chemistry principles and practice: application to the discovery of biologically active molecules.

    Edwards, Paul J


    This article describes the use of parallel chemistry techniques for drug discovery, based on publications from January 2006 to December 2008. Chemical libraries that yielded active compounds across a range of biological targets are presented, together with synthetic details when appropriate. Background information for the biological targets involved and any SAR that could be discerned within members of a library series also is discussed. New technological developments, as applied to library design and synthesis and, more generally, in the discovery of biologically active entities, are highlighted. In addition, the likely future directions for parallel chemistry in its ability to impact upon drug discovery are also presented.

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri herbs on subacute administration and isolation of active principle.

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Aslan, Mustafa; Aktay, Göknur; Ergun, Ender; Yesilada, Erdem; Ergun, Fatma


    Hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on subacute administration were studied using in vivo models in rats. For the activity assessment on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage following biochemical parameters were evaluated; plasma and hepatic tissue malondialdehyde formation, and liver tissue glutathione level, as well as plasma transaminase enzyme levels (aspartate transferase and alanine transferase). Results of biochemical tests were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active antihepatotoxic constituent by silica gel column chromatography. Isoorientin exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect at 15 mg/kg b.w. dose.

  16. Evaluation of the biological activities of crude extracts from patagonian prosopis seeds and some of their active principles.

    Mazzuca, M; Kraus, W; Balzaretti, V


    Extracts of different polarities from three species and three varieties of the genera Prosopis: P. alpataco, P. denudans var. denudans, P. denudans var. patagonica, and P. denudans var. stenocarpa, were screened in order to evaluate their antibacterial, antifungal, antifeedant, antihelminthic, molluscicidal and toxic activities. The extractions of the plant materials were carried out successively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All petroleum ether extracts showed antibacterial activity. The dichloromethane extract of P. alpataco showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. denudans var. denudans and P. denudans var. patagonica showed antifungal activities and a slight response to the toxicity test. Fatty acids and a group of pentacyclic triterpenes were identified as responsible for antibacterial activities in some of the active extracts.

  17. Using an FPLC to Promote Active Learning of the Principles of Protein Structure and Purification

    Robinson, Rebekah L.; Neely, Amy E.; Mojadedi, Wais; Threatt, Katie N.; Davis, Nicole Y.; Weiland, Mitch H.


    The concepts of protein purification are often taught in undergraduate biology and biochemistry lectures and reinforced during laboratory exercises; however, very few reported activities allow students to directly gain experience using modern protein purification instruments, such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). This laboratory…

  18. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.


    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  19. Using an FPLC to Promote Active Learning of the Principles of Protein Structure and Purification

    Robinson, Rebekah L.; Neely, Amy E.; Mojadedi, Wais; Threatt, Katie N.; Davis, Nicole Y.; Weiland, Mitch H.


    The concepts of protein purification are often taught in undergraduate biology and biochemistry lectures and reinforced during laboratory exercises; however, very few reported activities allow students to directly gain experience using modern protein purification instruments, such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). This laboratory…

  20. Causality Principle

    Chi, Do Minh


    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  1. First-principles analysis of anharmonic nuclear motion and thermal transport in thermoelectric materials

    Tadano, Terumasa [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsuneyuki, Shinji [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)


    We show a first-principles approach for analyzing anharmonic properties of lattice vibrations in solids. We firstly extract harmonic and anharmonic force constants from accurate first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. Using the many-body perturbation theory of phonons, we then estimate the phonon scattering probability due to anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions. We show the validity of the approach by computing the lattice thermal conductivity of Si, a typical covalent semiconductor, and selected thermoelectric materials PbTe and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based on the Boltzmann transport equation. We also show that the phonon lifetime and the lattice thermal conductivity of the high-temperature phase of SrTiO{sub 3} can be estimated by employing the perturbation theory on top of the solution of the self-consistent phonon equation.


    宋立博; 吕恬生; 费燕琼; 袁池


    Three main basic types of locomotion for a mobile robot were introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of a legged mobile robot, a wheeled mobile robot and an articulated mobile robot were also discussed. A new type of leg-wheeled mobile robot was introduced which combines the adaptability of legged robot with the stability of wheeled robot. On the basis of the structure of the wheels, the paper described the principle of the iceskater robot developed from Roller-walker and ALDURO and its construction. The paper also established an inertia coordinate system and a wheel coordinate system, and analyzed the configuration or the posture and the related kinematic constraints of the robot according to some assumptions. Based on the motion principle, a logic-based coordinated control system and corresponded flowchart were designed. At last, taking the ice-skater robot as an example the paper expounded its application and the actual experiment proved its feasibility.

  3. Analysis on Humor of Situation Comedy My Own Swordsman by Politeness Principles



    Humor, as a linguistic phenomenon, appeals more and more attention from linguist, psychologist, sociologist, and the scholars of other disciplines. This paper, takes the humorous language of My Own Swordsman as research material, which contain⁃ing the depiction of trivial daily life, the meaning of life. Then, the author analyzed these data and discussed its features of humor from Pragmatic view by Leech and Levinson’s politeness principle.

  4. The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War: An Analysis Using the Principles of War


    10 Chaim Herzog, The Arab-Israeli Wars, (New York: Vintage Books, 1984), p. 154. 11 Ibid, p. 154. 12 Nadav Safran , Israel-The Embattled Ally...13 Herzog, p. 156. 14 Herzog, p. 154. 15 Safran , p. 246. 16 Dupuy, p. 1231. 17 Safran , p. 248. 8 The Israeli ground offensive, on this front...236. 22 Herzog, p. 184. 23 Safran , p. 256. 10 principles of war provide a useful template in analyzing a conflict. The definitions and descriptions of

  5. The principle analysis of methane explosion suppressed by water column curtain in coal mining

    ZHOU Tong-ling(周同龄); HE Xue-qiu(何学秋); YANG Yi(杨艺)


    The principles of fine water mist explosion-extinguishing system was introduced. The defects of current systems were analyzed. The concept of a new water column curtain and the explosion-extinguishing mechanism were given. Using water column curtain to suppress methane explosion in experiment pipes was conducted. The photos were written with schlieren photograph system. The results of experiment show that the effect is perfect.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schnackenburg, B. [Philips GmbH Unternehmensbereich Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Bamberg, C. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Berlin (Germany)


    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  7. 电磁轴承的原理与应用%Principle and Application of Active Magnetic Bearings

    严文彩; 李宏冰; 周殿莹


    The active magnetic bearing is a new supporting technology in the world,and it began to be study in the mid- 1960s.In the paper, the structure,principle,characteristics of active magetic bearings were introduced,and the developing level and tendency of the active magnetic bearing were analyzed. At last, taking methane expansion compressor in the ethylene plant as an example, matters needing attention during design,type selection and application of the active magetic bearing were discussed.%  电磁轴承技术是国际上20世纪60年代中期开始研究的一项新的支承技术。第一部分简要介绍电磁轴承的结构、原理、特点,并分析了国内外电磁轴承的发展现状及前景。第二部分,以乙烯装置的甲烷膨胀/压缩机为例,阐述了电磁轴承设计选型时的注意事项及其应用。

  8. Exploring the catalytic activity of pristine T6[100] surface for oxygen reduction reaction: A first-principles study

    Banerjee, Paramita; Chakrabarty, Soubhik; Thapa, Ranjit; Das, G. P.


    The electrocatalytic activity of T6[100] surface containing both sp3 (C1) and sp2 (C2) hybridized carbon atoms is explored using first-principles density functional theory based approach. The top layered C1 atom of the surface is found to be more active towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), as compared to that of C2 atom. This is attributed to the presence of dangling σ bond in the corresponding C1 atom, leading to the high electron density near the Ferrmi level. Whereas, the π electron in the top layered C2 atom forms a weak out of plane network. As estimated from free energy profile, the overpotential is much lower when C1 is considered as the active site and the final step i.e desorption of final OH- ion is found to be the potential determining step. We have also reported the effect of Si dopant on the catalytic activity of T6[100] surface and explained the origin of high overpotential value in this case. Thus in this report, we propose a new metal-free catalyst i.e T6[100] surface, having both sp2 (maintains the high metallicity needed to reduce ohmic loss) and sp3 (helps in capturing the upcoming molecules) hybridized carbon atoms, as a potential candidate for ORR.

  9. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia


    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  10. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María


    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below.

  11. Can active learning principles be applied to the bioscience assessments of nursing students? A review of the literature.

    Bakon, Shannon; Craft, Judy; Christensen, Martin; Wirihana, Lisa


    To explore if active learning principles be applied to nursing bioscience assessments and will this influence student perception of confidence in applying theory to practice? A review of the literature utilising searches of various databases including CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar and Mosby's Journal Index. The literature search identified research from twenty-six original articles, two electronic books, one published book and one conference proceedings paper. Bioscience has been identified as an area that nurses struggle to learn in tertiary institutions and then apply to clinical practice. A number of problems have been identified and explored that may contribute to this poor understanding and retention. University academics need to be knowledgeable of innovative teaching and assessing modalities that focus on enhancing student learning and address the integration issues associated with the theory practice gap. Increased bioscience education is associated with improved patient outcomes therefore by addressing this "bioscience problem" and improving the integration of bioscience in clinical practice there will subsequently be an improvement in health care outcomes. From the literature several themes were identified. First there are many problems with teaching nursing students bioscience education. These include class sizes, motivation, concentration, delivery mode, lecturer perspectives, student's previous knowledge, anxiety, and a lack of confidence. Among these influences the type of assessment employed by the educator has not been explored or identified as a contributor to student learning specifically in nursing bioscience instruction. Second that educating could be achieved more effectively if active learning principles were applied and the needs and expectations of the student were met. Lastly, assessment influences student retention and the student experience and as such assessment should be congruent with the subject content, align with the learning

  12. Tuning the chemical activity through PtAu nanoalloying: a first principles study

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb


    The electronic structure and adsorption properties of 1.5 nm sized Pt, Au, and PtAu nanoclusters are studied by density functional theory. We explain the recent experimental finding that 20% Au content in PtAu nanoparticles is optimal to induce a dramatically different catalytic behavior. Our results show that the d-band center together with the density of states at the Fermi energy can be used as an indicator of the chemical activity of PtAu nanoclusters. The most favorable adsorption sites on the cluster surfaces as a function of the Pt/Au ratio are identified using atomic H as a probe.

  13. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    Habtemariam, Solomon


    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  14. A Principle for Describing and Verifying Brain Mechanisms Using Ongoing Activity

    Eriksson, David


    Not even the most informed scientist can setup a theory that takes all brain signals into account. A neuron not only receives neuronal short range and long range input from all over the brain but a neuron also receives input from the extracellular space, astrocytes and vasculature. Given this complexity, how does one describe and verify a typical brain mechanism in vivo? Common to most described mechanisms is that one focuses on how one specific input signal gives rise to the activity in a population of neurons. This can be an input from a brain area, a population of neurons or a specific cell type. All remaining inputs originating from all over the brain are lumped together into one background input. The division into two inputs is attractive since it can be used to quantify the relative importance of either input. Here we have chosen to extract the specific and the background input by means of recording and inhibiting the specific input. We summarize what it takes to estimate the two inputs on a single trial level. The inhibition should not only be strong but also fast and the specific input measurement has to be tailor-made to the inhibition. In essence, we suggest ways to control electrophysiological experiments in vivo. By applying those controls it may become possible to describe and verify many brain mechanisms, and it may also allow the study of the integration of spontaneous and ongoing activity, which in turn governs cognition and behavior. PMID:28174523

  15. An active coronagraph using a liquid crystal array for exoplanet imaging: principle and testing

    Xi Zhang; De-Qing Ren; Yong-Tian Zhu; Jiang-Pei Dou


    High-contrast imaging coronagraphs,used for the detection of exoplanets,have always adopted passive coronagraph optical components.It is therefore impossible to actively optimize the coronagraphs to achieve their best performance.To solve this problem,we propose a novel high-contrast imaging coronagraph which combines a liquid crystal array (LCA) for active pupil apodization and a deformable mirror (DM) for phase correction.The LCA we use is an amplitude-only spatial light modulator.The LCA is well calibrated and compensates for its amplitude non-uniformity and nonlinear intensity responsivity.We measured the imaging contrasts of the coronagraph system with the LCA only and without the DM deployed.Imaging contrasts of 10-4 and 10-5 can be reached at an inner working angular distance of 2.5 and 5λ/D,respectively.A simulation shows that the phase errors on the coronagraph pupil limit the contrast performance.The contrast could be further improved if a DM is deployed to correct the phase errors induced by the LCA and coronagraph optics.

  16. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas


    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  17. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Verena Spiegler


    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  18. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola


    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  19. [Protection of genetic data in Spain. Analysis based on the general principles of personal data protection].

    García Amez, Javier


    The genetic data is Spain is not regulated specifically, rather, we must look at the regulation on the protection of data of a personal nature. This is turn, establishes a series of general principles to apply to any type of data. Analysing this with other regulations that are dispersed both in the national and international regulations, we can deduce the rights and obligations in this field. This highlights the fact that one can't dispose of the genetic data in the same manner as the personal data.

  20. [The principle and analysis of micro-Fourier transform spectrometer based on MEMS micro-mirror].

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Bo; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ning


    The present paper puts forward a novel micro-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer based on programmable MEMS micro-mirror. This design uses a MEMS micro-mirror and a slantwise reflector to replace the moving mirror system on traditional spectrometer. This paper analyzes the operating principle of this spectrometer and gives the simulation result to prove the feasibility of this method. The results show that the spectral resolution is less than 5 nm in near-infrared wave band, the wave-length accuracy is approximately 1 nm and the sampling period of this spectrometer is approximately 50 ms. This method can use Hadamard transform to improve the SNR.

  1. Survival analysis of stochastic competitive models in a polluted environment and stochastic competitive exclusion principle.

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Ke; Wu, Qiong


    Stochastic competitive models with pollution and without pollution are proposed and studied. For the first system with pollution, sufficient criteria for extinction, nonpersistence in the mean, weak persistence in the mean, strong persistence in the mean, and stochastic permanence are established. The threshold between weak persistence in the mean and extinction for each population is obtained. It is found that stochastic disturbance is favorable for the survival of one species and is unfavorable for the survival of the other species. For the second system with pollution, sufficient conditions for extinction and weak persistence are obtained. For the model without pollution, a partial stochastic competitive exclusion principle is derived.

  2. A Theoretical Analysis of Polluter-Pays Principle with ‘Allocated Costs’ between Economic Agents

    小出 秀雄; コイデ ヒデオ; Koide, Hideo


    The aim of this paper is to clarify both original and extended definitions of “Polluter-Pays Principle,” point out the shortcomings of the theoretical analysis frequently used in environmental economics, and then build a simple general equilibrium model showing several ways of internalizing social costs emerged by pollution from production of goods, with an introduction of so called “allocated costs” between economic agents concerned. This is an economic attempt to determine whether the Pollu...

  3. Active principles of Grindelia robusta exert antiinflammatory properties in a macrophage model.

    La, Vu Dang; Lazzarin, Francesco; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Grenier, Daniel


    Plant extracts and/or secondary metabolites are receiving considerable attention as therapeutic agents for treating inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis, which affects the tooth supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a Grindelia robusta extract enriched in saponins and polyphenols on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediator (IL-6, TNF-a, RANTES, MCP-1, PGE(2) ) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -13) secretion by macrophages. LPS induced a marked increase in the secretion of all inflammatory mediators and MMPs tested by macrophages, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the G. robusta extract inhibited dose-dependently the secretion of IL-6, RANTES, MCP-1 and, to a lesser extent, PGE(2) and TNF-a. Such inhibition was also observed for MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9 and -13 secretion. This ability of G. robusta extract to reduce the LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators and MMPs was associated with a reduction of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 activation. The results suggest that G. robusta extract possesses an antiinflammatory therapeutic potential through its capacity to reduce the accumulation of inflammatory mediators and MMPs.

  4. Forum: Communication Activism Pedagogy. Long-Term Impacts of Communication Activism Pedagogy: Guiding Principles for Future Research

    Russell, Vincent; Congdon, Mark, Jr.


    Communication activism pedagogy (CAP) illuminates an array of ways to intervene into oppressive systems to promote just conditions, and CAP's transformative effects on students and communities have been substantively demonstrated (Frey & Palmer 2014). Yet, Frey and Palmer recognize that "social justice issues are long-term, large-scale…

  5. Ameliorative Effect of Active Principle Isolated from Seeds of Eugenia jambolana on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Experimental Diabetes

    Suman Bala Sharma


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of LH II purified from ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD rabbits. Ethanolic extract upon chromatographic purification yielded partially purified hypoglycemic principle (SIII which on further purification by sephadex LH 20 yielded pharmacological active compound LH II. Homogeneity of LH II was tested by HPLC. Phytochemical investigation of LH II by various structural spectra showed the presence of saturated fatty acid, Δ5 lipid and presence of sterol. LH II was administered orally at a dose of 10 mg kg−1 body weight to MD and SD. LH II resulted, significant fall in FBG at 90 min (21.2% MD: 28.6% SD, 7th day (35.6% MD and 15th day (59.6% SD. Glycosylated hemoglobin was significantly decreased (50.5% in SD after 15 days treatment (Tt. Plasma insulin levels were significantly increased (P <  .001. In vitro studies with pancreatic islets showed 3-fold increase in insulin levels as compared to untreated animals. LH II also showed extrapancreatic effect by significantly increasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of glycolysis and significantly decreasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Liver and muscle glycogen content were increased by 36.6 and 30% for MD, and 52 and 47% for SD, respectively. Thus, the present study demonstrates that LH II possesses potent antidiabetic activity and it is effective in both MD and SD rabbits.

  6. Is the log-law a first principle result from Lie-group invariance analysis?

    Frewer, Michael; Foysi, Holger


    The invariance method of Lie-groups in the theory of turbulence carries the high expectation of being a first principle method for generating statistical scaling laws. The purpose of this comment is to show that this expectation has not been met so far. In particular for wall-bounded turbulent flows, the prospects for success are not promising in view of the facts we will present herein. Although the invariance method of Lie-groups is explicitly able to generate statistical scaling laws for wall-bounded turbulent flows, like the log-law for example, these invariant results yet not only fail to fulfil the basic requirements for a first principle result, but also are strongly misleading. The reason is that not the functional structure of the log-law itself is misleading, but that its invariant Lie-group based derivation yielding this function is what is misleading. By revisiting the study of Oberlack (2001) [Oberlack, M., 2001. A unified approach for symmetries in plane parallel turbulent shear flows. J. Fluid ...

  7. Interaction Analysis and Decomposition Principle for Control Structure Design of Large-scale Systems

    罗雄麟; 刘雨波; 许锋


    Industrial processes are mostly large-scale systems with high order. They use fully centralized control strategy, the parameters of which are difficult to tune. In the design of large-scale systems, the decomposition ac-cording to the interaction between input and output variables is the first step and the basis for the selection of con-trol structure. In this paper, the decomposition principle of processes in large-scale systems is proposed for the de-sign of control structure. A new variable pairing method is presented, considering the steady-state information and dynamic response of large-scale system. By selecting threshold values, the related matrix can be transformed into the adjoining matrixes, which directly measure the couple among different loops. The optimal number of controllers can be obtained after decomposing the large-scale system. A practical example is used to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed interaction decomposition principle in process large-scale systems.

  8. Reducing door-to-needle times using Toyota's lean manufacturing principles and value stream analysis.

    Ford, Andria L; Williams, Jennifer A; Spencer, Mary; McCammon, Craig; Khoury, Naim; Sampson, Tomoko R; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo


    Earlier tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for acute ischemic stroke increases efficacy, prompting national efforts to reduce door-to-needle times. We used lean process improvement methodology to develop a streamlined intravenous tPA protocol. In early 2011, a multidisciplinary team analyzed the steps required to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tPA using value stream analysis (VSA). We directly compared the tPA-treated patients in the "pre-VSA" epoch with the "post-VSA" epoch with regard to baseline characteristics, protocol metrics, and clinical outcomes. The VSA revealed several tPA protocol inefficiencies: routing of patients to room, then to CT, then back to the room; serial processing of workflow; and delays in waiting for laboratory results. On March 1, 2011, a new protocol incorporated changes to minimize delays: routing patients directly to head CT before the patient room, using parallel process workflow, and implementing point-of-care laboratories. In the pre and post-VSA epochs, 132 and 87 patients were treated with intravenous tPA, respectively. Compared with pre-VSA, door-to-needle times and percent of patients treated ≤60 minutes from hospital arrival were improved in the post-VSA epoch: 60 minutes versus 39 minutes (PLean process improvement methodology can expedite time-dependent stroke care without compromising safety.

  9. Xanthoangelol and 4-Hydroxyderricin Are the Major Active Principles of the Inhibitory Activities against Monoamine Oxidases on Angelica keiskei K.

    Kim, Ji Ho; Son, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee


    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) have been widely used as antidepressants. Recently, there has been renewed interest in MAO inhibitors. The activity-guided fractionation of extracts from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (A. keiskei K.) led to the isolation of two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin and a flavonoid, cynaroside. These three isolated compounds are the major active ingredients of A. keiskei K. to inhibit the MAOs and DBH activities. Xanthoangelol is a nonselective MAO inhibitor, and a potent dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. IC50 values of xanthoangelol to MAO-A and MAO-B were calculated to be 43.4 μM, and 43.9 μM. These values were very similar to iproniazid, which is a nonselective MAO inhibitor used as a drug against depression. The IC50 values of iproniazid were 37 μM, and 42.5 μM in our parallel examination. Moreover, IC50 value of xanthoangelol to DBH was calculated 0.52 μM. 4-Hydroxyderricin is a potent selective MAO-B inhibitor and also mildly inhibits DBH activity. The IC50 value of 4-hydroxyderricin to MAO-B was calculated to be 3.43 μM and this value was higher than that of deprenyl (0.046 μM) used as a positive control for selective MAO-B inhibitor in our test. Cynaroside is a most potent DBH inhibitor. The IC50 value of cynaroside to DBH was calculated at 0.0410 μM. Results of this study suggest that the two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin isolated from A. keiskei K., are expected for potent candidates for development of combined antidepressant drug. A. keiskei K. will be an excellent new bio-functional food material that has the combined antidepressant effect.

  10. An Analysis of Chapter XXXI of Oliver Twist From the Perspective of the Violating of Cooperative Principle

    Xu Xiaojuan


    Oliver Twist, or The Parish Boy’s Progress (1837), one of Charles Dickens’s masterpieces, has occupied an important position in literature. As a classical work,Oliver Twist has enjoyed great popularity since its publication. Charles Dickens describes, in this work, the tragic life and experiences of the orphan boyOliver Twist who was born in an inhuman workhouse and cruelly treated there in his childhood. This paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of chapter XXXI ofOliver Twist from the perspective of the violating of Cooperative Principle.

  11. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    Javier Varela


    Full Text Available The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam., (family Asteraceae. These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  12. Endoscopic Scores for Evaluation of Crohn's Disease Activity at Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy: General Principles and Current Applications.

    Rosa, Bruno; Pinho, Rolando; de Ferro, Susana Mão; Almeida, Nuno; Cotter, José; Saraiva, Miguel Mascarenhas


    The small bowel is affected in the vast majority of patients with Crohn's Disease (CD). Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has a very high sensitivity for the detection of CD-related pathology, including early mucosal lesions and/or those located in the proximal segments of the small bowel, which is a major advantage when compared with other small bowel imaging modalities. The recent guidelines of European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) advocate the use of validated endoscopic scoring indices for the classification of inflammatory activity in patients with CD undergoing SBCE, such as the Lewis Score or the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI). These scores aim to standardize the description of lesions and capsule endoscopy reports, contributing to increase inter-observer agreement and enabling a stratification of the severity of the disease. On behalf of the Grupo de Estudos Português do Intestino Delgado (GEPID) - Portuguese Small Bowel Study Group, we aimed to summarize the general principles and clinical applications of current endoscopic scoring systems for SBCE in the setting of CD, covering the topic of suspected CD as well as the evaluation of disease extent (with potential prognostic and therapeutic impact), evaluation of mucosal healing in response to treatment and evaluation of post-surgical recurrence in patients with previously established diagnosis of CD.

  13. Analysis of Verbal Humor in IPARTMENT3 from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle



    This paper will adopt Cooperative Principle to analyze the ut erances randomly picked from Chinese sitcom IPARTMENT3, which will help us further appreciate humor in IPARTMENT3 and use the language bet er in conversation in the near future.%本文从语用学合作原则的角度出发,以情景喜剧《爱情公寓3》中丰富的语料为例,研究在会话中违反合作原则之后所产生的会话含义及其产生的幽默。旨在帮助我们更好地欣赏《爱情公寓3》中的幽默话语和今后更好的运用语言。

  14. The integrated analysis of metabolic and protein interaction networks reveals novel molecular organizing principles.

    Durek, Pawel; Walther, Dirk


    The study of biological interaction networks is a central theme of systems biology. Here, we investigate the relationships between two distinct types of interaction networks: the metabolic pathway map and the protein-protein interaction network (PIN). It has long been established that successive enzymatic steps are often catalyzed by physically interacting proteins forming permanent or transient multi-enzymes complexes. Inspecting high-throughput PIN data, it was shown recently that, indeed, enzymes involved in successive reactions are generally more likely to interact than other protein pairs. In our study, we expanded this line of research to include comparisons of the underlying respective network topologies as well as to investigate whether the spatial organization of enzyme interactions correlates with metabolic efficiency. Analyzing yeast data, we detected long-range correlations between shortest paths between proteins in both network types suggesting a mutual correspondence of both network architectures. We discovered that the organizing principles of physical interactions between metabolic enzymes differ from the general PIN of all proteins. While physical interactions between proteins are generally dissortative, enzyme interactions were observed to be assortative. Thus, enzymes frequently interact with other enzymes of similar rather than different degree. Enzymes carrying high flux loads are more likely to physically interact than enzymes with lower metabolic throughput. In particular, enzymes associated with catabolic pathways as well as enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of complex molecules were found to exhibit high degrees of physical clustering. Single proteins were identified that connect major components of the cellular metabolism and may thus be essential for the structural integrity of several biosynthetic systems. Our results reveal topological equivalences between the protein interaction network and the metabolic pathway network. Evolved

  15. Research on transmission principle and kinematics analysis for involute spherical gear

    PAN Cun-yun; WEN Xi-sen; YANG Kun-yu; XU Xiao-jun; LIU Min; YAO Qi-shui


    A new kind of transmission-type spherical gear called 'ring involute spherical gear mechanism' is introduced.Compared to the famous TRALLFA spherical gear,this new spherical gear has an involute tooth profile,and a ring tooth that is distributed continuously on the surface of the sphere.This allows the gear to overcome two disadvantages of the TRALLFA spherical gear:the drive principle error and the manufacturing difficulty.The new transmission and the formation principle of the tooth's surface of the new spherical gear mechanism are first introduced,then another mechanism,called disk rack,is introduced,which is derived from the spherical gear mechanism when one of the spherical gear's tooth number reaches infinity.To make the research more convenient,every part of the new spherical gear mechanism is named.In the following sections,some problems are discussed,such as the assembly form,the construction characteristics,the correct meshing condition,the continuum transmission condition and so on.Furthermore,the paper deduces the surface formula of the conjugate teeth profiles,which proves that the conjugate teeth profiles is also one of the ringed involute spherical gear.In order to analyze the relationship between two coordinate systems,which is attached respectively to the diving spherical gear and the driven spherical gear,the orientation cosine matrix method is utilized.By series rotational transformation, the kinematics model and inverse kinematics model are deduced.Using the method for calculating the transmission ratio of planet gear train,the relationship of the two oscillating angle between output axis and the bracket is established.Based on the research,the kinematics graphic simulation of spherical gear mechanism and disk rack are made respectively.The results prove correctness of the kinematics model.

  16. Software citation principles

    Arfon M. Smith


    Full Text Available Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.

  17. Structural analysis of char by Raman spectroscopy: Improving band assignments through computational calculations from first principles

    Smith, Matthew W.; Dallmeyer, Ian; Johnson, Timothy J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Espinal, Juan F.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterization of many carbon 27 species. The complex heterogeneous nature of chars and activated carbons has confounded 28 complete analysis due to the additional shoulders observed on the D-band and high intensity 29 valley between the D and G-bands. In this paper the effects of various vacancy and substitution 30 defects have been systematically analyzed via molecular modeling using density functional 31 theory (DFT) and how this is manifested in the calculated gas-phase Raman spectra. The 32 accuracy of these calculations was validated by comparison with (solid-phase) experimental 33 spectra, with a small correction factor being applied to improve the accuracy of frequency 34 predictions. The spectroscopic effects on the char species are best understood in terms of a 35 reduced symmetry as compared to a “parent” coronene molecule. Based upon the simulation 36 results, the shoulder observed in chars near 1200 cm-1 has been assigned to the totally symmetric 37 A1g vibrations of various small polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as those containing 38 rings of seven or more carbons. Intensity between 1400 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 is assigned to A1g 39 type vibrations present in small PAHs and especially those containing cyclopentane rings. 40 Finally, band intensity between 1500 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1 is ascribed to predominately E2g 41 vibrational modes in strained PAH systems. A total of ten potential bands have been assigned 42 between 1000 cm-1 and 1800 cm-1. These fitting parameters have been used to deconvolute a 43 thermoseries of cellulose chars produced by pyrolysis at 300-700 °C. The results of the 44 deconvolution show consistent growth of PAH clusters with temperature, development of non-45 benzyl rings as temperature increases and loss of oxygenated features between 400 °C and 46 600 °C

  18. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    Naillon, Martine


    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  19. Evaluation of the structural determinants of polymeric precipitation inhibitors using solvent shift methods and principle component analysis.

    Warren, Dallas B; Bergström, Christel A S; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W


    The presence of polymers within solid dose forms, such as solid dispersions, or liquid or semisolid formulations, such as lipid-based formulations, can promote the maintenance of drug supersaturation after dissolution or dispersion/digestion of the vehicle in the gastrointestinal tract. Transiently stable supersaturation delays precipitation, increases thermodynamic activity, and may enhance bioavailability and reduce variability in exposure. In the current study a diverse range of 42 different classes of polymers, with a total of 78 polymers across all classes, grades, and molecular weights were examined, to varying degrees, as potential polymeric precipitation inhibitors (PPIs) using a solvent shift method to initiate supersaturation. To provide a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of polymer utility the data were also analyzed, along with a range of physicochemical descriptors of the polymers employed, using principle component analysis (PCA). Polymers were selectively tested for their ability to stabilize supersaturation for nine poorly water-soluble model drugs, representing a range of nonelectrolytes, weak acids, and weak bases. In general, the cellulose-based polymers (and in particular hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC, and its derivatives) provided robust precipitation inhibition across most of the drugs tested. Subsequent PCA indicate that there is consistent PPI behavior of a given polymer for a given drug type, with clear clustering of the performance of polymers with each of the nonelectrolytes, weak bases, and weak acids. However, there are some exceptions to this, with some specific drug type-polymer interactions also occurring. Polymers containing primary amine functional groups should be avoided as they are prone to enhancing precipitation rates. An inverse relationship was also documented for the number of amide, carboxylic acid, and hydroxyl functional groups; therefore for general good PPI performance the number of these

  20. Active and Principled

    wang yi


    Reuters: The fourth foreign ministers' meet- ing of the ISSG held yesterday [February 11] had achieved some breakthroughs. However, in the situation that Russia is still carrying out military strikes against Syria, do you think the outcomes of this foreign ministers' meeting will bring about changes in the situation on the ground in Syria?

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of alkali hydrides investigated by the first-principles calculations and principal component analysis

    Settouti, Nadera; Aourag, Hafid


    The structural and mechanical properties of alkali hydrides (LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH) were investigated via first-principles calculations which cover the optimized structural parameters. The density functional theory in combination with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used in this study. From the present study, one could note that alkali hydrides are brittle materials and mechanically stable. It was found that stiffness and shear resistance are greater in LiH than in other hydrides. It is more brittle in nature, and comparatively harder than the other materials under study; it also presents a high degree of anisotropy. The results were then investigated and analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA), which is one of the most common techniques in multivariate analysis, was used to explore the correlations among material properties of alkali hydrides and to study their trends. The alkali hydrides obtained by the first-principles calculations were also compared with the alkaline-earth metal hydrides (BeH2, MgH2, CaH2, SrH2, and BaH2) and discussed in this work.

  2. The relationship between persuasive technology principles, adherence and effect of web-Based interventions for mental health: A meta-analysis.

    Wildeboer, Gina; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C


    Research has shown that web-based interventions concerning mental health can be effective, although there is a broad range in effect sizes. Why some interventions are more effective than others is not clear. Persuasive technology is one of the aspects which has a positive influence on changing attitude and/or behavior, and can contribute to better outcomes. According to the Persuasive Systems Design Model there are various principles that can be deployed. It is unknown whether the number and combinations of principles used in a web-based intervention affect the effectiveness. Another issue in web-based interventions is adherence. Little is known about the relationship of adherence on the effectiveness of web-based interventions. This study examines whether there is a relationship between the number and combinations of persuasive technology principles used in web-based interventions and the effectiveness. Also the influence of adherence on effectiveness of web-based interventions is investigated. This study elaborates on the systematic review by [37] and therefore the articles were derived from that study. Only web-based interventions were included that were intended to be used on more than one occasion and studies were excluded when no information on adherence was provided. 48 interventions targeted at mental health were selected for the current study. A within-group (WG) and between-group (BG) meta-analysis were performed and subsequently subgroup analyses regarding the relationship between the number and combinations of persuasive technology principles and effectiveness. The influence of adherence on the effectiveness was examined through a meta-regression analysis. For the WG meta-analysis 40 treatment groups were included. The BG meta-analysis included 19 studies. The mean pooled effect size in the WG meta-analysis was large and significant (Hedges' g=0.94), while for the BG meta-analysis this was moderate to large and significant (Hedges' g=0.78) in favor of

  3. Development of a NIR-based blend uniformity method for a drug product containing multiple structurally similar actives by using the quality by design principles.

    Lin, Yiqing; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Jin; Boulas, Pierre


    The aim of this study is to develop an at-line near infrared (NIR) method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of four structurally similar active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in powder blends intended for the manufacturing of tablets. Two of the four APIs in the formula are present in relatively small amounts, one at 0.95% and the other at 0.57%. Such small amounts in addition to the similarity in structures add significant complexity to the blend uniformity analysis. The NIR method is developed using spectra from six laboratory-created calibration samples augmented by a small set of spectra from a large-scale blending sample. Applying the quality by design (QbD) principles, the calibration design included concentration variations of the four APIs and a main excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A bench-top FT-NIR instrument was used to acquire the spectra. The obtained NIR spectra were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) before calibration model development. Score patterns from the PCA were analyzed to reveal relationship between latent variables and concentration variations of the APIs. In calibration model development, both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models were created and evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting API concentrations in the blending samples. The final NIR method shows satisfactory specificity and accuracy.

  4. Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma from plants: active principles from Physalis pruinosa and structure-activity relationships with withanolides.

    Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Hatsuse, Takahiro; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei


    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). Clinical manifestations of ATL range from smoldering to chronic, lymphoma and acute subtypes. Patients with acute and lymphoma-type ATL require therapeutic intervention. Conventional chemotherapeutic regimens used against other malignant lymphoma have been administered to ATL patients, but the therapeutic outcomes of acute and lymphoma-type ATL remain very poor. In this study, 214 extracts from 162 plants belonging to 65 families were screened for the purpose of elucidating the anti-proliferative effect against HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Extracts from aerial parts of Physalis pruinosa showed potent inhibitory effect. We isolated five withanolides from the extracts by activity-guided fractionation and examined the structure-activity relationships. The presence of a 5β,6β-epoxy function is suggested to be essential for the activity, and the most active principle showed selective toxicity to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines.

  5. An Action Principle for an Interacting Fermion System and its Analysis in the Continuum Limit

    Finster, Felix


    We introduce and analyze a system of relativistic fermions in a space-time continuum, which interact via an action principle as previously considered in a discrete space-time. The model is defined by specifying the vacuum as a sum of Dirac seas corresponding to several generations of elementary particles. The only free parameters entering the model are the fermion masses. We find dynamical field equations if and only if the number of generations equals three. In this case, the dynamics is described by a massive axial potential coupled to the Dirac spinors. The coupling constant and the rest mass of the axial field depend on the regularization; for a given regularization method they can be computed as functions of the fermion masses. The bosonic mass term arises as a consequence of a symmetry breaking effect, giving an alternative to the Higgs mechanism. In addition to the standard loop corrections of quantum field theory, we find new types of correction terms to the field equations which violate causality. Th...

  6. An Analysis of Gender Differences in Pride and Prejudice from the Perspective of Politeness Principles



    This paper intends to analyze gender differences embedded in conversations of Pride and Prejudice written by the celebrated British woman writer Jane Austen.It employs gender differences in applying Cooperative Principles.It is concluded that women tend to be more polite and cooperative while men are ignorant of giving considerations for others and the smoothness of communication.By understanding this, miscommunications can be avoided, therefore effective and successful inter-gender conversations are possible to be achieved.%本文截选英国著名女作家--简·奥斯汀的巨作《傲慢与偏见》中的对话来分析两性在礼貌原则运用上的差异。通过对比分析,得出结论:对话中,女性往往较男性更擅长运用礼貌原则,她们更加礼貌、合作,男性则往往忽略周全他人感受、无暇顾及交流的通顺性。了解到这一点,就能避免男女对话中的误会与冲突问题,从而做到有效、成功的交流。

  7. Performance analysis of a microfluidic mixer based on high gradient magnetic separation principles

    Liu, Mengyu; Han, Xiaotao; Cao, Quanliang; Li, Liang


    To achieve a rapid mixing between a water-based ferrofluid and DI water in a microfluidic environment, a magnetically actuated mixing system based on high gradient magnetic separation principles is proposed in this work. The microfluidic system consists of a T-shaped mirochannel and an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements at the sidewall of the channel. With the aid of an external magnetic bias field, these elements are magnetized to produce a magnetic volume force acting on the fluids containing magnetic nanoparticles, and then to induce additional flows for improving the mixing performance. The mixing process is numerically investigated through analyzing the concentration distribution of magnetic nanoparticles using a coupled particle-fluid transport model, and mixing performances under different parametrical conditions are investigated in detail. Numerical results show that a high mixing efficiency around 97.5% can be achieved within 2 s under an inlet flow rate of 1 mm s-1 and a relatively low magnetic bias field of 50 mT. Meanwhile, it has been found that there is an optimum number of magnetic elements used for obtaining the best mixing performance. These results show the potential of the proposed mixing method in lab-on-a-chip system and could be helpful in designing and optimizing system performance.

  8. Sampled-data based average consensus with measurement noises:convergence analysis and uncertainty principle

    LI Tao; ZHANG JiFeng


    In this paper,sampled-data based average-consensus control is considered for networks consisting of continuous-time first-order Integrator agents in a noisy distributed communication environment.The Impact of the sampling size and the number of network nodes on the system performances is analyzed.The control input of each agent can only use information measured at the sampling instants from its neighborhood rather than the complete continuous process,and the measurements of its neighbors'states are corrupted by random noises.By probability limit theory and the property of graph Laplacian matrix,it is shown that for a connected network,the static mean square error between the individual state and the average of the Initial states of all agents can be made arbitrarily small,provided the sampling size is sufficiently small.Furthermore,by properly choosing the consensus gains,almost sure consensus can be achieved.It is worth pointing out that an uncertainty principle of Gaussian networks is obtained,which implies that in the case of white Gausslan noises,no matter what the sampling size is,the product of the steady-state and transient performance indices is always equal to or larger than a constant depending on the noise intensity,network topology and the number of network nodes.

  9. Numerical analysis on heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex based on field synergy principle

    WU Junmei; TAO Wenquan


    Three-dimensional numerical simulation results are presented for a fin-and-tube heat transfer surface with vortex generators.The effects of the Reynolds number (from 800 to 2 000) and the attack angle (30° and 45°) of a delta winglet vortex generator are examined.The numerical results are analyzed on the basis of the field synergy principle to explain the inherent mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex.The secondary flow generated by the vortex generators causes the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradients.In addition,the computational evaluations indicate that the heat transfer enhancement of delta winglet pairs for an aligned tube bank fin-and-tube surface is more significant than that for a staggered tube bank fin-and-tube surface.The heat transfer enhancement of the delta winglet pairs with an attack angle of 45° is larger than that with an angle of 30°.The delta winglet pair with an attack angle of 45° leads to an increase in pressure drop,while the delta winglet pair with the 30°angle results in a slight decrease.The heat transfer enhancement under identical pumping power condition for the attack angle of 30° is larger than that for the attack angle of 45°either for staggered or for aligned tube bank arrangement.

  10. Understanding Lithium Solvation and Diffusion through Topological Analysis of First-Principles Molecular Dynamics

    Bhatia, Harsh [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gyulassy, Attila [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ong, Mitchell [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Draeger, Erik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pask, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer -Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly influenced by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, which depends on the speed at which Li ions migrate across the cell and relates to their solvation structure. The choice of solvent can greatly impact, both, the solvation and diffusivity of Li ions. In this work, we present our application of the topological techniques to extract and predict such behavior in the data generated by the first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of Li ions in an important organic solvent -ethylene carbonate. More specifically, we use the scalar topology of the electron charge density field to analyze the evolution of the solvation structures. This allows us to derive a parameter-free bond definition for lithium-oxygen bonds, to provide a quantitative measure for bond strength, and to understand the regions of influence of each atom in the simulation. This has provided new insights into how and under what conditions certain bonds may form and break. As a result, we can identify and, more importantly, predict, unstable configurations in solvation structures. This can be very useful in understanding when small changes to the atoms' movements can cause significantly different bond structures to evolve. Ultimately, this promises to allow scientists to explore lithium ion solvation and diffusion more systematically, with the aim of new insights and potentially accelerating the calculations themselves.

  11. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily


    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  12. 老年人在城市体育公园中的活动类型及设计原则%Design Principles and Types of Activities of Elderly in City Sports Park

    孙小茜; 周萌


    Through the analysis on the activity types of the elderly in the city sports park, the author deeply discusses the design principle of the city sports park, aiming at creating a more comfortable, healthy, safe recreational activity space for the aged.%本文通过对城市体育公园中老年人活动类型的分析,深入探讨了城市体育公园的设计原则,旨在为老年人营造一个更加舒适、健康、安全的娱乐活动空间。

  13. 析萨托利“有限多数原则”%Analysis on Limited Majority Principle of Sartori



    乔万尼萨托利在《民主新论》中强调,民主的工作原则是有限的(受限制的)多数统治原则,且这一原则立足于保护少数权利以及利用少数权利限制多数的统治。同时,有限多数原则是现代民主制度的可行性原则,该文通过对简单多数原则与有限多数原则的分析,阐明了简单多数原则的含义及其存在的问题。进而通过与简单多数原则比较,分析了有限多数原则及其所具有的优点,指出了在现代民主的运行过程中有限多数原则比简单多数原则更可行。%In the book of The Theory of Democracy Revisited, Giovanni Sartori stressed that the working principle of democracy is limited or restricted majority rule which is based on the protection of minority rights and the utilization of minority rights to limit the rule of the majority. Meanwhile, limited majority rule is the feasible principle of modern democracy. Through contrastive analysis of plurality rule and limited majority rule, this paper expounds the meaning of the former and its existing problems and further analyzes the advantages of the latter in comparison to the former, and it comes down to that limited majority principle is more feasible than plurality rule in the operating process of modern democracy.

  14. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.


    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  15. Principles, Practice, and Evolution of Capillary Electrophoresis as a Tool for Forensic DNA Analysis.

    Shewale, J G; Qi, L; Calandro, L M


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a versatile and widely used analysis platform with application in diverse areas such as analytical chemistry, chiral separations, clinical, forensics, molecular biology, natural products, organic chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Forensic applications of CE include fragment analysis, DNA sequencing, SNP typing, and analysis of gunshot residues, explosive residues, and drugs. Fragment analysis is a widely used method for short tandem repeat (STR) profiling for human identification (HID) due to the single-base resolution capability of CE. This approach circumvents the tedious and expensive approach of DNA sequencing for STR typing. The high sizing precision, ability to detect fluorescence emitted from multiple dyes, automated electrophoretic runs, and data collection software are key factors in the worldwide adoption of CE as the preferred platform for forensic DNA analysis. The most common CE systems used in forensic DNA analysis include the ABI PRISM® 310, 3100, 3100 Avant, 3130, 3130xl, 3500, and 3500xL Genetic Analyzers (GAs). The 3500 series GAs are developed with features useful for forensic scientists, including a normalization feature for analysis of the data designed to reduce the variation in peak height from instrument to instrument and injection to injection. Other hardware and software features include improved temperature control, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for monitoring instrument consumables, HID-focused software features, and security and maintenance.

  16. Analysis of a bio-dynamic model via Lyapunov principle and small-world network for tuberculosis.

    Chung, H-Y; Chung, C-Y; Ou, S-C


    The study will apply Lyapunov principle to construct a dynamic model for tuberculosis (TB). The Lyapunov principle is commonly used to examine and determine the stability of a dynamic system. To simulate the transmissions of vector-borne diseases and discuss the related health policies effects on vector-borne diseases, the authors combine the multi-agent-based system, social network and compartmental model to develop an epidemic simulation model. In the identity level, the authors use the multi-agent-based system and the mirror identity concept to describe identities with social network features such as daily visits, long-distance movement, high degree of clustering, low degree of separation and local clustering. The research will analyse the complex dynamic mathematic model of TB epidemic and determine its stability property by using the popular Matlab/Simulink software and relative software packages. Facing the current TB epidemic situation, the development of TB and its developing trend through constructing a dynamic bio-mathematical system model of TB is investigated. After simulating the development of epidemic situation with the solution of the SMIR epidemic model, the authors will come up with a good scheme to control epidemic situation to analyse the parameter values of a model that influence epidemic situation evolved. The authors will try to find the quarantining parameters that are the most important factors to control epidemic situation. The SMIR epidemic model and the results via numerical analysis may offer effective prevention with reference to controlling epidemic situation of TB.

  17. A discourse analysis methodology based on semantic principles - an application to brands, journalists and consumers discourses

    Luc Grivel


    Full Text Available This is a R&D Paper. It describes an analysis coming from a research project about opinion measurement and monitoring on the Internet. This research is realized within "Paragraphe" laboratory, in partnership with the market research institute Harris Interactive (CIFRE grant beginning July 2010. The purpose of the study was to define CRM possibilities. The targets of the study were self-employed workers and very small businesses. The discourses analysis is linked to a qualitative study. It turns around three types of discourses: brands, journalists and clients’ discourses. In the brand discourses analysis we benchmarked brand websites belonging to several businesses. In this first step, we tried to identify the most used words and promises by brands to the target we were studying. For that benchmark, we downloaded "Professionals" sections of the websites. Clients’ discourses analysis is based on opened answers coming from satisfaction questionnaires. The questions we are studying have been asked after a call to a hot line or after a technician intervention. Journalists’ discourses analysis is based on articles, published on information websites specialized in Harris Interactive's client sector. These websites were chosen because we considered them to be representative of information sources, which the target could consult.

  18. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann


    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  19. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann


    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  20. Electronic and Optical Properties of Rock-Salt A1N under High Pressure via First-Principles Analysis

    ZHANG Wei; CHEN Xiang-Rong; CAI Ling-Cang; GOU Qing-Quan


    Electronic and optical properties of rock-salt A1N under high pressure are investigated by first -principles method based on the plane-wave basis set. Analysis of band structures suggests that the rock-salt AIN has an indirect gap of 4.53 eV, which is in good agreement with other results. By investigating the effects of pressure on the energy gap, the different movement of conduction band at X point below and above 22.5 GPa is predicted. The optical properties including dielectric function, absorption, reflectivity, and refractive index are also calculated and analyzed. It is found that the rock-salt AIN is transparent from the partially ultra-violet to the visible light area and hardly does the transparence affected by the pressure. Furthermore, the curve of optical spectrum will shift to high energy area (blue shift) with increasing pressure.

  1. First-principles and thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium (TMG) decomposition during MOVPE growth of GaN

    Sekiguchi, K.; Shirakawa, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Araidai, M.; Kangawa, Y.; Kakimoto, K.; Shiraishi, K.


    We analyzed the decomposition mechanisms of trimethylgallium (TMG) used for the gallium source of GaN fabrication based on first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We considered two conditions. One condition is under the total pressure of 1 atm and the other one is under metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of GaN. Our calculated results show that H2 is indispensable for TMG decomposition under both conditions. In GaN MOVPE, TMG with H2 spontaneously decomposes into Ga(CH3) and Ga(CH3) decomposes into Ga atom gas when temperature is higher than 440 K. From these calculations, we confirmed that TMG surely becomes Ga atom gas near the GaN substrate surfaces.

  2. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.


    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  3. Activation analysis of meteorites. 3

    Nagai, H.; Honda, M.; Sato, H. [Nihon Univ., College of Humanities and Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, M.; Oura, Y.; Setoguchi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan)


    A long-lived cosmogenic nuclide, {sup 53}Mn in extra-terrestrial materials has been determined in the DR-1 hole of the JRR-3M reactor, applying the well-thermalized neutron flux. The neutron flux intensities are variable with the depths whereas the fast thermal ratios are not quite variable. By this method, {sup 53}Mn contents in iron meteorites and metal phases in general could be routinely determined in many samples. The chemical separation method has been modified and a convenient short circuit method has been proposed to shorten the process. The short method is to count the activities of {sup 54}Mn just after the irradiation without further purification of manganese. (author)

  4. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Hung-Cheng Shih


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  5. Joint independent component analysis for simultaneous EEG-fMRI: principle and simulation.

    Moosmann, Matthias; Eichele, Tom; Nordby, Helge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Calhoun, Vince D


    An optimized scheme for the fusion of electroencephalography and event related potentials with functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) data should simultaneously assess all available electrophysiologic and hemodynamic information in a common data space. In doing so, it should be possible to identify features of latent neural sources whose trial-to-trial dynamics are jointly reflected in both modalities. We present a joint independent component analysis (jICA) model for analysis of simultaneous single trial EEG-fMRI measurements from multiple subjects. We outline the general idea underlying the jICA approach and present results from simulated data under realistic noise conditions. Our results indicate that this approach is a feasible and physiologically plausible data-driven way to achieve spatiotemporal mapping of event related responses in the human brain.

  6. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.


    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  7. Management principles of the interaction between market attractiveness producer and its recipients

    O.V. Sviridova


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the definition of the content of interaction between attractiveness producer and its recipients through the prism of general and derived management principles. Actuality of this article is caused by the formation of long-term relationships between business subjects. The main aim of these relationships is attracting and using of resources to further joint production and benefits distribution from these activities. Formation of such long-term relationships in condition of high competitiveness is one of the urgent problems of modern enterprises. In this regard, the traditional management principles are supplemented by the principles of the interaction and attractiveness managing. The purpose of the article is further improving of management principles through the establishment of specific management principles of the interaction between market attractiveness producer and its recipients.The results of the analysis. Management principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions. The research of classic, general and structural management principles is conducted in the article. The possibility and necessity of ascertainment of the derivative management principles of interaction between subjects of market environment is noted. Derivative management principles reflect the content of the specialized management activity on forming of enterprise attractiveness. The analysis of existing management principles of different objects is conducted. It is established that as a basis for systematization of management principles scientists use different management features, such as socio-political principles, principles of management culture and state-administrative activity, socio-political, structural, scientific, legal, personnel and organizational basis.Results of research of management principles and management interaction proved

  8. Kinematic analysis of cable-driven parallel mechanisms based on minimum potential energy principle

    Guan Liwen


    Full Text Available The forward kinematic analysis of the cable-driven parallel mechanism has been a challenging and interesting problem since 10 years ago. This work converts the forward kinematic analysis problem of the cable-driven parallel mechanism to an optimization problem, whose objective is to minimize the potential energy of mobile platform. In order to simplify the optimization problem further so that it can be solved with any simple optimization algorithm in short time, some constraints are introduced to design variables. We utilize the sequential quadratic programming algorithm to solve the simplified optimization problem in this article. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach are validated with some numerical examples. Furthermore, due to the fact that a required pose may be not stable, the availability of its inverse kinematic solution should be supervised. The aforementioned approach provides a valid tool for solving this type of problems by contrasting the distinction between the required pose and the actual pose calculated by it. The feasibility of applying our proposed method to execute the inverse kinematic analysis of cable-driven parallel mechanism is proved with several examples in this article.

  9. The Main General Didactical Principles of Glotoeducological Theory and Practice

    Regina Juškienė


    Full Text Available As a pedagogical discipline glotoeducology is related to didactics, i. e. teaching theory. Three concepts of didactics are being distinguished: teaching, teaching principles and types of teaching activity. The authors limited themselves in their paper on one of them, namely: teaching principles that determine the usage of teaching regularities in the course of implementation of the objectives of teaching and education. The article also provides analysis of interaction of linguodidactical principles with general didactical principles, the impact thereof to teaching of foreign languages.

  10. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D


    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Design Principles of Micro-Video Production and In-Class Activi-ties on the Base of Flipped Classroom



    Flipped classroom is a brand-new teaching mode both at home and abroad. Its core is to reverse teaching sequence and teaching content by letting students watch self-made videos to learn relatively junior teaching content before class, thus leaving students adequate space to exert full activities in the classroom to complete knowledge absorption and consolidation. This article focus mainly on the design principles and relevant experiences of video production. In the meanwhile, the article also puts for-ward instructive suggestions for teachers to make appealing and stylistic videos as well as mobilize the enthusiasm of students. Video as the stepping stone only serves as a media to convey knowledge before class, the class is the core to convert students’ traditional role to be the real master by a series of effective activities, which should be carefully designed by teachers. So the sec-ond focus of the articles falls on the design principles of in-class activities.

  12. Principle of pro-poor tourism: Analysis of the positive and negative aspects

    Škrbić Iva; Tomka Dragica; Milošević Srđan


    Reducing poverty is one of the primary activities that must be implemented by developed countries and developing countries alike. Seeing as tourism has a major impact on the global and local economy through the implementation of the objectives of poverty reduction, the pro-poor tourism strategy must be included in the agenda of tourism development. The aim of the pro-poor strategy is to increase the economic and socio-cultural benefits for the local population. The theoretical frame for the c...

  13. Surface and Thin Film Analysis A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications

    Friedbacher, Gernot


    Surveying and comparing all techniques relevant for practical applications in surface and thin film analysis, this second edition of a bestseller is a vital guide to this hot topic in nano- and surface technology. This new book has been revised and updated and is divided into four parts - electron, ion, and photon detection, as well as scanning probe microscopy. New chapters have been added to cover such techniques as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency generation (SFG). Appendices with a summary and comparison of techniques and a list of equipment suppliers make this book a rapid ref

  14. A discursive analysis on partiality, plural speeches and principle of contradictory in a state news agency

    Angela Maria Rubel Fanini


    Full Text Available This paper investigated how image is built within the external communication of the State News Agency (AEN of the government of Paraná state through a discursive analysis grounded on Orlandi (1999, following concepts from Foucault (1971, and the critical view towards Brazilian journalism pointed by Arbex Jr. (2003. The selected corpus comprised three news releases from AEN in the second semester of 2011, and the methodology, qualitative in nature and of case study type, allowed for the perception of the ways journalistic criteria are held to influence the agency role in the concept of public communication, the involvement of the population, the assurance of public debate.

  15. Statistical Contact Angle Analyses with the High-Precision Drop Shape Analysis (HPDSA Approach: Basic Principles and Applications

    Florian Heib


    Full Text Available Surface science, which includes the preparation, development and analysis of surfaces and coatings, is essential in both fundamental and applied as well as in engineering and industrial research. Contact angle measurements using sessile drop techniques are commonly used to characterize coated surfaces or surface modifications. Well-defined surfaces structures at both nanoscopic and microscopic level can be achieved but the reliable characterization by means of contact angle measurements and their interpretation often remains an open question. Thus, we focused our research effort on one main problem of surface science community, which is the determination of correct and valid definitions and measurements of contact angles. In this regard, we developed the high-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA, which involves a complex transformation of images from sessile drop experiments to Cartesian coordinates and opens up the possibility of a physically meaningful contact angle calculation. To fulfill the dire need for a reproducible contact angle determination/definition, we developed three easily adaptable statistical analyses procedures. In the following, the basic principles of HPDSA will be explained and applications of HPDSA will be illustrated. Thereby, the unique potential of this analysis approach will be illustrated by means of selected examples.

  16. Analysis method and principle of dual-mode electro-mechanical variable transmission program

    Li, Hongcai; Yan, Qingdong; Xiang, Changle; Wang, Weida


    Automotive industry, as an important pillar of the national economy, has been rapidly developing in recent years. But proplems such as energy comsumption and environmental pollution are posed at the same time. Electro-mechanical variable transmission system is considered one of avilable workarounds. It is brought forward a kind of design methods of dual-mode electro-mechanical variable transmission system rotational speed characteristics and dual-mode drive diagrams. With the motor operating behavior of running in four quadrants and the speed characteristics of the simple internal and external meshing single planetary gear train, four kinds of dual-mode electro-mechanical transmission system scheme are designed. And the velocity, torque and power characteristics of one of the programs are analyzed. The magnitude of the electric split-flow power is an important factor which influences the system performance, so in the parameters matching design, it needs to reduce the power needs under the first mode of the motor. The motor, output rotational speed range and the position of the mode switching point have relationships with the characteristics design of the planetary gear set. The analysis method is to provide a reference for hybrid vehicles' design. As the involved rotational speed and torque relationships are the natural contact of every part of transmission system, a theory basis of system program and performance analysis is provided.

  17. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

    Messai, Habib; Farman, Muhammad; Sarraj-Laabidi, Abir; Hammami-Semmar, Asma; Semmar, Nabil


    Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:28231172

  18. Variational principles

    Moiseiwitsch, B L


    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha




    Global warming is promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, while at the same time it is partially mitigated by carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems. However, improvement in the understanding and monitoring of below ground carbon processes is essential for evaluating strategies for carbon sequestration including quantification of carbon stores for credits. A system for non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring in soil, based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS), is described. The system can be operated in stationary or scanning mode and measures soil to depth of approximately 30 cm. There is a good agreement between results obtained from INS and standard chemical analysis of soil cores collected from the same study site.

  20. System analysis of a piston steam engine employing the uniflow principle, a study in optimized performance

    Peoples, J. A.


    Results are reported which were obtained from a mathematical model of a generalized piston steam engine configuration employing the uniflow principal. The model accounted for the effects of clearance volume, compression work, and release volume. A simple solution is presented which characterizes optimum performance of the steam engine, based on miles per gallon. Development of the mathematical model is presented. The relationship between efficiency and miles per gallon is developed. An approach to steam car analysis and design is presented which has purpose rather than lucky hopefulness. A practical engine design is proposed which correlates to the definition of the type engine used. This engine integrates several system components into the engine structure. All conclusions relate to the classical Rankine Cycle.

  1. Building evacuation: Principles for the analysis of basic structures through dynamic flow networks

    Salvador Casadesús-Pursals


    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to perform an analysis of the factors determining the architectural configuration of buildings for the mobility of people, using dynamic flow networks and considering group formation in the evacuation process.Design/methodology/approach: For a long time it has been considered that once an evacuation begins, movement on the evacuation route mainly obeys mechanical factors; people occupy the free spaces which lead to evacuation more or less automatically. However, recent research has emphasized the need to consider people’s behavior; one of the aspects considered in this work is group formation, with its significant influence on the evacuation process. In positions of convergence and their branches things become considerably more complicated; as well as occupants’ behavioral aspects other relevant factors such as the geometry of the premises are critical in this process. Authors propose models, in which nodes are strategically placed, besides taking into consideration aspects of behavior. Several cases are analyzed.Findings: The solution proposed in this paper is to analyze the problem through dynamic flow networks, using a macroscopic model in a deterministic environment in which the evolution of the quantities characterizing the problem at regular intervals is represented, obtaining a reasonably accurate and reliable understanding of the development of the evacuation.Originality/value: A precise model of evacuation routes, convergence points and branches which includes a consideration of occupants’ behavior is obtained using stochastic models with microscopic analysis, in which people’s behavior is considered individually, this solution is complex, difficult to apply with many occupants and in large enclosures, and also, this way does not lead to optimal solutions.

  2. Topological data analysis (TDA) applied to reveal pedogenetic principles of European topsoil system.

    Savic, Aleksandar; Toth, Gergely; Duponchel, Ludovic


    Recent developments in applied mathematics are bringing new tools that are capable to synthesize knowledge in various disciplines, and help in finding hidden relationships between variables. One such technique is topological data analysis (TDA), a fusion of classical exploration techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), and a topological point of view applied to clustering of results. Various phenomena have already received new interpretations thanks to TDA, from the proper choice of sport teams to cancer treatments. For the first time, this technique has been applied in soil science, to show the interaction between physical and chemical soil attributes and main soil-forming factors, such as climate and land use. The topsoil data set of the Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame survey (LUCAS) was used as a comprehensive database that consists of approximately 20,000 samples, each described by 12 physical and chemical parameters. After the application of TDA, results obtained were cross-checked against known grouping parameters including five types of land cover, nine types of climate and the organic carbon content of soil. Some of the grouping characteristics observed using standard approaches were confirmed by TDA (e.g., organic carbon content) but novel subtle relationships (e.g., magnitude of anthropogenic effect in soil formation), were discovered as well. The importance of this finding is that TDA is a unique mathematical technique capable of extracting complex relations hidden in soil science data sets, giving the opportunity to see the influence of physicochemical, biotic and abiotic factors on topsoil formation through fresh eyes.

  3. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S


    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  4. Geoethics and its principles

    Szabó Štefan


    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing belong to the activities with a mostly negative impact on the environment. GAIA hypothesis should help us to understand the basic mechanisms of planetary homeostasis, influenced by human activities. Principles of the geoethics should help to respect the limits of disturbances and loading capacity of ecosystems, which have the essential importance for our survival.

  5. Improvements in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis using principle components analysis (PCA) in combination with Raman spectroscopy

    Archer, John K. J.; Sudworth, Caroline D.; Williams, Rachel; How, Thien; Stone, Nicholas; Mann, David; Black, Richard A.


    The significant achievements of medical science over the last century are evident in the increasing age of the global population, however this now brings new problems, the most prominent being the growth in the number of people suffering from dementia. Over half the people with dementia in the UK are sufferers of Alzheimer's disease, a condition in which intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles and extraneuronal senile tangles take over neurons prompting their death. A definitive diagnosis is still only currently available post-mortem, whilst current symptom based processes of elimination are far from perfect, especially when the only treatments available are symptom inhibiting drugs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra taken from brain tissue has proved to be a potential tool in the diagnosis. However, this work now has to be refined in order to progress to tissue less associated with the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The first step of this has already been taken in progressing from frontal tissue to occipital tissue point spectra taken at random positions from bulk tissue. Now we present initial work into acquiring Raman spectral maps from across a tissue area, in pursuit of identifying unique plaque and tangle spectra. These spectra are presented alongside synthetic β-Amyloid spectra, in a study of the role that the peptide plays in the biomarker spectra, and how this information can aid the PCA of bulk tissue, and point towards a Raman spectroscopic test on less sensitive tissue, such as blood.

  6. First principles analysis of hydrogen chemisorption on Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and alloyed surfaces

    Pallassana, Venkataraman; Neurock, Matthew; Hansen, Lars Bruno;


    Gradient corrected periodic density functional theory (DFT-GGA) slab calculations were used to examine the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen on various Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and uniformly alloyed surfaces. Adsorption was examined at 33% surface coverage, where atomic hydrogen preferred the three......-fold fcc sites. The binding energy of atomic hydrogen is observed to vary by as much as 0.7 eV due to Pd-Re interactions. The computed adsorption energies were found to be between -2.35 eV [for monolayer Pd-on-Re, i.e., Pd-ML/Re(0001)] and -3.05 eV [for Pd-33 Re-66/Pd(111)]. A d-band weighting scheme...... was developed to extend the Hammer-Norskov surface reactivity model [Surf. Sci. 343, 211 (1995)] to the analysis of bimetallic Pd-Re alloyed systems. The hydrogen chemisorption energies are correlated linearly to the surface d-band center, which is weighted appropriately by the d-band coupling matrix elements...

  7. A Principle Component Analysis of Galaxy Properties from a Large, Gas-Selected Sample

    Yu-Yen Chang


    concluded that this is in conflict with the CDM model. Considering the importance of the issue, we reinvestigate the problem using the principal component analysis on a fivefold larger sample and additional near-infrared data. We use databases from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array Survey for the gas properties, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for the optical properties, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey for the near-infrared properties. We confirm that the parameters are indeed correlated where a single physical parameter can explain 83% of the variations. When color (g-i is included, the first component still dominates but it develops a second principal component. In addition, the near-infrared color (i-J shows an obvious second principal component that might provide evidence of the complex old star formation. Based on our data, we suggest that it is premature to pronounce the failure of the CDM model and it motivates more theoretical work.

  8. Genetic principles.

    Abuelo, D


    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  9. Cosmological principle

    Wesson, P.S.


    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  10. Principles of Proper Validation

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul


    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...


    N. V. Bachal


    Full Text Available The expediency of introduction of self-regulation as most important element of realization of the general strategy of optimization of the state intervention in economy is proved. The essence, the purposes and principles of introduction of the self-regulatory organizations of stock exchange market participants are shown. Advantages and demerits of self-regulation are presented.

  12. Rotordynamic analysis using the Complex Transfer Matrix: An application to elastomer supports using the viscoelastic correspondence principle

    Varney, Philip; Green, Itzhak


    Numerous methods are available to calculate rotordynamic whirl frequencies, including analytic methods, finite element analysis, and the transfer matrix method. The typical real-valued transfer matrix (RTM) suffers from several deficiencies, including lengthy computation times and the inability to distinguish forward and backward whirl. Though application of complex coordinates in rotordynamic analysis is not novel per se, specific advantages gained from using such coordinates in a transfer matrix analysis have yet to be elucidated. The present work employs a complex coordinate redefinition of the transfer matrix to obtain reduced forms of the elemental transfer matrices in inertial and rotating reference frames, including external stiffness and damping. Application of the complex-valued state variable redefinition results in a reduction of the 8×8 RTM to the 4×4 Complex Transfer Matrix (CTM). The CTM is advantageous in that it intrinsically separates forward and backward whirl, eases symbolic manipulation by halving the transfer matrices’ dimension, and provides significant improvement in computation time. A symbolic analysis is performed on a simple overhung rotor to demonstrate the mathematical motivation for whirl frequency separation. The CTM's utility is further shown by analyzing a rotordynamic system supported by viscoelastic elastomer rings. Viscoelastic elastomer ring supports can provide significant damping while reducing the cost and complexity associated with conventional components such as squeeze film dampers. The stiffness and damping of a viscoelastic damper ring are determined herein as a function of whirl frequency using the viscoelastic correspondence principle and a constitutive fractional calculus viscoelasticity model. The CTM is then employed to obtain the characteristic equation, where the whirl frequency dependent stiffness and damping of the elastomer supports are included. The Campbell diagram is shown, demonstrating the CTM

  13. The Application of Cooperation Principle and Politeness Principle in Oral Teaching



    The pragmatic principle that people should comply with in communicative activities are the principles of cooperation and politeness principle. The principles of cooperation play a regulatory role in communication while politeness principle actually has a greater binding. In teaching, teachers should always teach basing on language and make students understand the Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle in pragmatics in order to improve oral communication skills.

  14. Comparison of the Simple Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and DPPH Assays for the Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Active Principles

    Jesús F. Arteaga


    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of a number of small (low molecular weight natural compounds found in spices, condiments or drugs (gallic acid, sesamol, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, vanillin, salicylaldehyde, limonene, geraniol, 4-hexylresorcinol, etc. has been evaluated using electrochemical and DPPH radical scavenging measurements. Structural analysis of the tested compound suggest a remarkable activity for phenol derivatives and the importance of the –R groups located on the phenolic ring in the molecule’s ability to act as free radical scavenging as well as their influence in the electrochemical behavior. The voltammetric method can be used for the determination of the antioxidant capability in the same manner as the DPPH radical scavenging because of the correlation found between oxidation potentials and anti-radical power (ARP = 1/EC50. Such electrochemical determination is fast and cheap and allows making measurements under a variety of experimental conditions. The accuracy of the electrochemical measurements is the same for all the compounds, irrespective of their scavenging activity, the opposite of what occurs in the DPPH test.

  15. Design and analysis of switching reduced-order observer and separation principle for T-S fuzzy system

    YAN ShiYu; SUN ZengQi


    This paper designs and analyzes switching fuzzy reduced-order observer and proves that the corresponding separation principle does hold. A numerical simulation and comparison with smooth fuzzy full-order observer are given to assess switching fuzzy reduced-order observer and the validity of the separation principles.

  16. Analysis of Humor in the Dialogues of The Big Bang Theory——From the Perspective of the Cooperative Principle



    <正>Part One Introduction In 1967,Herbert Paul Grice first proposed the notion of"Cooperative Principle".He claimed that both parts should stick to a series of principles in order to achieve successful communication.(He Ziran,Chen Xinren,2004).

  17. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.


    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  18. Principles of engineering geology

    Attewell, P.B.; Farmer, I.W.


    This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application to design. The combination of rigorous and detailed discussion of theory and well-illustrated examples made the book an indispensable reference source and ideal course book for both geologists and civil engineers.

  19. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    Harbottle, G


    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined.

  20. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    Lange, Oskar


    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  1. First-principles analysis of the C-N bond scission of methylamine on Mo-based model catalysts

    Lv, Cun-Qin; Li, Jun; Tao, Shu-Xia; Ling, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Gui-Chang


    The C-N bond breaking of methylamine on clean, carbon (nitrogen, oxygen)-modified Mo(100) [denoted as Mo(100) and Mo(100)-C(N,O), respectively], Mo2C(100), MoN(100), and Pt(100) surfaces has been investigated by the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the reaction barriers of the C-N bond breaking in CH3NH2 on Mo(100)-C(N,O) are higher than that on clean Mo(100). The calculated energy barrier can be correlated linearly with the density of Mo 4d states at the Fermi level after the adsorption of CH3NH2 for those surfaces. Moreover, the DFT results show that the subsurface atom, e.g., carbon, can reduce the reaction barrier. In addition, We noticed that the activation energies for the C-N bond breaking on Mo2C(100) and MoN(100) are similar to that on Pt(100), suggesting that the catalytic properties of the transition metal carbides and nitrides for C-N bond scission of CH3NH2 might be very similar to the expensive Pt-group metals.

  2. A Review of Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Imaging: Principles, Concepts and Applications in Plant Tissue Analysis

    Sevgi Türker-Kaya


    Full Text Available Plant cells, tissues and organs are composed of various biomolecules arranged as structurally diverse units, which represent heterogeneity at microscopic levels. Molecular knowledge about those constituents with their localization in such complexity is very crucial for both basic and applied plant sciences. In this context, infrared imaging techniques have advantages over conventional methods to investigate heterogeneous plant structures in providing quantitative and qualitative analyses with spatial distribution of the components. Thus, particularly, with the use of proper analytical approaches and sampling methods, these technologies offer significant information for the studies on plant classification, physiology, ecology, genetics, pathology and other related disciplines. This review aims to present a general perspective about near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging/microspectroscopy in plant research. It is addressed to compare potentialities of these methodologies with their advantages and limitations. With regard to the organization of the document, the first section will introduce the respective underlying principles followed by instrumentation, sampling techniques, sample preparations, measurement, and an overview of spectral pre-processing and multivariate analysis. The last section will review selected applications in the literature.

  3. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie


    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method.

  4. Principle Component Analysis of two-particle correlations in PbPb and pPb collisions at CMS

    Milosevic, Jovan


    A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of transverse momentum (pT) is presented in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and high-multiplicity pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded using the CMS detector at the LHC. It was shown that factorization breaking of two-particle azimuthal correlations can be attributed to the effect of initial-state fluctuations. Using a PCA approach, Fourier coefficients of observed two-particle azimuthal correlations as a function of both particles' pT are characterized into leading and sub-leading mode terms. The leading modes are essentially equivalent to anisotropy harmonics (vn) previously extracted from two-particle correlation methods as a function of pT. The sub-leading modes represent the largest sources of factorization breaking. In the context of hydrodynamic models, they are a direct consequence of initial-state fluctuations. The results are presented over a wide range of centrality and event multiplicity. The results are connected to the measurement of pT-dependent flow factorization breaking.

  5. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    Zhouqi Cui


    Full Text Available Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  6. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis.

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang


    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H₂O₂ and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  7. A Review of Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Imaging: Principles, Concepts and Applications in Plant Tissue Analysis.

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Huck, Christian W


    Plant cells, tissues and organs are composed of various biomolecules arranged as structurally diverse units, which represent heterogeneity at microscopic levels. Molecular knowledge about those constituents with their localization in such complexity is very crucial for both basic and applied plant sciences. In this context, infrared imaging techniques have advantages over conventional methods to investigate heterogeneous plant structures in providing quantitative and qualitative analyses with spatial distribution of the components. Thus, particularly, with the use of proper analytical approaches and sampling methods, these technologies offer significant information for the studies on plant classification, physiology, ecology, genetics, pathology and other related disciplines. This review aims to present a general perspective about near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging/microspectroscopy in plant research. It is addressed to compare potentialities of these methodologies with their advantages and limitations. With regard to the organization of the document, the first section will introduce the respective underlying principles followed by instrumentation, sampling techniques, sample preparations, measurement, and an overview of spectral pre-processing and multivariate analysis. The last section will review selected applications in the literature.

  8. Analysis of wind speed distributions: Wind distribution function derived from minimum cross entropy principles as better alternative to Weibull function

    Kantar, Yeliz Mert; Usta, Ilhan [Department of Statistics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)


    In this study, the minimum cross entropy (MinxEnt) principle is applied for the first time to the wind energy field. This principle allows the inclusion of previous information of a wind speed distribution and covers the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle, which is also discussed by Li and Li and Ramirez as special cases in their wind power study. The MinxEnt probability density function (pdf) derived from the MinxEnt principle are used to determine the diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual wind speed distributions. A comparison between MinxEnt pdfs defined on the basis of the MinxEnt principle and the Weibull pdf on wind speed data, which are taken from different sources and measured in various regions, is conducted. The wind power densities of the considered regions obtained from Weibull and MinxEnt pdfs are also compared. The results indicate that the pdfs derived from the MinxEnt principle fit better to a variety of measured wind speed data than the conventionally applied empirical Weibull pdf. Therefore, it is shown that the MinxEnt principle can be used as an alternative method to estimate both wind distribution and wind power accurately. (author)

  9. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan


    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…




    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  11. An Analysis of the Reason Why Tess Loses Virginity from Her Conver-sations with Alec in Tess of the D'Urbervilles Based on the Cooperative Principle

    ZHANG Yu-jia


    Cooperative Principle is an essential linguistic theory in Pragmatics which is used to analyze the conversation. And the violation of maxims in Cooperative Principle can imply the conversational implicatures other than what is literally said. Based on the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims to exploit the implicatures and reasons after violating related maxims in conversa-tions that happens between Tess and Alec in Tess of the D'Urbervilles, and also aims to explain why Tess fails to protect herself and Alec succeeds in inducing Tess, Finally, It can be found that individual personality also contributes to Alec’s success and Tess’s losing virginity. Besides, data collection and analysis are applied to provide deeper evidences.

  12. 浅谈听力活动设计原则及影响因素%Design principle and influencing factor of listening activities

    陈适; 朱晨


    Many language teachers have been committed to the design of the listening activities, in order to make the students actively participate in teaching activities in classroom listening, and obtain satisfactory learning effect. According to the author's own teaching experience and professional literature, summarizes and expounds the factors influencing the design principle and listening activities.%很多语言教学工作者一直致力于听力活动的设计,以求能让学生积极主动地参与课堂听力教学活动,并获得较为满意的学习效果。本文结合作者的自身教学经验以及一些专业文献资料,简单归纳和阐述了听力活动设计的原则以及影响因素。

  13. Principles of economics textbooks

    Madsen, Poul Thøis


    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  14. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  15. Activation analysis using {gamma} photons; Analyse par activation aux photons {gamma}

    Engelmann, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (< 10{sup -6}) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author) [French] Ce rapport se propose de resumer l'ensemble des connaissances indispensables pour l'utilisation des reactions photonucleaires a des fins analytiques. Apres quelques rappels concernant les proprietes elementaires des reactions nucleaires induites par irradiation dans les photons, les principales caracteristiques des sources de rayonnement de freinage de haute energie (E > 20 MeV)| sont donnees. Le principe de l'analyse par activation aux photons est rappele. Des exemples concrets sur les possibilites analytiques sont developpes, particulierement en ce qui concerne la determination de quantites tres faibles (< 10{sup -6}) de C, N, O et F. L'influence des reactions nucleaires parasites est discutee. (auteur)

  16. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL.

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun


    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Cause Resolving of Typhoon Precipitation Using Principle Component Analysis under Complex Interactive Effect of Terrain, Monsoon and Typhoon Vortex

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.


    This study develops a novel methodology to resolve the cause of typhoon-induced precipitation using principle component analysis (PCA) and to develop a long lead-time precipitation prediction model. The discovered spatial and temporal features of rainfall are utilized to develop a state-of-the-art descriptive statistical model which can be used to predict long lead-time precipitation during typhoons. The time series of 12-hour precipitation from different types of invasive moving track of typhoons are respectively precede the signal analytical process to qualify the causes of rainfall and to quantify affected degree of each induced cause. The causes include: (1) interaction between typhoon rain band and terrain; (2) co-movement effect induced by typhoon wind field with monsoon; (3) pressure gradient; (4) wind velocity; (5) temperature environment; (6) characteristic distance between typhoon center and surface target station; (7) distance between grade 7 storm radius and surface target station; and (8) relative humidity. The results obtained from PCA can detect the hidden pattern of the eight causes in space and time and can understand the future trends and changes of precipitation. This study applies the developed methodology in Taiwan Island which is constituted by complex diverse terrain formation and height. Results show that: (1) for the typhoon moving toward the direction of 245° to 330°, Causes (1), (2) and (6) are the primary ones to generate rainfall; and (2) for the direction of 330° to 380°, Causes (1), (4) and (6) are the primary ones. Besides, the developed precipitation prediction model by using PCA with the distributed moving track approach (PCA-DMT) is 32% more accurate by that of PCA without distributed moving track approach, and the former model can effectively achieve long lead-time precipitation prediction with an average predicted error of 13% within average 48 hours of forecasted lead-time.

  18. Future daily PM10 concentrations prediction by combining regression models and feedforward backpropagation models with principle component analysis (PCA)

    Ul-Saufie, Ahmad Zia; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Ramli, Nor Azam; Rosaida, Norrimi; Hamid, Hazrul Abdul


    Future PM10 concentration prediction is very important because it can help local authorities to enact preventative measures to reduce the impact of air pollution. The aims of this study are to improve prediction of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Feedforward backpropagation (FFBP) by combining them with principle component analysis for predicting future (next day, next two-day and next three-day) PM10 concentration in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Annual hourly observations for PM10 in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2010 were selected for predicting PM10 concentration level. Eighty percent of the monitoring records were used for training and twenty percent were used for validation of the models. Three accuracy measures - Prediction Accuracy (PA), Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Index of Agreement (IA), as well as two error measures - Normalized Absolute Error (NAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the models. Results show that PCA models combined with MLR and PCA with FFBP improved MLR and FFBP models for all three days in advance of predicting PM10 concentration, with reduced errors by as much as 18.1% (PCA-MLR) and 17.68% (PCA-FFBP) for next day, 19.2% (PCA-MLR) and 22.1% (PCA-FFBP) for next two-day and 18.7% (PCA-MLR) and 22.79% (PCA-FFBP) for next three-day predictions. Including PCA improved the accuracy of the models by as much as by 12.9% (PCA-MLR) and 13.3% (PCA-FFBP) for next day, 32.3% (PCA-MLR) and 14.7% (PCA-FFBP) for next two-day and 46.1% (PCA-MLR) and 19.3% (PCA-FFBP) for next three-day predictions.

  19. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J


    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  20. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    Bird, J O


    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  1. Principles of statistics

    Bulmer, M G


    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  2. Gamescape Principles

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas


    This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framewo...... as to understand how learners posses or can develop broader critical media literacies and visual digital literacies in education.......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...

  3. Modeling place field activity with hierarchical slow feature analysis

    Fabian eSchoenfeld


    Full Text Available In this paper we present six experimental studies from the literature on hippocampal place cells and replicate their main results in a computational framework based on the principle of slowness. Each of the chosen studies first allows rodents to develop stable place field activity and then examines a distinct property of the established spatial encoding, namely adaptation to cue relocation and removal; directional firing activity in the linear track and open field; and results of morphing and stretching the overall environment. To replicate these studies we employ a hierarchical Slow Feature Analysis (SFA network. SFA is an unsupervised learning algorithm extracting slowly varying information from a given stream of data, and hierarchical application of SFA allows for high dimensional input such as visual images to be processed efficiently and in a biologically plausible fashion. Training data for the network is produced in ratlab, a free basic graphics engine designed to quickly set up a wide range of 3D environments mimicking real life experimental studies, simulate a foraging rodent while recording its visual input, and training & sampling a hierarchical SFA network.

  4. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  5. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Blaauw, M.


    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  6. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

    Gabriel K. Balayan


    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  7. Widely available active sites on Ni2P for electrochemical hydrogen evolution - insights from first principles calculations

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Feng, Ligang;


    We present insights into the mechanism and the active site for hydrogen evolution on nickel phosphide (Ni2P). Ni2P was recently discovered to be a very active non-precious hydrogen evolution catalyst. Current literature attributes the activity of Ni2P to a particular site on the (0001) facet. In ...

  8. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  9. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: Key principles and implications for research design, analysis and interpretation

    Gina eRippon


    Full Text Available For over a decade, neuroimaging (NI technologies have had an increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which s/he develops and functions. The study of the relationship between sex and gender could offer a valuable example of such research. We identify here four main principles that should inform NI research. First, the principle of overlap, arising from evidence of significant overlap of female/male distributions on measures of many gendered behaviours. Second, the principle of mosaicism, arising from evidence that for both behaviour and brain, each individual manifests a complex and idiosyncratic combination of feminine and masculine characteristics. Third, the principle of contingency, arising from evidence that female/male behavioural differences are contingent on time, place, social group and context. Fourth, the principle of entanglement, arising from an awareness that the neural phenotypes that NI techniques measure are a function of the interactive and reciprocal influence of biology and environment. These important principles have emerged and become well-established over the past few decades, but their implications are often not reflected in the design and interpretation of NI sex/gender research. We therefore offer a set of guidelines for researchers to ensure that NI sex/gender research is appropriately designed and interpreted. We hope this ‘toolkit’ will also be of use to editorial boards and journal reviewers, as well as those who view, communicate and interpret such research.

  10. Structural Principle Analysis of SBC Braking System on BENZ%奔驰轿车SBC制动系统的结构原理分析



    SBC which stands for sensotronic brake control is an electrically activated braking system equipped on BENZ. The author introduces its composition, analyzes its working principle and advantages.%SBC是奔驰轿车采用的一种电子感应制动系统,介绍SBC的结构组成,分析该系统的工作原理和优点。

  11. Framework for the design and delivery of organized physical activity sessions for children and adolescents: rationale and description of the 'SAAFE' teaching principles.

    Lubans, David R; Lonsdale, Chris; Cohen, Kristen; Eather, Narelle; Beauchamp, Mark R; Morgan, Philip J; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Smith, Jordan J


    The economic burden of inactivity is substantial, with conservative estimates suggesting the global cost to health care systems is more than US$50 billion. School-based programs, including physical education and school sport, have been recommended as important components of a multi-sector, multi-system approach to address physical inactivity. Additionally, community sporting clubs and after-school programs (ASPs) offer further opportunities for young people to be physically active outside of school. Despite demonstrating promise, current evidence suggests school-based physical activity programs, community sporting clubs and ASPs are not achieving their full potential. For example, physical activity levels in physical education (PE) and ASP sessions are typically much lower than recommended. For these sessions to have the strongest effects on young people's physical activity levels and their on-going physical literacy, they need to improve in quality and should be highly active and engaging. This paper presents the Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair, Enjoyable (SAAFE) principles, which represent an evidence-based framework designed to guide the planning, delivery and evaluation of organized physical activity sessions in school, community sport and ASPs. In this paper we provide a narrative and integrative review of the conceptual and empirical bases that underpin this framework and highlight implications for knowledge translation and application.

  12. Effect of rTMS on brain activation in schizophrenia with negative symptoms: A proof-of-principle study.

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J; Liemburg, Edith J; Bais, Leonie; Renken, Remco J; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André


    Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia and is thought to underlie negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but the underlying neural mechanism is unknown. To examine whether 3weeks of 10Hz rTMS treatment of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would improve frontal brain activation in patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the Tower of London (ToL) task. 24 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia with moderate to severe negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale≥15) participated. Patients were randomized to a 3-week (15day) course of active or sham rTMS. All patients performed the ToL task during fMRI scanning both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Differences in brain activation between the two groups were compared non-parametrically. After rTMS treatment, brain activity in the active group increased in the right DLPFC and the right medial frontal gyrus as compared to the sham group. In addition, the groups significantly differed with regard to activation change in the left posterior cingulate, with decreased activation in the active and increased activation in the sham group. Treatment with rTMS over the DLPFC may have the potential for increasing task-related activation in frontal areas in patients with schizophrenia. Effects of different rTMS parameters and fMRI tasks targeting relevant brain circuitry deserve further investigation. Nederlands Trial Register, registration number: NTR1261. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Analysis of Factors that Inhibit Business Use of User-Centered Design Principles: A Delphi Study

    Hilton, Tod M.


    The use of user-centered design (UCD) principles has a positive impact on the use of web-based interactive systems in customer-centric organizations. User-centered design methodologies are not widely adopted in organizations due to intraorganizational factors. A qualitative study using a modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors…

  14. Ultrasonic Weve Cleaning Principle and Process Analysis%超声波清洗原理与工艺分析

    孙洪日; 林国辉


    论述了超声波清洗的原理及其在电子制造业中应用。并对实际生产作业中出现的问题给予分析。%Expound ultrasonic wave cleaning principle and the ap plicationto electronic manufacture industry.Analyse the questions during actral production.

  15. Electromyographic analysis: shoulder muscle activity revisited.

    Heuberer, Philipp; Kranzl, Andreas; Laky, Brenda; Anderl, Werner; Wurnig, Christian


    Restoring optimal strength and biomechanics of a pathologic shoulder knowledge of activity patterns of healthy glenohumeral muscles is mandatory. Yet, data on normal shoulder muscle activity are not always conclusive. The study was undertaken (a) to evaluate muscle activity patterns in the healthy shoulder using surface and fine-wire electromyography (EMG), and (b) to assess method's suitability in the clinical setting especially regarding painfulness and practicability. Surface and fine-wire EMG was performed on 11 healthy subjects (2f/9 m, Ø age 28 years) to assess 14 muscles including rotator cuff muscles during 8 planar standardised shoulder movements (abduction, forward flexion, internal and external rotation in neutral, 45° and 90° abduction). Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale before testing, after inserting the fine-wire electrodes, after maximal voluntary contraction, before and after exercises, and after electrode removal. The most important finding regarding EMG activity patterns in the healthy shoulder was that the subscapularis activity was found to play a major role in abduction and forward flexion. Furthermore, this study was able to show that EMG measurements, especially fine-wire EMG, is prone to high failure rates (up to 32%); however, pain was not a limiting factor. The present study (1) revealed a new insight, especially finding the subscapularis activity playing a major role in abduction and forward flexion of the healthy shoulder; and (2) motion analysis system and the use of fine-wire electrodes were prone to failure; however, pain was not a limiting factor. Basic Science, Electrodiagnostic Study.

  16. Collection and analysis of active particles

    DeLong, C.W.


    When it became apparent that particles were emanating from the stacks of the separations plants, it become important that the source, size, activity and composition of the particles be determined in order to evaluate the hazard to persons working in and neer the stack areas. The present report will give the results of radiochemical analysis of particles collected by electrostatic precipitation from ``B`` plant canyon ventilation air, not from the off-gas ventilation line. Of importance is the fact the particles analyzed consist not only of particles from the ventilation air but also, unavoidably, of rust from the iron manifold used to conduct the gases to the precipitator. This makes a determination of the activity versus weight ratio impossible, but should not invalidate the radiochemical data.

  17. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W


    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  18. Fundamental principles, measurement techniques and data analysis in a ion accelerator; Principios fundamentales, tecnicas de medicion y analisis de datos en un acelerador de iones

    Gonzalez M, O. [Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gleason, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hinojosa, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    The present work is intended to be a general reference for students and professionals interested in the field. Here, we present an introduction to the analysis techniques and fundamental principles for data processing and operation of a typical ion accelerator that operates in the low energy range. We also present a detailed description of the apparatus and propose new analysis methods for the results. In addition, we introduce illustrative simulations of the ion's trajectories in the different components of the apparatus performed with specialized software and, a new computer data acquisition and control interface. (Author)

  19. Chemical-state analysis of organic semiconductors using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculation.

    Natsume, Yutaka; Kohno, Teiichiro; Minakata, Takashi; Konishi, Tokuzo; Gullikson, Eric M; Muramatsu, Yasuji


    The chemical states of organic semiconductors were investigated by total-electron-yield soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TEY-XAS) and first-principles calculations. The organic semiconductors, pentacene (C(22)H(14)) and pentacenequinone (C(22)H(12)O(2)), were subjected to TEY-XAS and the experimental spectra obtained were compared with the 1s core-level excited spectra of C and O atoms, calculated by a first-principles planewave pseudopotential method. Excellent agreement between the measured and the calculated spectra were obtained for both materials. Using this methodology, we examined the chemical states of the aged pentacene, and confirmed that both C-OH and C═O chemical bonds are generated by exposure to air. This result implies that not only oxygen but also humidity causes pentacene oxidation.

  20. Novel Principles of Gamma-Retroviral Insertional Transcription Activation in Murine Leukemia Virus-induced End-stage Tumors

    Sokol, Martin; Wabl, Matthias; Rius Ruiz, Irene;


    Background Insertional mutagenesis screens of retrovirus-induced mouse tumors have proven valuable in human cancer research and for understanding adverse effects of retroviral-based gene therapies. In previous studies, the assignment of mouse genes to individual retroviral integration sites has...... been based on close proximity and expression patterns of annotated genes at target positions in the genome. We here employed next-generation RNA sequencing to map retroviral-mouse chimeric junctions genome-wide, and to identify local patterns of transcription activation in T-lymphomas induced...... than 2,000 mice was examined. Results We detected several novel mechanisms of retroviral insertional mutagenesis: bidirectional activation of mouse transcripts on opposite sides of a provirus including transcription of unannotated mouse sequence; sense/antisense-type activation of genes located...

  1. Principle and Control Design of Active Ground-Fault Arc Suppression Device for Full Compensation of Ground Current

    Wang, Wen; Zeng, Xiangjun; Yan, Lingjie;


    Traditional ground-fault arc suppression devices mainly deal with capacitive component of ground current and have weak effect on the active and harmonic ones, which limits the arc suppression performance. The capacitive current detection needed in them suffers from low accuracy and robustness....... The commonly-used large-capacity reactive component may bring about overvoltage because of possible resonance with the distributed phase-to-ground capacitance. To solve these problems, an active ground-fault arc suppression device is presented. It employs a topology based on single-phase inverter to inject...... current into the neutral without any large-capacity reactors, and thus avoids the aforementioned overvoltage. It compensates all the active, reactive and harmonic components of the ground current to reliably extinguish the ground-fault arcs. A dual-loop voltage control method is proposed to realize arc...

  2. A correspondence principle

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.


    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  3. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P


    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  4. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    WANG Ning


    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  5. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan


    of Au with mixed Pt/Pd skins. The activity of the binary and ternary catalysts is explained through weakening of the OH binding energy caused by solute elements. However, given the low alloy formation energies it may be difficult to tune and retain the composition under operating conditions...

  6. Effect of rTMS on brain activation in schizophrenia with negative symptoms : A proof-of-principle study

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; Renken, Remco J.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre


    Background: Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia and is thought to underlie negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve negative symptoms in patients with schiz

  7. Activity origin and catalyst design principles for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution on heteroatom-doped graphene

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Davey, Kenneth; Qiao, Shi-Zhang


    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a fundamental process in electrocatalysis and plays an important role in energy conversion through water splitting to produce hydrogen. Effective candidates for HER are often based on noble metals or transition metal dichalcogenides, while carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts generally demonstrate poorer activity. Here we report evaluation of a series of heteroatom-doped graphene materials as efficient HER electrocatalysts by combining spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical measurements, and density functional theory calculations. Results of theoretical computations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations regarding the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity and the HER reaction mechanism. As a result, we establish a HER activity trend for graphene-based materials, and explore their reactivity origin to guide the design of more efficient electrocatalysts. We predict that by rationally modifying particular experimentally achievable physicochemical characteristics, a practically realizable graphene-based material will have the potential to exceed the performance of the metal-based benchmark for HER.

  8. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan;


    active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys...... of Au with mixed Pt/Pd skins. The activity of the binary and ternary catalysts is explained through weakening of the OH binding energy caused by solute elements. However, given the low alloy formation energies it may be difficult to tune and retain the composition under operating conditions....... This is particularly challenging for alloys containing Au due to a high propensity of Au to segregate to the surface. We also show that once Au is on the surface it will diffuse to defect sites, explaining why small amounts of Au retard dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. For the PtPd thin films there is no pronounced...

  9. Included or Excluded: An Analysis of the Application of the Free, Prior and Informed Consent Principle in Land Grabbing Cases in Cameroon

    Jean-Claude N Ashukem


    Full Text Available Even though the principle of free, prior and informed consent (FPIC is soft law, the need to respect, protect and fulfil the rights to be informed and to be involved in development projects is strongly backed in international legal instruments including inter alia the ILO Convention 169 Concerning Indigenous and Tribal People in Independent Countries (1998 and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous and Tribal People (2007. These instruments do not only appear to be the most comprehensive and advanced international legal instruments that deal with indigenous peoples' rights in terms of the FPIC, but also signal an addition to the growing body of international human rights law that serves to ensure the realisation and protection of the substantive environmental and other human rights of indigenous people, particularly in the context of land grabbing activities that have the potential to negatively impact on their rights. Such rights include, for example, the rights to be informed and to participate in decision-making processes with respect to development projects, including land grabbing activities. This implies an obligation on states party to such international agreements to ensure that indigenous people are informed about and are actively involved in both the negotiation and the implementation of land grabbing deals. However, because the latter often takes place against the background of non-transparent transactions which are inimical to the rights and interests of indigenous people, one may wonder why the principle of FPIC is not applicable during land grabbing transactions. Focusing on Cameroon, this article examines instances of land grabbing in the country in order to support this hypothesis. This is done by focusing specifically on the application of the principle of FPIC. The arguments in the article are inspired by international law in which the application of the principle in the context of land grabbing serves not only to

  10. Using Human Panels for Subjective Evaluation of Emissions from Indoor Activities and Materials: Principles and State of Technology

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E


    This report addresses the topic of sensory evaluation of indoor air through the use of human subjects. It begins by discussing the chemical senses involved in such evaluation, specifically the senses of smell (olfaction) and chemical sensory irritation (common chemical sense, CCS, now called chemesthesis). An analysis of similarities and differences between these two sensory modalities regarding key measurements and issues follows. Later, the report discusses the quantification of sensory rea...

  11. 论批评性话语分析的原则和方法%The Analysis of Principles and Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis



    Critical discourse analysis,whose theoretical base is Marxism,has a history of thirty years and aims at reveal unbalanced power relationship.Critical discourse analysis mainly has three ways,which are systemic functional grammar analysis,genre analysis of the interleaver and historical background discourse analysis.These three methods focus on different aspects and complement one another.They enable critical discourse analysis to be the important complement of traditionally social and cultural analysis as well as a kind of social activity,which boosts the progress of human society.%批评性话语分析已有30年的发展历史,其基本理论渊源是西方马克思主义,宗旨是揭露不平等的权力关系。其主要方法有:系统功能语法分析、语篇体裁交织性分析和话语历史背景分析。这三种方法各有侧重,互为补充。它们使批评性话语分析成为传统的社会和文化分析的重要补充,使其变为一种社会行动,促进人类社会的进步。

  12. Network analysis of online bidding activity

    Yang, I.; Oh, E.; Kahng, B.


    With the advent of digital media, people are increasingly resorting to online channels for commercial transactions. The online auction is a prototypical example. In such online transactions, the pattern of bidding activity is more complex than traditional offline transactions; this is because the number of bidders participating in a given transaction is not bounded and the bidders can also easily respond to the bidding instantaneously. By using the recently developed network theory, we study the interaction patterns between bidders (items) who (that) are connected when they bid for the same item (if the item is bid by the same bidder). The resulting network is analyzed by using the hierarchical clustering algorithm, which is used for clustering analysis for expression data from DNA microarrays. A dendrogram is constructed for the item subcategories; this dendrogram is compared to a traditional classification scheme. The implication of the difference between the two is discussed.

  13. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Ni, W.-T.


    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  14. Precautionary principle in international law.

    Saladin, C


    The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend.

  15. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo


    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  16. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  17. 血透机超滤原理分析%Analysis of ultrafiltration principle of hemodialysis machine

    李朝伟; 王振洲; 贺建林


    This article introduced the major function and the basic concept of ultrafiltration of hemodialysis machine.Meanwhile, the realization of ultrafiltratioin was conducted through etaborating the working principle of Gambro- hemodialysis machine's ultrafiltration unit and B/BRAUN-hemodialysis machine's balance chamber and ultrafiltration pump.%介绍血透机的主要功能及超滤的基本概念,以金宝血透机超滤单元和贝朗血透机平衡腔及超滤泵系统的工作原理分析血透机超滤脱水的实现方法.

  18. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan


    Further advances in fuel cell technologies are hampered by kinetic limitations associated with the sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. We have investigated a range of different formulations of binary and ternary Pt, Pd and Au thin films as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. The most...... active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys....... This is particularly challenging for alloys containing Au due to a high propensity of Au to segregate to the surface. We also show that once Au is on the surface it will diffuse to defect sites, explaining why small amounts of Au retard dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. For the PtPd thin films there is no pronounced...

  19. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.


    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  20. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    Mudde, P.; Abadie, A. [Sustainable Finance, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom)


    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations.

  1. Detection of Sepsis in Preterm Infants by Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis: A Proof of Principle Study.

    Berkhout, Daniel J C; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Buijck, Martin; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Brinkman, Paul; Benninga, Marc A; van Kaam, Anton H; Kramer, Boris W; Andriessen, Peter; de Boer, Nanne K H; de Meij, Tim G J


    Several studies associated altered gut microbiota composition in preterm infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS), up to days before clinical onset of sepsis. Microbiota analysis as early diagnostic biomarker is, however, in clinical practice currently not feasible because of logistic aspects and high costs. Therefore, we hypothesized that analysis of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may serve as noninvasive biomarker to predict LOS at a preclinical stage, because VOC reflect the composition and activity of intestinal microbial communities. In a prospective multicenter study, fecal samples were collected daily from infants with a gestational age of <30 weeks. VOC signatures of fecal samples from infants with LOS, collected up to 5 days before diagnosis, were analyzed by means of an electronic nose technology (Cyranose 320) and compared to matched controls. Fecal VOC profiles of infants with LOS (n = 36) could be discriminated from controls (n = 40) at 3 days (area under the curve [±95% confidence interval], P value, sensitivity, specificity; 70.2 [52.2-88.3], 0.033, 57.1%, 61.5%), 2 days (77.7 [62.7-92.7], 0.050, 75.0%, 70.8%), and 1 day (70.4 [49.6-91.3], 0.037, 64.3%, 64.3%) before the onset of LOS. Fecal VOC profiles of preterm infants with LOS could be discriminated from matched controls, up to 3 days before clinical onset of the disease, underlining the hypothesis that intestinal microbiota may play an etiological role in LOS. Notably, VOC profiling is clinically feasible and the potential of this technique in the early detection of LOS needs to be confirmed in future studies.

  2. Diabetes melito: plantas e princípios ativos naturais hipoglicemiantes Diabetes mellitus: hypoglicemic plants and natural active principles

    Giuseppina Negri


    Full Text Available O diabetes melito é considerada como uma síndrome que é, quanto a etiologia e patogênese, caracterizada por alterar a homeostase do organismo, por distúrbios metabólicos complexos e primários dos carboidratos, que envolvem secundariamente, porém de forma importante, lipídeos e proteínas. Grande número de espécies de plantas tem sido usado experimentalmente para tratar os sintomas do diabetes melito e a distância filogenética entre este grupo de plantas é forte indicação da natureza variada de seus constituintes. Tem sido constatado que muitas substâncias extraídas de plantas reduzem o nível de glicose no sangue. A grande diversidade de classes químicas indica que uma variedade de mecanismos de ação deve estar envolvida na redução do nível de glicose no sangue. Algumas destas substâncias podem ter potencial terapêutico enquanto outras podem produzir hipoglicemia como um efeito colateral devido à sua toxicidade, especialmente hepatotoxidade. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão atualizada e acrescenta mais plantas e princípios ativos hipoglicemiantes à extensa lista existente nos artigos de revisão anteriores.Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of ethiologically and clinically heterogeneous disorders with a common set of symptoms: excessive thirst and hunger, muscular weakness, weight loss, excessive urination and elevation of the blood glucose level among others. There has been a striking emergence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a major health problem in populations undergoing modernization of life-style, both in developed and underdeveloped nations. Many species of plants have been used ethnopharmacologically or experimentally to treat symptons of diabetes mellitus. The high percentage of active plants probably reflects, at least in part, the great variety of possible active constituents and mechanisms of action. The wide diversity of chemical classes indicate a variety of mechanisms must be involved

  3. Principles of mathematical modeling

    Dym, Clive


    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  4. First-principles investigation of Cu-doped ZnS with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo


    The band structure and electronic properties of Cu-doped wurtzite ZnS were investigated by density functional theory calculations. According to the formation energies, the substitutional Cu and S vacancy defects are stable among the examined doping species. Particularly, the hybridization of substitutional Cu 3d and S 3p orbitals narrows the band gap of substitutional Cu-doped ZnS (CuZn-ZnS), while the high effective mass ratio of photogenerated holes and electrons (mh∗/me∗) in the CuZn-ZnS is beneficial for the separation and migration of the photogenerated charge carriers. Lab-synthesized CuZn-ZnS sample exhibited enhanced visible-light absorption and photocatalytic hydrogen production activity compared to pure ZnS.

  5. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy.

    Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie


    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values.

  6. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)


    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  7. Numerical investigation and analysis of heat transfer enhancement in channel by longitudinal vortex based on field synergy principle

    Wenquan TAO; Junmei WU


    3-D numerical simulations were presented for laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel with vortex generators. The effects of Reynolds number (from 800 to 3 000), the attack angle of vortex generator (from 15° to 90°) and the shape of vortex generator were examined. The numerical results were analyzed based on the field synergy principle. It is found that the inherent mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex can be explained by the field synergy principle, that is, the second flow generated by vortex generators results in the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradient. The longitudinal vortex improves the field synergy of the large downstream region of longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) and the region near (LVG); however, transverse vortex only improves the syn-ergy of the region near vortex generator. Thus, longitudinal vortex can enhance the integral heat transfer of the flow field, while transverse vortex can only enhance the local heat transfer. The synergy angle decreases with the increase of Reynolds number for the channel with LVG to differ from the result obtained from the plain channel, and the triangle winglet performs better than the rectanglar one under the same surface area condition.

  8. Physical Principles for Scalable Neural Recording

    Adam Henry Marblestone*


    Full Text Available Simultaneously measuring the activities of all neurons in a mammalian brain at millisecond resolution is a challenge beyond the limits of existing techniques in neuroscience. Entirely new approaches may be required, motivating an analysis of the fundamental physical constraints on the problem. We outline the physical principles governing brain activity mapping using optical, electrical,magnetic resonance, and molecular modalities of neural recording. Focusing on the mouse brain, we analyze the scalability of each method, concentrating on the limitations imposed by spatiotemporal resolution, energy dissipation, and volume displacement. We also study the physics of powering and communicating with microscale devices embedded in brain tissue.

  9. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Majstorović Branislava M.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  10. Linear thermodynamic analysis of the reversible Selkov model: An interpretation of the Chatelier-like principle for local concentration fluctuations near thermodynamic equilibrium

    Dutt, Arun K.


    Thermodynamic analysis of the reversible Selkov model (a simple kinetic model describing glycolytic oscillations) has been done by an entropy production technique of Prigogine and it is shown that only the autocatalytic step can destabilize the steady state in this model. It is derived that at thermodynamic equilibrium, the product δS δP is always a positive quantity which appears to be a Chatelier-like principle for local concentration fluctuation applicable to the autocatalytic step S ⇄ P of this model.

  11. Principle and Fault Analysis of Voltage Regulator Circuit%电压调节器电路原理及故障分析



    Firstly, the paper explores the essential characteristics of voltage regulator through experiments, and then analyzes the circuit principle of the voltage regulator. The paper finally discusses the fault analysis method of voltage regulator circuit through the cases.%本文首先通过实验探究电压调节器的本质特性,然后分析电压调节器电路原理,最后通过案例探究电压调节器电路的故障分析方法.

  12. First-principles study on codoping effect to enhance photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2

    Bai, Yujie; Zhang, Qinfang; Zheng, Fubao; Yang, Yun; Meng, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Baolin


    Codopant is an effective approach to modify the bandgap and band edge positions of transition metal oxide. Here, the electronic structures as well as the optical properties of pristine, mono-doped (N/P/Sb) and codoped (Sb, N/P) anatase TiO2 have been systematically investigated based on density functional theory calculations. It is found that mono-doped TiO2 exhibits either unoccupied or partially occupied intermediate state within the energy gap, which promotes the recombination of electron-hole pairs. However, the presence of (Sb, N/P) codopant not only effectively reduces the width of bandgap by introducing delocalized occupied intermediate states, but also adjusts the band edge alignment to enhance the hydrogen evolution activity of TiO2. Moreover, the optical absorption spectrum for (Sb, N/P) codoped TiO2, which is favored under oxygen-rich condition, demonstrates the improvement of its visible light absorption. These findings will promote the potential application of (Sb, N/P) codoped TiO2 photocatalysis for water splitting under visible light irradiation.

  13. Least Action Principle in Gait

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu; Luo, Donglin


    We apply the laws of human gait vertical ground reaction force and discover the existence of the phenomenon of least action principle in gait. Using a capacitive mat transducer system, we obtain the variations of human gait vertical ground reaction force and establish a structure equation for the resultant of such a force. Defining the deviation of vertical force as an action function, we observe from our gait optimization analysis the least action principle at half of the stride time. We develop an evaluation index of mechanical energy consumption based upon the least action principle in gait. We conclude that these observations can be employed to enhance the accountability of gait evaluation.

  14. Conductive Education and the Educational Principles of the Peto System.

    Szolnoki, John F.


    The educational principles of the Peto system of conductive education for students with motor disabilities are presented. A "conductor" undertakes the process of upbringing and education simultaneously. Learning begins with a sequential task analysis of daily activities, initially started with conscious, rhythmical intention and the…

  15. Certain aspects of the psychological analysis of programmer activity. [selection of computer programmers

    Bondarovskaya, V. M.


    The psychological analysis of programmer activity showed that one of its basic characteristics is the need to employ formal languages. In determining ways of effectively mastering the capacity to write algorithms in the algorithmic language, it is expedient to proceed from its similarity to the living languages and the language of mathematical formulas, and to choose certain psychological principles of mastering foreign languages and mathematical symbols in teaching the algorithmic language. General models of the input language significantly increase the effectiveness of its mastery and permit the development of thinking on the part of the students.

  16. The active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells Superior effects over original formula of Buyang Huanwu decoction

    Jinghui Zheng; Yi Wan; Jianhuai Chi; Dekai Shen; Tingting Wu; Weimin Li; Pengcheng Du


    The present study induced in vitro-cultured passage 4 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells with a mixture of alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycone, glycoside, essential oils, and effective components of Buyang Huanwu decoction (active principle region of decoction for invigorating yang for recuperation). After 28 days, nestin and neuron-specific enolase were expressed in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that nestin and neuron-specific enolase mRNA and protein expression was greater in the active principle region group compared with the original formula group. Results demonstrated that the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced greater differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells in vitro than the original Buyang Huanwu decoction formula.

  17. Principles Guiding Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading

    Nation, Paul


    Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…

  18. Progress in neutron activation analysis for uranium

    杜鸿善; 李贵群; 董桂芝; 李俊兰; K.H.Chiu; C.M.Wai


    A new type of extractant, sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyhydroxamic acid (HL) is introduced. The extractions of UO22+, Na+, K+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br- were studied with HL in chloroform. The results obtained show that UO22+ can be quantitatively extracted at pH values above 5, whereas the extractions of K+, Na+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br- are negligible in the pH range of 2 - 7. The dependence of the distribution ratio of U(VI) on both the concentration of the HL and pH are linear, and they have the same slope of 2. This suggests that U(VI) appears to form a 1:2 complex with ligand. Uranium(VI) can be selectively separated and concentrated from interfering elements such as Na, K, Sr and Br by solvent extraction with HL under specific conditions. The recovery of uranium is nearly 100% and the radionudear purity of uranium is greater than 99.99%. Therefore, neutron activation analysis has greatly improved the sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of trace uranium from seawater.

  19. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D


    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  20. Discussion on the creating principle of primary school activity space%初探小学活动空间的营造原则



    Based on the current actual requirements,combining with two excellent design examples of Tsinghua University elementary school and Xiaoquan national primary school,from the convenience,diversity,size appropriate three aspects of space activities discussed the creating princi-ple of primary school activity space,made the design scheme to meet the space environment and atmosphere of learning and communication,pro-moted the healthy development of student’s body and mind.%立足于现阶段的现实需求,结合清华大学附小和孝泉民族小学两个优秀的设计实例,从活动空间的便捷性、多样性、尺度的适宜性三个方面探讨了小学活动空间的营造原则,使设计方案能满足学习和交往的空间环境和氛围,促进学生身心的健康发展。

  1. Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

    Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Yanina; Benvenuti, Francesca; Battistelli, Serafina; Canestrari, Franco; Benedetti, Serena


    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.



    the source.  Compared with the HHC and IBC concept, the smart rotor is promising in reducing energy consumption and simplifying the control system[3]. However, in order to satisfy the requirements of vibratory load control, the flaps have to be controlled both quickly and precisely (frequency response up to 4ω, amplitude of pitch angle between 6° to 8°[4,5]. Currently, many experimental studies are being taken to develop ATEF systems using integrated actuator technology in smart structure, and to satisfy both the compact and high efficiency requirements.   The integrated actuators are made of functional materials, producing displacement under external voltage. Electrostrictive material is a kind of ferroelectric ceramic, the strain is approximately of the 2nd order relationship with actuating electric field, and can be used in the development of a solid actuator in smart rotor systems. However, since the displacement of the actuator not only depends on its structure, but also relies on external force and voltage, a mathematical model is needed to predict its output characteristics in design.  In this paper, a dynamic model of the stack actuator is derived using the principle of force equivalence, which is based on the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material and the equation of motion. Theoretical analysis is made on the factors involved in the design of stack actuators. At the end of the paper, a stack actuator is designed according to theoretical analysis. Experiments of an adaptive trailing edge flap model are introduced to verify the feasibility of the model.

  3. Principles of copula theory

    Durante, Fabrizio


    Principles of Copula Theory explores the state of the art on copulas and provides you with the foundation to use copulas in a variety of applications. Throughout the book, historical remarks and further readings highlight active research in the field, including new results, streamlined presentations, and new proofs of old results.After covering the essentials of copula theory, the book addresses the issue of modeling dependence among components of a random vector using copulas. It then presents copulas from the point of view of measure theory, compares methods for the approximation of copulas,

  4. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities


    quantitative and qualitative methods exist to (1) capture or generate data needed for a particular analysis, (2) reduce the data, (3) evaluate the data to...presented in this report was supported by the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval...analysis in systems engineering technical evaluation processes. Content analysis is a qualitative data analysis methodology used to discover

  5. Electron-phonon coupling and thermal conductance at a metal-semiconductor interface: First-principles analysis

    Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Waghmare, Umesh V. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India)


    The mechanism of heat transfer and the contribution of electron-phonon coupling to thermal conductance of a metal-semiconductor interface remains unclear in the present literature. We report ab initio simulations of a technologically important titanium silicide (metal)–silicon (semiconductor) interface to estimate the Schottky barrier height, and the strength of electron-phonon and phonon-phonon heat transfer across the interface. The electron and phonon dispersion relations of TiSi{sub 2} with C49 structure and the TiSi{sub 2}-Si interface are obtained using first-principles calculations within the density functional theory framework. These are used to estimate electron-phonon linewidths and the associated Eliashberg function that quantifies coupling. We show that the coupling strength of electrons with interfacial phonon modes is of the same order of magnitude as coupling of electrons to phonon modes in the bulk metal, and its contribution to electron-phonon interfacial conductance is comparable to the harmonic phonon-phonon conductance across the interface.

  6. Multiscale Homogenization Theory: An Analysis Tool for Revealing Mechanical Design Principles in Bone and Bone Replacement Materials

    Hellmich, Christian; Fritsch, Andreas; Dormieux, Luc

    Biomimetics deals with the application of nature-made "design solutions" to the realm of engineering. In the quest to understand mechanical implications of structural hierarchies found in biological materials, multiscale mechanics may hold the key to understand "building plans" inherent to entire material classes, here bone and bone replacement materials. Analyzing a multitude of biophysical hierarchical and biomechanical experiments through homogenization theories for upscaling stiffness and strength properties reveals the following design principles: The elementary component "collagen" induces, right at the nanolevel, the mechanical anisotropy of bone materials, which is amplified by fibrillar collagen-based structures at the 100-nm scale, and by pores in the micrometer-to-millimeter regime. Hydroxyapatite minerals are poorly organized, and provide stiffness and strength in a quasi-brittle manner. Water layers between hydroxyapatite crystals govern the inelastic behavior of the nanocomposite, unless the "collagen reinforcement" breaks. Bone replacement materials should mimic these "microstructural mechanics" features as closely as possible if an imitation of the natural form of bone is desired (Gebeshuber et al., Adv Mater Res 74:265-268, 2009).


    Arkadiusz Gudaniec


    Full Text Available In ancient times, people pondered “cosmic love” (eros, philotes, thymos, i.e., the universal power that underlies the phenomena of the universe. The force of love extends to all things, including man and his action. Philosophers remarked rather early that love is, as it were, the foundation for the phenomena and actions that are experienced. As love is both of the character of a source and is strongly present in its manifestations, it turns out to be something that, on the one hand, is best known, but on the other hand, not easy to understand. In parallel, people also considered the strictly personal form of love—philia, whereby people are joined with each other in a special relation, which is friendship (Aristotle started this conception. The analogical scholastic conception of love was an interesting combination of those two tendencies; love is the foundation of action and in the metaphysical order it becomes the principle that explains the domain of being that we call dynamism. This article discusses Thomas Aquinas’ doctrine of love; first, it analyzes love’s relationship with action, end, and knowledge, then, secondly, investigates the place of love in the order of the causes of action.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Ranking and Accreditation: Exploring a Set of Universal Principles for Higher Education Quality Assurance

    Steve O. Michael


    Full Text Available All universities are not equal. Universities are not equal in size, scope, curricular offerings, and resources. More importantly, they are not equal in mission, scale of operation, productivity, and quality. Even two universities located within the same geographical locations may differ considerably in productivity and quality let alone those that are located a world apart. Given the wide range of differences in the environments of these institutions, in the political systems within which they reside, in the economic contexts within which they operate, and in their historical origins, the variations among higher education institutions are understandable and frankly speaking should be anticipated. Given the differences among institutions, how should we approach the issue of their quality? In response to this question, the benefits and process of rankings are compared to that of accreditation. The implications of rankings and accreditation for two “randomly” selected institutions in the US are discussed. By reviewing the standards used by two accrediting commissions, a set of principles that is applicable universally is recommended.




    本文通过阐释HCD的概念由来和发展历程,让设计者更深刻地了解其产生的时代背景和现行设计界对其发展做出的新的尝试和努力。在其设计的指导原则下,列举了IDEO、DESIGN for AMERICA和Frog design三家设计组织对其设计流程方法的新的探索,通过总结相似点,提出并阐释了基于HCD设计流程的四个阶段特征,以此为从事HCD相关领域的设计者提供参考和借鉴。%This paper explains the origin and development process of HCD, alowing the designers to have a more profound understanding of the background and efforts made by the current design community. Under the guidance of its design principle, the article enumerates methods of the design process of new exploration of the three design organization, the IDEO, the DESIGN for AMERICA and Frog DESIGN, by summarizing the similarities, and putting forward and explain the flow characteristics of the four stages of HCD design to provide referable value for the designers engaged in related fields of HCD.

  10. First principles analysis of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy for the momentum of light in general linear media

    Ramos, Tomás; Obukhov, Yuri N


    We study the problem of the definition of the energy-momentum tensor of light in general moving media with linear constitutive law. Using the basic principles of classical field theory, we show that for the correct understanding of the problem, one needs to carefully distinguish situations when the material medium is modeled either as a background on which light propagates or as a dynamical part of the total system. In the former case, we prove that the (generalized) Belinfante-Rosenfeld (BR) tensor for the electromagnetic field coincides with the Minkowski tensor. We derive a complete set of balance equations for this open system and show that the symmetries of the background medium are directly related to the conservation of the Minkowski quantities. In particular, for isotropic media, the angular momentum of light is conserved despite of the fact that the Minkowski tensor is non-symmetric. For the closed system of light interacting with matter, we model the material medium as a relativistic non-dissipative...

  11. Comprehending ecological and economic sustainability: comparative analysis of stability principles in the biosphere and free market economy.

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian


    The global environmental imperative demands urgent actions on ecological stabilization, yet the global scale of such actions is persistently insufficient. This calls for investigating why the world economy appears to be so fearful of any potential environmental expenditure. Using the formalism of Lyapunov potential function it is shown that the stability principles for biomass in the ecosystem and for employment in economics are mathematically similar. The ecosystem has a stable and unstable stationary state with high (forest) and low (grasslands) biomass, respectively. In economics, there is a stable stationary state with high employment in mass production of conventional goods sold at low cost price, and an unstable stationary state with lower employment in production of novel products of technological progress sold at higher prices. An additional stable state is described for economics with very low employment in production of life essentials, such as energy and raw materials that are sold at greatly inflated prices. In this state the civilization pays 10% of global GDP for energy produced by a negligible minority of the working population (currently approximately 0.2%) and sold at prices exceeding the cost price by 40 times, a state when any extra expenditures of whatever nature appear intolerable. The reason lies in the fundamental shortcoming of economic theory, which allows for economic ownership over energy sources. This is shown to be equivalent to equating measurable variables of different dimensions (stores and fluxes), which leads to effective violation of the laws of energy and matter conservation in modern economics.

  12. Principles of exploratory data analysis in problem solving: what can we learn from a well-known case?

    de Mast, J.; Kemper, B.P.H.


    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) is sometimes suggested as a hypothesis identification approach. It is often used as such in problem solving and consists of the analysis of observational data, often collected without well-defined hypotheses, with the purpose of finding clues that could inspire ideas

  13. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia


    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  14. Self-healing properties of nanocrystalline materials: a first-principles analysis of the role of grain boundaries.

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Jian-Bo; Li, Shun-Ning; Liu, Bai-Xin; Jiang, Yong


    Understanding the self-healing mechanisms of defects in nanocrystalline materials is of particular importance for developing structural materials that can support the extended lifetime of components under extremely hostile conditions in nuclear reactors. Since grain boundaries are prevalent in nanocrystalline materials, they must affect, to some extent, the overall self-healing properties and the resultant mechanical responses. In the present work, first principles calculations are carried out to investigate the energetic landscape of point defects (i.e. self-interstitials, He-interstitials, and vacancies) induced by the irradiation damage and the kinetics of the self-healing process in the vicinity of grain boundaries (GBs) in copper, focusing on six symmetric tilt grain boundaries that vary in their energies. Our results indicate that the interaction of vacancies with the self-interstitial- and He-interstitial-loaded GBs is very sensitive to the GB character. Low-energy GBs are generally accompanied by a higher propensity for self-healing behavior, in which the inter-granular interstitials and intra-granular vacancies recombine with each other. The recombination process is proved to be regulated by two mechanisms: the interstitial emission mechanism and the vacancy mediated mechanism. For low-energy GBs, the former mechanism demonstrates its efficiency in describing the atomic motion, while for the high-energy ones, the latter turns out to be superior. With the aid of these mechanisms, we conclude that low-energy GBs are comparatively more radiation-resistant than the high-energy counterparts, which may shed light on the rational design of high-performance structural materials based on nanocrystalline alloys.

  15. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  16. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care : A Proof-of-Principle Study

    van der Krieke, Lian; Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter


    BACKGROUND: Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However,

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care : A Proof-of-Principle Study

    van der Krieke, Lian; Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter


    BACKGROUND: Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, applicat

  18. "Macbeth"Conversation Analysis under Cooperative Violate Principle%会话合作违反原则下《麦克白》对话分析

    杨春叶; 许美婷


    《麦克白》是莎士比亚的四大悲剧之一。对《麦克白》的研究受国内外学者青睐;会话合作原则是格莱斯的关于语言学研究的主要理论。本文运用会话合作违反原则分析《麦克白》对话,旨在加深对此悲剧的理解及探究人际交往中合适的交流方式。%"Macbeth"is one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies. For"Macbeth"research by scholars pro-Lai;Grice's Coop-erative Principle is the main theory of linguistics. In this paper, in violation of the principles of conversation analysis coop-eration"Macbeth"dialogue aimed at deepening the understanding of this tragedy and to explore appropriate interpersonal communication.

  19. Analysis of the Principle of Rational Use of Mass Communication Information%大众传播信息合理使用原则分析



    The principle of the rational use of the copyright of mass communication is an importamt legal system to protect the right of the social public and individuals to use information. However, this system is facing severe challenges both in technology and in benefit. This paper attempts to analyzes the problems in the principle of rational use, such as the principle of judgement, abuse restriction and the principle of rational use under the network communication conditions.

  20. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies



    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  1. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Ahmed, Noveera T.


    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  2. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter


    Background Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, application of this method in health care practice is hampered because analyses are conducted manually and advanced statistical expertise is required. Objective This study aims to show how this limitation can be overcome by introducing automated vector autoregressive modeling (VAR) of EMA data and to evaluate its feasibility through comparisons with results of previously published manual analyses. Methods We developed a Web-based open source application, called AutoVAR, which automates time series analyses of EMA data and provides output that is intended to be interpretable by nonexperts. The statistical technique we used was VAR. AutoVAR tests and evaluates all possible VAR models within a given combinatorial search space and summarizes their results, thereby replacing the researcher’s tasks of conducting the analysis, making an informed selection of models, and choosing the best model. We compared the output of AutoVAR to the output of a previously published manual analysis (n=4). Results An illustrative example consisting of 4 analyses was provided. Compared to the manual output, the AutoVAR output presents similar model characteristics and statistical results in terms of the Akaike information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion, and the test statistic of the Granger causality test. Conclusions Results suggest that automated analysis and interpretation of times series is feasible. Compared to a manual procedure, the automated procedure is more robust and can save days of time. These findings may pave the way for using time series analysis for health promotion on a larger scale. AutoVAR was evaluated using the results of a previously conducted manual analysis

  3. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian


    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  4. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian


    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  5. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...... to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. The results shed a new light on terror activity and provide some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within...

  6. 基于Pushover原理的钢框架静力弹塑性分析%Static elastoplastic analysis of steel frame based on Pushover principle

    汪金祥; 肖亚明; 刘顺; 董文秀


    Pushover分析是实现结构性态设计目标的方法之一,文章阐述了SAP2000中Pushover分析的基本原理,并根据我国最新的抗震规范,介绍了Pushover分析的计算步骤。在此基础上,利用1个钢框架结构实例进行说明,得出了包括底部剪力-顶部位移关系曲线、层间位移角和结构破坏塑性铰分布的分析结果,表明Pushover分析是当前对钢框架结构在罕遇地震下进行弹性塑性分析的有效方法。%Pushover analysis is an important method to achieve the goal of performance-based seismic design .Based on the latest China code for seismic design ,the principles and procedures of SAP2000 Pushover analysis are reviewed .By means of SAP2000 ,a case of steel frame is presented .With the results of the base shear force-top displacement ,layer displacement angle and distribution of plastic hinges ,it is proved that the Pushover analysis is effective in the elastoplastic analysis of the steel frame structure under rare earthquakes .

  7. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Coulet, B


    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively.

  8. Structure, Principles and Failure Analysis of X-ray Tube%X射线球管的结构、原理及常见故障分析



    The article described structure, working principles, specification characteristies and technical parameters of X-ray tube which was important to set the technical parameters of X-ray tube in scientific and rational way, and make X-ray tube maintain in the best condition. Meanwhile. the article 8ummarized the methods about failure analysis and troubleshooting of X-ray tube.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011 , 32 ( 3) : 124-125]%介绍了X射线球管的结构、工作原理、规格特性和技术参数,指出使用中科学合理的设定X射线机技术参数、保持其处于最佳状态具有重要意义.归纳总结了X线球管故障分析和排除常见方法.

  9. Principles of neural information processing

    Seelen, Werner v


    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  10. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon


    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  11. Classifying breast cancer surgery: a novel, complexity-based system for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive procedures, and proof of principle by analysis of 1225 operations in 1166 patients.

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Wallwiener, Diethelm


    One of the basic prerequisites for generating evidence-based data is the availability of classification systems. Attempts to date to classify breast cancer operations have focussed on specific problems, e.g. the avoidance of secondary corrective surgery for surgical defects, rather than taking a generic approach. Starting from an existing, simpler empirical scheme based on the complexity of breast surgical procedures, which was used in-house primarily in operative report-writing, a novel classification of ablative and breast-conserving procedures initially needed to be developed and elaborated systematically. To obtain proof of principle, a prospectively planned analysis of patient records for all major breast cancer-related operations performed at our breast centre in 2005 and 2006 was conducted using the new classification. Data were analysed using basic descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. A novel two-type, six-tier classification system comprising 12 main categories, 13 subcategories and 39 sub-subcategories of oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast cancer-related surgery was successfully developed. Our system permitted unequivocal classification, without exception, of all 1225 procedures performed in 1166 breast cancer patients in 2005 and 2006. Breast cancer-related surgical procedures can be generically classified according to their surgical complexity. Analysis of all major procedures performed at our breast centre during the study period provides proof of principle for this novel classification system. We envisage various applications for this classification, including uses in randomised clinical trials, guideline development, specialist surgical training, continuing professional development as well as quality of care and public health research.

  12. Physico-chemical studies on the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts and active principles of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Indira Priyadarsini, Kavirayani; Mukherjee, Tulsi


    Understanding of the efficacy and mechanism for the reaction of the biologically important radicals with natural and/or synthetic antioxidants is the first step towards the development of future therapeutic agents. The kinetic parameters e.g., formation and decay rate constants predict the efficacy of an antioxidant and its fate after reaction. These parameters also dictate the ease with which competing reactions would occur in a bio-environment. The spectroscopic parameters provide the clue to the site of free radical attack to these antioxidants. Here, in this article an attempt has been made to show the use of physico-chemical methods in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of some important medicinal plants commonly used in India and the subcontinent. The systems chosen here for discussions are herbal extracts as such, curcumin from turmeric, methoxy phenols from Indian spices, dehydrogingerdione from ginger and bakuchiol from Psoralea corylifolia. All the examples shown in this article illustrate the potential of the pulse radiolysis coupled with kinetic spectroscopy and other physicochemical techniques for the study of antioxidants either in the form of mixture as in herbal extract or as an isolated compound.

  13. Statistical Contact Angle Analyses with the High-Precision Drop Shape Analysis (HPDSA) Approach: Basic Principles and Applications

    Florian Heib; Michael Schmitt


    Surface science, which includes the preparation, development and analysis of surfaces and coatings, is essential in both fundamental and applied as well as in engineering and industrial research. Contact angle measurements using sessile drop techniques are commonly used to characterize coated surfaces or surface modifications. Well-defined surfaces structures at both nanoscopic and microscopic level can be achieved but the reliable characterization by means of contact angle measurements and t...

  14. Principles of project management


    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  15. BRaf signaling principles unveiled by large-scale human mutation analysis with a rapid lentivirus-based gene replacement method.

    Lim, Chae-Seok; Kang, Xi; Mirabella, Vincent; Zhang, Huaye; Bu, Qian; Araki, Yoichi; Hoang, Elizabeth T; Wang, Shiqiang; Shen, Ying; Choi, Sukwoo; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Chang, Qiang; Pang, Zhiping P; Huganir, Richard L; Zhu, J Julius


    Rapid advances in genetics are linking mutations on genes to diseases at an exponential rate, yet characterizing the gene mutation-cell behavior relationships essential for precision medicine remains a daunting task. More than 350 mutations on small GTPase BRaf are associated with various tumors, and ∼40 mutations are associated with the neurodevelopmental disorder cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). We developed a fast cost-effective lentivirus-based rapid gene replacement method to interrogate the physiopathology of BRaf and ∼50 disease-linked BRaf mutants, including all CFC-linked mutants. Analysis of simultaneous multiple patch-clamp recordings from 6068 pairs of rat neurons with validation in additional mouse and human neurons and multiple learning tests from 1486 rats identified BRaf as the key missing signaling effector in the common synaptic NMDA-R-CaMKII-SynGap-Ras-BRaf-MEK-ERK transduction cascade. Moreover, the analysis creates the original big data unveiling three general features of BRaf signaling. This study establishes the first efficient procedure that permits large-scale functional analysis of human disease-linked mutations essential for precision medicine. © 2017 Lim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J


    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  17. [Principles of callus distraction].

    Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C


    Callus distraction is based on the principle of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and large bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial deviation and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes principles of callus distraction, potential complications and their management.

  18. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)


    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  19. Activity Landscape Plotter: A Web-based Application for the Analysis of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    González-Medina, Mariana; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis


    Activity landscape modeling is a powerful method for the quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships. This cheminformatics area is in continuous growth and several quantitative and visual approaches are constantly being developed. However, these approaches often fall into disuse due to their limited access. Herein, we present Activity Landscape Plotter as the first freely available web-based tool to automatically analyze structure-activity relationships of compound data sets. Based on the concept of activity landscape modeling, the online service performs pair-wise structure and activity relationships from an input data set supplied by the user. For visual analysis, Activity Landscape Plotter generates Structure-Activity Similarity and Dual Activity Difference maps. The user can interactively navigate through the maps and export all the pairwise structure-activity information as comma delimited files. Activity Landscape Plotter is freely accessible at

  20. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Kyungrog Kim


    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  1. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  2. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins.

    Dallas, David C; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L M; Kalanetra, Karen M; Frese, Steven A; Robinson, Randall C; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela


    The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Claudia de Souza Libanio


    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.


    S. Munapo


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new procedure for analysing and managing activity sequences in projects. The new procedure determines critical activities, critical path, start times, free floats, crash limits, and other useful information without the use of the network model. Even though network models have been successfully used in project management so far, there are weaknesses associated with the use. A network is not easy to generate, and dummies that are usually associated with it make the network diagram complex – and dummy activities have no meaning in the original project management problem. The network model for projects can be avoided while still obtaining all the useful information that is required for project management. What are required are the activities, their accurate durations, and their predecessors.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing beskryf ’n nuwerwetse metode vir die ontleding en bestuur van die sekwensiële aktiwiteite van projekte. Die voorgestelde metode bepaal kritiese aktiwiteite, die kritieke pad, aanvangstye, speling, verhasing, en ander groothede sonder die gebruik van ’n netwerkmodel. Die metode funksioneer bevredigend in die praktyk, en omseil die administratiewe rompslomp van die tradisionele netwerkmodelle.

  5. Opportunities for innovation in neutron activation analysis

    Bode, P.


    Neutron activation laboratories worldwide are at a turning point at which new staff has to be found for the retiring pioneers from the 1960s–1970s. A scientific career in a well-understood technique, often characterized as ‘mature’ may only be attractive to young scientists if still challenges for f

  6. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    Plumb, Robert C.


    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  7. Introduction of Prompt Gamma Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis at CARR

    WANG; Xing-hua; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; YAO; Yong-gang; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; HUA; Long; NI; Bang-fa


    CARR will provide with maximal neutron flux in Asia,the third of the world.By using the high quality neutron beam and the advanced international experience,Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis(PGNAA)facility will be setup at high level.PGNAA on CARR will promote the development of nuclear analysis technology and improve Chinese status in the nuclear analysis field.

  8. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;


    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  9. Solutions for complex, multi data type and multi tool analysis: principles and applications of using workflow and pipelining methods.

    Munro, Robin E J; Guo, Yike


    Analytical workflow technology, sometimes also called data pipelining, is the fundamental component that provides the scalable analytical middleware that can be used to enable the rapid building and deployment of an analytical application. Analytical workflows enable researchers, analysts and informaticians to integrate and access data and tools from structured and non-structured data sources so that analytics can bridge different silos of information; compose multiple analytical methods and data transformations without coding; rapidly develop applications and solutions by visually constructing analytical workflows that are easy to revise should the requirements change; access domain-specific extensions for specific projects or areas, for example, text extraction, visualisation, reporting, genetics, cheminformatics, bioinformatics and patient-based analytics; automatically deploy workflows directly into web portals and as web services to be part of a service-oriented architecture (SOA). By performing workflow building, using a middleware layer for data integration, it is a relatively simple exercise to visually design an analytical process for data analysis and then publish this as a service to a web browser. All this is encapsulated into what can be referred to as an 'Embedded Analytics' methodology which will be described here with examples covering different scientifically focused data analysis problems.

  10. Ranking and analysis administrative barriers of fundamental principles and rights at work from the perspective of employers by using parametrical analysis and the TOPSIS method

    Gholam Reza Bordbar


    Full Text Available ILO, adopted and communicated several types of document which include Conventions, recommendations, resolutions and statements etc.among all of them, convention has a special place because the members states accept duties and obligations. Among these conventions, those conventions that are related to the fundamental rights of labor had special importance and prestige. Member countries of the Organization like Iran are required to implement the relevant commitments. this study aimed to analyze administrative obstacles of the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work by getting weight to problems and ranking them. The result of study show that Prohibition of child labor is more important than other aspects of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. in aspect of child labor most important obstacle was "red tape" ,in others categories result was as follow: in lack of collective bargaining most important obstacle was made emotional decisions, in forced labor most important obstacle was distrust of other workers, in gender discrimination most important obstacle was Working environment, in people inequality most important obstacle was Subjective judgments manager.

  11. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C


    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited.

  12. Correlating Acid Properties and Catalytic Function: A First-Principles Analysis of Alcohol Dehydration Pathways on Polyoxometalates

    Janik, Michael J.; Macht, Josef; Iglesia, Enrique; Neurock, Matthew


    Density functional theory calculations and reactivity data were used to examine the mechanism of alcohol dehydration on Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) catalysts and the influence of the POM composition and the degree of substitution of the alcohol on kinetically relevant elimination steps. Dehydration was found to proceed through E1 pathways in which the alcohol CsO bond is cleaved heterolytically via a carbeniumion transition state. Dehydration rates were found to depend on the elimination rate constant and the equilibrium constant for the formation of unreactive alcohol dimers. E2-type elimination transition states, involving concerted CsH and CsO bond cleavage, were not found. The extent of substitution at the R-carbon on the alcohol was found to lead to marked effects on elimination barriers, because substitution increases the proton affinity of the alcohol and the stability of the carbenium-ion transition state. Changes in the central and addenda atoms of the POM cluster and the presence of n-donors, a support, vicinal POM clusters, or charge-compensating cations were found to lead to changes in the deprotonation energy (DPE) of the POM cluster, activation barriers to dehydration, and the stability of the unreactive dimer. These effects are all captured in a general linear relation between activation barriers and deprotonation energy, a rigorous measure of acid strength. The explicit dependence of the E1 activation barrier on the acid deprotonation energy is much weaker than that on reactant proton affinity. This results from the more effective compensation between the acid deprotonation energy and the interaction energy between the cationic hydrocarbon fragment and the anionic POM cluster at the transition state. The direct interactions between the POM protons and the support, other POM clusters, n-donors, base probe molecules, and charge-compensating cations increased the negative charge of the oxide shell of the W12O40 conjugate base, which increased the

  13. Principles of modern radar systems

    Carpentier, Michel H


    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  14. Parsing with Principles and Probabilities

    Fordham, A; Fordham, Andrew; Crocker, Matthew


    This paper is an attempt to bring together two approaches to language analysis. The possible use of probabilistic information in principle-based grammars and parsers is considered, including discussion on some theoretical and computational problems that arise. Finally a partial implementation of these ideas is presented, along with some preliminary results from testing on a small set of sentences.

  15. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique


    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  16. 基于DNS协议的隐蔽通道原理及性能分析%Principle and Performance Analysis of Covert Tunnel Based on DNS Protocol

    王永杰; 刘京菊


    The development of protocol covert tunnel technology threatens the security of network information system. Mastering the principle of covert tunnel based on DNS protocol is very important to design aimed measures for network system security. On the basis of this, this paper proposes a kind of covert tunnel technology based on DNS protocol. The technology utilizes the kernel standing of DNS system as network infrastructure, which can penetrate security defense policy covertly. The structure and principle of DNS system are introduced briefly. The principle and key technologies such as data encoding, evading detection, communication reliably, speed control are studied. Analysis results show that the technology has well reliability, strong coverture and high communication efficiency.%基于网络协议的隐蔽通道技术对网络信息系统的安全构成严重威胁,掌握基于DNS协议隐蔽通道的工作原理,对于制定针对性的网络安全防范措施,保护网络系统安全具有重要意义。为此,提出一种基于DNS协议的隐蔽通道技术。DNS系统作为网络关键基础设施的核心地位,有效保证通道的穿透能力和隐蔽性。介绍DNS系统的结构和工作原理,研究基于DNS协议隐蔽通道的基本方法及其实用化的数据编码、躲避检测、可靠通信、速率控制等关键技术。分析结果表明,该技术具有可靠性好、隐蔽性强、通信效率高等特点。

  17. Application of principle component analysis-artificial neural network for simultaneous determination of zirconium and hafnium in real samples.

    Abbaspour, A; Baramakeh, L


    Determination of zirconium and hafnium were done by applying singular value decomposition and a feed forward Neural Network Algorithm with back propagation of error. The determination of trace amounts of mixtures of Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) in various matrices (river, tap and industrial wastewater) were investigated by PC-ANN using the complexes formed between Alizarin Red S, Zr and Hf. The results showed that measurement is possible in the ranges of 0.03-3.4 and 0.2-7.0 microg ml-1 for Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), respectively. The detection limits were 0.02 and 0.08 microg ml-1 for Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), respectively. The results also show very good agreement between true and predicted concentration values and have the ability to use in routine analysis.

  18. Influence of Boron Substitution on Conductance of Pyridine- and Pentane-Based Molecular Single Electron Transistors: First-Principles Analysis

    Srivastava, Anurag; Santhibhushan, B.; Sharma, Vikash; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Shahzad Khan, Md.; Marathe, Madura; De Sarkar, Abir; Shahid Khan, Mohd.


    We have investigated the modeling of boron-substituted molecular single-electron transistor (SET), under the influence of a weak coupling regime of Coulomb blockade between source and drain metal electrodes. The SET consists of a single organic molecule (pyridine/pentane/1,2-azaborine/butylborane) placed over the dielectric, with boron (B) as a substituent. The impact of B-substitution on pyridine and pentane molecules in isolated, as well as SET, environments has been analyzed by using density functional theory-based ab initio packages Atomistix toolkit-Virtual NanoLab and Gaussian03. The performance of proposed SETs was analyzed through charging energies, total energy as a function of gate potential and charge stability diagrams. The analysis confirms that the B-substituted pentane (butylborane) and the boron-substituted pyridine (1,2-azaborine) show remarkably improved conductance in SET environment in comparison to simple pyridine and pentane molecules.

  19. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Primož Pevcin


    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  20. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed


    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  1. Principle analysis of deceleration of the high-rise escape apparatus%高楼逃生装置的减速原理分析

    乔印虎; 苏国用; 杨杰; 龚建; 王冲


    High-rise escape apparatus is designed to help more personnel escape safely from the scene in shortest time. However, how to ensure the escaping individual decrease potential energy and kinetic energy steady and fast is the key to the design. This design uses the principle of negative feedback close-loop system to achieve pure mechanical design, uses the escape personel self weight to realize self-dece Leration. Analyze the deceleration principle to understand its structural design and working mechanism. Making finite element analysis to the important deceleration parts through solidworks Simulations oftware to detect the weakest part is beneficial to product design and production.%高楼逃生装置的设计原则是利用最短的时间,使更多的人安全地离开事发现场。此类设计所要解决的关键性难题是如何将逃生者的势能与动能平稳快速地降下来。采用负反馈闭环系统原理实现纯机械化设计,利用逃生人员自重实现自减速功能。对该装置进行减速原理进行分析,以便理解其整体结构设计与工作机理。通过Solidworks>Simulation软件对减速结构重要零件进行有限元分析,找出该减速装置最容易失效的部位,有利于产品的设计与生产。

  2. Using Porterian Activity Analysis to Understand Organizational Capabilities

    Sheehan, Norman T.; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    conceptualized by Porter’s writings on the activity-based view. Porterian activity analysis is becoming more accepted in the strategy literature, but no strategy scholar has explicitly used Porter’s activities, and particularly his concept of drivers, to understand and analyze organizational capabilities....... Introducing Porterian activities into the discussion of capabilities improves strategy scholars’ understanding of the bases of capability heterogeneity, offers academics future directions for research, and provides managers with guidance to enhance their organizations’ capabilities....

  3. Intercultural gerontology curriculum: Principles and practice.

    Mercer, Lorraine


    The internationalization of universities and the aging of the global population are two current issues that converge and challenge undergraduate gerontology curriculum development in Canada. One response to this challenge is to envision an intercultural gerontology curriculum. What might this curriculum encompass? How might it be taught? An exploratory study was undertaken to address these two questions. This paper presents findings from this study based primarily on interviews with university-based stakeholders from Canada, the United States, and Europe. Thematic analysis of the interviews resulted in five themes: multiple perspectives on cultural diversity; the dynamic nature of cultural diversity and aging; flow of an intercultural curriculum; institutional culture and intercultural curricula; and principles and practice for intercultural gerontology. Framed by principles of gerontology theory and educational approaches, this paper focuses on the principles and practice suggested by study participants. Scaffolding learning, active learning strategies, experiential learning opportunities, teacher modelling, and internet-based learning are discussed as key to intercultural learning. An appendix includes a list of resources that may be useful to developing an intercultural gerontology curriculum.

  4. [The optimality principle in undulatory swimming].

    Smolianinov, V V


    A comparative analysis of the experimental records of bending waves for various organisms (flagella, fish, dolphin) was performed. To explain the sphenoid shape of a bending wave, a new dynamic principle of optimal organization of wave drivers, the principle of focal optimality, was formulated and substantiated. According to this principle, each region of the body oscillates relative to the top of a wedge "focus" with a shift by about a phase quarter, thus providing a maximum contribution to the total driving force.

  5. An Analysis of Euphemism from the Perspective of the Politeness Principle%从礼貌原则的角度分析委婉语



    Euphemism is a linguistic phenomenon with cultural social sig-nificance. It is a lubricant which oils the interpersonal relationship and avoids hurting the feeling of others. The Politeness Principle is an important issue in pragmatics. The basic maxims included in this principle are represented in the different uses of euphemism. This paper elaborates on the application of eu-phemism from the perspective of the Politeness Principle.

  6. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark


    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  7. Reducing Door-to-Needle Times using Toyota’s Lean Manufacturing Principles and Value Stream Analysis

    Ford, Andria L.; Williams, Jennifer A.; Spencer, Mary; McCammon, Craig; Khoury, Naim; Sampson, Tomoko; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo


    Background Earlier tPA treatment for acute ischemic stroke increases efficacy, prompting national efforts to reduce door-to-needle times (DNTs). We utilized lean process improvement methodology to develop a streamlined IV tPA protocol. Methods In early 2011, a multi-disciplinary team analyzed the steps required to treat acute ischemic stroke patients with IV tPA, utilizing value stream analysis (VSA). We directly compared the tPA-treated patients in the “pre-VSA” epoch to the “post-VSA” epoch with regard to baseline characteristics, protocol metrics, and clinical outcomes. Results The VSA revealed several tPA protocol inefficiencies: routing of patients to room, then to CT, then back to room; serial processing of work flow; and delays in waiting for lab results. On 3/1/2011, a new protocol incorporated changes to minimize delays: routing patients directly to head CT prior to patient room, utilizing parallel process work-flow, and implementing point-of-care labs. In the pre-and post-VSA epochs, 132 and 87 patients were treated with IV tPA, respectively. Compared to pre-VSA, DNTs and percent of patients treated ≤60 minutes from hospital arrival were improved in the post-VSA epoch: 60 min vs. 39 min (pLean process improvement methodology can expedite time-dependent stroke care, without compromising safety. PMID:23138440

  8. Eggs-ploiting women: a critical feminist analysis of the different principles in transplant and fertility tourism.

    Pfeffer, Naomi


    Intergovernmental agencies have recognized that inconsistencies in the way that nation states regulate commerce in human kidneys lubricate transplant tourism, and have repeatedly exhorted recalcitrant governments of both organ-importing and organ-exporting nations to criminalize the exchange of cash for kidneys. Yet these same organizations have elected to remain silent on inconsistencies in the regulation of the trade in human eggs that lubricate fertility tourism. This article is a critical feminist analysis of this paradox. Sketches of the histories of regulation of the global markets in human kidneys and human eggs allow attribution of the different approaches to sales of kidneys and eggs to the triumph of neo-liberalism in the 1990s. Neo-liberalism supports the growth of the medical tourism industry and its niche market catering for infertility, and is responsible for exacerbating the relative disadvantage of poor and powerless women in destination countries, thereby creating the conditions for 'bioavailability', that is, the willingness to exchange body parts for cash. The paper identifies a disturbing correlation between deeply engrained conservative attitudes to women and a plentiful supply of eggs, and concludes by suggesting that what women need to lift themselves out of poverty and discrimination is secure and dignified work.

  9. Relevance of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area to the Bering Strait Region: a Policy Analysis Using Resilience-Based Governance Principles

    Kevin Hillmer-Pegram


    Full Text Available The Bering Strait, separating the North American and Asian continents, is a productive social-ecological marine system that is vulnerable to increasing maritime traffic. In other parts of the world, the International Maritime Organization (IMO, an agency of the United Nations, has designated similar marine systems as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA in an effort to protect vulnerable resources from international shipping. We present information about the 14 existing PSSAs around the world and the political process by which designation is achieved. We examine specific characteristics of the Bering Strait system that are relevant to a PSSA application; these include vulnerable resources such as marine mammals and their contribution to the food and cultural security of indigenous communities, threats to these resources from shipping activities, and the viable mitigation options to reduce these threats. We then use five criteria derived from empirical research on resilience-based governance to analyze whether a PSSA designation would promote the resilience of marine mammal populations and indigenous communities to increased maritime activities. Despite the elusiveness of a definitive answer, we conclude that although the designation is not a perfect fit from a theoretical standpoint, it still holds the potential to benefit marine mammals and indigenous communities in terms of resilience. We conclude by identifying critical challenges and trade-offs that practitioners would need to negotiate when attempting to apply theoretical governance principles via real-world policy tools.

  10. Multimodal Teaching Principles on the Basis of Pearson Correlation Analysis%多模态教学原则Pearson相关分析



    Based on the latest research in the fields of multi-modality and multimodality teaching, this study tries to put for-ward the teaching principles on the basis of multimodality teach-ing. During the empirical study, a large number of non-English majors were divided into the contrastive class and the experi-mental class. By analysis of the results of the questionnaire and the Person Correlation Analysis of the pre-test, the mid-test and the post-test, the writer has come to the conclusion that a more harmonious multimodality platform could be constructed so that learning quality and environment could be improved as well.%本研究以多模态、多模态教学领域最新理论为基础,提出多模态教学遵循的原则.通过实证研究,某高校非英语专业学生被分为实验组和对照组,参与多模态教学原则实施过程.通过因子与Pearson 相关分析,可搭建多模态和谐平台,营造有利于提高学习积极性的学习环境.

  11. Seismic tomography analysis using finite differential calculation of the eikonal equation and reciplocal principle; Eikonal equation no sabunkaiho to sohan genri wo riyoshita danseiha tomography kaiseki

    Fujimoto, M.; Ashida, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper describes the seismic tomography analysis of underground structures using finite differential calculation (FDC) and a reciprocal principle which points out that a propagation path is constant even if a source and receiver are exchanged with each other. Tomography analysis generally determines a ray length across each underground cell structure by ray tracing method to modify each cell slowness (inverse of velocity). Travel time field was determined by FDC of eikonal equation among ray tracing methods, and a wave propagation path was determined by reciprocity of elastic wave to carry out inversion. In conventional methods, since a wave length is assumed to be infinitesimal by ray theory, false modified slowness structures frequently appears depending on the density of a ray. Wave propagates in a certain width, and is affected by environment. The slowness was thus modified on the basis of the wave propagation path with a certain width by using not ray-tracing but reciprocity. By this modification, false structures were hardly found under a fine grid, and several propagation paths could be considered. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  12. The Principles and Concepts of Geometric Analysis%几何分析中的基本概念与原理



    The present article is based on a talk that I gave at the Chinese Academy of Sciencesin Beijing on October 9, 2001, on the occasion of the inaugration of the Partner Group on GeometricAnalysis for the Max Plank Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig at the CAS. It aims atproviding a perspective on the present state and future research lines of geometric analysis through asurvey of the basic principles and concepts. These are based on ideas from both Riemannian geometryand quantum field theory, and in many cases, they lead to variational problems for minimizing aphysical action or optimizing a geometric quantity.%本文是根据作者在中国科学院"中德几何分析伙伴小组"成立仪式上的演讲整理而成.主要目的在于通过回顾几何分析中的基本概念及基本定理,了解现阶段的研究情况和将来的研究线路.主要描述黎曼几何与量子场论中的思想,特别特别是极化物理量与几何量产生的变分问题.

  13. Ethical principles and legal requirements for pediatric research in the EU: an analysis of the European normative and legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials.

    Pinxten, Wim; Dierickx, Kris; Nys, Herman


    The involvement of minors in clinical research is inevitable to catch up with the lack of drugs labeled for pediatric use. To encourage the responsible conduct of pediatric clinical trials in the EU, an extensive legal framework has been developed over the past decade in which the practical, ethical, legal, social, and commercial issues in pediatric research are addressed. In this article, the European legal framework surrounding pediatric clinical trials is analyzed from the perspective of the major ethical concerns in pediatric research. The four principles of biomedical ethics will be used as a conceptual framework (1) to map the ethical issues addressed in the European legal framework, (2) to study how these issues are commonly handled in competent adults, (3) to detect workability problems of these paradigmatic approaches in the specific setting of pediatric research, and (4) to illustrate the strong urge to differentiate, specify, or adjust these paradigmatic approaches to guarantee their successful operation in pediatric research. In addition, a concise comparative analysis of the European regulation will be made. To conclude our analysis, we integrate our findings in the existing ethical discussions on issues specific to pediatric clinical research.

  14. Development of common principles for the evaluation of quality characteristics of motor activity in the fitness and sports aerobics aesthetic orientation

    Galyna Artemyeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitative characteristics of motor activity in special physical training, which allow an assessment of motor talent of the athlete and to provide objective guidance to training in particular sport. Conclusions: the presented methods quantify the qualitative indicators of the special motor preparation allow us to estimate a measure of motor gifted individual and his susceptibility to training in particular sport

  15. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James


    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...


    Lakhmili Siham


    Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

  17. New insight into the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 by first-principles.

    Yu, Jiaguo; Zhou, Peng; Li, Qin


    The geometry structures, formation energies and electronic properties of the B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 were investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of first-principles. The results indicated that the visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activities of the B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 were not only influenced by the energy gaps (Eg) and the distributions of impurity states, but also affected by the locations of Fermi levels (EF) and the energies of the edges of band gaps (Ev for the top of valence bands and Ec for the bottom of conduction bands). However, the above four factors changed with the doped models of TiO2. The impurity states in the band gaps reduced the maximum energy gaps in the band gaps, which is responsible for the absorption of visible light. The Fermi levels at the bottom of conduction bands indicated the existence of Ti(3+) ions, which enhanced the separation rates of photogenerated electrons and holes. Further, the energies of the edges of band gaps, determining the dominant types of oxidants (O2(-), hole, ˙OH) in the photocatalytic degradation, were discussed. Moreover, the stability of the doped TiO2 depended on its growth conditions (O-rich or Ti-rich environment). The O-rich growth condition is beneficial to the substitutional B and C atoms to Ti atoms, while the Ti-rich growth condition is favorable to the other doped TiO2 including the most stable co-doped TiO2 with the interstitial B atom and the substitutional C atom to O atom. In addition, our results also showed that the B/C-doped TiO2 inherited the partial electronic properties of single-doped TiO2, but also exhibited many new electronic properties, implying that the electronic properties of co-doped systems are not a mechanical mixture of those of both single-doped systems.

  18. Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude ...

    Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from ... of both species was studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests (BST) for the first time. ... Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the two medicinal plants ...

  19. SS7E机车辅助变流器的工作原理及常见故障分析%Operation Principle of the Auxiliary Current Transformer of SS7E Electric Locomotives and Common Fault Analysis

    卢亚东; 林立新


    该文简要介绍了SS7E机车辅助变流器的工作原理及常见故障分析,详细阐述了运用TGF11的工作原理、电路分析,论述了如何运用辅助变流器在SS7E机车上的运用,阐明了机车辅助变流器其原理的掌握和常见故障的处理方法.%This paper briefly introduced the SS7E locomotive assistance converter principle of work and the common fault analysis. Elabo-rated in detail utilizes TGF11 the principle of work, the circuit analysis, how elaborated has utilized the assistance converter on SS7E loco-motive utilization. It also describes locomotive assistance converter its principle grasping and the common breakdown processing method.


    Agnieszka Kisło


    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.