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Sample records for activation analysis principles

  1. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  2. Principle Component Analysis of Birkeland Currents Determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.

  3. Pharmaceutical gel analysis by NIR spectroscopy. Determination of the active principle and low concentration of preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Alcalá, M; Bautista, M

    2008-04-23

    Near infrared spectroscopy has proved highly suitable for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. However, its limited sensitivity can severely restrict its scope of application. In this work, we determine the active principle and two preservatives in a pharmaceutical preparation available as a hydrogel. The matrix of the pharmaceutical preparation exhibits strong absorption in the NIR spectral region; also, the two preservatives (parabens) are very similar in chemical and spectral terms, and present at low concentrations in the pharmaceutical. These complications make it rather difficult to accurately quantify the active principle and the preservatives, which can only be accomplished by using an effective design in order to prepare the samples to be included in the calibration set and select the optimum spectral range for measuring each analyte. The evaporation of solvents during the measurement process produces increasing errors related with sample's air exposition; the introductions of new samples with a wider range of the volatile components correct this effect. An ANOVA of the predictions obtained with the new models shows that correct the error due to evaporation. The proposed method was validated for the analytical control of the studied preparation.

  4. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  5. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  6. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goddard, Braden [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, EC-JRC-IPSC

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  7. Principles of Language Learning Activity Design Based on Constructivism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉星

    2010-01-01

    <正>This essay introduces constructivism and its four key theories in learning and explores its applications in language learning activity design.Following the theoretical background analysis,it proposes three principles concerning English language teaching activity design,namely interactive thinking principle,I + 1 principle and authentic communication principle.This paper also provides some practical teaching activities such as supporting examples of how these three principles can work in language teaching.

  8. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rjabchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic positions, characteristics for all pricing system. The essence of such pricing principles as scientific substantiation of prices, target direction of prices, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process, interrelation between pricing policy and general enterprise strategy, principle of legality, planned character, proportionality, adequacy, principle of interdependence between types and forms of selling, flexibility principle is considered.The table of the resulted principles allows us to group them after the followings descriptions:general principles: planned character principle, principle of legality, principle of proportionality, principle of adequacy, principle of flexibility;main principles: principle of scientific prices substantiation, principle of prices target direction, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process;specific principles: principle of connection between pricing policy and general strategy of enterprise, principle of interrelation between types and forms of selling, principle connected with the features of products which will be distribute, principle connected with buyers quality maintenance;individual principles: principle connected with market structure, principle that applies to the choice of reaction type and market conditions change and so on.Conclusions and directions of further researches. Research of theoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing forming

  9. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  10. RELATIVE PRINCIPLE COMPONENT AND RELATIVE PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Chenglin; Wang Tianzhen; Hu Jing

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, the new concept of Relative Principle Component (RPC) and method of RPC Analysis (RPCA) are put forward. Meanwhile, the concepts such as Relative Transform (RT), Rotundity Scatter (RS) and so on are introduced. This new method can overcome some disadvantages of the classical Principle Component Analysis (PCA) when data are rotundity scatter. The RPC selected by RPCA are more representative, and their significance of geometry is more notable, so that the application of the new algorithm will be very extensive. The performance and effectiveness are simply demonstrated by the geometrical interpretation proposed.

  11. Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to enhance our understanding of what has happened on a computer system by using forensic techniques that do not require prediction of the nature of the attack, the skill of the attacker, or the details of the system resources or objects affected. These techniques address five fundamental principles of computer forensics. These principles include recording data about the entire operating system, particularly user space events and environments, and interpreting events at differen...

  12. Nonlocal maximum principles for active scalars

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Active scalars appear in many problems of fluid dynamics. The most common examples of active scalar equations are 2D Euler, Burgers, and 2D surface quasi-geostrophic equations. Many questions about regularity and properties of solutions of these equations remain open. We develop the idea of nonlocal maximum principle, formulating a more general criterion and providing new applications. The most interesting application is finite time regularization of weak solutions in the supercritical regime.

  13. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  14. XAFS Spectroscopy : Fundamental Principles and Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Mojet, B.L.; Dorssen, G.E. van; Ramaker, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The physical principles of XAFS spectroscopy are given at a sufficiently basic level to enable scientists working in the field of catalysis to critically evaluate articles dealing with XAFS studies on catalytic materials. The described data-analysis methods provide the basic tools for studying the e

  15. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  16. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  17. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  18. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  19. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  20. 并联型有源电力滤波器的控制原理分析%Domination Principle Analysis of Parallel Active Power Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠利; 张久辉

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes the three-phase parallel active power filter as the research object,and introduces the operation principle of active power filter and instantaneous reactive power theory,then gives the current detecting method of p-q and ip-iq based on instantaneous reactive power theory.%以三相并联型有源电力滤波器为研究对象,介绍了三相并联型有源电力滤波器工作原理和瞬时无功理论,并给出了基于瞬时无功理论的p-q和ip-iq谐波电流检测方法。

  1. A Classroom Activity To Demonstrate the Principle of Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David; Simmons, Sharanne

    This paper describes a classroom activity to demonstrate to undergraduate psychology students studying learning principles the principle of negative reinforcement. The students (n=25) were either enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a business college or the students (n=21) were enrolled in an educational psychology course at a state…

  2. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  3. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline are

  4. Online Graphing Activity for Principles of Economics Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar R. Harmon; James Lambrinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an online drawing program and bulletin board are used to create active learning activities for a principles of economics class. In the activity the student downloads an initial diagram that sets up a textbook principles scenario. The student uses an image-editing program to complete the diagram, so that it represents the outcome predicted in the textbook and posts it to a bulletin board. The tools for the activity: SumoPaint.com, and WikiSpaces.com; are free and avail...

  5. Vibrational optical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-01-01

    This unique book stands as the only comprehensive introduction to vibrational optical activity (VOA) and is the first single book that serves as a complete reference for this relatively new, but increasingly important area of molecular spectroscopy. Key features:A single-source reference on this topic that introduces, describes the background and foundation of this area of spectroscopy.Serves as a guide on how to use it to carry out applications with relevant problem solving.Depth and breadth of the subject is presented in a logical, complete and progressive fashion. A

  6. Oil shale pyrolysis kinetics and variable activation energy principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ayed, Omar S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 15008, Marka 11134 (Jordan); Matouq, M.; Anbar, Z.; Khaleel, Adnan M. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 15008, Marka 11134 (Jordan); Department of Basic Sciences, Prince Abdullah Bin-Ghazi of Science and Information, Al-Balqa Applied University (Jordan); Abu-Nameh, Eyad [Department of Basic Sciences, Prince Abdullah Bin-Ghazi of Science and Information, Al-Balqa Applied University (Jordan)

    2010-04-15

    A modified first order kinetic equation with variable activation energy is employed to model the total weight loss of Ellajjun oil shale samples. Fixed bed retort with 400 g of oil shale sample size is used in this study in 350-550 C temperature range. Variable heating rate, h, in the range 2.6-5 C min{sup -1} are tested. Activation energy was allowed to vary as a function of oil shale conversion. The value of the activation energy increased from 98 to 120 kJ mol{sup -1} while the corresponding frequency factor changed from 9.51 x 10{sup 5} to 1.16 x 10{sup 6}. Fischer Assay analysis of the studied samples indicated 12.2 wt.% oil content. The oil shale decomposition ranged from 3.2% to 28.0%. The obtained kinetic data are modeled using variable heating rate, pyrolysis temperature and variable activation energy principle in a nitrogen sweeping medium. Good fit to the obtained experimental data is achieved. (author)

  7. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Rjabchenko; V.V. Bozhkova

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic posit...

  8. A Tentative Analysis on Politeness Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹聪骢

    2015-01-01

    Different people hold different views about politeness in communication. To be polite, Leech thinks you should folow Politeness Principle(PP) while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' Face Wants. This paper attempts to shed light on some of the important application of PP in cultures.

  9. Principle analysis of IP wavelength router

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 殷洪玺; 徐安士; 吴德明

    2001-01-01

    Combining IP with WDM is an attractive direction for research. WDM will play an important role in IP network in future. Now, an urgent problem is how to introduce wavelength routing in an IP network. We solve this problem by designing IP wavelength router, implementing DPDP (default path and dedicated path) method. We prove the reasonableness and feasibility of this design by a principle experiment. A lot of problems related to this design are also discussed.

  10. Influence strategy: principles and levels of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Bryan M.; Lingenfelter, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. strategy in current conflicts (Iraq, Afghanistan, and against al-Qaeda) has focused predominantly on heavy U.S. military involvement (mostly kinetic operations), while using influence components, for the most part, in a reactive manner. There seems to be no grand influence strategy that informs U.S. policy and current military operations. There are multiple descriptive formulations, but no prescriptive formulations on developing an effective influence strategy using influence principles....

  11. Application of Cooperative Principle in Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左改玲; 赵秋萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Cooperative Principle (CP) was first proposed by the U.S. linguist and philosopher Grice in the late 1960s. H.P. Grice lectures "Logic and Conversation" concept. "Logic and Conversation" points out that our conversation is subject to certain restricted conditions. Our talk exchanges do not normally consist of a succession of disconnected remarks, and would not be rational if they did. They are characteristically, to some degree at least.

  12. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Costel, Esi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…

  13. Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaeva, Yuliya D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study, which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activity approach and its prospects for solving actual problems in the psychology of giftedness in light of the creation of new diagnostic procedures and methods of education and the development of gifted children.

  14. ACTIVE PRINCIPLES AND MEDIAN LETHAL DOSE OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the active principles and median lethal dose (LD50 of Curcuma longa (Haldi by conducting phytochemical and toxicity (acute and chronic studies. The hydroalcoholic extract (HAE of haldi was prepared and its extractability was calculated as 35.9%. The chemical tests revealed the presence of many active principles (phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins, resins, saponins, sterols and fixed oils. For acute toxicity, including median lethal dose (LD50 of C. longa, its HAE was administered @ 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight to female albino rats of groups 2 to 4, respectively. Rats of group 1 were administered with normal saline to serve as control. No mortality in any group of rats was found up to 48 hr, thus this drug has the LD50 above 1000 mg/kg. For chronic toxicity of C. longa HAE, similar drug dosage schedule was applied in groups 1 to 4 of rats as used for acute toxicity study; however, the drug-extract was given for 3 weeks. During both acute and chronic toxicity studies, C. longa HAE @ 1000 mg/kg elicited some gross observational effects like initial excitement, followed by mild depression, dullness, decreased respiration and reduced spontaneous motor activity (SMA. The results suggest that although haldi contains many pharmacologically important active principles but its higher dose (1000 mg/kg is slightly toxic.

  15. Effect of cadmium on germination, growth and active principle contents of Matricaria recutita L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pasquale, R.; Ragusa, S.; Iauk, L.; Barbera, R.; Galati, E.M.

    1988-12-01

    The effects on Matricaria recutita L. of an increase of cadmium concentration in soil and in atmosphere were investigated. Data on germination, survival, growth and dry weight were collected and methilenic extracts of the drugs were analyzed. Cd pollution affects Matricaria germination and growth and GLC analysis of extracts shows a significant difference in active principles between the plants subject undergone different treatments.

  16. Principles of isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic sector field mass spectrometers in isotopic analysis, especially for nitrogen gas, is outlined. Two measuring methods are pointed out: the scanning mode for significantly enriched samples and the double collector method for samples near the natural abundance of 15N. The calculation formulas are derived and advice is given for corrections. (author)

  17. Subjective Bayesian Analysis: Principles and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We address the position of subjectivism within Bayesian statistics. We argue, first, that the subjectivist Bayes approach is the only feasible method for tackling many important practical problems. Second, we describe the essential role of the subjectivist approach in scientific analysis. Third, we consider possible modifications to the Bayesian approach from a subjectivist viewpoint. Finally, we address the issue of pragmatism in implementing the subjectivist approach.

  18. Analysis of principle deviation of subpixel Zernike moments operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In original Zernike moments subpixel edge operator, ideal step edge model is chosen for calculating four parameters of a pixel point, and therefore principle deviation is caused by edge model. In order to discuss the effect of principle deviation on edge location, sampled edge model is chosen for calculating edge parameters, principle deviation of edge translation l is derived based on Zernike moments edge detection theory, and modified formula of l is given for Zernike moments operator with masks of 5×5 size. Both theory analysis and testing result demonstrate that principle deviation is zero when edge translation l is limited in central pixel of a sampled window. In another case, the modification of l should be considered, which results in edge location accuracy of non-subpixel level for this subpixel edge operator.

  19. Principle-based concept analysis: Caring in nursing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehian, Maryam; Heydari, Abbas; Aghebati, Nahid; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Mazloom, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this principle-based concept analysis was to analyze caring in nursing education and to explain the current state of the science based on epistemologic, pragmatic, linguistic, and logical philosophical principles. Methods A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze the nursing literature. The dataset included 46 English language studies, published from 2005 to 2014, and they were retrieved through PROQUEST, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, SCOPUS, and SID scientific databases. The key dimensions of the data were collected using a validated data-extraction sheet. The four principles of assessing pragmatic utility were used to analyze the data. The data were managed by using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The scientific literature that deals with caring in nursing education relies on implied meaning. Caring in nursing education refers to student-teacher interactions that are formed on the basis of human values and focused on the unique needs of the students (epistemological principle). The result of student-teacher interactions is the development of both the students and the teachers. Numerous applications of the concept of caring in nursing education are available in the literature (pragmatic principle). There is consistency in the meaning of the concept, as a central value of the faculty-student interaction (linguistic principle). Compared with other related concepts, such as “caring pedagogy,” “value-based education,” and “teaching excellence,” caring in nursing education does not have exact and clear conceptual boundaries (logic principle). Conclusion Caring in nursing education was identified as an approach to teaching and learning, and it is formed based on teacher-student interactions and sustainable human values. A greater understanding of the conceptual basis of caring in nursing education will improve the caring behaviors of teachers, create teaching-learning environments, and help experts in curriculum development

  20. Microwave noise field: active radiometry principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Jiri

    2012-06-01

    Principles of Active Radiometry are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.

  1. Theoretical bases analysis of scientific prediction on marketing principles

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Rosohata

    2012-01-01

    The article presents an overview categorical apparatus of scientific predictions and theoretical foundations results of scientific forecasting. They are integral part of effective management of economic activities. The approaches to the prediction of scientists in different fields of Social science and the categories modification of scientific prediction, based on principles of marketing are proposed.

  2. Theoretical bases analysis of scientific prediction on marketing principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Rosohata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview categorical apparatus of scientific predictions and theoretical foundations results of scientific forecasting. They are integral part of effective management of economic activities. The approaches to the prediction of scientists in different fields of Social science and the categories modification of scientific prediction, based on principles of marketing are proposed.

  3. Principles and Rules of Conduct in the Internal Audit Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Iuliana Dumitru

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the paper are to present the basic principles governing the internal audit mission as well as the code of conduct that must be observed in exercising such a mission, because the completion of a professional audit mission implies precisely the compliance with the two category of elements. Consequently, this paper is meant to be added to the practice specific to this field as support in exercising the internal audit according to the market requirements. For this purpose, we analysed the above-mentioned elements, presenting brief examples in support of the importance of the approached topics. Thus, from the practical point of view, we can notice the mechanisms used to apply these principles and how the compliance with the audit specific audit conduct lead to a more efficient activity. For these reasons, we can say that the paper is an element of interest both for the academic field (as a starting point for the support of practical approaches and also for the future researches in order to improve the specific audit activity.

  4. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  5. Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…

  6. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad F. Al-Asad; Ali M. Reza; Udomchai Techavipoo

    2014-01-01

    An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the si...

  7. Fundamental Principles of Conducting a Surgery Economic Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Although economic evaluation has become more popular among medical professionals, its use in surgery is still lacking. Economic evaluation is used even less so in plastic surgery in which health-related quality of life is of particular importance. The purpose of this paper, part of a tutorial series on Evidence Based Medicine, will focus on the fundamental principles of conducting a surgery economic analysis.

  8. Protein structure similarity from principle component correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to rapid expansion of protein structure databases in recent years, methods of structure comparison are becoming increasingly effective and important in revealing novel information on functional properties of proteins and their roles in the grand scheme of evolutionary biology. Currently, the structural similarity between two proteins is measured by the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD in their best-superimposed atomic coordinates. RMSD is the golden rule of measuring structural similarity when the structures are nearly identical; it, however, fails to detect the higher order topological similarities in proteins evolved into different shapes. We propose new algorithms for extracting geometrical invariants of proteins that can be effectively used to identify homologous protein structures or topologies in order to quantify both close and remote structural similarities. Results We measure structural similarity between proteins by correlating the principle components of their secondary structure interaction matrix. In our approach, the Principle Component Correlation (PCC analysis, a symmetric interaction matrix for a protein structure is constructed with relationship parameters between secondary elements that can take the form of distance, orientation, or other relevant structural invariants. When using a distance-based construction in the presence or absence of encoded N to C terminal sense, there are strong correlations between the principle components of interaction matrices of structurally or topologically similar proteins. Conclusion The PCC method is extensively tested for protein structures that belong to the same topological class but are significantly different by RMSD measure. The PCC analysis can also differentiate proteins having similar shapes but different topological arrangements. Additionally, we demonstrate that when using two independently defined interaction matrices, comparison of their maximum

  9. Student Engagement: A Principle-Based Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean S

    2015-08-04

    A principle-based concept analysis of student engagement was used to examine the state of the science across disciplines. Four major perspectives of philosophy of science guided analysis and provided a framework for study of interrelationships and integration of conceptual components which then resulted in formulation of a theoretical definition. Findings revealed student engagement as a dynamic reiterative process marked by positive behavioral, cognitive, and affective elements exhibited in pursuit of deep learning. This process is influenced by a broader sociocultural environment bound by contextual preconditions of self-investment, motivation, and a valuing of learning. Outcomes of student engagement include satisfaction, sense of well-being, and personal development. Findings of this analysis prove relevant to nursing education as faculty transition from traditional teaching paradigms, incorporate learner-centered strategies, and adopt innovative pedagogical methodologies. It lends support for curricula reform, development of more accurate evaluative measures, and creation of meaningful teaching-learning environments within the discipline.

  10. Student Engagement: A Principle-Based Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    A principle-based concept analysis of student engagement was used to examine the state of the science across disciplines. Four major perspectives of philosophy of science guided analysis and provided a framework for study of interrelationships and integration of conceptual components which then resulted in formulation of a theoretical definition. Findings revealed student engagement as a dynamic reiterative process marked by positive behavioral, cognitive, and affective elements exhibited in pursuit of deep learning. This process is influenced by a broader sociocultural environment bound by contextual preconditions of self-investment, motivation, and a valuing of learning. Outcomes of student engagement include satisfaction, sense of well-being, and personal development. Findings of this analysis prove relevant to nursing education as faculty transition from traditional teaching paradigms, incorporate learner-centered strategies, and adopt innovative pedagogical methodologies. It lends support for curricula reform, development of more accurate evaluative measures, and creation of meaningful teaching-learning environments within the discipline. PMID:26234950

  11. Screening for antibacterial principle and activity of Aerva javanica (Burm .f) Juss. ex Schult.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Srinivas; S Ram Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial principle and activity of Aerva javanica, a medicinal plant. Methods: Crude extracts of different parts of Aerva javanica were made with hexane, chloroform and methanol. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts was done by following the standard methodology, and antibacterial activity was evaluated by inhibition zone and MIC values. Crude extracts were resolved through HPTLC and the antibacterial activity of the separated compounds was evaluated by bioautography. Results: The yields of crude extracts made from different plant parts varied both with plant part and solvent. Methanolic extracts of leaf and flower have shown a wide range of phytochemicals and more antibacterial activity. HPTLC separation of extracts coupled with bioautography studies revealed that apigenin followed by rutin and kaempferol has shown antibacterial activity against more number of bacteria. Conclusions:The present study supports the use of Aerva javanica in the traditional medicine, and it can be used against bacterial infections.

  12. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  13. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  14. Microcalorimeter pulse analysis by means of principle component decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, C P; van der Kuur, J; Gottardi, L; Akamatsu, H

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray integral field unit for the Athena mission consists of a microcalorimeter transition edge sensor pixel array. Incoming photons generate pulses which are analyzed in terms of energy, in order to assemble the X-ray spectrum. Usually this is done by means of optimal filtering in either time or frequency domain. In this paper we investigate an alternative method by means of principle component analysis. This method attempts to find the main components of an orthogonal set of functions to describe the data. We show, based on simulations, what the influence of various instrumental effects is on this type of analysis. We compare analyses both in time and frequency domain. Finally we apply these analyses on real data, obtained via frequency domain multiplexing readout.

  15. Principles for microscale separations based on redox-active surfactants and electrochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslee, C A; Abbott, N L

    2001-10-15

    We report principles for microscale separations based on selective solubilization and deposition of sparingly water-soluble compounds by an aqueous solution of a redox-active surfactant. The surfactant, (11-ferrocenylundecyl)trimethylammonium bromide, undergoes a reversible change in micellization upon oxidation or reduction. This change in aggregation is exploited in a general scheme in which micelles of reduced surfactant are formed and then put in contact with a mixture of hydrophobic compounds leading to selective solubilization of the compounds. The micelles are then electrochemically disrupted, leading to the selective deposition of their contents. We measured the selectivity of the solubilization and deposition processes using mixtures of two model drug-like compounds, o-tolueneazo-beta-naphthol (I) and 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (II). By repeatedly solubilizing and depositing a mixture that initially contained equal mole fractions of each compound, we demonstrate formation of a product that contains 98.4% of I after six cycles. Because the aggregation states of redox-active surfactants are easily controlled within simple microfabricated structures, including structures that define small stationary volumes (e.g., wells of a microtiter plate) or flowing volumes of liquids (e.g., microfabricated channels), we believe these principles may be useful for the purification or analysis of compounds in microscale chemical process systems. When used for purification, these principles provide separation of surfactant and product.

  16. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  17. Principles and Rules of Conduct in the Internal Audit Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Iuliana Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the paper are to present the basic principles governing the internal audit mission as well as the code of conduct that must be observed in exercising such a mission, because the completion of a professional audit mission implies precisely the compliance with the two category of elements. Consequently, this paper is meant to be added to the practice specific to this field as support in exercising the internal audit according to the market requirements. For this pu...

  18. Antimicrobial effect of Calotropis procera active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Velmurugan; Vijayaragavan Thanga Viji; Mariavincent Michael Babu; Mary Josephine Punitha; Thavasimuthu Citarasu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of Calotropis procera (C. procera) active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes. Methods: C. procera leaf powder was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and screened by antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity against aquatic pathogens which isolated from shrimp/fish. After initial screening, the active extract was purified through column chromatography and again screened. Finally the active fractions were characterized by phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis. Results: In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral screening revealed that, the ethyl acetate extracts were effectively suppressed the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Vibrio harveyi (V. harveyi) and Aeromons hydrophila (A. hydrophila) of more than 20 mm zone of inhibition; the fungi Fusarium sp and the killer virus WSSV. The ethyl acetate extracts of C. procera incubated WSSV was failed to multiply its progeny in the in vivo system of shrimp P. monodon. The shrimp had 80% survival after WSSV challenge from the control group significantly (P<0.001) and also PCR detection confirmed that no WSSV transcription found in shrimp haemolymph. After purified the ethyl acetate extracts again antimicrobial screening performed and it concluded that the fraction namely F-II was effectively suppressed the bacterial growth and WSSV due to its enriched active principles such as cardiac glycosides, Phenols, alkaloids, Tannin and quinines. Surprisingly this fraction, F-II was effectively controlled the WSSV at 90% level at a highest significant level (P<0.001). Finally the structural characterization by GC-MS analysis revealed that, the F-II fraction contained Phenols including several other compounds such as 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Methyl tetradecanoate, Bicyclo[3.1.1] heptane, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, (1α,2β,5α)-and Hexadecanoic acid etc. Conclusions: The present study revealed

  19. THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY IN ORDER TO ENSURE A COMPREHENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Verhoglyadova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to an analysis of actual condition of a system of formation of investment projects on the complex reconstruction of territory of great cities as well as to the principles and order of planning and organizing the investment activity aimed at providing this task.

  20. THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY IN ORDER TO ENSURE A COMPREHENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoglyadova, N. I.; Levchynsky, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to an analysis of actual condition of a system of formation of investment projects on the complex reconstruction of territory of great cities as well as to the principles and order of planning and organizing the investment activity aimed at providing this task.

  1. Analysis of Operating Principles with S-system Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun; Chen, Po-Wei; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2011-01-01

    Operating principles address general questions regarding the response dynamics of biological systems as we observe or hypothesize them, in comparison to a priori equally valid alternatives. In analogy to design principles, the question arises: Why are some operating strategies encountered more frequently than others and in what sense might they be superior? It is at this point impossible to study operation principles in complete generality, but the work here discusses the important situation ...

  2. Analysis on Phase Transformation (ATP) Using Computational Thermal Principles (CTP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja; V. Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Computer analysis based on computational thermal principles to predict the transformation kinetics in steels at varying temperatures is of great practical importance in different areas of heat treatment. As a result, using the theory of transient state heat conduction with convective boundary conditions, an efficient program named "ATP" (Analysis on Phase Transformation) has been developed to determine the temperature distribution under different quenching conditions for different geometries such as plate, cylinder and sphere. In addition to these the microstructures and the corresponding hardness developed during quenching are predicted using Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagram incorporated in the analysis. To approve our work, dilation curves, Heisler charts and time-temperature history curve have been generated. This paper deals with basic objective of the program (ATP) determination of temperature, microstructure and hardness distribution and also includes an online prediction of austenite-pearlite and austenite-martensite transformation in steels along with the corresponding retained fractions. The quenching of a cylinder in gases, liquids and liquid metals is analyzed to show the non-liner effect of cylinder diameter on the temperature and microstructures. Further in the program we have considered a typical 1080 steel cylinders quenched in water for predicting and comparing the program results with experimental values and can be extended even to other grades of steels. The numerical results of program are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Finally the quenching process analysis described in the study appears to be a promising tool for the design of heat-treatment process parameters for steels.

  3. An Analysis of Electronic Products’ Advertisements Based onthe Cooperative Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚林

    2015-01-01

    In moderntimes,more and more electronic products appear.Advertisements as an important way to promotethe products are applied by more and more businessmen.Many advertisements violate the Cooperative Principles which is proposed by the philosopher Paul Grice.This paper attempts to analyze the violations of cooperative principles in English electronic products’ advertisements.

  4. Mathematical principles of signal processing Fourier and wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brémaud, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools in many applied sciences. The recent developments of wavelet analysis indicates that in spite of its long history and well-established applications, the field is still one of active research. This text bridges the gap between engineering and mathematics, providing a rigorously mathematical introduction of Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis and related mathematical methods, while emphasizing their uses in signal processing and other applications in communications engineering. The interplay between Fourier series and Fourier transforms is at the heart of signal processing, which is couched most naturally in terms of the Dirac delta function and Lebesgue integrals. The exposition is organized into four parts. The first is a discussion of one-dimensional Fourier theory, including the classical results on convergence and the Poisson sum formula. The second part is devoted to the mathematical foundations of signal processing - sampling, filtering, digital signal proc...

  5. Fractographic principles applied to Y-TZP mechanical behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carla Müller; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Rubo, José Henrique; Wang, Linda; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of fractography principles to determine the fracture toughness of Y-TZP dental ceramic in which KIc was measured fractographically using controlled-flaw beam bending techniques and to correlate the flaw distribution with the mechanical properties. The Y-TZP blocks studied were: Zirconia Zirklein (ZZ); Zirconcad (ZCA); IPS e.max ZirCad (ZMAX); and In Ceram YZ (ZYZ). Samples were prepared (16mm×4mm×2mm) according to ISO 6872 specifications and subjected to three-point bending at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Weibull probability curves (95% confidence bounds) were calculated and a contour plot with the Weibull modulus (m) versus characteristic strength (σ0) was used to examine the differences among groups. The fractured surface of each specimen was inspected in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for qualitative and quantitative fractographic analysis. The critical defect size (c) and fracture toughness (KIc) were estimated. The fractured surfaces of the samples from all groups showed similar fractographic characteristics, except ZCA showed pores and defects. Fracture toughness and the flexural strength values were not different among the groups except for ZCA. The characteristic strength (pzirconia polycrystalline ceramics. PMID:26722988

  6. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad F. Al-Asad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the signal subspace. The approach is based on the assumption that the signal and noise are independent and that the signal subspace is spanned by a subset of few principal eigenvectors. When applied on simulated and real ultrasound images, the proposed approach has outperformed some popular nonlinear denoising techniques such as 2D wavelets, 2D total variation filtering, and 2D anisotropic diffusion filtering in terms of edge preservation and maximum cleaning of speckle noise. It has also showed lower sensitivity to outliers resulting from the log transformation of the multiplicative noise.

  7. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Mesnage; Nicolas Defarge; Joël Spiroux de Vendômois; Gilles-Eric Séralini

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazo...

  8. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  9. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, Braden, E-mail: goddard.braden@gmail.com [Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Charlton, William [Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, EC-JRC-ITU, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (∼0.2 wt% {sup 235}U) to high enriched (>20 wt% {sup 235}U); compositions consisting of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, UO{sub 2}, UF{sub 6}, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since {sup 235}U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the {sup 235}U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the “known standard” method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact {sup 235}U sample masses.

  10. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  11. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  12. Impurity diffusion activation energies in Al from first principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonovic, D.; Sluiter, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Activation energies for vacancy-mediated impurity diffusion in face-centered-cubic aluminum have been computed ab initio for all technologically important alloying elements, as well as for most of the lanthanides. The so-called five-frequency rate model is used to establish the limiting vacancy inte

  13. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  14. Analysis of Ethical Principles and Rules of Public Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Khodaparasti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify factors influencing the ethical behavior of people in public or private organizations. Generally, ethics is as a system of values, allowing the organizations to be distinguished as bad or good. In order to investigate the ethical principles, the Charter of the Square Model is used in this study. The statistical sample includes 145 men and women who have been summoned from three types of structures: irrigation management, telecommunications, and City Hall of Urmia (Iran. Results show that the three factors considered in the study - the administrative regulations and employment laws and principles; beliefs and behaviors of clients; and knowledge of the principles and provisions of the Code of Ethics, affect employees, and therefore, special attention should be focused on these three issues.

  15. Analysis of the optimality principles responsible for vascular network architectonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, I A

    1999-01-01

    The equivalence of two optimality principles leading to Murray's law has been discussed. The first approach is based on minimization of biological work needed for maintaining the blood flow through the vessels at required level. The second one is the principle of minimal drag and lumen volume. Characteristic features of these principles are considered. An alternative approach leading to Murray's law has been proposed. For that we model the microcirculatory bed in terms of delivering vascular network with symmetrical bifurcation nodes, embedded uniformly into the cellular tissue. It was shown that Murray's law can be regarded as a direct consequence of the organism capacity for controlling the blood flow redistribution over the microcirculatory beds.

  16. Interaction of microtubules with active principles of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, G S; Kuchroo, K; Dasgupta, D

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous variety of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) was screened for its antimitotic activity using the microtubule-tubulin system isolated from mammalian tissue. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the whole extracts of the plant was carried out followed by partial purification of the whole extract of X.strumarium. The separated fractions obtained were identified and used for in vitro polymerization studies. The whole as well as partially separated chemical constituents of X. strumarium showed effective inhibition of tubulin polymerization. The results thus suggest that X. strumarium may possess antimitotic components. PMID:12002689

  17. Principles of Quantitative Estimation of the Chaperone-Like Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are able to interact with unfolded states of the protein molecule preventing their aggregation and facilitating folding of the polypeptide chain into the native structure. An understanding of the mechanism of protein aggregation is required to estimate the efficiency of action of chaperones in the test-systems based on the suppression of aggregation of protein substrates. The kinetic regimes of aggregation of proteins are discussed. The analysis of the aggregation kinetics of proteins shows that after passing the lag phase, aggregation follows, as a rule, first order kinetics. The quantitative characterization methods of the ability of chaperones to prevent aggregation of protein substrates have been elaborated.

  18. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF DISCIPLINARY-BLOCK TRAINING PRINCIPLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Mikhalev

    2014-01-01

    A traditional approach to organization of group-training method leads to rather sharp contra-dictions of «discreteness», «assortment» and «asynchronicity». A disciplinary-block training principle overcomes the indicated contradictions owing to breaking-up a term and a term disciplinary set in blocks, consecutive study of every block and distribution of examinations in «butt joints» between the blocks. The paper shows that the principle significantly improves important properties of education ...

  19. An Analysis of the Economy Principle Applied in Cyber Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖钰敏

    2015-01-01

    With the development of network technology,cyber language,a new social dialect,is widely used in our life.The author analyzes how the economy principle is applied in cyber language from three aspects—word-formation,syntax and non-linguistic symbol.And the author collects,summarizes and analyzes the relevant language materials to prove the economy principle’s real existence in chat room and the reason why the economy principle is applied widely in cyber space.

  20. Agile Principles Applied to a Complex Long Term Research Activity - The PERIMETER Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Eileen; Sivrikaya, Fikret; Haemmerle, Christian; Salgarelli, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies that are based on similar principles, as defined in the Agile Manifesto. Agile software projects are characterized by iterative and incremental development, accommodation of changes and active customer participation. The popularity of agile principles is steadily increasing. Their adopters report that this development process leads to higher software quality and customer satisfaction ratings when compared to using ...

  1. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  2. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  3. SAMPLING PRINCIPLE AND TECHNOLOGY IN WAVELET ANALYSIS FOR SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Sampling principle and characteristics and edge effect of orthogonal wavelet transform of signals are researched. Two samples of signals and wavelet bases must be taken in wavelet transform. In the second sample sampling interval or sampling length in different frequency range will be automatically adjusted. Wavelet transform can detect singular points. Both ends of signals are singular points. Edge effect is not avoidable.

  4. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  5. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Mironchuk V. A.; Sholin Y. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides and justifies the most preferred principle of innovative activity in agro-industrial complex - the development of multilevel model based on marketing concept of spheres and its approaches to managing innovation. The concept aims to create a competitive scientific and technical production, demand in the market through active marketing of the scientific-technical and innovation industry

  6. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchuk V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides and justifies the most preferred principle of innovative activity in agro-industrial complex - the development of multilevel model based on marketing concept of spheres and its approaches to managing innovation. The concept aims to create a competitive scientific and technical production, demand in the market through active marketing of the scientific-technical and innovation industry

  7. The Principles of Modern Attacks Analysis for Penetration Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern cyber defense requires a realistic and thorough understanding of web application security issues. Anyone can learn to sling a few web hacks, but web application penetration testing requires something deeper. Major web application flaws and their exploitation, a field-tested and repeatable process to consistently finding these flaws and convey them will be discussed in this article. Modern attacks principles will be analyzed on purpose to create the most sufficient penetration tests.

  8. [Analysis of efficiency of human sleep by Pareto principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskiĭ, E V; Grachev, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of system assessment efficiency of human night sleep which was registered on a large number of people without health problems, and data on the modeling of sleep structure by Pareto principle were showed. In contrast to the assessment of sleep efficiency, as the ratio of the duration of electrophysiological sleep to the total time of sleep, the introduced method increase adequacy assessment by taking into gender factor in the somnology and personalized medicine.

  9. Alanna Conners and the Origins of Principled Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Alanna was one of the most important pioneers in the development of not just sophisticated algorithms for analyzing astronomical data but more importantly an overall viewpoint emphasizing the use of statistically sound principles in place of blind application of cook-book recipes, or black boxes. I will outline some of the threads of this viewpoint, emphasizing time series data, with a focus on the importance of these developments for the Age of Digital Astronomy that we are entering.

  10. An Analysis of Yusuf (AS's Counter-Cyclical Principle and its Implementation in the Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study examines the present-day implementation of the counter-cyclical principle suggested by Yusuf (AS around four thousand years ago, in response to the King of Egypt's dream, to overcome the famine of seven years through saving grain during seven years of abundance. In general, the counter-cyclical principle encourages saving during times of plenty and spending during times of scarcity, activities which today help to stabilise the business-cycle.Method - Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. This paper reviews the commodity-based currency systems proposed before, during and after the Second World War by several prominent economists (particularly Keynes, 1938; Graham, 1940; Hayek, 1943; Grondona, 1950 and Lietaer, 2001 all of which basically incorporated the counter-cyclical principle of Prophet Yusuf (AS. The primary purpose of these commodity-based currency systems is to stabilise the real value of money in order to improve macroeconomic stability. Additionally, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility.Results - The Grondona system would partially stabilise the real value of each country's national currency in terms of a range of durable, essential, basic imported commodities, thereby also partially stabilising the prices of the selected commodities in terms of the national currency of each country implementing the system.Conclusion - The Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility as compared to other commodity-based currency systems is more practical. Its primary advantage in comparison to other proposals of commodity reserve currency is that it could be implemented in parallel with the existing monetary system. Accordingly, it could be taken as a preliminary step towards a monetary system based on real money such as gold dinar.Keywords : Counter-cyclical principle

  11. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  12. BrainModes: a principled approach to modeling and measuring large-scale neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakspear, Michael J; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Ritter, Petra

    2009-09-30

    Complex systems, such as the brain, exhibit multiple levels of organization due to processes which support the separation of scales across time and/or space. That is, cooperative phenomena--or "modes" of activity--occurring at one scale give rise to coherent spatiotemporal structures at a coarser scale. In turn, structures at the coarser scale constrain--and hence influence--emerging activity at a finer scale. BrainModes is an annual scientific summit which seeks to bring together experimental, computational and theoretical neuroscientists engaged at different levels of organization, with the goal of advancing a principled approach to understanding brain function based on the concept of cooperative phenomena in complex systems. Phenomena of particular interest include synchronization, stochastic influences, and spatiotemporal processes in both healthy and pathological states such as seizures. This Special Issue reports the 2008 BrainModes Workshop, held in Amsterdam (December 2008) which focused on the application of this framework to the analysis of brain oscillations and synchronization phenomena across time scales. PMID:19607859

  13. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  14. Activity-Based Management principles and implementation opportunities of the ABM system

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the principles of Activity-Based Management and treats the implementation stages of it in enterprises from steel industry of Romania. The ABC method becomes the main tool of providing information for the ABM method. Thus, the ABM method becomes an important tool of obtaining performances in business.

  15. Ascaridole as a pharmacologically active principle of "Paico," a medicinal Peruvian plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, E; Umeyama, K; Saito, Y; Yamazaki, M; Satake, M

    1993-07-01

    "Paico," Chenopodium ambrosioides L., is a traditional Peruvian medicine which is considered to be nervine, antirheumatic, anthelmintic, etc. An attempt was made to isolate the component having sedative and/or analgesic properties from "Paico" and "Aritasou" (the Japanese name for C. ambrosioides). Ascaridole was identified as the active principle in both materials. PMID:8374999

  16. A review and analysis of renewable energy curtailment schemes and Principles of Access: Transitioning towards business as usual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, the EU has driven forward the development and connection of renewable power sources across Europe. This has changed the way in which distribution networks operate, moving from a passive system, to a more active system where generation and demand are located closer together with system states being more complex and variable. Increased penetration of renewable generation into distribution networks is presenting a number of challenges to Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) including the provision of network access in capacity constrained networks. The introduction of Active Network Management (ANM) is enabling an increase in renewable generation connections through enhanced network access in otherwise ‘full’ networks. This paper presents a way in which DNOs might move towards Business as Usual (BAU) arrangements for ANM schemes. It is necessary to determine the curtailment arrangements, or Principles of Access (PoA), and from this estimate generation access under ANM and the flow of services and money for different scenarios. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review, detailed case study evaluation on early ANM schemes, quantitative curtailment assessment for different PoA and a qualitative analysis of business models for different ANM PoA is presented in turn with conclusions drawn from these three approaches. - Highlights: • Literature review of Principles of Access. • Detailed case study analysis of Principles of Access in ANM projects. • Quantitative analysis of different Principles of Access. • Proposed business models for ANM as business as usual

  17. Modeling Hurricanes using Principle Component Analysis in conjunction with Non-Response Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Rebecca D

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how principle component analysis can be used to determine the distinct factors that house the terms that explain the variance among the co-dependent variables and how non-response analysis can be applied to model the non-functional relationship that exist in a dynamic system. Moreover, the analysis indicates that there are pumping actions or ebb and flow between the pressure and the water temperature readings near the surface of the water days before a tropical storm forms in the Atlantic Basin and that there is a high correlation between storm conditions and buoy conditions three-four days before a storm forms. Further analysis shows that that the relationship among the variables is conical.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhrouf Amina; Mahdouani Kacem; Jrah Hanene; Kouidhi Bochra; Chaieb Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ) and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV) and the 2, 3-bis...

  19. Analysis of the application of the governance principles of sustainable development to territorial research-action.

    OpenAIRE

    Miedes Ugarte, Blanca

    2006-01-01

    International audience This communication summarizes the work and the debates that are being carried out within the CAENTI WP5, Analysis of the application of the governance principles of sustainable development to territorial research-action. After a description of WP5 objectives and 2006 performance, main controversial points of WP5 will be presented. In particular the research action concept, the discussion on the principles of territorial governance of sustainable development and the l...

  20. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  1. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  2. The juridical nature of the European Court of Justice and the principles of its activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Hasneziri

    2015-07-01

    In this work, especially in the second part, there shall be presented several decisions of the European Court of Justice as well, that have to do with its interpretation on the dispositions of the establishing Treaties as well as the analysis of the above mentioned principles. At the end of this work, there will be given its conclusions as well as the bibliography where it is based on.

  3. On the neglect of causality principles in solar activity - climate relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Many research papers have claimed to demonstrate close relations between solar activity and the terrestrial climate. In most cases the relations have been based on comparisons between time series of solar activity parameters, for instance sunspot numbers, and climate parameters, for instance terrestrial temperatures. However, many of the reported close relations are based on skilfully manipulated data and neglect of basic causality principles. For cause-effect relations to be reliably established, the cause must obviously happen prior to the effects. Thus it is problematic to use, for instance, running averages of parameters if the result depends too much on posterior elements of the causative time series or precursory elements of the effects. Even more neglected are the causality principles for cause-effect relations with a strongly varying source function. Damping of source variations by smoothing data handling introduces additional implied delays, which should be considered in the judgement of apparent correlations between processed time series of cause and effect parameters. The presentation will discuss examples of frequently quoted solar activity-climate relations (e.g., by Reid, Friis-Christensen, and Svensmark), which violate basic causality principles.

  4. A Tentative Analysis on the Principles of Subtitling Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to rapidly development on information technologies and economy globalization, the international culture inter⁃actions through movies and TV sequels have changed audiences viewing experience greatly. Accompanying with the actors ’and the actresses’own voices and natural breathing, the subtitled ones enable almost all the audiences to have a genuine, authentic movie time. Whereas the dubbed ones are comparatively costly and time consuming in the process of reproduction, it have gradu⁃ally faded out from our sights. This thesis conducts a brief survey and a tentative analysis on the strategies of subtitling translation with the case study of the famous TV series Emma, which is recomposed from one of greatest British Romantic Author Jane Aus⁃tin’s masterpieces.

  5. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Zorzal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  6. A new ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with background

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, C

    1999-01-01

    Inspired by the recent proposal by Feldman and Cousins of a ``unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals'' based on a choice of ordering in Neyman's construction of classical confidence intervals, I propose a new ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with background which minimizes the effect on the resulting confidence intervals of the observation of less background events than expected. The new ordering principle is applied to the calculation of the confidence region implied by the recent null result of the KARMEN neutrino oscillation experiment.

  7. New ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, C.

    1999-03-01

    Inspired by the recent proposal by Feldman and Cousins of a ``unified approach to the classical statistical analysis of small signals'' based on a choice of ordering in Neyman's construction of classical confidence intervals, I propose a new ordering principle for the classical statistical analysis of Poisson processes with a background which minimizes the effect on the resulting confidence intervals of the observation of fewer background events than expected. The new ordering principle is applied to the calculation of the confidence region implied by the recent null result of the KARMEN neutrino oscillation experiment.

  8. Analysis of variable-rate well-test pressure data using Duhamel's principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.G.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1986-10-01

    This work considers the use of Duhamel's principle to analyze pressure drawdown and buildup data when both bottomhole pressures (BHP's) and sandface flow rates are available. This analysis procedure uses Duhamel's principle to convert pressure data obtained when the sandface rate is variable to the equivalent pressure data that would be obtained for a constant sandface rate of production. The equivalent constant-rate pressure data then can be analyzed with standard procedures (semilog analysis of type-curve matching).

  9. Laminar flow and convective transport processes scaling principles and asymptotic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Laminar Flow and Convective Transport Processes: Scaling Principles and Asymptotic Analysis presents analytic methods for the solution of fluid mechanics and convective transport processes, all in the laminar flow regime. This book brings together the results of almost 30 years of research on the use of nondimensionalization, scaling principles, and asymptotic analysis into a comprehensive form suitable for presentation in a core graduate-level course on fluid mechanics and the convective transport of heat. A considerable amount of material on viscous-dominated flows is covered.A unique feat

  10. Principle of interdependent morphostructural analysis for oil- and gas-prospecting purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, N.G.

    1979-01-01

    The known theoretical conclusion that fault disorders which are channels for movement upwards through the section and removal into the near-surface layers of hydrocarbons which form geochemical, geotemperature and other anomalies form above the neotectonic active local structures in the sedimentary mantle is the basis for grouping morphostructural studies and direct methods of oil and gas prospecting. A concept is developed regarding the continuity of the processes occurring in the depths of the earth and on its surface, whose complex interaction governs the formation of relief and the correspondence of its form to geological content. A new theoretical principle is advanced for interdependent analysis of the relief, structure and thermalflux of the depths of the earth as the main energy source of tectonic (neotectonic) movements of the earth's crust. This grouping of morphostructural and geotemperature studies which was conducted for the first time for local morphostructures of the Dnieper-Donets oil and gas region made it possible not only to reveal neotectonically active structural traps, but also the presence in them of oil and gas formations.

  11. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Poplavskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  12. Value of Earth Observations: Key principles and techniques of socioeconomic benefits analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L.; Macauley, M.; Bernknopf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Internationally, multiple organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal benefits that governments, businesses, and NGOs can derive from applications of Earth-observing satellite observations, research, and models. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services by companies, agencies, and civil society. There are, however, significant efforts needed to bridge the Earth sciences and social and economic sciences fields to build capacity, develop case studies, and refine analytic techniques in quantifying socioeconomic benefits from the use of Earth observations. Some government programs, such as the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program have initiated activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from applications of Earth observations research, and to develop multidisciplinary models for organizations' decision-making activities. A community of practice has conducted workshops, developed impact analysis reports, published a book, developed a primer, and pursued other activities to advance analytic methodologies and build capacity. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to pursue a research agenda on analytic techniques, develop a body of knowledge, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  13. The Operating Principle of a Fully Solid State Active Magnetic Regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative refrigeration technology, magnetocaloric refrigeration has the potential to be safer, quieter, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than the conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. This paper presents an operating principle of a fully solid state AMR, in which an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink is proposed. The operating principle of the fully solid state AMR is based on moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron or aluminum), which are employed to replace the heat transfer fluid. Such fully solid state AMR would provide a significantly higher heat transfer rate than a conventional AMR because the conductivity of moving solid rods/plates is high and it enables the increase in the machine operating frequency hence the cooling capacity. The details of operating principle are presented and discussed here. One of the key enabling features for this technology is the contact between the moving rods/sheets and magnetocaloric material, and heat exchange mechanism at the heat source/sink. This paper provides an overview of the design for a fully solid state magnetocaloric refrigeration system along with guidelines for their optimal design.

  14. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  15. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  16. PARAMETRIC VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE BASED ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF COSSERAT CONTINUUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongwu; Wang Hui; Chen Biaosong; Xie Zhaoqian

    2007-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed based on the parametric variational principle for elastic-plastic analysis of Cosserat continuum. The governing equations of the classic elastic-plastic problem are regularized by adding rotational degrees of freedom to the conventional translational degrees of freedom in conventional continuum mechanics. The parametric potential energy principle of the Cosserat theory is developed, from which the finite element formulation of the Cosserat theory and the corresponding parametric quadratic programming model are constructed. Strain localization problems are computed and the mesh independent results are obtained.

  17. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...... of culture is a focusing on cultural misunderstanding; and the way to obtain relevant material on such misunderstanding is, according to me, to get people to talk about things that surprised them, that the embarassed about, or simply gor irritated withm int heir meeting with foreign cultures. I also point...

  18. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

  19. Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchai, Daisy; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, Sasikala R; Pitchai, Gnanamani

    2010-01-01

    Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plan...

  20. Analysis on the Shift of Personal Pronoun in the Chinese Language - in Terms of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2013-01-01

    Personal pronoun shift is a common phenomenon that by using second or third personal pronoun, the speaker means first personal pronoun;or speaker means second personal pronoun but uses first or third personal pronoun instead. Since the phe⁃nomenon frequently appears in the Chinese language, a great number of linguists have studied the personal pronoun and the inter⁃pretation of their usage. However, the study for the causes of the phenomenon is not so systemic. This paper aims to explain the personal pronoun shift from the perspective of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle, which can help to discover the rela⁃tionship between Cooperative principle and politeness in the shift of personal pronoun.

  1. The principles of the Brazilian Unified Health System, studied based on similitude analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Munhen de Pontes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze and compare the incorporation of the ethical-doctrinal and organizational principles into the social representations of the Unified Health System (SUS among health professionals. METHOD: a study grounded in Social Representations Theory, undertaken with 125 subjects, in eight health institutions in Rio de Janeiro. The free word association technique was applied to the induction term "SUS", the words evoked being analyzed using the techniques of the Vergès matrix and similitude analysis. RESULTS: it was identified that the professionals' social representations vary depending on their level of education, and that those with higher education represent a subgroup responsible for the process of representational change identified. This result was confirmed through similitude analysis. CONCLUSION: a process of representational change is ongoing, in which it was ascertained that the professionals incorporated the principles of the SUS into their symbolic constructions. The similitude analysis was shown to be a fruitful technique for research in nursing.

  2. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  3. Technical design and principle test of active magnetic bearings for the turbine compressor of HTR-10GT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Lei, E-mail: shlinet@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Suyuan; Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Xu Yang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-10-15

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor coupled with gas-turbine circle (HTR-10GT) has been carried out by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University in China since year 2002. In the power convention unit (PCU) of the HTR-10GT, the contact-free and no-lubricating active magnetic bearings (AMB) are adopted to support the vertical high-speed turbine machine shaft, because of their numerous advantages over the conventional oil mechanical bearings under the special reactor operating conditions. Based on the previous studies and small tests of the AMBs, the final engineering design of the AMBs for the HTR-10GT turbine compressor rotor has been finished recently. This paper firstly introduces the design principle and technical futures of the AMBs. Then the main structure, as well as the key dimensions and parameters of the different AMB components are illustrated in detail. Besides, the rotor dynamic analysis is conducted to provide the mathematic model for the unbalance attenuation with high performance control system design in order to smoothly pass across the first two bending critical speeds before reaching the rated speed of 15,000 rpm. Furthermore, a small AMB flexible test system in compliance with the dynamic similarity principle of the helium turbine compressor rotor of the HTR-10GT, has been set up to validate the advanced control algorithms and accumulate design and operation experiences for the next full scale experiment in the near future.

  4. Eugenol--the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavenra, H; Diwakr, B T; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K A

    2006-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play an important role in the modulation of inflammatory conditions in humans. PMNL cells recruited at the site of inflammation, release inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species. Among these, leukotrienes are implicated in pathophysiology of allergic and inflammatory disorders like asthma, allergic rhinitis, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in biosynthetic pathway of leukotrienes. Our earlier studies showed that spice phenolic active principles significantly inhibit 5-LO enzyme in human PMNLs. In this study we have further characterized the inhibitory mechanism of eugenol, the active principle of spice-clove on 5-LO enzyme and also its effect on leukotriene C((4)) (LTC(4)). Substrate dependent enzyme kinetics showed that the inhibitory effect of eugenol on 5-LO was of a non-competitive nature. Further, eugenol was found to significantly inhibit the formation of LTC(4) in calcium ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated PMNL cells. These data clearly suggest that eugenol inhibits 5-LO by non-competitive mechanism and also inhibits formation of LTC(4) in human PMNL cells and thus may have beneficial role in modulating 5-LO pathway in human PMNL cells.

  5. Overseas and Domestic Research Status of Analysis of Humor from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雨娟

    2016-01-01

    In Harvard University in 1967, an American linguistic philosopher, Grice, firstly put forward Cooperative Principle. From then on, overseas and domestic scholars began to pay much attention on CP, and analysis of humor from CP also became popular among researchers. The thesis reviews overseas and domestic research status of the research field from the violation of CP, in order to offer some constructive suggestions and research directions.

  6. Understanding the adsorption behavior of surface active molecules on ZnO nanostructures by experimental and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Satvinder; Singh, Janpreet; Saini, G S S; Mehta, D S; Singh, Gurinder; Tripathi, S K; Kaura, Aman

    2015-11-11

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with different morphologies are prepared in the presence of surface active molecules such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), Tween 80 and Triton X-100 by a chemical method. The experimental and first principles methods are employed to understand the microscopic origin of the asymmetric growth mechanism of ZnO in the presence of various surface active molecules. Effect of increase in the amount of surface active molecules and temperature is studied on the growth morphology of ZnO. An innovative method is developed to synthesize ZnO nanowires (NWs) in the presence of SDS. Spherical nanoparticles (NPs) to spherical clusters are obtained in the presence of Triton X-100 and Tween 80. These results are then supported by first principles calculations. The adsorption of the -OH functional group on both polar and nonpolar surfaces of ZnO is modelled by using density functional theory (DFT). The calculated binding energy (BE) is almost equivalent on both the surfaces with no preference on any particular surface. The calculated value of BE shows that the -OH group is physio-adsorbed on both the surfaces. This results in the spherical morphology of nanoparticles prepared in the presence of Tween 80. Bader charge analysis shows that the charge transfer mainly takes place on top two layers of the ZnO(101[combining macron]0) surface. The absence of high values of electron localization function (ELF) reflects the lack of covalent bonding between the -OH group and the ZnO(101[combining macron]0) surface. PMID:26510134

  7. Oncogenic and tumor-promoting Spermatophytes and Pteridophytes and their active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, N R; Bingel, A S; Fong, H H; Saleh, A A; Christenson, G M; Saufferer, S M

    1976-08-01

    A survey and discussion are presented of plants classified as Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, extracts of which have been shown to be oncogenic or tumor-promoting in animals. The active oncogenic and tumor-promoting principles, where known, have been identified. They represent tannins; pyrrolizidine, indole, tropolone, quinoline, purine, and benzophenanthridine alkaloids; nitroso compounds; triterpene glycosides; lignans; isoflavans; allyl benzenoids; simple (nu-pyrenes; and carbocyclic hydroxy acids. A total of 28 compounds of known structure have been identified as oncogens and several phorbol esters as tumor-promoters. Plants known to contain any of the 28 oncogens (excluding shikimic acid and caffeine) have been tabulated; they represent at least 454 species, 110 genera, and 34 families of Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta.

  8. In vitro antituberculous activity of thymoquinone, an active principle of nigella sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Nigella sativa seed has been used in folk medicine against many ailments including infections. The present study was aimed to investigate activity of thymoquinone, in vitro, against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: Mycobacteria obtained from patients of King Fahd Hospital of University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia were subcultured at 37 degree C in MGIT tubes containing Middle brook broth and OADC growth supplement and growth detected by BACTEC Micro MGIT fluoro meter on day 10. Mycobacteria were then inoculated in MGIT tubes containing thymoquinone 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 micro g/ml, streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml or controls in Middle brook broth plus supplement, incubated at 37 degree C for 14 days and read daily for fluorescence. In addition, isolates were inoculated in culture tubes containing Middle brook agar (plus supplement) in presence of thymoquinone 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 micro g/ml, streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml or controls, and incubated at 37 degree C for 4 weeks. Results: In Middle brook broth, fluorescence test for tuberculosis was negative with thymoquinone 20, 40 and 80 micro g/ml and streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml up to day 14. With controls, thymoquinone 2.5, 5 and 10 micro g/ml fluorescence was detectable from day 10 to 14. In Middle brook agar, there was no visible growth of tubercle bacillus with thymoquinone 20, 40 and 80 micro g/ml and streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml, however, with controls, thymoquinone 2.5 and 5 micro g/ml abundant and with 10 micro g/ml few colonies were observed. Conclusions: Thymoquinone possesses activity against M. tuberculosis with MIC of 20 micro g/ml and has potential for further investigation. Our study confirms the benefit of N. sativa in native medicine against chest infection. (author)

  9. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  10. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  11. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  13. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  14. Analysis of Mixing Principle and Optimization of Parameter on the Single-shaft Horizontal Total Mixed Ration Mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; WANG Defu

    2008-01-01

    The main structure and working principle of the single-shaft horizontal total mixed ration mixer was discussed.For studying the mixing principle,the analysis of force and motion of the material on the paddle were made,and paddle angle and rotational speed of the rotor were determined by the experiment,the main mixing ways were explained.

  15. Spatio-temporal spike train analysis for large scale networks using the maximum entropy principle and Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the dynamics of neural networks is a major challenge in experimental neuroscience. For that purpose, a modelling of the recorded activity that reproduces the main statistics of the data is required. In the first part, we present a review on recent results dealing with spike train statistics analysis using maximum entropy models (MaxEnt). Most of these studies have focused on modelling synchronous spike patterns, leaving aside the temporal dynamics of the neural activity. However, the maximum entropy principle can be generalized to the temporal case, leading to Markovian models where memory effects and time correlations in the dynamics are properly taken into account. In the second part, we present a new method based on Monte Carlo sampling which is suited for the fitting of large-scale spatio-temporal MaxEnt models. The formalism and the tools presented here will be essential to fit MaxEnt spatio-temporal models to large neural ensembles. (paper)

  16. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed

  17. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  18. Analysis on the Foucault pendulum by De Alembert Principle and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhiwu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we handle the problem of the motion of the Foucault pendulum. We explore a new method induced from the De Alembert Principle giving the motional equations without small-amplitude oscillation approximation. The result of the problem is illustrated by numerical analysis showing the non-linear features and then with a comparison with a common method, showing the merit of this new original method. The result also shows that the argument changes in near-harmonic mode and the swing plane changes in pulsing way.

  19. English Euphemism and its Linguistic Analysis from the Cooperative Principle Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕春意

    2014-01-01

    Euphemism is a common phenomenon in languages. It’s a more mild and polite way to say something unpleasant and embarrassing. It’s a figure of speech as well as a cultural phenomenon. Euphemism functions to enhance the effect of communica-tion and maintain harmonious interpersonal relations. With the development of modern society, it has become an indispensable element in people's interactions. Many linguists and scholars have studied this linguistic phenomenon from different angles. Based on their achievements, the author has a tentative analysis of the three kinds of negative effects by using euphemism from the per-spective of Cooperative Principle.

  20. Global Analysis of New Malaria Intrahost Models with a Competitive Exclusion Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Iggidr, Abderrahman; Sallet, Gauthier; Tewa, Jean-Jules; 10.1137/050643271

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a malaria within-host model with k classes of age for the parasitized red blood cells and n strains for the parasite. We provide a global analysis for this model. A competitive exclusion principle holds. If R0, the basic reproduction number, satisfies R0 1, then generically there is a unique endemic equilibrium which corresponds to the endemic stabilization of the most virulent parasite strain and to the extinction of all the other parasites strains. We prove that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable on the positive orthant if a mild sufficient condition is satisfied.

  1. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu M. Marya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29% and eugenyl acetate (19.10%. Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Data were analyzed using student t-test (<0.05. CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy.

  2. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu M.; Satija, Gunjan; J., Avinash; Nagpal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Rohtash; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2012-01-01

    The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29%) and eugenyl acetate (19.10%). Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Data were analyzed using student t-test (P < 0.05). CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy. PMID:22997520

  3. Examining guidelines for the site selection for geological disposal. Research activities principle for future risk assessment and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A draft for the committee in charge of nuclear safety regulations regarding geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities is presented. The report particularly concerns with a line of policy or principle at the stage of investigation activities for the site selection and site characterization. IAEA guidelines are consulted. (S. Ohno)

  4. First-principles analysis of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for transition metal complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hidekazu

    2016-10-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is widely used for the characterization of magnetism of materials. However, information from XMCD related to the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures is not fully utilized due to the lack of reliable theoretical tools for spectral analysis. In this work, the first-principles configuration interaction (CI) calculations for X-ray absorption spectra developed by the author were extended for the calculation of XMCD, where the Zeeman energy was taken into the Hamiltonian of the CI to mimic magnetic polarization in the solid state. This technique was applied to interpret the L2,3 XMCD from 3d transition metal complex oxides, such as NiFe2O4 and FeTiO3. The experimental XMCD spectra were quantitatively reproduced using this method. The oxidation states as well as the magnetic ordering between transition metal ions on crystallographically different sites in NiFe2O4 can be unambiguously determined. A first-principles analysis of XMCD in FeTiO3 revealed the presence of Fe3+ and Ti3+ ions, which indicates that the charge transfer from Fe to Ti ions occurs. The origin of magnetic polarization of Ti ions in FeTiO3 was also discussed.

  5. Qualitative identification of the active principles in Citrullus colocynthis and evaluation of its teratogenic effects in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Abdalla Elgerwi; Zuhira Benzekri; Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub; Abubakr El-Mahmoudy

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to identify the active contents of Citrullus colocynthis plant and to examine their teratogenicity in rats. The fruit pulp of the poisonous plant was collected randomly from Suq-Alkhamis district, Tripoli, Libya. Methods: The glucoside colocynthin was isolated by lead acetate method while the alkaloids and saponins were isolated by maceration method. These active principles were then identified by chemical tests, color reactions and thin layer chromatograph...

  6. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE STRATEGIC FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha KHUDYK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical and methodological principles of strategic financial analysis of capital. The necessity of strategic financial analysis of capital as a methodological basis for study strategies is proved in modern conditions of a high level of dynamism, uncertainty and risk. The methodological elements of the strategic indicators, the factors, the methods of study, the subjects of analysis, the sources of incoming and outgoing information are justified in the system of financial management, allowing to improve its theoretical foundations. It is proved that the strategic financial analysis of capital is a continuous process, carried out in an appropriate sequence at each stage of capital circulation. The system of indexes is substantiated, based on the needs of the strategic financial analysis. The classification of factors determining the size and structure of company’s capital is grounded. The economic nature of capital of the company is clarified. We consider that capital is a stock of economic resources in the form of cash, tangible and intangible assets accumulated by savings, which is used by its owner as a factor of production and investment resource in the economic process in order to obtain profit, to ensure the growth of owners’ prosperity and to achieve social effect.

  7. Principles of multilevel analysis and its relevance to studies of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Akke; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin

    2012-10-01

    When studying antimicrobial resistance it is clear that individuals do not exist in isolation and are often clustered into groups. Data within groups are generally not independent, but standard statistical approaches assume independence of observations. When data are clustered (e.g. students in schools, patients in general practices, etc.) multilevel analysis can be used. The overall idea of multilevel analysis is that the clustering is taken into account in the analysis and provides additional information on the interactions between individuals and groups. The lowest level is often the individual and additional levels are formed by clustering in groups (the higher levels). This article introduces the principles behind multilevel modelling. The approach is to provide readers with sufficient information to understand outcomes in which this statistical technique is used, without expecting the reader to be able to perform such an analysis. As multilevel modelling can be seen as an extension of linear regression analysis, this is the starting point of the article. Other concepts and terms are introduced throughout, resulting in the explanation of the accompanying article on antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in Irish general practice (Vellinga A, Tansey S, Hanahoe B et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67: 2523-30).

  8. Study on Effect of IH764-3, an Active Principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, in Inducing Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东强; 姜慧卿; 修贺明; 张晓岚

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-fibrotic mechanism of Salviae miltiorrhizae from the view of proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSC).Methods: IH764-3, an active principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, was used to intervene in the cultured HSC in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the cell apoptosis was examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling method (TUNEL).Results: MTT showed that IH764-3 has obvious inhibition on the proliferation of HSC. Specific cell apoptosis figures of HSC, such as chromatin agglutination, were seen under electron microscopy in the IH764-3 treated group. By flow cytometer, it was shown that the HSC apoptosis rate in the IH764-3 treated group was higher than that in the control group, and the apoptosis inducing effect of IH764-3 was dose- and time-dependent. TUNEL analysis showed that the HSC apoptotsis rate was 28.3±1.5% after being incubated for 48 hrs with IH764-3, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.7±0.6%, P<0.05).Conclusion: IH764-3 could inhibit the proliferation of HSC and induce its apoptosis. These effects may be one of the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of Salviae miltiorrhizae.

  9. First-principles study on the catalytic activity of the Pt/Ce4O8 nanocluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption properties of Pt on the Ce4O8 nanocluster are studied using the first-principles projector-augmented-wave (PAW) method based on density functional theory (DFT) within local density approximation (LDA) and with the inclusion of on-site Coulomb interaction (DFT+U). The adsorption structures are classified into three types: the single-bond, the double-bond and the multi-bond structures. By a systematic analysis on the most stable configuration, it is found that: (1) there exists a strong interaction between the Pt atom and the Ce4O8 nanocluster with a lager adsorption energy than that on the CeO2 (111) surface; (2) The Pt atom loses electrons (0.42 e), resulting in the reduction of a Ce4+ to Ce3+; (3) A new gap state is induced in the gap between the O2p and Ce4f states, which is very close to the Fermi level and makes the Pt/Ce4O8 cluster more active. The results are helpful in under- standing the synergistic effects of the Pt-CeO2 interaction at the nanoscale. (authors)

  10. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  11. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INSPECTION AND SUPERVISING ACTIVITY OF BANK OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Макарович Заернюк

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article established practices of the organization of control and supervision of Bank of Russia of activity of the Russian commercial banks are considered.  The analysis is carried out and the assessment of a level of development of a substantial component of bank regulation and supervision is given.Purpose: Research of tendencies and problems in the organization of control and supervising activity of Bank of Russia at the present stage.Methodology: General scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparisons, generalizations, system approach. In the course of use of the actual material methods of the economical and statistical analysis were used.Results: The conclusion that the excessive and bureaucratized control from the Central bank interferes with dynamic development of the banking sector is drawn. It is required to generation of the new thinking which is expressing in transfer of accent from need of strict, in many respects of formal, application of bank instructions and regulations on formation of professional opinion of the controler, increase of its responsibility for results of checks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-1

  13. Layering Principles from One Approach to Isentropic Analysis and Modeling of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorologists often treat potential temperature (theta)—the temperature a parcel would have if moved adiabatically to the surface—as a vertical coordinate. The resulting layers (isentropes) are lagrangian-like. Bosart, in a 2002 tribute to Reed, writes "PV as a tracer [along isentropes] enabled Reed, Danielson … to adopt a Lagrangian perspective in studies of cyclogenesis and upper-level frontogenesis." Bosart also mentions Shapiro's work on clear-air turbulence and Bleck's modeling: "Bleck ... simulated cyclogenesis using a simple model [on] surfaces of constant potential temperature." From the author's work helping Bleck and Shapiro with isentropic analysis and modeling, the following principles are offered as potentially useful in defining reusable, consistent data layers across space and time in multiple domains. Monotonicity— Layers reflect transformed coordinates, mappable to/from elevation, hence strictly monotonic across the geographic domain. I.e., layers cannot intersect. Bleck devised an invertible algorithm mapping pressure along soundings to a coordinate resembling potential temperature (departing only to maintain monotonicity). A collection of these (at one observing time) is a sampled representation of the transform between (lat, lon, elev) and (lat, lon, theta). Suggested principle: Data layers possess, for a geographic sample set, invertible algorithms to map between elevation and a monotonic transform coordinate. Intralayer Interpolation — The transformed coordinate may need evaluation at points not in the sample set. The Bleck/Shapiro work showed how easily monotonicity is violated when gridding sample data. This problem was solved via another transform: interpolation on the log of layer differences (i.e., thickness). Suggested principle: Data layers possess a monotonicity-preserving algorithm to interpolate coordinate values to geographic points not in the sample set.Representation— The Bleck/Shapiro work entailed no data sharing

  14. Analysis of environment elements in specific reservation of nature Stari Begej: Carska bara and principles of protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkša Milutin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is presentation a realistic status of environment elements in specific reservation of nature Stari Begej - Carska Bara. This article is present exchanged status of elements whose after effect operated the tourism activity. Principles of protection is present, too. Specific reservation of nature is area which comprehend one or more extra value of nature. Principles of protection are necessary for route, control and following.

  15. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  16. An Intrusion Detection System Model Based on Immune Principle and Performance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-xian; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Shao-di; SUN Zhi-xin

    2005-01-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a key issue,which is a rapidly growing area of interest because of its importance.Main network security problems are analyzed in this paper above all,which currently are confronted with network systems and existing works in intrusion detection.And then an intrusion detection system model based on Immune Principle(IPIDS)is presented.Meanwhile,it expatiates detailed implementation of the methods how to reduce the high false positive and negative alarms of the traditional Intrusion Detection System(IDS).At last a simple simulation is performed on this model just using string match algorithm as binding mechanism.The simulation results indicate that the model can detect malicious activity effectively,and consequently the security and steadiness of the whole network system are improved also.

  17. Exploring mitochondrial evolution and metabolism organization principles by comparative analysis of metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiao; Wang, Zhuo; Hao, Pei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yi-Xue

    2010-06-01

    The endosymbiotic theory proposed that mitochondrial genomes are derived from an alpha-proteobacterium-like endosymbiont, which was concluded from sequence analysis. We rebuilt the metabolic networks of mitochondria and 22 relative species, and studied the evolution of mitochondrial metabolism at the level of enzyme content and network topology. Our phylogenetic results based on network alignment and motif identification supported the endosymbiotic theory from the point of view of systems biology for the first time. It was found that the mitochondrial metabolic network were much more compact than the relative species, probably related to the higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation of the specialized organelle, and the network is highly clustered around the TCA cycle. Moreover, the mitochondrial metabolic network exhibited high functional specificity to the modules. This work provided insight to the understanding of mitochondria evolution, and the organization principle of mitochondrial metabolic network at the network level.

  18. PARAMETRIC VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE BASED ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS WITH VORONOI FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-wu; WANG Hui

    2006-01-01

    The Voronoi cell finite element method (VCFEM) is adopted to overcome the limitations of the classic displacement based finite element method in the numerical simulation of heterogeneous materials. The parametric variational principle and quadratic programming method are developed for elastic-plastic Voronoi finite element analysis of two-dimensional problems. Finite element formulations are derived and a standard quadratic programming model is deduced from the elastic-plastic equations. Influence of microscopic heterogeneities on the overall mechanical response of heterogeneous materials is studied in detail. The overall properties of heterogeneous materials depend mostly on the size, shape and distribution of the material phases of the microstructure. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the method developed.

  19. Block Based Video Watermarking Scheme Using Wavelet Transform and Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen I. Yassin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive approach for digital video watermarking is introduced, where a binary watermark image is embedded into the video frames. Each video frame is decomposed into sub-images using 2 level discrete wavelet transform then the Principle Component Analysis (PCA transformation is applied for each block in the two bands LL and HH. The watermark is embedded into the maximum coefficient of the PCA block of the two bands. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility where there is no noticeable difference between the watermarked video frames and the original frames. The computed PSNR achieves high score which is 44.097 db. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment.

  20. Methodological principles outline discipline "Organization studies-tourism activity" using information technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic methodological principles of the disciplines of tourism and local history with information technology. 15 analyzed the literature and experience of leading experts in the field of sports and health tourism, and orienteering. Identified principles of academic disciplines of tourism and local history: the shift in emphasis from sports tourism to the cognitive, health tourism, the development of spiritual qualities, acquisition of life skills in nature, discovery and development of pedagogical and psychological abilities, character traits through the study of native land, the development of cognitive-research abilities, physical abilities, motor skills, application of modern information technology.

  1. Extended principle component analysis - a useful tool to understand processes governing water quality at catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, B.; Schwientek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality of ground and surface waters in catchments is typically driven by many complex and interacting processes. While small scale processes are often studied in great detail, their relevance and interplay at catchment scales remain often poorly understood. For many catchments, extensive monitoring data on water quality have been collected for different purposes. These heterogeneous data sets contain valuable information on catchment scale processes but are rarely analysed using integrated methods. Principle component analysis (PCA) has previously been applied to this kind of data sets. However, a detailed analysis of scores, which are an important result of a PCA, is often missing. Mathematically, PCA expresses measured variables on water quality, e.g. nitrate concentrations, as linear combination of independent, not directly observable key processes. These computed key processes are represented by principle components. Their scores are interpretable as process intensities which vary in space and time. Subsequently, scores can be correlated with other key variables and catchment characteristics, such as water travel times and land use that were not considered in PCA. This detailed analysis of scores represents an extension of the commonly applied PCA which could considerably improve the understanding of processes governing water quality at catchment scales. In this study, we investigated the 170 km2 Ammer catchment in SW Germany which is characterised by an above average proportion of agricultural (71%) and urban (17%) areas. The Ammer River is mainly fed by karstic springs. For PCA, we separately analysed concentrations from (a) surface waters of the Ammer River and its tributaries, (b) spring waters from the main aquifers and (c) deep groundwater from production wells. This analysis was extended by a detailed analysis of scores. We analysed measured concentrations on major ions and selected organic micropollutants. Additionally, redox-sensitive variables

  2. Prediction of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity with first-principles descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that the experimentally measured area specific resistance and oxygen surface exchange of solid oxide fuel cell cathode perovskites are strongly correlated with the first-principles calculated oxygen p-band center and vacancy formation energy. These quantities...

  3. Main Principles of the Organization of Decommissioning Activities for Legacy Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of more than 60 years development of nuclear industry in the former Soviet Union and in the Russian Federation there has accumulated a number of unresolved problems associated with contamination of facilities and environment during the early stages of research and industrial activities. Prior to the year 2000 most of the problems were solved slowly; the main decisions were postponed for the future. During that time were done the local works for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. The Federal Target Programme ''Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 and for the period to 2015'' was adopted in 2008. Analysis of accumulated experience as result of previous work on decontamination to develop new project management system for the rehabilitation of the nuclear legacy is needed. This CRP contribution is aimed at solving the tasks of the rehabilitation of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  4. Basic Principles of the Activity and Synergetic Approach as a Means of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolsunovskaya L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of interdisciplinarity as the main tendency of today’s science to unite the methodology and terminology and adapt them to any academic field in order to achieve more objective results in the study of complex phenomena. This article is a descriptive one and it deals with problems of terms’ interpretations and their adaptation to the anthropocentric research viewed by scientists of different academic schools. The main idea of the article is to find the most relevant and systemic definition of the given terms, which could be used as a tool in further linguistic analysis applied to the coming research of the authors. Special attention is paid to the description of the Activity Theory from different aspects of its interpretation: psychological, sociological, linguistic; to the explanation of the correlation between the epistemic structure of knowledge and an open non-linear synergetic bilateral (conceptual and lexical-semantic system influenced and motivated by processual factors to evolution in the modern discourse as the communicative activity of the interpreter and the constructor of discourse.

  5. LAWS AND PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL VALUE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Each extension of the scope of laws and principles that allow both mathematical and statistical remodeling as well as reaffirming the appropriateness of proven methods, stirs up a special study interest. The ever-expanding computational power of laws of power offers to the scientific universe possibility of new approach to the crucial relationship between quantity and quality, between micro and macro dimensions. Boosting broadening the use of quasi-universal value theories in research in order to deepen the analysis of sustainable development indicators can lead to a greater understanding of all aspects of this area and to facilitate understanding of the arguments which underlie any responsible decision making. This assumption underlies the logical conclusion that sustainability becomes even stronger as it benefits from scientific arguments support resulting from research. Although we have confined ourselves in drafting some coordinates for application of each method presented to particular issues of sustainable development, this research theme will be strengthened and pursued through appropriate extensive analysis.

  6. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-09-15

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor.

  7. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-01-01

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor. PMID:27649194

  8. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-01-01

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor. PMID:27649194

  9. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Varela; Elva Serna; Susana Torres; Gloria Yaluff; Vera de Bilbao, Ninfa I.; Patricio Miño; Ximena Chiriboga; Hugo Cerecetto; Mercedes González

    2014-01-01

    The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam.), (family Asteraceae). These active principles displayed...

  10. Analysis on Phase Transformation (ATP) Using Computational Thermal Principles (CTP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja; V.Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Computer analysis based on computational thermal principles to predict the transformation kinetics in steels at varying temperatures is of great practical importance in different areas of heat treatment. As a result, using the theory of transient state heat conduction with convective boundary conditions, an efficient program named "ATP" (Analysis on Phase Transformation) has been developed to determine the temperature distribution under different quenching conditions for different geometries such as plate, cylinder and sphere. In addition to these the microstructures and the corresponding hardness developed during quenching are predicted using Time Temperature Transformation (TYF) diagram incorporated in the analysis. To approve our work, dilation curves, Heisler charts and time-temperature history curve have been generated. This paper deals with basic objective of the program (ATP) determination of temperature, microstructure and hardness distribution and also includes an online prediction of austenite-pearlite and anstenite-martensite transformation in steels along with the corresponding retained fractions. The quenching of a cylinder in gases, liquids and liquid metals is analyzed to show the non-liner effect of cylinder diameter on the temperature and microstructures. Further in the program we have considered a typical 1080 steel cylinders quenched in water for predicting and comparing the program results with experimental values and can be extended even to other grades of steels. The numerical results of program are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Finally the quenching process analysis described in the study appears to be a promising tool for the design of heat-treatment process pararneters for steels.

  11. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui Zheng; Jian Liang; Xin Deng; Xiaofeng Chen; Fasheng Wu; Xiaofang Zhao; Yuan Luo; Lei Fu; Zuling Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Our preliminary studies confirmed that an active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction, comprising alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycon, glucoside and volatile oil, can induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neurons. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was identified as one of the key pathways underlying this differentiation process. The present study shows phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphorylated p38 protein expression was increased after differentiation. Cellular signaling pathway blocking agents, PD98059 and SB203580, inhibited extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways respectively. mRNA and protein expression of the neuronal marker, neuron specific enolase, and neural stem cell marker, nestin, were decreased in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after treatment with the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction. Experimental findings indicate that, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neuron-like cells, induced by the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction.

  12. Methods of quantification by means of spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography of the active principles of Justice pectoralis Jacq. Acanthaceae and Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Brownw ex Brit and Wils Verbenaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality control of the vegetable material, presence and concentration of the active principles of Justice pectoralis and Lippia alba were studied for the use and marketing as herbal products. The method of analysis of the Justice pectoralis and Lippia alba was carried out by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the gas chromatography. Coumarin and essential oils were determinate in the plants extracts. Different samples were collected throughout one year to evaluate the variation of concentration of the active principles of the plant and there was evaluated a method of extraction of solvents

  13. The Factors and Transversal Reorganizations Principles of Romanian Textile Industry Enterprises using Activity-Based Costing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the factors and the principles of transversal reorganization of the enterprises from the Romanian textile industry by adapting the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC to its specific. There are presented and analyzed the real possibilities of reorganization of the enterprises in Romania by elaboration of methodological phases that will be covered until the implementation of their transversal organization. Are we ready to adapt the Activity-Based Costing method to the specific of the Romanian textile industry and not only? Here is the question whose response we will find in this article.

  14. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  15. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in Friends from the Perspective of Coopera-tive Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏

    2014-01-01

    Friends is a classical situation comedy in America in which humorous dialogues abound. With the theoretical frame-work of Cooperative Principle, this thesis extracts typical dialogues in American situation comedy Friends as data and discusses the characters’violation of maxims of Cooperative Principle together with the derived humorous effect.

  16. An Analysis of Electronic Products’Advertisements Based onthe Cooperative Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚林

    2015-01-01

    In moderntimes,more and more electronic products appear.Advertisements as an important way to promotethe products are applied by more and more businessmen.Many advertisements violate the Cooperative Principles which is proposed by the philosopher Paul Grice.This paper attempts to analyze the violations of cooperative principles in English electronic products’advertisements.

  17. Microcalorimetric Evaluation of the Effect of Kanamycin: An Analysis Based on the Median-Effect Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Li-Heng; FAN,Dai-Di; SHANG,Long-An; SHI,Hui-Juan; MA,Xiao-Xuan; MI,Yu; GU,Li-Feng; XU,Kang-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    A study of the effect of drug, kanamycin, on the growth metabolism of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 was carried out by microcalorimeter monitoring of the metabolic activity of treated cells. Power-time curves of growing recombinant Escherichia coli cell suspensions, treated with different kanamycin doses, were recorded. The extent of the effect was evaluated by changes in the slopes of the microcalorimetric curves and the kinetics of the drug action was interpreted from the time at which these changes reached their maximum values and maintained their maximum values. Experimental dose-effect relationships conform to the median-effect principle of the mass-action law:fa/(1-fa)=(D/D50)m. A plot of y=lg[(fa)1- 1]-1 versus x=lg D gives the slope m, D50 and R∞. The experimental results revealed that high concentration of kanamycin had an inhibitory effect on the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 in the lg phase, and had a promoting effect in the stationary period. Moreover, it was demonstrated that microcalorimetry was a reliable method for the detection of modulatory effects in biology.

  18. Multiple scales combined principle component analysis deep learning network for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Fan, Chunxiao; Ming, Yue

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that higher level features can represent the abstract semantics of original data. We propose a multiple scales combined deep learning network to learn a set of high-level feature representations through each stage of convolutional neural network for face recognition, which is named as multiscaled principle component analysis (PCA) Network (MS-PCANet). There are two main differences between our model and the traditional deep learning network. On the one hand, we get the prefixed filter kernels by learning the principal component of images' patches using PCA, nonlinearly process the convolutional results by using simple binary hashing, and pool them using spatial pyramid pooling method. On the other hand, in our model, the output features of several stages are fed to the classifier. The purpose of combining feature representations from multiple stages is to provide multiscaled features to the classifier, since the features in the latter stage are more global and invariant than those in the early stage. Therefore, our MS-PCANet feature compactly encodes both holistic abstract information and local specific information. Extensive experimental results show our MS-PCANet model can efficiently extract high-level feature presentations and outperform state-of-the-art face/expression recognition methods on multiple modalities benchmark face-related datasets.

  19. The Health Monitoring Method of Concrete Dams Based on Ambient Vibration Testing and Kernel Principle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient vibration testing (AVT measurement of concrete dams on full-scale can show the practical dynamic properties of structure in the operation state. For most current researches, the AVT data is generally analyzed to identify the structural vibration characteristics, that is, modal parameters. The identified modal parameters, which can provide the global damage information or the damage location information of structure, can be used as the basis of structure health monitoring. Therefore, in this paper, the health monitoring method of concrete dams based on the AVT is studied. The kernel principle analysis (KPCA based method is adopted to eliminate the effect of environmental variables and monitor the health of dam under varying environments. By taking full advantage of the AVT data obtained from vibration observation system of dam, the identification capabilities and the warning capabilities of structural damage can be improved. With the simulated AVT data of the numerical model of a concrete gravity dam and the measured AVT data of a practical engineering, the performance of the dam health monitoring method proposed in this paper is verified.

  20. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.

  1. Performance Analysis for Dispensing Mechanism of Active Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The dispensing mechanism of active code is a key technology in an active network. Conventional capsule and programmable switch approaches have their own shortcomings. The DCCAN(distributed code caching for active network) mechanism presented in this paper overcomes these shortcomings. In this paper, capsule and programmable switch approaches are introduced, and their shortcomings are analyzed. The principle of the DCCAN mechanism is described. The theory analysis in transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism and capsule approach are described. The theory analysis shows that the DCCAN mechanism has many good characteristics and can improve the efficiency of an active network. Key factors which affect the transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism are discussed. The using condition of the DCCAN mechanism is also discussed.

  2. ISLAMISM & DEMOCRACY: A Gender Analysis on PKS’s Application of Democratic Principles and Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Octavia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popular support for Islamist parties in democratic countries incites public suspicion concerning whether the Islamists’ participation in procedural democracy guarantees their commitment for substantial democracy, which in principle requires equality of rights among citizens regardless of their religion and gender. Indeed, gender politics often appears at the centre of the lslamist agenda, as they seek to construct a new moral order based on a conservative gender perspective. A greater concern arises on whether the Islamists will eventually lead society towards democracy or, conversely, towards theocracy. In Indonesia, the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS shows a remarkable development and significant electoral achievement. Some observers viewed that PKS is opportunistically using democratic means to “hijack” it for their Islamist agenda waiting for when political power is in their hands. Others believe PKS’s involvement in real politics will, in the end, lead to a “gradual secularisation” of their Islamist agenda. Based on a gender analysis, this paper examines whether PKS’s fulfillment of the formalist criteria of democracy is compatible with their application of democratic principles and values.[Semakin menguatnya dukungan terhadap partai Islam memincu kecurigaan publik yang mempertanyakan apakah partisipasi kalangan islamis dalam demokrasi prosedural menjamin komitmen mereka bagi tegaknya demokrasi substansial, demokrasi yang mensyaratkan kesetaraan bagi semua orang tanpa terkecuali. Sebenarnya, agenda politik gender yang didengungkan oleh kalangan islamis tidak bisa dilepaskan dari perspektif konservatif mereka mengenai relasi gender. Pertanyaannya kemudian, apakah yang mereka agendakan akan berlabuh pada pemantapan demokrasi atau --sebaliknya‍‑­‑ menuju teokrasi. Di Indonesia, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS adalah satu-satunya partai Islam di Indonesia yang berhasil berkembang pesat

  3. Characterization of deep aquifer dynamics using principle component analysis of sequential multilevel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kurtzman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two sequential multilevel profiles were obtained in an observation well opened to a 130 m thick, unconfined, contaminated aquifer, in Tel Aviv, Israel. While the general profile characteristics of major ions, trace elements, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC were maintained in the two sampling campaigns conducted 295 days apart, the vertical locations of high concentration gradients were shifted between the two profiles. Principle Component Analysis (PCA of the chemical variables resulted in a first Principal Component (PC which was responsible for ∼60% of the variability, and was highly correlated with depth. PCA revealed three distinct depth-dependent water bodies in both multilevel profiles, which were found to be shifted vertically between the sampling events. This shift cut across a clayey bed which separated between the top and intermediate water bodies in the first profile, and was located entirely within the intermediate water body in the second profile. Continuous Electrical Conductivity (EC monitoring in a packed off section of the observation well revealed an event in which a distinct water body flowed through the monitored section (v ∼ 150 m yr−1. Compilation of the aforementioned data and analysis lead to a conclusion that the observed changes in the profiles resulted from dominantly lateral flow of water bodies in the aquifer rather than vertical flow. The significance of this study is twofold: (a it demonstrates the utility of sequential multilevel observations from deep wells and the efficacy of PCA for evaluating this data. (b The fact that distinct water bodies of 10–100 m vertical and horizontal dimensions flow under contaminated sites has implications for monitoring and remediation.

  4. THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES OF INSURANCE IN THE FIELD OF FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukova, N.

    2008-01-01

    Risks, inherent foreign economic activity of subjects of menage, are examined in the article. Kinds and instruments of insurance defence for minimization of consequences of the exogenous and endogenous phenomena during realization of foreign economic activity are determined.

  5. ANALYSIS MODEL ON GRADUAL CHANGE PRINCIPLE OF EFFECT ZONES OF LAYER FACE FOR ROLLED CONTROL CONCRETE DAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chong-shi; SONG Jing-xiang; FANG Hai-ting

    2006-01-01

    The effect zones of layer face for RCC (rolled control concrete) dam have gradual change characteristics. Based on the analysis thought of complex material, a model was built to analyze above principle of RCC dam by use of series-wound and shunt-wound connection. Some methods were proposed to determine the instantaneous Young's modulus, delayed Young's modulus and viscosity coefficient of effect zones of layer face. Above models and methods were used to mine the principle of gradual change of key calculation parameters which can response the characteristics of effect zones. The principle of gradual change was described. A model was established to analyze the threedimensional viscoelastic problem of RCC dam. Above programs were developed. The examples show that the proposed models and methods to determine the key calculation parameters of effect zones can reflect the status of RCC darn accurately.

  6. Content Analysis and Readibility Formulas as Applied To The Accounting Principles Board "Opinions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Bette Ann

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study analyzing twenty-four of the Accounting Principles Board "Opinions" (APB Opinions) and concludes that the APB context is very difficult to read and understand for both accounting and nonaccounting majors. (MH)

  7. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF REGIONAL GOVERNANCE IN RUSSIA: HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ochir-goryaeva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of regional governance in the multinational Russian state. It is viewed upon the ratio of territorial and corporate governing principles in the local organization and examples of the elements of a traditional society.

  8. Interpreting the Geochemistry of the Northern Peninsula Ranges Batholith Using Principle Component Analysis and Spatial Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, L.; Clausen, B. L.; Morton, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) exemplifies emplacement in a combination oceanic arc / continental margin arc setting. Two approaches that can aid in understanding its statistical and spatial geochemistry variation are principle component analysis (PCA) and GIS interpolation mapping. The data analysis primarily used 287 samples from the large granitoid geochemical data set systematically collected by Baird and Welday. Of these, 80 points fell in the western Santa Ana block, 108 in the transitional Perris block, and 99 in the eastern San Jacinto block. In the statistical analysis, multivariate outliers were identified using Mahalanobis distance and excluded. A centered log ratio transformation was used to facilitate working with geochemical concentration values that range over many orders of magnitude. The data was then analyzed using PCA with IBM SPSS 21 reducing 40 geochemical variables to 4 components which are approximately related to the compatible, HFS, HRE, and LIL elements. The 4 components were interpreted as follows: (1) compatible [and negatively correlated incompatible] elements indicate extent of differentiation as typified by SiO2, (2) HFS elements indicate crustal contamination as typified by Sri and Nb/Yb ratios, (3) HRE elements indicate source depth as typified by Sr/Y and Gd/Yb ratios, and (4) LIL elements indicate alkalinity as typified by the K2O/SiO2ratio. Spatial interpolation maps of the 4 components were created with Esri ArcGIS for Desktop 10.2 by interpolating between the sample points using kriging and inverse distance weighting. Across-arc trends on the interpolation maps indicate a general increase from west to east for each of the 4 components, but with local exceptions as follows. The 15km offset on the San Jacinto Fault may be affecting the contours. South of San Jacinto is a west-east band of low Nb/Yb, Gd/Yb, and Sr/Y ratios. The highest Sr/Y ratios in the north central area that decrease further east may

  9. On the Principles of Community Activities for Adolescents' Education%浅谈社区青少年教育活动的原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔淑兰

    2012-01-01

    社区青少年教育活动的层次应该是立体化,体现出多元化的特点,必须体现以学生为主的要求,具有较强的可操作性。开展活动必须预先制定详细的教育计划,设计周密的方案,而设计方案和组织教育活动都要遵循一定的原则。根据实践、分析、研究,我觉得开展社区青少年教育活动需依照针对性、民主性、安全性等原则。%The community activities for adolescents' education must embody the characteristic of three-dimension and diversity and reflect the student-oriented requirements with strong operability.A detailed education plan and a well-designed program must be made in advance,which is supposed to follow certain principles.It is thought that the community activities for adolescents' education should be carried out in accordance with the principle of relevance,democracy,security on the basis of practice,analysis and research.

  10. Distributed smart home activity recommender system using hidden Markov model principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    A smart home is able to propose learned activities to its user and learn new activities by observing the user’s behavioral patterns, that is, the user’s actions. Most of today’s discussed systems use some more or less complex classifier algorithms to predict user activities from contextual...... available data set that offers approximately seven months of annotated activity including 6468 sensor events produced by a women living in the test home. Using this data set, it has been shown that this system can achieve good performance with a recognition probability of 75%....

  11. Application of inelastic neutron scattering and prompt neutron activation analysis in coal quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles are assessed of the determination of ash content in coal based on the measurement of values proportional to the effective proton number. Discussed is the principle of coal quality assessment using the method of inelastic neutron scattering and prompt neutron activation analysis. This is done with respect both to theoretical relations between measured values and coal quality attributes and to practical laboratory measurements of coal sample quality by the said methods. (author)

  12. Qualitative identification of the active principles in Citrullus colocynthis and evaluation of its teratogenic effects in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Abdalla Elgerwi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to identify the active contents of Citrullus colocynthis plant and to examine their teratogenicity in rats. The fruit pulp of the poisonous plant was collected randomly from Suq-Alkhamis district, Tripoli, Libya. Methods: The glucoside colocynthin was isolated by lead acetate method while the alkaloids and saponins were isolated by maceration method. These active principles were then identified by chemical tests, color reactions and thin layer chromatography. Possible teratogenic effects of the fruit pulp extract was investigated by its administration to twelve pregnant rats on the 7th day of gestation at a dose of 40.6 mg/kg body weight that is equivalent to one fourth of the LD50 of the extract. Results: Gross anatomical observation on the 20th day of gestation revealed a high percentage of resorbed fetuses, smaller size and weight fetuses as well as absence of coccygeal vertebrae, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and carpal and tarsal bones. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the extract of fruit pulp of Citrullus colocynthis, obtained from Libya, contain glucosidal as well as other principles that may cause teratogenic effects if given during at the early stage of pregnancy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 438-445

  13. Strategic consistency of enterprise logistics activities on the bases of ecological principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Mashchak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The consistency of logistics enterprises with environmental strategies investigated. Examples of foreign experience and results of such consistency in practice are given. The necessity and strategic advantages of logistic activities on environmental grounds proved.

  14. Evaluation of the biological activities of crude extracts from patagonian prosopis seeds and some of their active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, M; Kraus, W; Balzaretti, V

    2003-01-01

    Extracts of different polarities from three species and three varieties of the genera Prosopis: P. alpataco, P. denudans var. denudans, P. denudans var. patagonica, and P. denudans var. stenocarpa, were screened in order to evaluate their antibacterial, antifungal, antifeedant, antihelminthic, molluscicidal and toxic activities. The extractions of the plant materials were carried out successively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All petroleum ether extracts showed antibacterial activity. The dichloromethane extract of P. alpataco showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. denudans var. denudans and P. denudans var. patagonica showed antifungal activities and a slight response to the toxicity test. Fatty acids and a group of pentacyclic triterpenes were identified as responsible for antibacterial activities in some of the active extracts.

  15. Xanthoangelol and 4-Hydroxyderricin Are the Major Active Principles of the Inhibitory Activities against Monoamine Oxidases on Angelica keiskei K

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Ho; Son, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2013-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) have been widely used as antidepressants. Recently, there has been renewed interest in MAO inhibitors. The activity-guided fractionation of extracts from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (A. keiskei K.) led to the isolation of two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin and a flavonoid, cynaroside. These three isolated compounds are the major active ingredients of A. keiskei K. to inhibit the MAOs and DBH activities. Xanthoangelol is a nonselecti...

  16. Design Principles and Case Study Analysis for Low Impact Development Practices - Green Roofs, Rainwater Harvesting and Vegetated Swales

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    This thesis on Low Impact Development (LID) Practices provides design guidelines and principles for three important LID practices: green roofs, rainwater harvesting and bioswales. The most important component of the thesis is the qualitative analysis of various case studies based on the LID objectives drawn from the literature review for each LID practice. Through the course of my research, I found that there was no one single source which provided information on the design guidelines acc...

  17. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  18. Data-Based Active Learning in the Principles of Macroeconomics Course: A Mock FOMC Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Cathleen

    2006-01-01

    The author presents an active-learning exercise for the introductory macroeconomics class in which students participate in a mock Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting. Preparation involves data gathering and writing both a research report and a policy recommendation. An FOMC meeting is simulated in which students give their policy…

  19. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  20. Module Cluster: TTP-005.00 (GSC). Applied Behavior Analysis Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, George; And Others

    This module cluster enables (a) students to operationally define various classroom behaviors; (b) define and utilize behavioral principles; and (c) correctly employ measurement methods which facilitate information gathering, monitoring, and management of academic and/or "problem" classroom behaviors. It contains modules in the following ten areas:…

  1. Concrescent Conversations: Generating a Cooperative Learning Experience in Principles of Management--A Postmodern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Obasi Haki

    2005-01-01

    By taking a postmodern ontology that elevates becoming over the modern ontology of being, the author of this article proposes a theory and describes a method that teachers can use to enhance students' cooperative learning of management principles. The author asserts that the social construction of learning groups is an effect of organizing…

  2. Analysis of Characters’Utterances in Bianxingji From the Perspective of Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜寒箫; 王珏

    2014-01-01

    Bianxingji is a role-exchange reality show developed by Hunan Satellite TV. Based on Leech’s Politeness Principle, the author analyzes the actual language of Bianxingji. The author hopes this article will help the readers employ PP in daily communication to achieve a more harmonious interpersonal relationship.

  3. Analysis of Characters’ Utterances in BianxingjiFrom the Perspective of Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜寒箫; 王珏

    2014-01-01

    Bianxingji is a role-exchange reality show developed by Hunan Satellite TV.Based on Leech’s Politeness Principle,the author analyzes the actual language of Bianxingji.The author hopes this article will help the readers employ PP in daily communication to achieve a more harmonious interpersonal relationship.

  4. An Analysis of the Syllabic Structure of English Mute in the Light of Sonority Sequencing Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑双

    2015-01-01

    Syllable is the hierarchic natural feature of a language,and there are rules of the phonological sequences of the syllabic structure.Based on the Sonority Sequencing Principle(SSP),this paper will try to discuss and analyze phonological sequences of the syllabic structure of English mutes.

  5. An Analysis of the Syllabic Structure of English Mute in the Light of Sonority Sequencing Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑双

    2015-01-01

    Syllable is the hierarchic natural feature of a language,and there are rules of the phonological sequences of the syllabic structure.Based on the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP),this paper will try to discuss and analyze phonological sequences of the syllabic structure of English mutes.

  6. Understanding Iron-based catalysts with efficient Oxygen reduction activity from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Hasnain; Barbiellini, B.; Jia, Q.; Tylus, U.; Strickland, K.; Bansil, A.; Mukerjee, S.

    2015-03-01

    Catalysts based on Fe/N/C clusters can support the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) without the use of expensive metals such as platinum. These systems can also prevent some poisonous species to block the active sites from the reactant. We have performed spin-polarized calculations on various Fe/N/C fragments using the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) code. Some results are compared to similar calculations obtained with the Gaussian code. We investigate the partial density of states (PDOS) of the 3d orbitals near the Fermi level and calculate the binding energies of several ligands. Correlations of the binding energies with the 3d electronic PDOS's are used to propose electronic descriptors of the ORR associated with the 3d states of Fe. We also suggest a structural model for the most active site with a ferrous ion (Fe2+) in the high spin state or the so-called Doublet 3 (D3).

  7. Contribution to the study of alliinase, the active principle of garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Bérénice; Ponchaux, Julien; Laloux, Morgan; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-01

    Alliinase is a crucial enzyme in the Allium genus. The conversion of its substrates, cysteine sulfoxides, into volatile thiosulfinates is an important mechanism in the defence of the plant. It also provides the typical pungent flavour of garlic. As a matter of fact, the thiosulfinates decompose in a range of organosulfur compounds (OSC) known for their biological activities (antioxidant, anticancer, anti-diabetes properties, etc.). The environment of the decomposition of the thiosulfinates de...

  8. Increasing physical activity levels in primary school physical education: The SHARP Principles Model

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne A.; Alan M Nevill

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year teaching intervention to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during primary school physical education (PE). Methods: A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group design involving four classes from two primary schools in the West Midlands, UK. In March 2014 schools were selected through purposive sampling to match schools in terms of size and demographics (baseline, n = 111: post-intervention, n = 95); data were collected...

  9. Contribution to the Active Generator Principle: the Gate-commutated Polyphased Matrix Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Béguin, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    This work is part of the innovative "Active Generator" (AG) project. AG is a concept that suggests a new arrangement of the turbine-generator line of a high power utility (a few hundred of MW) in order to de-synchronize the rotation speed of the turbine-generator group from the fixed grid frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). This de-synchronization has essentially two advantages. First, the variable speed of the group enables the operation of the turbine...

  10. The principles of organizing activating career guidance of secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhuraev Risbay Khaidarovich

    2015-01-01

    Career guidance has been transformed from a diagnostic field into a developing, shaping and diagnostic-corrective one. Therefore, all stages of consulting must serve the same purpose – to activate the student, to shape his or her aspirations for independent choice of profession with regard to the knowledge the student has gained about himor herself with the help of a psychologist, and his/her capabilities and development prospects.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schnackenburg, B. [Philips GmbH Unternehmensbereich Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Bamberg, C. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  14. Tuning the chemical activity through PtAu nanoalloying: a first principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-06-21

    The electronic structure and adsorption properties of 1.5 nm sized Pt, Au, and PtAu nanoclusters are studied by density functional theory. We explain the recent experimental finding that 20% Au content in PtAu nanoparticles is optimal to induce a dramatically different catalytic behavior. Our results show that the d-band center together with the density of states at the Fermi energy can be used as an indicator of the chemical activity of PtAu nanoclusters. The most favorable adsorption sites on the cluster surfaces as a function of the Pt/Au ratio are identified using atomic H as a probe.

  15. The juridical nature of the European Court of Justice and the principles of its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Hasneziri

    2015-01-01

    The European Union is a reality closer and closer for Albania as well. The status Albania obtained as a candidate country, not only means a step forward towards the European Union, but it also sets forth a number of challenges to be solved such as, freedom, property, democracy, human rights, the fight against organized crime and corruption etc. Under these circumstances, the analysis of the issues that have to do with the European Union is of a great importance, as in the near future, Albania...

  16. Oxygen plasma etching of graphene: A first-principles dynamical inspection of the reaction mechanisms and related activation barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Kenichi; Boero, Mauro; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Oshiyama, Atsushi; Dept. of Applied Physics Team; Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Strasbourg (IPCMS) Collaboration; Department Of Materials Engineering Science Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen plasma etching is a crucial step in the fabrication of electronic circuits and has recently received a renovated interest in view of the realization of carbon-based nanodevices. In an attempt at unraveling the atomic-scale details and to provide guidelines for the control of the etching processes mechanisms, we inspected the possible reaction pathways via reactive first principles simulations. These processes involve breaking and formation of several chemical bonds and are characterized by different free-energy barriers. Free-energy sampling techniques (metadynamics and blue moon), used to enhance the standard Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, provide us a detailed microscopic picture of the etching of graphene surfaces and a comprehensive scenario of the activation barriers involved in the various steps. MEXT, Japan - contract N. 22104005

  17. An active coronagraph using a liquid crystal array for exoplanet imaging: principle and testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; De-Qing Ren; Yong-Tian Zhu; Jiang-Pei Dou

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging coronagraphs,used for the detection of exoplanets,have always adopted passive coronagraph optical components.It is therefore impossible to actively optimize the coronagraphs to achieve their best performance.To solve this problem,we propose a novel high-contrast imaging coronagraph which combines a liquid crystal array (LCA) for active pupil apodization and a deformable mirror (DM) for phase correction.The LCA we use is an amplitude-only spatial light modulator.The LCA is well calibrated and compensates for its amplitude non-uniformity and nonlinear intensity responsivity.We measured the imaging contrasts of the coronagraph system with the LCA only and without the DM deployed.Imaging contrasts of 10-4 and 10-5 can be reached at an inner working angular distance of 2.5 and 5λ/D,respectively.A simulation shows that the phase errors on the coronagraph pupil limit the contrast performance.The contrast could be further improved if a DM is deployed to correct the phase errors induced by the LCA and coronagraph optics.

  18. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed. PMID:25924532

  19. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  20. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  1. Analysis of nonmetric theories of gravity. II. The weak equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of equations representing the (generalized) laws of electromagnetism in a gravitational field for a class of nonmetric theories of gravity are written down. From these equations we calculate the center-of-mass acceleration of a composite test body, consisting of electromagnetically interacting charged point particles, in an external, spherically symmetric and static (SSS) gravitational field. Demanding that the weak equivalence principle be satisfied, so that contains no composition-dependent terms, puts severe constraints on the form of the original generalized equations. Indeed, the principle demands that the laws of electromagnetism in an (SSS) gravitational field take on a ''metric'' form. The observational constraints on the form of the (generalized) laws of electromagnetism from Eoetvoes experiments are also discussed

  2. First-principles analysis of anharmonic nuclear motion and thermal transport in thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Terumasa [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsuneyuki, Shinji [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We show a first-principles approach for analyzing anharmonic properties of lattice vibrations in solids. We firstly extract harmonic and anharmonic force constants from accurate first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. Using the many-body perturbation theory of phonons, we then estimate the phonon scattering probability due to anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions. We show the validity of the approach by computing the lattice thermal conductivity of Si, a typical covalent semiconductor, and selected thermoelectric materials PbTe and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based on the Boltzmann transport equation. We also show that the phonon lifetime and the lattice thermal conductivity of the high-temperature phase of SrTiO{sub 3} can be estimated by employing the perturbation theory on top of the solution of the self-consistent phonon equation.

  3. PRINCIPLE,CONSTRUCTION AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS FOR THE OMNIDIRECTIONAL MOBILE ROBOT--ICE-SKATER ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立博; 吕恬生; 费燕琼; 袁池

    2002-01-01

    Three main basic types of locomotion for a mobile robot were introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of a legged mobile robot, a wheeled mobile robot and an articulated mobile robot were also discussed. A new type of leg-wheeled mobile robot was introduced which combines the adaptability of legged robot with the stability of wheeled robot. On the basis of the structure of the wheels, the paper described the principle of the iceskater robot developed from Roller-walker and ALDURO and its construction. The paper also established an inertia coordinate system and a wheel coordinate system, and analyzed the configuration or the posture and the related kinematic constraints of the robot according to some assumptions. Based on the motion principle, a logic-based coordinated control system and corresponded flowchart were designed. At last, taking the ice-skater robot as an example the paper expounded its application and the actual experiment proved its feasibility.

  4. The principle analysis of methane explosion suppressed by water column curtain in coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong-ling(周同龄); HE Xue-qiu(何学秋); YANG Yi(杨艺)

    2004-01-01

    The principles of fine water mist explosion-extinguishing system was introduced. The defects of current systems were analyzed. The concept of a new water column curtain and the explosion-extinguishing mechanism were given. Using water column curtain to suppress methane explosion in experiment pipes was conducted. The photos were written with schlieren photograph system. The results of experiment show that the effect is perfect.

  5. A brief introduction to marginal analysis for the micro-economics principles course

    OpenAIRE

    Burkey, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    This brief note provides a simple, yet powerful example of how the marginal cost/marginal benefit principle can be used in everyday life. Using the decision of the optimal choice of speed on the highway, this note was developed for use as one of the first readings in an introductory microeconomics course. It is clear in this demonstration that marginal cost is increasing, while marginal benefit is decreasing, and how the intersection of these two curves shows the optimal choice. In addition, ...

  6. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  7. Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ppc-1, Active Principle of the Cellular Slime Mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelmat, Jabrane; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The diisopentenyloxy quinolobactin derivative 3-methylbut-2-enyl-4-methoxy-8-[(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxy] quinoline-2-carboxylate, also named as Ppc-1, has been initially isolated from the fruiting bodies of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum. Given that few data are available in the literature concerning the biological properties of this compound, this study was undertaken to evaluate its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Ppc-1 exerted antibacterial activity on the Gram negative periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, while it had no such effect on the other bacterial species tested. The antibacterial activity of Ppc-1 appeared to result from its ability to permeate the cell membrane. Using the U937-3xκB-LUC human monocytic cell line, Ppc-1 was found to dose-dependently inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, a signaling pathway that has been associated with inflammatory mediator secretion. In conclusion, Ppc-1, by exhibiting a dual mode of action including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, may represent a promising targeted therapeutic agent for periodontal diseases. PMID:25925558

  8. Xanthoangelol and 4-Hydroxyderricin Are the Major Active Principles of the Inhibitory Activities against Monoamine Oxidases on Angelica keiskei K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Son, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2013-05-30

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) have been widely used as antidepressants. Recently, there has been renewed interest in MAO inhibitors. The activity-guided fractionation of extracts from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (A. keiskei K.) led to the isolation of two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin and a flavonoid, cynaroside. These three isolated compounds are the major active ingredients of A. keiskei K. to inhibit the MAOs and DBH activities. Xanthoangelol is a nonselective MAO inhibitor, and a potent dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. IC50 values of xanthoangelol to MAO-A and MAO-B were calculated to be 43.4 μM, and 43.9 μM. These values were very similar to iproniazid, which is a nonselective MAO inhibitor used as a drug against depression. The IC50 values of iproniazid were 37 μM, and 42.5 μM in our parallel examination. Moreover, IC50 value of xanthoangelol to DBH was calculated 0.52 μM. 4-Hydroxyderricin is a potent selective MAO-B inhibitor and also mildly inhibits DBH activity. The IC50 value of 4-hydroxyderricin to MAO-B was calculated to be 3.43 μM and this value was higher than that of deprenyl (0.046 μM) used as a positive control for selective MAO-B inhibitor in our test. Cynaroside is a most potent DBH inhibitor. The IC50 value of cynaroside to DBH was calculated at 0.0410 μM. Results of this study suggest that the two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin isolated from A. keiskei K., are expected for potent candidates for development of combined antidepressant drug. A. keiskei K. will be an excellent new bio-functional food material that has the combined antidepressant effect.

  9. Xanthoangelol and 4-Hydroxyderricin Are the Major Active Principles of the Inhibitory Activities against Monoamine Oxidases on Angelica keiskei K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Son, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2013-05-30

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) have been widely used as antidepressants. Recently, there has been renewed interest in MAO inhibitors. The activity-guided fractionation of extracts from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (A. keiskei K.) led to the isolation of two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin and a flavonoid, cynaroside. These three isolated compounds are the major active ingredients of A. keiskei K. to inhibit the MAOs and DBH activities. Xanthoangelol is a nonselective MAO inhibitor, and a potent dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. IC50 values of xanthoangelol to MAO-A and MAO-B were calculated to be 43.4 μM, and 43.9 μM. These values were very similar to iproniazid, which is a nonselective MAO inhibitor used as a drug against depression. The IC50 values of iproniazid were 37 μM, and 42.5 μM in our parallel examination. Moreover, IC50 value of xanthoangelol to DBH was calculated 0.52 μM. 4-Hydroxyderricin is a potent selective MAO-B inhibitor and also mildly inhibits DBH activity. The IC50 value of 4-hydroxyderricin to MAO-B was calculated to be 3.43 μM and this value was higher than that of deprenyl (0.046 μM) used as a positive control for selective MAO-B inhibitor in our test. Cynaroside is a most potent DBH inhibitor. The IC50 value of cynaroside to DBH was calculated at 0.0410 μM. Results of this study suggest that the two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin isolated from A. keiskei K., are expected for potent candidates for development of combined antidepressant drug. A. keiskei K. will be an excellent new bio-functional food material that has the combined antidepressant effect. PMID:24265870

  10. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  11. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations

  12. In vivo anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of hydro-ethanolic extract and isolated active principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and mechanism of action studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Javier; Serna, Elva; Torres, Susana; Yaluff, Gloria; de Bilbao, Ninfa I Vera; Miño, Patricio; Chiriboga, Ximena; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam.), (family Asteraceae). These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+)-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals' parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:24959677

  13. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Varela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam., (family Asteraceae. These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  14. [Protection of genetic data in Spain. Analysis based on the general principles of personal data protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Amez, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The genetic data is Spain is not regulated specifically, rather, we must look at the regulation on the protection of data of a personal nature. This is turn, establishes a series of general principles to apply to any type of data. Analysing this with other regulations that are dispersed both in the national and international regulations, we can deduce the rights and obligations in this field. This highlights the fact that one can't dispose of the genetic data in the same manner as the personal data.

  15. [The principle and analysis of micro-Fourier transform spectrometer based on MEMS micro-mirror].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Bo; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ning

    2012-11-01

    The present paper puts forward a novel micro-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer based on programmable MEMS micro-mirror. This design uses a MEMS micro-mirror and a slantwise reflector to replace the moving mirror system on traditional spectrometer. This paper analyzes the operating principle of this spectrometer and gives the simulation result to prove the feasibility of this method. The results show that the spectral resolution is less than 5 nm in near-infrared wave band, the wave-length accuracy is approximately 1 nm and the sampling period of this spectrometer is approximately 50 ms. This method can use Hadamard transform to improve the SNR.

  16. Comparison of the Simple Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and DPPH Assays for the Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Active Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús F. Arteaga; José M. Rodríguez-Mellado; Gema Alonso-Garrido; Sara Pintado; Mercedes Ruiz-Montoya; Alberto Palma

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of a number of small (low molecular weight) natural compounds found in spices, condiments or drugs (gallic acid, sesamol, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, vanillin, salicylaldehyde, limonene, geraniol, 4-hexylresorcinol, etc.) has been evaluated using electrochemical and DPPH radical scavenging measurements. Structural analysis of the tested compound suggest a remarkable activity for phenol derivatives and the importance of the –R g...

  17. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  18. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  19. Direct method of three-dimensional imaging using the multiple-wavelength range-gated active imaging principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matwyschuk, Alexis

    2016-05-10

    The tomography executed with mono-wavelength active imaging systems uses the recording of several images to restore a three-dimensional (3D) scene. Thus, in order to show the depth in the scene, a different color is attributed to each recorded image. Therefore, the 3D restoration depends on the video frame rate of the camera. By using a multiple-wavelength range-gated active imaging system, it is possible to restore the 3D scene directly in a single image at the moment of recording with a video camera. Each emitted light pulse with a different wavelength corresponds to a visualized zone at a different distance in the scene. The camera shutter opens just once during the emission of light pulses with the different wavelengths. Thus, the restoration can be executed in real time with regard to the video frame rate of the camera. From an analytical model and from a graphical approach, we demonstrated the feasibility of this new method of 3D restoration. The non-overlapping conditions between two consecutive visualized zones are analyzed. The experimental test results confirm these different conditions and validate the theoretical principle to directly restore the 3D scene in a color image with a multiple-wavelength laser source, an RGB filter, and a triggerable intensified camera. PMID:27168293

  20. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  1. Interaction Analysis and Decomposition Principle for Control Structure Design of Large-scale Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雄麟; 刘雨波; 许锋

    2014-01-01

    Industrial processes are mostly large-scale systems with high order. They use fully centralized control strategy, the parameters of which are difficult to tune. In the design of large-scale systems, the decomposition ac-cording to the interaction between input and output variables is the first step and the basis for the selection of con-trol structure. In this paper, the decomposition principle of processes in large-scale systems is proposed for the de-sign of control structure. A new variable pairing method is presented, considering the steady-state information and dynamic response of large-scale system. By selecting threshold values, the related matrix can be transformed into the adjoining matrixes, which directly measure the couple among different loops. The optimal number of controllers can be obtained after decomposing the large-scale system. A practical example is used to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed interaction decomposition principle in process large-scale systems.

  2. An Analysis of Chapter XXXI of Oliver Twist From the Perspective of the Violating of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Oliver Twist, or The Parish Boy’s Progress (1837), one of Charles Dickens’s masterpieces, has occupied an important position in literature. As a classical work,Oliver Twist has enjoyed great popularity since its publication. Charles Dickens describes, in this work, the tragic life and experiences of the orphan boyOliver Twist who was born in an inhuman workhouse and cruelly treated there in his childhood. This paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of chapter XXXI ofOliver Twist from the perspective of the violating of Cooperative Principle.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  4. Structural Analysis of Char by Raman Spectroscopy: Improving Band Assignments through Computational Calculations from First Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Dallmeyer, Ian; Johnson, Timothy J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Espinal, Juan F.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterization of many carbon 27 species. The complex heterogeneous nature of chars and activated carbons has confounded 28 complete analysis due to the additional shoulders observed on the D-band and high intensity 29 valley between the D and G-bands. In this paper the effects of various vacancy and substitution 30 defects have been systematically analyzed via molecular modeling using density functional 31 theory (DFT) and how this is manifested in the calculated gas-phase Raman spectra. The 32 accuracy of these calculations was validated by comparison with (solid-phase) experimental 33 spectra, with a small correction factor being applied to improve the accuracy of frequency 34 predictions. The spectroscopic effects on the char species are best understood in terms of a 35 reduced symmetry as compared to a “parent” coronene molecule. Based upon the simulation 36 results, the shoulder observed in chars near 1200 cm-1 has been assigned to the totally symmetric 37 A1g vibrations of various small polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as those containing 38 rings of seven or more carbons. Intensity between 1400 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 is assigned to A1g 39 type vibrations present in small PAHs and especially those containing cyclopentane rings. 40 Finally, band intensity between 1500 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1 is ascribed to predominately E2g 41 vibrational modes in strained PAH systems. A total of ten potential bands have been assigned 42 between 1000 cm-1 and 1800 cm-1. These fitting parameters have been used to deconvolute a 43 thermoseries of cellulose chars produced by pyrolysis at 300-700 °C. The results of the 44 deconvolution show consistent growth of PAH clusters with temperature, development of non-45 benzyl rings as temperature increases and loss of oxygenated features between 400 °C and 46 600 °C

  5. Contribution to the analysis of the application of sustainable development principle in oil sector (the dimension of the principle in economic law)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main elements of the sustainable development problems in the petroleum industry which generate the question of the international environmental regulation, the international development regulation and other internal regulation, are discussed. What are the Rio principles implication in this industry? What are the actions implemented by the petroleum industry and the concerned countries, in the topic of the sustainable development? What are the barriers? All these questions are discussed in this thesis. (A.L.B.)

  6. Active and Principled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    wang yi

    2016-01-01

    Reuters: The fourth foreign ministers' meet- ing of the ISSG held yesterday [February 11] had achieved some breakthroughs. However, in the situation that Russia is still carrying out military strikes against Syria, do you think the outcomes of this foreign ministers' meeting will bring about changes in the situation on the ground in Syria?

  7. LC-MS Guided Isolation of Bioactive Principles from Iris hookeriana and Bioevaluation of Isolates for Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, B A; Lone, S H; Shah, W A; Bhat, K A

    2016-08-01

    The genus Iris is diverse both in the abundance of secondary metabolities as well as the biological activities. The rhizomes of Iris hookeriana exhibit significant anthelminthic activity against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Although Iris hookeriana has been a subject of the study of so many phytochemical studies, yet we report some constituents for the first time from this plant using a different isolation approach. This manuscript presents the isolation, antimicrobial and antioxidant evaluation of bioactive principles from Iris hookeriana. LC-MS guided isolation technique was applied for the separation of target constituents. The isolates were characterised by spectral techniques and subjected to antioxidant evaluation by DPPH assay. Four compounds; resveratrol, resveratroloside, junipeginin C and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside were isolated for the first time along with 3 known compounds viz piceid, irigenin and iridin from I. hookeriana using this approach. The antioxidant activity screening of the isolates revealed that all the 4 constituents isolated for the first time, have strong antioxidant potential with IC50 of 14.0 µg/ml (resveratroloside), 19.7 µg/ml (junipeginen C), 12.8 µg/ml (resveratrol) and 19.8 µg/ml (isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperodoside). So it can be safely concluded that LC-MS guided isolation of chemical compounds from Iris hookeriana has furnished 4 antioxidant constituents. Thus Iris hookeriana can act as as a good source of wonder molecule resveratrol and its 2 glycosides, resveratrolside and piceid which upon hydrolysis can be converted into the parent drug resveratrol. PMID:27281447

  8. First-principles Analysis of Photo-current in Graphene PN Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jingzhe; Guo, Hong

    2012-01-01

    We report a first principles investigation of photocurrent generation by graphene PN junctions. The junctions are formed by either chemically doping with nitrogen and boron atoms, or by controlling gate voltages. Non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism combined with density functional theory (DFT) is applied to calculate the photo-response function. The graphene PN junctions show a broad band photo-response including the terahertz range. The dependence of the response on the angle between the light polarization vector and the PN interface is determined. Its variation against photon energy $E_{ph}$ is calculated in the visible range. The essential properties of chemically doped and gate-controlled PN junctions are similar, but the former shows fingerprints of dopant distribution.

  9. Limit analysis for anisotropic solids using variational principle and repeated elastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many structural components, such as rolled sheets, directionally solidified superalloys and composites are made of anisotropic materials. The knowledge of limit load is useful in the design and the sizing of these components and structures. This paper presents the extension of the modified mα - method to anisotropic materials. Mura's variational principle is employed in conjunction with repeated elastic finite element analyses (FEA). The secant modulus of the discretized finite elements in the reference direction components. The modified initial elastic properties are adopted to ensure the 'elastic' stress fields satisfy the anisotropic yield surface. Using the notion of 'leap-frogging to limit state,' improved lower-bound limit loads can be obtained. The formulation is applied to two anisotropic components, and the limit load estimates are compared with those using elastic compensation method and inelastic FEA. (author)

  10. The integrated analysis of metabolic and protein interaction networks reveals novel molecular organizing principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Dirk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of biological interaction networks is a central theme of systems biology. Here, we investigate the relationships between two distinct types of interaction networks: the metabolic pathway map and the protein-protein interaction network (PIN. It has long been established that successive enzymatic steps are often catalyzed by physically interacting proteins forming permanent or transient multi-enzymes complexes. Inspecting high-throughput PIN data, it was shown recently that, indeed, enzymes involved in successive reactions are generally more likely to interact than other protein pairs. In our study, we expanded this line of research to include comparisons of the underlying respective network topologies as well as to investigate whether the spatial organization of enzyme interactions correlates with metabolic efficiency. Results Analyzing yeast data, we detected long-range correlations between shortest paths between proteins in both network types suggesting a mutual correspondence of both network architectures. We discovered that the organizing principles of physical interactions between metabolic enzymes differ from the general PIN of all proteins. While physical interactions between proteins are generally dissortative, enzyme interactions were observed to be assortative. Thus, enzymes frequently interact with other enzymes of similar rather than different degree. Enzymes carrying high flux loads are more likely to physically interact than enzymes with lower metabolic throughput. In particular, enzymes associated with catabolic pathways as well as enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of complex molecules were found to exhibit high degrees of physical clustering. Single proteins were identified that connect major components of the cellular metabolism and may thus be essential for the structural integrity of several biosynthetic systems. Conclusion Our results reveal topological equivalences between the protein

  11. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  13. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  14. An Adaptive Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network Classifier Based on Principle Component Analysis and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive fuzzy min-max neural network classifier called AFMN is proposed in this paper. Combined with principle component analysis and adaptive genetic algorithm, this integrated system can serve as a supervised and real-time classification technique. Considering the loophole in the expansion-contraction process of FMNN and GFMN and the overcomplex network architecture of FMCN, AFMN maintains the simple architecture of FMNN for fast learning and testing while rewriting the membership function, the expansion and contraction rules for hyperbox generation to solve the confusion problems in the hyperbox overlap region. Meanwhile, principle component analysis is adopted to finish dataset dimensionality reduction for increasing learning efficiency. After training, the confidence coefficient of each hyperbox is calculated based on the distribution of samples. During classifying procedure, utilizing adaptive genetic algorithm to complete parameter optimization for AFMN can also fasten the entire procedure than traversal method. For conditions where training samples are insufficient, data core weight updating is indispensible to enhance the robustness of classifier and the modified membership function can adjust itself according to the input varieties. The paper demonstrates the performance of AFMN through substantial examples in terms of classification accuracy and operating speed by comparing it with FMNN, GFMN, and FMCN.

  15. Structural and mechanical properties of alkali hydrides investigated by the first-principles calculations and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settouti, Nadera; Aourag, Hafid

    2016-08-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of alkali hydrides (LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH) were investigated via first-principles calculations which cover the optimized structural parameters. The density functional theory in combination with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used in this study. From the present study, one could note that alkali hydrides are brittle materials and mechanically stable. It was found that stiffness and shear resistance are greater in LiH than in other hydrides. It is more brittle in nature, and comparatively harder than the other materials under study; it also presents a high degree of anisotropy. The results were then investigated and analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA), which is one of the most common techniques in multivariate analysis, was used to explore the correlations among material properties of alkali hydrides and to study their trends. The alkali hydrides obtained by the first-principles calculations were also compared with the alkaline-earth metal hydrides (BeH2, MgH2, CaH2, SrH2, and BaH2) and discussed in this work.

  16. 老年人在城市体育公园中的活动类型及设计原则%Design Principles and Types of Activities of Elderly in City Sports Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小茜; 周萌

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis on the activity types of the elderly in the city sports park, the author deeply discusses the design principle of the city sports park, aiming at creating a more comfortable, healthy, safe recreational activity space for the aged.%本文通过对城市体育公园中老年人活动类型的分析,深入探讨了城市体育公园的设计原则,旨在为老年人营造一个更加舒适、健康、安全的娱乐活动空间。

  17. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  18. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  19. Logical analysis of the Bohr Complementarity Principle in Afshar's experiment under the NAFL interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, R

    2005-01-01

    The Bohr Complementarity Principle (BCP) holds in Afshar's experiment under the newly proposed NAFL (non-Aristotelian finitary logic) interpretation of quantum mechanics. NAFL requires that no `physical' reality can be ascribed to the wave nature of a single photon. The NAFL theory QM, formalizing quantum mechanics, treats the superposed state ($S$) of a single photon taking two or more different paths at the same time as a logical contradiction that is formally unprovable in QM. Nevertheless, in a non-classical NAFL model for QM in which the law of non-contradiction fails, $S$ has a meaningful metamathematical interpretation that the photon has not been measured (or axiomatically declared) to take any particular path available to it. It is argued that even the existence of an interference pattern does not logically amount to a proof that a single photon exhibits self-interference. Since QM does not prove the existence of the state $S$, it follows that one can retroactively infer, from a measurement $Q$ made ...

  20. Sampled-data based average consensus with measurement noises:convergence analysis and uncertainty principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; ZHANG JiFeng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,sampled-data based average-consensus control is considered for networks consisting of continuous-time first-order Integrator agents in a noisy distributed communication environment.The Impact of the sampling size and the number of network nodes on the system performances is analyzed.The control input of each agent can only use information measured at the sampling instants from its neighborhood rather than the complete continuous process,and the measurements of its neighbors'states are corrupted by random noises.By probability limit theory and the property of graph Laplacian matrix,it is shown that for a connected network,the static mean square error between the individual state and the average of the Initial states of all agents can be made arbitrarily small,provided the sampling size is sufficiently small.Furthermore,by properly choosing the consensus gains,almost sure consensus can be achieved.It is worth pointing out that an uncertainty principle of Gaussian networks is obtained,which implies that in the case of white Gausslan noises,no matter what the sampling size is,the product of the steady-state and transient performance indices is always equal to or larger than a constant depending on the noise intensity,network topology and the number of network nodes.

  1. Numerical analysis on heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex based on field synergy principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Junmei; TAO Wenquan

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulation results are presented for a fin-and-tube heat transfer surface with vortex generators.The effects of the Reynolds number (from 800 to 2 000) and the attack angle (30° and 45°) of a delta winglet vortex generator are examined.The numerical results are analyzed on the basis of the field synergy principle to explain the inherent mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex.The secondary flow generated by the vortex generators causes the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradients.In addition,the computational evaluations indicate that the heat transfer enhancement of delta winglet pairs for an aligned tube bank fin-and-tube surface is more significant than that for a staggered tube bank fin-and-tube surface.The heat transfer enhancement of the delta winglet pairs with an attack angle of 45° is larger than that with an angle of 30°.The delta winglet pair with an attack angle of 45° leads to an increase in pressure drop,while the delta winglet pair with the 30°angle results in a slight decrease.The heat transfer enhancement under identical pumping power condition for the attack angle of 30° is larger than that for the attack angle of 45°either for staggered or for aligned tube bank arrangement.

  2. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  3. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  4. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  5. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  6. 析萨托利“有限多数原则”%Analysis on Limited Majority Principle of Sartori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊

    2013-01-01

    乔万尼萨托利在《民主新论》中强调,民主的工作原则是有限的(受限制的)多数统治原则,且这一原则立足于保护少数权利以及利用少数权利限制多数的统治。同时,有限多数原则是现代民主制度的可行性原则,该文通过对简单多数原则与有限多数原则的分析,阐明了简单多数原则的含义及其存在的问题。进而通过与简单多数原则比较,分析了有限多数原则及其所具有的优点,指出了在现代民主的运行过程中有限多数原则比简单多数原则更可行。%In the book of The Theory of Democracy Revisited, Giovanni Sartori stressed that the working principle of democracy is limited or restricted majority rule which is based on the protection of minority rights and the utilization of minority rights to limit the rule of the majority. Meanwhile, limited majority rule is the feasible principle of modern democracy. Through contrastive analysis of plurality rule and limited majority rule, this paper expounds the meaning of the former and its existing problems and further analyzes the advantages of the latter in comparison to the former, and it comes down to that limited majority principle is more feasible than plurality rule in the operating process of modern democracy.

  7. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  8. A Framework for Site Analysis With Emphasis on Feng Shui and Contemporary environmental Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jun

    2003-01-01

    This research proposes a new site analysis methodology in the form of an integrated framework. The framework separates the site analysis process into different models, incorporates each model, and considers the interaction between them. The most important models are the environmental models (climate, geology, hydrology, topography, and vegetation models), social-cultural models, economic models, and infrastructure models. Each model also contains several important factors. The study ide...

  9. Behavioral Economics and the Conduct of Benefit-Cost Analysis: Towards Principles and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Hammitt, James K.; Robinson, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    As traditionally conducted, benefit-cost analysis is rooted in neoclassical welfare economics, which assumes that individuals act rationally and are primarily motivated by self-interest, making decisions that maximize their own well-being. Its conduct is now evolving to reflect recent work in behavioral economics, which integrates psychological aspects of decisionmaking. We consider several implications for analyses of social programs. First, benefit-cost analysis often involves valuing nonma...

  10. Analysis of a bio-dynamic model via Lyapunov principle and small-world network for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H-Y; Chung, C-Y; Ou, S-C

    2012-10-01

    The study will apply Lyapunov principle to construct a dynamic model for tuberculosis (TB). The Lyapunov principle is commonly used to examine and determine the stability of a dynamic system. To simulate the transmissions of vector-borne diseases and discuss the related health policies effects on vector-borne diseases, the authors combine the multi-agent-based system, social network and compartmental model to develop an epidemic simulation model. In the identity level, the authors use the multi-agent-based system and the mirror identity concept to describe identities with social network features such as daily visits, long-distance movement, high degree of clustering, low degree of separation and local clustering. The research will analyse the complex dynamic mathematic model of TB epidemic and determine its stability property by using the popular Matlab/Simulink software and relative software packages. Facing the current TB epidemic situation, the development of TB and its developing trend through constructing a dynamic bio-mathematical system model of TB is investigated. After simulating the development of epidemic situation with the solution of the SMIR epidemic model, the authors will come up with a good scheme to control epidemic situation to analyse the parameter values of a model that influence epidemic situation evolved. The authors will try to find the quarantining parameters that are the most important factors to control epidemic situation. The SMIR epidemic model and the results via numerical analysis may offer effective prevention with reference to controlling epidemic situation of TB. PMID:23101874

  11. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic analysis of the Sc–Ni system supplemented with first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Sc–Ni system is reinvestigated via experiments and thermodynamics. • The homogeneity range and the congruent melting point of Sc2Ni are clarified. • First-principles calculations are performed for the enthalpies of formation. • Order-disorder model is used to describe BccA2 and BccB2 (ScNi). • The present thermodynamic parameters can fit the experimental data better. - Abstract: The Sc–Ni binary system was investigated via a hybrid of experiment and thermodynamic calculation. Eleven alloys were prepared by arc melting. The as-cast and annealed samples were analyzed by means of X–ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X–ray spectrometer, electron probe microanalysis and differential thermal analysis/differential scanning calorimetry. The invariant reactions on Sc-rich side were reinvestigated. Five compounds (ScNi5, Sc2Ni7, ScNi2, ScNi and Sc2Ni) were observed in the present experiment. Their enthalpies of formation at 0 K were computed via first-principles calculations to supply referable thermodynamic data for the modeling. One single function was used to describe the Gibbs energies of both the ordered BccB2 (ScNi) and disordered BccA2 phases. The presently obtained thermodynamic parameters for the Sc–Ni system can reproduce the experimental data reasonably

  12. Analysis of a bio-dynamic model via Lyapunov principle and small-world network for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H-Y; Chung, C-Y; Ou, S-C

    2012-10-01

    The study will apply Lyapunov principle to construct a dynamic model for tuberculosis (TB). The Lyapunov principle is commonly used to examine and determine the stability of a dynamic system. To simulate the transmissions of vector-borne diseases and discuss the related health policies effects on vector-borne diseases, the authors combine the multi-agent-based system, social network and compartmental model to develop an epidemic simulation model. In the identity level, the authors use the multi-agent-based system and the mirror identity concept to describe identities with social network features such as daily visits, long-distance movement, high degree of clustering, low degree of separation and local clustering. The research will analyse the complex dynamic mathematic model of TB epidemic and determine its stability property by using the popular Matlab/Simulink software and relative software packages. Facing the current TB epidemic situation, the development of TB and its developing trend through constructing a dynamic bio-mathematical system model of TB is investigated. After simulating the development of epidemic situation with the solution of the SMIR epidemic model, the authors will come up with a good scheme to control epidemic situation to analyse the parameter values of a model that influence epidemic situation evolved. The authors will try to find the quarantining parameters that are the most important factors to control epidemic situation. The SMIR epidemic model and the results via numerical analysis may offer effective prevention with reference to controlling epidemic situation of TB.

  13. The Representation of Diversity in Marketing Principles Texts: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Ellen; Easterling, Debbie

    1999-01-01

    Content analysis of portrayals of organizations and individuals in 32 marketing textbooks showed that in many respects their depiction of the actual U.S. workplace was not accurate. Women and people with disabilities were underrepresented; results for ethnic minorities were unclear because of difficulties of identification in print. (SK)

  14. First principles analysis of hydrogen chemisorption on Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and alloyed surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallassana, Venkataraman; Neurock, Matthew; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    2000-01-01

    was developed to extend the Hammer-Norskov surface reactivity model [Surf. Sci. 343, 211 (1995)] to the analysis of bimetallic Pd-Re alloyed systems. The hydrogen chemisorption energies are correlated linearly to the surface d-band center, which is weighted appropriately by the d-band coupling matrix elements...

  15. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  16. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  17. Computer-aided Symbolic Analysis for the Active Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐望人; 徐静波

    2004-01-01

    The totally coded method (TCM) reveal the same law which governing the gain calculating for signal flow graph as Mason formula does. This algorithm is carried out merely in the domain of code operation. Based on pure code algorithm, it is more efficiency because any figure searching is no longer necessary. The code-series (CS), which are organized from node association table, have the holo-information nature, so that both the content and the sign of each gain-term can be determined via the coded method. The principle of this method is obvious and it is suited for computer programming. The capability of the computer-aided analysis for the active network, such as operation amplifier network, can be enhanced.

  18. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  19. Electronic and Optical Properties of Rock-Salt A1N under High Pressure via First-Principles Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; CHEN Xiang-Rong; CAI Ling-Cang; GOU Qing-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Electronic and optical properties of rock-salt A1N under high pressure are investigated by first -principles method based on the plane-wave basis set. Analysis of band structures suggests that the rock-salt AIN has an indirect gap of 4.53 eV, which is in good agreement with other results. By investigating the effects of pressure on the energy gap, the different movement of conduction band at X point below and above 22.5 GPa is predicted. The optical properties including dielectric function, absorption, reflectivity, and refractive index are also calculated and analyzed. It is found that the rock-salt AIN is transparent from the partially ultra-violet to the visible light area and hardly does the transparence affected by the pressure. Furthermore, the curve of optical spectrum will shift to high energy area (blue shift) with increasing pressure.

  20. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  1. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  2. An Analysis of Tolerance Variation Among Adherents to Feminist, Environmentalist and Gay Rights Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Fiquet, Angela T. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    To the extent that the United States is a post-industrial society, whereby the means and ends of social production are social, and the production and reproduction of knowledge are shaped by reflexivity and continuous reconceptualizations of reality, what it means to be "tolerant" has been subjected to multiple ideologies. Supposedly freed from collectively imposed identities, social scientists have argued that in a postmodern society, individuals actively construct their own identities. In th...

  3. The Design Principles of Micro-Video Production and In-Class Activi-ties on the Base of Flipped Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盟梦

    2016-01-01

    Flipped classroom is a brand-new teaching mode both at home and abroad. Its core is to reverse teaching sequence and teaching content by letting students watch self-made videos to learn relatively junior teaching content before class, thus leaving students adequate space to exert full activities in the classroom to complete knowledge absorption and consolidation. This article focus mainly on the design principles and relevant experiences of video production. In the meanwhile, the article also puts for-ward instructive suggestions for teachers to make appealing and stylistic videos as well as mobilize the enthusiasm of students. Video as the stepping stone only serves as a media to convey knowledge before class, the class is the core to convert students’ traditional role to be the real master by a series of effective activities, which should be carefully designed by teachers. So the sec-ond focus of the articles falls on the design principles of in-class activities.

  4. Basic principles for establishing best practice materials characterisation methods based on Rietveld diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of Rietveld modelling of materials microstructure character is often limited by practitioners being unfamiliar with the basis of non-linear least squares analysis and its limitations. This paper considers the basis of good practice with particular reference to (1) the critical importance of data quality and (2) careful management of the refinement process. The analytical descriptors considered are phase composition levels and lattice parameters. (Author)

  5. The Polluter Pays Principle and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Climate Change: An Application of Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2006-01-01

    I compare and contrast five climate scenarios: (1) no climate policy; (2) non-cooperative cost-benefit analysis (NC CBA); (3) NC CBA with international permit trade; (4) NC CBA with joint and several liability for climate change damages; and (5) NC CBA with liability proportional to a country’s share in cumulative emissions. As estimates of the marginal damage costs are low, standard NC CBA implies only limited emission abatement. With international permit trade, emission abatement is even le...

  6. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  7. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  8. Rating Health Web sites using the principles of Citation Analysis: A Bibliometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Lei

    1999-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of health care related web sites necessitates that medical librarians be able to evaluate the quality of the web sites. By analysing the linked sources medical libraries web pages of nineteen of the top U.S. medical schools, this study used the citation analysis method. What was found with this bibliometric approach was a set of 78 most highly cited WWW sites out of thousands of cited links. The identification of the current, core section of health sciences rela...

  9. Principles, methods and modern trends in analysis of residential real estate market

    OpenAIRE

    Булаенко, Диана Владимировна

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of existing approaches and methods to analysis and forecasting of the residential real estate market as well as the problem of development of a multifactorial mathematical model of the price per square meter of residential real estate in the city of Kharkov. It also analyzes the current state of the subject area and reveals that one of the acute issues of analyzing real estate market data lies in the automated search of the key factors that determine the beha...

  10. Surface and Thin Film Analysis A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Friedbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Surveying and comparing all techniques relevant for practical applications in surface and thin film analysis, this second edition of a bestseller is a vital guide to this hot topic in nano- and surface technology. This new book has been revised and updated and is divided into four parts - electron, ion, and photon detection, as well as scanning probe microscopy. New chapters have been added to cover such techniques as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency generation (SFG). Appendices with a summary and comparison of techniques and a list of equipment suppliers make this book a rapid ref

  11. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  12. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  13. Missing Data Estimation using Principle Component Analysis and Autoassociative Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new methods are used for estimating missing data in a database using Neural Networks, Principal Component Analysis and Genetic Algorithms are presented. The proposed methods are tested on a set of data obtained from the South African Antenatal Survey. The data is a collection of demographic properties of patients. The proposed methods use Principal Component Analysis to remove redundancies and reduce the dimensionality in the data. Variations of autoassociative Neural Networks are used to further reduce the dimensionality of the data. A Genetic Algorithm is then used to find the missing data by optimizing the error function of the three variants of the Autoencoder Neural Network. The proposed system was tested on data with 1 to 6 missing fields in a single record of data and the accuracy of the estimated values were calculated and recorded. All methods are as accurate as a conventional feedforward neural network structure however the use of the newly proposed methods employs neural network architectures that have fewer hidden nodes.

  14. The Main General Didactical Principles of Glotoeducological Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Juškienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As a pedagogical discipline glotoeducology is related to didactics, i. e. teaching theory. Three concepts of didactics are being distinguished: teaching, teaching principles and types of teaching activity. The authors limited themselves in their paper on one of them, namely: teaching principles that determine the usage of teaching regularities in the course of implementation of the objectives of teaching and education. The article also provides analysis of interaction of linguodidactical principles with general didactical principles, the impact thereof to teaching of foreign languages.

  15. Workshop in political institutions - institutional analysis and global climate change: Design principles for robust international regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific evidence suggests that human activities have a significant effect on the world's climate. Political pressures are growing to establish political institutions at the global level that would help manage the social and economic consequences of climate change. Disagreements remain about the magnitude of these effects, as well as the regional distribution of the detrimental consequences of climate change. In this paper we do not wish to enter into the complexities of these technical debates. Instead, we wish to challenge a seemingly widespread consensus about the nature of the political response appropriate to this global dilemma. Specifically, we question the extent to which the open-quotes answerclose quotes can be said to reside primarily in the establishment of the new global institutions likely to emerge from the first open-quotes Earth Summitclose quotes - the United Nations (UN) Conference on Environment and Development - scheduled for June of 1992 in Rio de Janeiro

  16. Management principles of the interaction between market attractiveness producer and its recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Sviridova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the definition of the content of interaction between attractiveness producer and its recipients through the prism of general and derived management principles. Actuality of this article is caused by the formation of long-term relationships between business subjects. The main aim of these relationships is attracting and using of resources to further joint production and benefits distribution from these activities. Formation of such long-term relationships in condition of high competitiveness is one of the urgent problems of modern enterprises. In this regard, the traditional management principles are supplemented by the principles of the interaction and attractiveness managing. The purpose of the article is further improving of management principles through the establishment of specific management principles of the interaction between market attractiveness producer and its recipients.The results of the analysis. Management principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions. The research of classic, general and structural management principles is conducted in the article. The possibility and necessity of ascertainment of the derivative management principles of interaction between subjects of market environment is noted. Derivative management principles reflect the content of the specialized management activity on forming of enterprise attractiveness. The analysis of existing management principles of different objects is conducted. It is established that as a basis for systematization of management principles scientists use different management features, such as socio-political principles, principles of management culture and state-administrative activity, socio-political, structural, scientific, legal, personnel and organizational basis.Results of research of management principles and management interaction proved

  17. Fault Detection of Reciprocating Compressors using a Model from Principles Component Analysis of Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    Traditional vibration monitoring techniques have found it difficult to determine a set of effective diagnostic features due to the high complexity of the vibration signals originating from the many different impact sources and wide ranges of practical operating conditions. In this paper Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for selecting vibration feature and detecting different faults in a reciprocating compressor. Vibration datasets were collected from the compressor under baseline condition and five common faults: valve leakage, inter-cooler leakage, suction valve leakage, loose drive belt combined with intercooler leakage and belt loose drive belt combined with suction valve leakage. A model using five PCs has been developed using the baseline data sets and the presence of faults can be detected by comparing the T2 and Q values from the features of fault vibration signals with corresponding thresholds developed from baseline data. However, the Q -statistic procedure produces a better detection as it can separate the five faults completely.

  18. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined

  19. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  20. Comparison of the Simple Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and DPPH Assays for the Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús F. Arteaga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of a number of small (low molecular weight natural compounds found in spices, condiments or drugs (gallic acid, sesamol, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, vanillin, salicylaldehyde, limonene, geraniol, 4-hexylresorcinol, etc. has been evaluated using electrochemical and DPPH radical scavenging measurements. Structural analysis of the tested compound suggest a remarkable activity for phenol derivatives and the importance of the –R groups located on the phenolic ring in the molecule’s ability to act as free radical scavenging as well as their influence in the electrochemical behavior. The voltammetric method can be used for the determination of the antioxidant capability in the same manner as the DPPH radical scavenging because of the correlation found between oxidation potentials and anti-radical power (ARP = 1/EC50. Such electrochemical determination is fast and cheap and allows making measurements under a variety of experimental conditions. The accuracy of the electrochemical measurements is the same for all the compounds, irrespective of their scavenging activity, the opposite of what occurs in the DPPH test.

  1. Novel Principles of Gamma-Retroviral Insertional Transcription Activation in Murine Leukemia Virus-induced End-stage Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Martin; Wabl, Matthias; Rius Ruiz, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    Background Insertional mutagenesis screens of retrovirus-induced mouse tumors have proven valuable in human cancer research and for understanding adverse effects of retroviral-based gene therapies. In previous studies, the assignment of mouse genes to individual retroviral integration sites has b......, and for understanding fundamental cellular regulatory principles and retroviral biology....

  2. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  3. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  5. A Principle Component Analysis of Galaxy Properties from a Large, Gas-Selected Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Chang

    2012-01-01

    concluded that this is in conflict with the CDM model. Considering the importance of the issue, we reinvestigate the problem using the principal component analysis on a fivefold larger sample and additional near-infrared data. We use databases from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array Survey for the gas properties, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for the optical properties, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey for the near-infrared properties. We confirm that the parameters are indeed correlated where a single physical parameter can explain 83% of the variations. When color (g-i is included, the first component still dominates but it develops a second principal component. In addition, the near-infrared color (i-J shows an obvious second principal component that might provide evidence of the complex old star formation. Based on our data, we suggest that it is premature to pronounce the failure of the CDM model and it motivates more theoretical work.

  6. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  7. Submonolayer Ag films on Fe(100): A first-principles analysis of energetics controlling adlayer thermodynamics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Li; Evans, James W.; Han, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Epitaxial growth of Ag on Fe(100) and postdeposition relaxation have been studied in several experiments. We provide a first-principles density functional theory analysis of key adatom interaction energies and diffusion barriers controlling growth and relaxation kinetics for the submonolayer regime, as these have not been assessed previously. A cluster expansion approach is used to obtain an extensive set of conventional lateral interactions between adatoms on fourfold hollow adsorption sites. We find robust oscillatory decay of pair interactions with increasing separation, and of trio interactions with increasing perimeter length. First- and second-nearest-neighbor pair interactions, as well as compact linear and bent trio interactions, dominate. The adatom terrace diffusion barrier is estimated to be Ed≈0.39 eV. We also provide a limited analysis of unconventional interactions for which one adatom is at the bridge-site transition state for hopping and one or more others are at fourfold hollow sites. Energy barriers for diffusion along island edges can be determined with the aid of both conventional and unconventional interactions.

  8. A first principles approach to differential expression in microarray data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Robert A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The disparate results from the methods commonly used to determine differential expression in Affymetrix microarray experiments may well result from the wide variety of probe set and probe level models employed. Here we take the approach of making the fewest assumptions about the structure of the microarray data. Specifically, we only require that, under the null hypothesis that a gene is not differentially expressed for specified conditions, for any probe position in the gene's probe set: a the probe amplitudes are independent and identically distributed over the conditions, and b the distributions of the replicated probe amplitudes are amenable to classical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Log-amplitudes that have been standardized within-chip meet these conditions well enough for our approach, which is to perform ANOVA across conditions for each probe position, and then take the median of the resulting (1 - p values as a gene-level measure of differential expression. Results We applied the technique to the HGU-133A, HG-U95A, and "Golden Spike" spike-in data sets. The resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves compared favorably with other published results. This procedure is quite sensitive, so much so that it has revealed the presence of probe sets that might properly be called "unanticipated positives" rather than "false positives", because plots of these probe sets strongly suggest that they are differentially expressed. Conclusion The median ANOVA (1-p approach presented here is a very simple methodology that does not depend on any specific probe level or probe models, and does not require any pre-processing other than within-chip standardization of probe level log amplitudes. Its performance is comparable to other published methods on the standard spike-in data sets, and has revealed the presence of new categories of probe sets that might properly be referred to as "unanticipated positives" and "unanticipated

  9. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  10. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  11. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  12. Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

  13. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  14. Analysis of Humor in the Dialogues of The Big Bang Theory——From the Perspective of the Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢平愚

    2015-01-01

    <正>Part One Introduction In 1967,Herbert Paul Grice first proposed the notion of"Cooperative Principle".He claimed that both parts should stick to a series of principles in order to achieve successful communication.(He Ziran,Chen Xinren,2004).

  15. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  16. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  17. The Application of Cooperation Principle and Politeness Principle in Oral Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石洁

    2014-01-01

    The pragmatic principle that people should comply with in communicative activities are the principles of cooperation and politeness principle. The principles of cooperation play a regulatory role in communication while politeness principle actually has a greater binding. In teaching, teachers should always teach basing on language and make students understand the Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle in pragmatics in order to improve oral communication skills.

  18. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  19. KFUPM fast neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly established Fast Neutron Activation Analysis facility at the Energy Research Laboratory is described. The facility mainly consists of a fast neutron irradiation station and a gamma ray counting station. Both stations are connected by a fast pneumatic sample transfer system which transports the sample from the irradiation station to the counting station in a short time of 3 s. The fast neutron activation analysis facility has been tested by measuring the 27A(n, α)24Na and 115In(n, n')115mIn cross sections at 14.8 and 2.5 MeV neutron energies, respectively. Within the experimental uncertainties, the measured cross sections for these elements agree with the published values. (orig.)

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of boron defects in silicon crystal: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Jun; Yoshimoto, Yoshihide; Suwa, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    We carried out a comprehensive study on the B 1s core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energies and formation energies for boron defects in crystalline silicon by first-principles calculation with careful evaluation of the local potential boundary condition for the model system using the supercell corresponding to 1000 Si atoms. It is reconfirmed that the cubo-octahedral B12 cluster in silicon crystal is unstable and exists at the saddle point decaying to the icosahedral and S4 B12 clusters. The electrically active clusters without any postannealing of ion-implanted Si are identified as icosahedral B12 clusters. The experimentally proposed threefold coordinated B is also identified as a ⟨ 001 ⟩ B - Si defect. For an as-doped sample prepared by plasma doping, the calculated XPS spectra for complexes consisting of vacancies and substitutional B atoms are consistent with the experimental spectra. It is proposed that, assuming that the XPS peak at 187.1 eV is due to substitutional B (Bs), the experimental XPS peaks at 187.9 and 186.7 eV correspond to interstitial B at the H-site and ⟨ 001 ⟩ B - Si defects, respectively. In the annealed samples, the complex of Bs and interstitial Si near the T-site is proposed as a candidate for the experimental XPS peak at 188.3 eV.

  1. First-principles analysis of the C-N bond scission of methylamine on Mo-based model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cun-Qin; Li, Jun; Tao, Shu-Xia; Ling, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Gui-Chang

    2010-01-01

    The C-N bond breaking of methylamine on clean, carbon (nitrogen, oxygen)-modified Mo(100) [denoted as Mo(100) and Mo(100)-C(N,O), respectively], Mo2C(100), MoN(100), and Pt(100) surfaces has been investigated by the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the reaction barriers of the C-N bond breaking in CH3NH2 on Mo(100)-C(N,O) are higher than that on clean Mo(100). The calculated energy barrier can be correlated linearly with the density of Mo 4d states at the Fermi level after the adsorption of CH3NH2 for those surfaces. Moreover, the DFT results show that the subsurface atom, e.g., carbon, can reduce the reaction barrier. In addition, We noticed that the activation energies for the C-N bond breaking on Mo2C(100) and MoN(100) are similar to that on Pt(100), suggesting that the catalytic properties of the transition metal carbides and nitrides for C-N bond scission of CH3NH2 might be very similar to the expensive Pt-group metals.

  2. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Oskar

    1971-01-01

    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  3. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  4. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-09-11

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H₂O₂ and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  5. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouqi Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  6. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  7. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  8. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  9. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  10. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  11. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  12. Cause Resolving of Typhoon Precipitation Using Principle Component Analysis under Complex Interactive Effect of Terrain, Monsoon and Typhoon Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study develops a novel methodology to resolve the cause of typhoon-induced precipitation using principle component analysis (PCA) and to develop a long lead-time precipitation prediction model. The discovered spatial and temporal features of rainfall are utilized to develop a state-of-the-art descriptive statistical model which can be used to predict long lead-time precipitation during typhoons. The time series of 12-hour precipitation from different types of invasive moving track of typhoons are respectively precede the signal analytical process to qualify the causes of rainfall and to quantify affected degree of each induced cause. The causes include: (1) interaction between typhoon rain band and terrain; (2) co-movement effect induced by typhoon wind field with monsoon; (3) pressure gradient; (4) wind velocity; (5) temperature environment; (6) characteristic distance between typhoon center and surface target station; (7) distance between grade 7 storm radius and surface target station; and (8) relative humidity. The results obtained from PCA can detect the hidden pattern of the eight causes in space and time and can understand the future trends and changes of precipitation. This study applies the developed methodology in Taiwan Island which is constituted by complex diverse terrain formation and height. Results show that: (1) for the typhoon moving toward the direction of 245° to 330°, Causes (1), (2) and (6) are the primary ones to generate rainfall; and (2) for the direction of 330° to 380°, Causes (1), (4) and (6) are the primary ones. Besides, the developed precipitation prediction model by using PCA with the distributed moving track approach (PCA-DMT) is 32% more accurate by that of PCA without distributed moving track approach, and the former model can effectively achieve long lead-time precipitation prediction with an average predicted error of 13% within average 48 hours of forecasted lead-time.

  13. Analysis of multiple anticoagulant rodenticides in animal blood and liver tissue using principles of QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudathala, Daljit; Cummings, Margaret; Murphy, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    A quick and easy method for the analysis of anticoagulant rodenticides in blood or tissue using principles of dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), commonly known as QuEChERS (short for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe), was developed. Briefly, a combination of magnesium sulfate, PSA, florisil, and basic alumina was used to cleanup blood samples. Further, to cleanup liver tissue samples, C(18) sorbent was included along with the previously mentioned. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) and a UV and fluorescence detector. The mobile phase consisted of 0.03 M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA) adjusted to pH 7/methanol (1:1, v/v) as solvent A and methanol as solvent B in a gradient run. The method detection limit was as low as 10 ng/mL for brodifacoum and difenacoum in blood and 10 ng/g in liver; 50 ng/mL for bromadiolone, difethialone, and chlorphacinone in blood and similarly 50 ng/g in liver; and 100 ng/mL for coumafuryl, pindone, warfarin, and diphacinone in blood and 100 ng/g in liver samples. A number of clinical samples of both blood and liver were analyzed; the comparison of this modified QuEChERS and traditional solid-phase extraction data was found to be in close agreement. This method resulted in drastic reduction in processing time and solvent cost both in terms of consumption and disposal, thus making it an attractive alternative to the traditional solid-phase extraction. PMID:20529461

  14. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  15. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  16. Determination of nitrogen in wheat flour through Activation analysis using Fast neutron flux of a Thermal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is done a technical study for determining Nitrogen (protein) and other elements in wheat flour Activation analysis, with Fast neutrons from a Thermal nuclear reactor. Initially it is given an introduction about the basic principles of the methods of analysis. Equipment used in Activation analysis and a brief description of the neutron source (Thermal nuclear reactor). The realized experiments for determining the flux form in the irradiation site, the half life of N-13 and the interferences due to the sample composition are included too. Finally, the obtained results by Activation and the Kjeldahl method are tabulated. (Author)

  17. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation

  18. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  19. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  20. Electrodynamics basics and duality principle

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanitckiy, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The given report proposes general and consistent statement of the classical electrodynamics basis using axiomatic and duality principles for its construct. Vector algebra and vector analysis are created by the application of the duality principle. The last fact allows formulating Maxwell equations in strictly symmetric form. It means the statement of electrodynamics postulates (axioms) under a principle of duality. Electrodynamics basis construction begins immediately using its postulates for...

  1. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  2. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  3. NF ISO 12790-1. Radiation protection. Performance criteria for the radio-toxicologic analysis. Part 1: general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard document deals with: the exactness of the in-vivo direct measurements of the activity and quantity of the main radionuclides selected for ghost-tests, and the exactness of the indirect in-vitro measurements performed on test samples; the methods of determination of the minimum detectable quantity; the minimum levels of tests and their range; the radio-toxicology reports made by laboratories of medical biology analysis; the quality assurance in such laboratories; the protocol of transmission of test evaluation results; the by-default mode of operation when no performance criteria are precised. (J.S.)

  4. Neutron activation analysis with k{sub 0}-standardisation : general formalism and procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomme, S.; Hardeman, F. [Centre de l`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Robouch, P.; Etxebarria, N.; Arana, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k{sub 0}-standardisation is a powerful tool for multi-element analysis at a broad range of trace element concentrations. An overview is given of the basic principles, fundamental equations, and general procedure of this method. Different aspects of the description of the neutron activation reaction rate are discussed, applying the Hogdahl convention. A general activation-decay formula is derived and its application to INAA is demonstrated. Relevant k{sub 0}-definitions for different activation decay schemes are summarised and upgraded to cases of extremely high fluxes. The main standardisation techniques for INAA are discussed, emphasizing the k{sub 0}-standardisation. Some general aspects of the basic equipment and its calibration are discussed, such as the characterisation of the neutron field and the tuning of the spectrometry part. A method for the prediction and optimisation of the analytical performance of INAA is presented.

  5. Research Activities involving Radioactivation Analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Triga Mark-II Research Reactor was installed at this institute in 1960, it was furnished with a pneumatic tube, a fume hood, and a laboratory bench for the purpose of developing the utilization of the research reactor in this country. This marked the commencement of research activity in radioactivation analysis in Korea. Since the output of the reactor was not sufficient enough to perform any sophisticated fundamental research work in nuclear science, radioactivation analysis was considered as one of the most promising means of utilising the reactor. Various requests for routine analysis of the trace elements contained in Korean mineral ores, archaeological materials, domestic industrial samples, native medicinal plants, and criminological samples had been filed at this institute. Fortunately, a well trained scientist and technician for the radioactivation work had been working at this division and hence these requests from the public had been well worked out to receive much recognition of scientists and engineers both in this country and overseas. A brief summary of the research work accomplished is presented in this paper and a brief outline of the routine analytical work is also described on the basis of local situations

  6. Environmental risk analysis for offshore oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brude, Odd Willy; Aspholm, Ole O.; Rudberg, Anders [Det Norske Veritas (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities always have a risk for environmental impact due to potential accidental releases of oil and gas. The environmental risk can be calculated as a combination of the frequency of such accidents to occur and their environmental consequences in terms of environmental damage to habitats or populations. A method for conducting environmental risk analysis has been in use in Norwegian offshore waters for a decade, with a continuously refinement of methodology over the past years. This paper outlines the principles in the MIRA method and gives examples and discussions regarding use in different environmental compartments. The risk assessment starts with identification of oil spill scenarios with frequencies of potential release rates and spill durations. The next step is to model the oil drift for each accidental oil spill scenario. Drift and fate of oil is modeled probabilistic. Based on the oil spill scenarios and their probability of oil pollution, the potential environmental damage is quantified for each scenario. The endpoint of environmental damage is reduction of a population and the resulting recovery time (in years) for various species and habitats. Environmental risk levels are then evaluated against the operating companies' environmental acceptance criteria. (author)

  7. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W

    2015-05-01

    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  8. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: Key principles and implications for research design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eRippon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, neuroimaging (NI technologies have had an increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which s/he develops and functions. The study of the relationship between sex and gender could offer a valuable example of such research. We identify here four main principles that should inform NI research. First, the principle of overlap, arising from evidence of significant overlap of female/male distributions on measures of many gendered behaviours. Second, the principle of mosaicism, arising from evidence that for both behaviour and brain, each individual manifests a complex and idiosyncratic combination of feminine and masculine characteristics. Third, the principle of contingency, arising from evidence that female/male behavioural differences are contingent on time, place, social group and context. Fourth, the principle of entanglement, arising from an awareness that the neural phenotypes that NI techniques measure are a function of the interactive and reciprocal influence of biology and environment. These important principles have emerged and become well-established over the past few decades, but their implications are often not reflected in the design and interpretation of NI sex/gender research. We therefore offer a set of guidelines for researchers to ensure that NI sex/gender research is appropriately designed and interpreted. We hope this ‘toolkit’ will also be of use to editorial boards and journal reviewers, as well as those who view, communicate and interpret such research.

  9. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel K. Balayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  10. APPLICATION OF LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD AND FIELD SYNERGY PRINCIPLE TO THE HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL FLOW WITH OBSTACLES INSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the lattice Boltzmann method and field synergy principle are applied to simulate two-dimensional incompressible steady channel flow under low Reynolds number, and analyze the local influence on velocity field and temperature field caused by inserting cylinder obstacles of different cross-section. Furthermore, field synergy principle of elliptic flow type is applied to demonstrate that the increased interruption within the fluid increases the synergistic level between the velocity field and temperature gradient field. As the intersection angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient vector decreases by inserting cylinder obstacles to fluid field, the results of heat transfer will improve significantly.

  11. 医学术语新词的来源、定名与汉译%Etymological Analysis of New Medical Terms and Principles for Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆祥; 李定钧

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of etymology, word formation and Chinese language characteristics, we proposed principles for the Chinese translation of new English medical terms.%文章分析英语医学术语新词的来源、构词方式和定名原则,并结合汉语语词的特点,提出汉译医学英语术语新词时应该遵循的原则。

  12. An Analysis of Factors that Inhibit Business Use of User-Centered Design Principles: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Tod M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of user-centered design (UCD) principles has a positive impact on the use of web-based interactive systems in customer-centric organizations. User-centered design methodologies are not widely adopted in organizations due to intraorganizational factors. A qualitative study using a modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors…

  13. 合同相对性原则突破的法理分析%Legal Analysis of the Principle of Privity of Contract Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江鹏飞; 刘亚平

    2011-01-01

    The principle of privity of contract is the entire theory of contract law system and the cornerstone of contract law,it is an ancient and important rule.However,the development of modern market economy,making this principle suffer a tremendous challenge.National legislation and judicial practice in the recognition of the relative position of the same principles,the principle of a breakthrough.This paper describes a breakthrough in the contract theory of relativity,its legal analysis,that it is a supplemen-tary contract theory of relativity and the development of a modern symbol of the contract.%合同的相对性原则是整个合同法制度与理论的基石,是合同法上一项古老而重要的规则。但现代市场经济的发展,使得这一原则遭受巨大挑战。各国立法和司法实践在承认相对性原则基础地位的同时,对该原则进行了突破。本文阐述了合同相对性的突破理论,对其进行法理分析,认为它是对合同相对性理论的补充与发展,是合同现代化的象征。

  14. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  15. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  16. Vitamin D Metabolism in Experimental Animals: Kinetics of Solanum glaucophyllum Active Principle in Cows and Assessment of Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D3 Requirements in Broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 our group began working on the development of a sensitive method to measure the active principle (1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3-glycoside) of Solanum glaucophyllum, a plant which grows wild in Argentina and causes calcinosis in breeding cattle. A radioreceptor assay (RRA) was applied to measure the free vitamin D metabolite in the plasma of experimental cows that were fed the plant in order to study the kinetics of the active principle. The 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D concentration in plasma showed a 33-fold increase four h post treatment. Peak levels were recorded 12 h after dosing, decreased by half between 24-36 h and continued declining until 48 h. More recently, this plant has been proposed as a source of vitamin D activity (VDA) and thereby may contribute to improving Ca and P utilisation by animals and environmental care. The effects of different dietary levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) over the range between commercial recommendations (control) and two thirds of NRC requirements (basal) as well as different sources of those minerals were therefore studied in experiments covering either a part or the entire breeding cycle of broilers through measurements of productive, nutritional, skeletal and biochemical parameters. Results indicated that birds fed diets deficient in these minerals exhibited skeletal responses but nevertheless showed better productive responses than those fed control diets. The high levels of vitamin D3 employed in commercial farms (25 times NRC recommendations) could enable birds fed on deficient diets to increase synthesis of the active metabolite of the vitamin in order to partially overcome deficiencies in these minerals. On the other hand, such high levels of vitamin D3 might have been unbalanced for optimal efficiency, at least under the experimental farm conditions of the present work. (author)

  17. [The theoretical analysis of Fick's equation. On the centennial of the use of Fick's principle in physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, V L

    1975-09-01

    In the first section Adolf Fick's outstanding scientific performances are pointed out in their historical sequence, particularly the derivation of the laws of diffusion (1855) and the basic equation for determining the heart-minute-volume (Fm) by O2-absorption per time (V02) and arteriovenous O2-difference (AVD), known as Fick's Principle. The latter was derived theoretically in 1870 by Fick, but it found it practical employment by other investigators, in dog not before 1886 and in man not earlier than 1930. In the following two sections the universality of Fick's Principle is shown by explaining its internal relation 1. to Fick's first law of diffusion and 2. to the general law of solution. This is done by mathematical transformation of the relations (formulas)of the physical resp. the physiological standards (parameters). By analyzing the diffusion of a substance into a streaming fluid according to the first diffusion law, perfectly isomorphic equations to Fick's Principle (No. 7 and No. 9) are obtained by what Fick's formula as a determinant of the heart-minute-volume is just proved to be derivable from Fick's first diffusion law. Furthermore by transforming the trivial formula for the determination of substance concentration in a fluid provement is given, that Fick's Principle may be considered a variant of the solution theory. By this the internal relation of the so-called dilution respectively indicating methods depending on the Stewart-Hamilton-Principle to the original Fick's Principle is made visible. In the last section an attempt is made to produce a relation to 1. the so-called physical methods determining the minute volume which primarily are known as a measurement for stroke volume and frequency, and, besides that, 2. to Vierordt's equation, by which the heart-minute-volume is determinable from circulating blood volume and circulation time. This trial is made by equating the value of the minute volume given by Fick's Principle (VO2/AVD) with the

  18. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  19. Solar active regions: a nonparametric statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pelt, J; Tuominen, I

    2009-01-01

    The sunspots and other solar activity indicators tend to cluster on the surface of the Sun.These clusters very often occur at certain longitudes that persist in time.It is of general interest to find new and simple ways to characterize the observed distributions of different indicators and their behaviour in time. In the present work we use Greenwich sunspot data to evaluate statistical but not totally coherent stability of sunspot distribution along latitudes as well as longitudes. The aim was to obtain information on the longitudinal distribution of the underlying spot-generating mechanism rather than on the distribution and migration of sunspots or sunspot groups on the solar surface. Therefore only sunspot groups were included in the analysis, and only the time of their first appearance was used. We use simple nonparametric approach to reveal sunspot migration patterns and their persistency. Our analysis shows that regions where spots are generated tend to rotate differentially as the spots and spot group...

  20. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  1. Patient-adapted, specific activation of HIV-1 by customized TAL effectors (TALEs), a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Rene; Hauber, Ilona; Funk, Nancy; Richter, Annekatrin; Behrens, Martina; Renner, Ivonne; Chemnitz, Jan; Hofmann-Sieber, Helga; Baum, Heidi; van Lunzen, Jan; Boch, Jens; Hauber, Joachim; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2015-12-01

    The major obstacle to cure infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is integrated proviral genomes, which are not eliminated by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Treatment approaches with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) aim at inducing provirus expression to tag latently-infected cells for clearance through viral cytopathic effects or cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses. However, the currently tested LRAs reveal evident drawbacks as gene expression is globally induced and viral outgrowth is insecure. Here, we present transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins as potent tools to activate HIV-1 specifically. The large variety of circulating HIV-1 strains and, accordingly, integrated proviruses was addressed by the programmable DNA-specificity of TALEs. Using customized engineered TALEs, a substantial transcription activation and viral outgrowth was achieved with cells obtained from different HIV-1 patients. Our data suggest that TALEs may be useful tools in future strategies aimed at removing HIV-1 reservoirs. PMID:26474371

  2. Activation analysis in Europe: present and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the present-day European contribution to activation analysis, covering neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Attention is paid to the available irradiation facilities, in particular nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and Van de Graaff accelerators, and linear electron accelerators. Mention is made of progress in fundamental fields, but the attention is especially focussed on practical applications: environmental, geochemical/cosmochemical, biological/medical, and high-purity materials. Eventually, the role of activation analysis in research projects of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and in the Reference Materials program of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is emphasized

  3. Effect of rTMS on brain activation in schizophrenia with negative symptoms : A proof-of-principle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; Renken, Remco J.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia and is thought to underlie negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve negative symptoms in patients with schiz

  4. Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

  5. Widely available active sites on Ni2P for electrochemical hydrogen evolution - insights from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Feng, Ligang;

    2015-01-01

    . In the present study, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, we show that several widely available low index crystal facets on Ni2P have better properties for a high catalytic activity. DFT calculations were used to identify moderately bonding nickel bridge sites and nickel hollow sites for hydrogen...

  6. Bioelectrical impedance analysis as a laboratory activity: At the interface of physics and the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel laboratory activity on RC circuits aimed at introductory physics students in life-science majors. The activity teaches principles of RC circuits by connecting ac-circuit concepts to bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a custom-designed educational BIA device. The activity shows how a BIA device works and how current, voltage, and impedance measurements relate to bioelectrical characteristics of the human body. From this, useful observations can be made including body water, fat-free mass, and body fat percentage. The laboratory is engaging to pre-health and life-science students, as well as engineering students who are given the opportunity to observe electrical components and construction of a commonly used biomedical device. Electrical concepts investigated include alternating current, electrical potential, resistance, capacitance, impedance, frequency, phase shift, device design, and the use of such topics in biomedical analysis.

  7. Fundamental principles, measurement techniques and data analysis in a ion accelerator; Principios fundamentales, tecnicas de medicion y analisis de datos en un acelerador de iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, O. [Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gleason, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hinojosa, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: hinojosa@fis.unam.mx

    2008-07-01

    The present work is intended to be a general reference for students and professionals interested in the field. Here, we present an introduction to the analysis techniques and fundamental principles for data processing and operation of a typical ion accelerator that operates in the low energy range. We also present a detailed description of the apparatus and propose new analysis methods for the results. In addition, we introduce illustrative simulations of the ion's trajectories in the different components of the apparatus performed with specialized software and, a new computer data acquisition and control interface. (Author)

  8. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  9. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  10. Chemical-state analysis of organic semiconductors using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Yutaka; Kohno, Teiichiro; Minakata, Takashi; Konishi, Tokuzo; Gullikson, Eric M; Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2012-02-16

    The chemical states of organic semiconductors were investigated by total-electron-yield soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TEY-XAS) and first-principles calculations. The organic semiconductors, pentacene (C(22)H(14)) and pentacenequinone (C(22)H(12)O(2)), were subjected to TEY-XAS and the experimental spectra obtained were compared with the 1s core-level excited spectra of C and O atoms, calculated by a first-principles planewave pseudopotential method. Excellent agreement between the measured and the calculated spectra were obtained for both materials. Using this methodology, we examined the chemical states of the aged pentacene, and confirmed that both C-OH and C═O chemical bonds are generated by exposure to air. This result implies that not only oxygen but also humidity causes pentacene oxidation.

  11. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  12. Activity origin and catalyst design principles for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution on heteroatom-doped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Davey, Kenneth; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a fundamental process in electrocatalysis and plays an important role in energy conversion through water splitting to produce hydrogen. Effective candidates for HER are often based on noble metals or transition metal dichalcogenides, while carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts generally demonstrate poorer activity. Here we report evaluation of a series of heteroatom-doped graphene materials as efficient HER electrocatalysts by combining spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical measurements, and density functional theory calculations. Results of theoretical computations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations regarding the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity and the HER reaction mechanism. As a result, we establish a HER activity trend for graphene-based materials, and explore their reactivity origin to guide the design of more efficient electrocatalysts. We predict that by rationally modifying particular experimentally achievable physicochemical characteristics, a practically realizable graphene-based material will have the potential to exceed the performance of the metal-based benchmark for HER.

  13. Comprehending environmental and economic sustainability: Comparative analysis of stability principles in the biosphere and free market economy

    OpenAIRE

    Victor G. Gorshkov; Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Bai-Lian Li

    2010-01-01

    Using the formalism of Lyapunov potential function it is shown that the stability principles for biomass in the ecosystem and for employment in economics are mathematically similar. The ecosystem is found to have a stable and an unstable stationary state with high (forest) and low (grasslands) biomass, respectively. In economics, there is a stable stationary state with high employment, which corresponds to mass production of conventional goods sold at low cost price, and an unstable stationar...

  14. Using Human Panels for Subjective Evaluation of Emissions from Indoor Activities and Materials: Principles and State of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses the topic of sensory evaluation of indoor air through the use of human subjects. It begins by discussing the chemical senses involved in such evaluation, specifically the senses of smell (olfaction) and chemical sensory irritation (common chemical sense, CCS, now called chemesthesis). An analysis of similarities and differences between these two sensory modalities regarding key measurements and issues follows. Later, the report discusses the quantification of sensory rea...

  15. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  16. 论批评性话语分析的原则和方法%The Analysis of Principles and Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阳

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis,whose theoretical base is Marxism,has a history of thirty years and aims at reveal unbalanced power relationship.Critical discourse analysis mainly has three ways,which are systemic functional grammar analysis,genre analysis of the interleaver and historical background discourse analysis.These three methods focus on different aspects and complement one another.They enable critical discourse analysis to be the important complement of traditionally social and cultural analysis as well as a kind of social activity,which boosts the progress of human society.%批评性话语分析已有30年的发展历史,其基本理论渊源是西方马克思主义,宗旨是揭露不平等的权力关系。其主要方法有:系统功能语法分析、语篇体裁交织性分析和话语历史背景分析。这三种方法各有侧重,互为补充。它们使批评性话语分析成为传统的社会和文化分析的重要补充,使其变为一种社会行动,促进人类社会的进步。

  17. A correspondence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  18. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  19. First-Principles Design of Graphene-Based Active Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in the Aprotic Li-O2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joonhee; Yu, Jong-Sung; Han, Byungchan

    2016-07-21

    Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we demonstrate that catalytic activities toward oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in a Li-O2 battery can be substantially improved with graphene-based materials. We accomplish the goal by calculating free energy diagrams for the redox reactions of oxygen to identify a rate-determining step controlling the overpotentials. We unveil that the catalytic performance is well described by the adsorption energies of the intermediates LiO2 and Li2O2 and propose that graphene-based materials can be substantially optimized through either by N doping or encapsulating Cu(111) single crystals. Furthermore, our systematic approach with DFT calculations applied to design of optimum catalysts enables screening of promising candidates for the oxygen electrochemistry leading to considerable improvement of efficiency of a range of renewable energy devices. PMID:27392527

  20. Geometries and electronic structures of the hydrogenated diamond (100) surface upon exposure to active ions: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Bin; Li, Jing-Lin; Chen, Wen-Bin; Cui, Yan; Jiao, Zhi-Wei; Yan, Hong-Juan; Qu, Min; Di, Jie-Jian

    2016-02-01

    To elucidate the effects of physisorbed active ions on the geometries and electronic structures of hydrogenated diamond films, models of HCO 3 - , H3O+, and OH- ions physisorbed on hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces were constructed. Density functional theory was used to calculate the geometries, adsorption energies, and partial density of states. The results showed that the geometries of the hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces all changed to different degrees after ion adsorption. Among them, the H3O+ ion affected the geometry of the hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces the most. This is well consistent with the results of the calculated adsorption energies, which indicated that a strong electrostatic attraction occurs between the hydrogenated diamond (100) surface and H3O+ ions. In addition, electrons transfer significantly from the hydrogenated diamond (100) surface to the adsorbed H3O+ ion, which induces a downward shift in the HOMO and LUMO energy levels of the H3O+ ion. However, for active ions like OH- and HCO 3 - , no dramatic change appears for the electronic structures of the adsorbed ions.

  1. Activation analysis for the Ignitor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Ignitor experiment is to produce DT plasma regimes where ignition can take place. From the neutronics point of view, after a first period of machine set up and tuning in aneutronic operation, a second phase of 2.5 MeV neutron production with pure deuterium plasmas at increasing density is anticipated. After that, a transition phase to increasing percentage of tritium will be followed by several years of operations with 50% of tritium leading to short but intense 14-MeV neutron emission. To deal with the concerns due to the strong neutron emission, a detailed description of the actual Ignitor machine is implemented in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code to calculate the neutron fluxes in all machine components, taking in account the streaming through the ports. These fluxes are then used as input for the FISPACT-97 code for the analysis of the activation at the end of life and at intermediate times for safety assessment purposes. The resulting dose rate outside the device is also studied. The results point out that remote handling is needed for repair/maintenance of inner components following the DD operations, and that the access in the hall near the device could be restricted from the beginning of DT operations. The requirements on additional shield are discussed

  2. Diabetes melito: plantas e princípios ativos naturais hipoglicemiantes Diabetes mellitus: hypoglicemic plants and natural active principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes melito é considerada como uma síndrome que é, quanto a etiologia e patogênese, caracterizada por alterar a homeostase do organismo, por distúrbios metabólicos complexos e primários dos carboidratos, que envolvem secundariamente, porém de forma importante, lipídeos e proteínas. Grande número de espécies de plantas tem sido usado experimentalmente para tratar os sintomas do diabetes melito e a distância filogenética entre este grupo de plantas é forte indicação da natureza variada de seus constituintes. Tem sido constatado que muitas substâncias extraídas de plantas reduzem o nível de glicose no sangue. A grande diversidade de classes químicas indica que uma variedade de mecanismos de ação deve estar envolvida na redução do nível de glicose no sangue. Algumas destas substâncias podem ter potencial terapêutico enquanto outras podem produzir hipoglicemia como um efeito colateral devido à sua toxicidade, especialmente hepatotoxidade. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão atualizada e acrescenta mais plantas e princípios ativos hipoglicemiantes à extensa lista existente nos artigos de revisão anteriores.Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of ethiologically and clinically heterogeneous disorders with a common set of symptoms: excessive thirst and hunger, muscular weakness, weight loss, excessive urination and elevation of the blood glucose level among others. There has been a striking emergence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a major health problem in populations undergoing modernization of life-style, both in developed and underdeveloped nations. Many species of plants have been used ethnopharmacologically or experimentally to treat symptons of diabetes mellitus. The high percentage of active plants probably reflects, at least in part, the great variety of possible active constituents and mechanisms of action. The wide diversity of chemical classes indicate a variety of mechanisms must be involved

  3. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudde, P.; Abadie, A. [Sustainable Finance, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations.

  4. Certain aspects of the psychological analysis of programmer activity. [selection of computer programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarovskaya, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological analysis of programmer activity showed that one of its basic characteristics is the need to employ formal languages. In determining ways of effectively mastering the capacity to write algorithms in the algorithmic language, it is expedient to proceed from its similarity to the living languages and the language of mathematical formulas, and to choose certain psychological principles of mastering foreign languages and mathematical symbols in teaching the algorithmic language. General models of the input language significantly increase the effectiveness of its mastery and permit the development of thinking on the part of the students.

  5. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  6. 血透机超滤原理分析%Analysis of ultrafiltration principle of hemodialysis machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝伟; 王振洲; 贺建林

    2011-01-01

    This article introduced the major function and the basic concept of ultrafiltration of hemodialysis machine.Meanwhile, the realization of ultrafiltratioin was conducted through etaborating the working principle of Gambro- hemodialysis machine's ultrafiltration unit and B/BRAUN-hemodialysis machine's balance chamber and ultrafiltration pump.%介绍血透机的主要功能及超滤的基本概念,以金宝血透机超滤单元和贝朗血透机平衡腔及超滤泵系统的工作原理分析血透机超滤脱水的实现方法.

  7. ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTROSTRICTIVE STACK ACTUATORFOR ACTIVE TRAILING EDGE FLAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    the source.  Compared with the HHC and IBC concept, the smart rotor is promising in reducing energy consumption and simplifying the control system[3]. However, in order to satisfy the requirements of vibratory load control, the flaps have to be controlled both quickly and precisely (frequency response up to 4ω, amplitude of pitch angle between 6° to 8°[4,5]. Currently, many experimental studies are being taken to develop ATEF systems using integrated actuator technology in smart structure, and to satisfy both the compact and high efficiency requirements.   The integrated actuators are made of functional materials, producing displacement under external voltage. Electrostrictive material is a kind of ferroelectric ceramic, the strain is approximately of the 2nd order relationship with actuating electric field, and can be used in the development of a solid actuator in smart rotor systems. However, since the displacement of the actuator not only depends on its structure, but also relies on external force and voltage, a mathematical model is needed to predict its output characteristics in design.  In this paper, a dynamic model of the stack actuator is derived using the principle of force equivalence, which is based on the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material and the equation of motion. Theoretical analysis is made on the factors involved in the design of stack actuators. At the end of the paper, a stack actuator is designed according to theoretical analysis. Experiments of an adaptive trailing edge flap model are introduced to verify the feasibility of the model.

  8. Precautionary principle in international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, C

    2000-01-01

    The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend.

  9. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  10. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  11. Numerical investigation and analysis of heat transfer enhancement in channel by longitudinal vortex based on field synergy principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenquan TAO; Junmei WU

    2008-01-01

    3-D numerical simulations were presented for laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel with vortex generators. The effects of Reynolds number (from 800 to 3 000), the attack angle of vortex generator (from 15° to 90°) and the shape of vortex generator were examined. The numerical results were analyzed based on the field synergy principle. It is found that the inherent mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex can be explained by the field synergy principle, that is, the second flow generated by vortex generators results in the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradient. The longitudinal vortex improves the field synergy of the large downstream region of longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) and the region near (LVG); however, transverse vortex only improves the syn-ergy of the region near vortex generator. Thus, longitudinal vortex can enhance the integral heat transfer of the flow field, while transverse vortex can only enhance the local heat transfer. The synergy angle decreases with the increase of Reynolds number for the channel with LVG to differ from the result obtained from the plain channel, and the triangle winglet performs better than the rectanglar one under the same surface area condition.

  12. Physical Principles for Scalable Neural Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Henry Marblestone*

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously measuring the activities of all neurons in a mammalian brain at millisecond resolution is a challenge beyond the limits of existing techniques in neuroscience. Entirely new approaches may be required, motivating an analysis of the fundamental physical constraints on the problem. We outline the physical principles governing brain activity mapping using optical, electrical,magnetic resonance, and molecular modalities of neural recording. Focusing on the mouse brain, we analyze the scalability of each method, concentrating on the limitations imposed by spatiotemporal resolution, energy dissipation, and volume displacement. We also study the physics of powering and communicating with microscale devices embedded in brain tissue.

  13. Application of Data Mining methods in analysis of company's activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyurina Dina N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers expediency of application of Data Mining means along with traditional statistical methods of analysis of financial and economic activity of a company for revealing all possible factors that influence upon effectiveness of its functioning by means of solving clusterisation tasks. It shows main advantages of application of Data Mining means in analysis of company's activity. It offers an algorithm of conduction analysis of company's activity, which facilitates significant ...

  14. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  15. ongfeng 304 - a rollover warning device principle and experimental analysis%东风304A侧翻预警装置原理与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆存远; 郭腾飞

    2014-01-01

    文章以“东风304A”中小型轮式拖拉机为研究对象,目的:提出研发侧翻预警装置的原理思想。方法:通过计算和实验来获得有效数据和分析图像,通过建模和原理分析确定方案。结论:通过侧翻预警装置的原理思想和实验数据分析来进行侧翻预警装置的研发设计,旨在避免驾驶员经验驾驶造成侧翻事故。%The report take " Dongfeng 304A " small-wheeled tractor as the object of study, the goal: Proposing the principle of designing early warning installation for rollover. We can get available data and analysis image by calcula-tion and experiment, determining a plan by modeling and data analysis. Conclusion: Through the principle and empirical data analysis of early warning equipment, we will make the research and development of early warning installation, for the purpose of avoiding rollover accident caused by expericed driving.

  16. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  17. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  18. Discussion on the creating principle of primary school activity space%初探小学活动空间的营造原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current actual requirements,combining with two excellent design examples of Tsinghua University elementary school and Xiaoquan national primary school,from the convenience,diversity,size appropriate three aspects of space activities discussed the creating princi-ple of primary school activity space,made the design scheme to meet the space environment and atmosphere of learning and communication,pro-moted the healthy development of student’s body and mind.%立足于现阶段的现实需求,结合清华大学附小和孝泉民族小学两个优秀的设计实例,从活动空间的便捷性、多样性、尺度的适宜性三个方面探讨了小学活动空间的营造原则,使设计方案能满足学习和交往的空间环境和氛围,促进学生身心的健康发展。

  19. The active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells Superior effects over original formula of Buyang Huanwu decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui Zheng; Yi Wan; Jianhuai Chi; Dekai Shen; Tingting Wu; Weimin Li; Pengcheng Du

    2012-01-01

    The present study induced in vitro-cultured passage 4 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells with a mixture of alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycone, glycoside, essential oils, and effective components of Buyang Huanwu decoction (active principle region of decoction for invigorating yang for recuperation). After 28 days, nestin and neuron-specific enolase were expressed in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that nestin and neuron-specific enolase mRNA and protein expression was greater in the active principle region group compared with the original formula group. Results demonstrated that the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced greater differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells in vitro than the original Buyang Huanwu decoction formula.

  20. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  1. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  2. Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:26986064

  3. Application of the Maximum Entropy Principle in the Analysis of a Non-Equilibrium Chemically Reacting Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Entropy Principle has been used to model complex chemical reaction processes. The maximum entropy principle has been employed by the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE method to determine concentration of different species during non-equilibrium combustion process. In this model, it is assumed that the system evolves through constrained equilibrium states where entropy of the mixture is maximized subject to constraints. Mixture composition is determined by integrating set of differential equations of constraints rather than integration of differential equations for species as is done with detailed kinetics techniques. Since the number of constraints is much smaller than the number of species present, the number of rate equations required to describe the time evolution of the system is considerably reduced. This method has been used to model the stoichiometric mixture of the formaldehyde-oxygen combustion process. In this study 29 species and 139 reactions has been used, while keeping the energy and volume of the system constant. Calculations have been done at different sets of pressures and temperatures, ranging from 1 atm to 100 atm, and from 900 K to 1500 K respectively. Three fixed elemental constraints: conservation of elemental carbon, elemental oxygen and elemental hydrogen and from one to six variable constraints were used. The four to nine rate equations for the constraint potentials (Lagrange multipliers conjugate to the constraints were integrated and as expected, RCCE calculations gave correct equilibrium values in all cases. Only 8 constraints were required to give very good agreement with detailed calculations. Ignition delay times and major species concentrations were within 0.5% to 5% of the values predicted by detailed chemistry calculations. Adding more constraints improved the accuracy of the mole fractions of minor species at early times, but had only a little effect on the ignition delay times. Rate

  4. The Operating Principles of Public Service

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Orlov; Vlad Cantir

    2012-01-01

    A public service has always been an activity of public interest managed by the publicadministration. There are many operating rules of public services. Some of these rules, the most significant ones, are generally seen as general principles, such as the principles of continuity, of equality and mutability of public service. Within Republic of Moldova, these principles were established by Law no. 1402/2002 regarding the municipal public services. In this study we shall describe those principle...

  5. Least Action Principle in Gait

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu; Luo, Donglin

    2009-01-01

    We apply the laws of human gait vertical ground reaction force and discover the existence of the phenomenon of least action principle in gait. Using a capacitive mat transducer system, we obtain the variations of human gait vertical ground reaction force and establish a structure equation for the resultant of such a force. Defining the deviation of vertical force as an action function, we observe from our gait optimization analysis the least action principle at half of the stride time. We develop an evaluation index of mechanical energy consumption based upon the least action principle in gait. We conclude that these observations can be employed to enhance the accountability of gait evaluation.

  6. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  7. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  8. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  9. Impact of motivation principles on employee turnover

    OpenAIRE

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie; Klupáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on the analysis of motivation principles in human resource management and their further verification by factor analysis. The objective is to identify the main motivation principles and their impacts on employee turnover as well as formulate suggested practices to eliminate the negative impact of employee disaffection and turnover. The identification of motivation principles is based on a content analysis of professional and scientific publications aimed at moti...

  10. International conference activation analysis and its applications (ICAAA): abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International conference on the Activation Analysis and its Applications was hold in Beijing of China on October 15-19, 1990. It was organized and co-sponsored by Division of Activation Analysis and Radioanalysis, National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Nuclear Society, etc.. 159 pieces of Articles in the field were received in the conference, from many countries

  11. Trace Analysis of Ancient Gold Objects Using Radiochemical Neutron Activation

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A; Constantinescu, O; Badica, T; Popescu, I V; Besliu, C; Leahu, D; Olariu, Agata; Constantinescu, Mioara; Leahu, Doina

    1999-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been applied to investigate the microelements in gold samples with archaeological importance. Chemical separation has allowed the determination of traces of Ir, Os, Sb, Zn, Co, Fe, Ni. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the determination of Cu.

  12. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2000-08-01

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  13. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis

  14. Spray pyrolytically deposited Fe-doped Cu2O thin films for solar hydrogen generation: Experiments & first-principles analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a combined study on photocatalysis by Fe-doped Cu2O thin films using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based calculations and experiments. The results of DFT calculations show that the top of the valence band and bottom of the conduction band of undoped Cu2O lies at the Γ point of Brillouin zone, suggesting that pure Cu2O a direct band gap material. However, there is an appearance of a sharp peak at the fermi energy level in the total density of states of Fe-doped Cu2O that essentially comes from Fe 3d states, keeping it still a direct band gap material. To validate the theoretical results, experiments were carried out by preparing thin films of Cu2O doped with 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 & 5.0 atom % Fe via spray pyrolysis method and characterized with X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), UV–Vis Spectroscopy and Photoelectrochemical measurements. The results exhibited that 2 atom % Fe-doped Cu2O sample produces significant photocurrent of 1.86 mAcm−2 at 0.8 V/SCE as compared to undoped Cu2O samples of 0.62 mAcm2 at 0.8 V/SCE with an experimental band-gap value of 2.21 and 2.50 eV respectively. The observed change in the experimental band gap and that estimated by first-principles calculations compare well, thus suggesting that such calculations have the potential to be used in screening various dopants before performing the experiments thereby saving precious chemicals, time and energy. - Highlights: • Cu2O thin films have been successfully prepared using spray pyrolysis method. • DFT calculations show an appearance of sharp peak at fermi level in Fe-doped Cu2O. • Our theoretical & experimental results complimented each other. • Maximum value of IPCE of 6.0% was obtained for 2 atom % Fe-doped sample at 450 nm

  15. Principles of copula theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Copula Theory explores the state of the art on copulas and provides you with the foundation to use copulas in a variety of applications. Throughout the book, historical remarks and further readings highlight active research in the field, including new results, streamlined presentations, and new proofs of old results.After covering the essentials of copula theory, the book addresses the issue of modeling dependence among components of a random vector using copulas. It then presents copulas from the point of view of measure theory, compares methods for the approximation of copulas,

  16. First principles analysis of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy for the momentum of light in general linear media

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Tomás; Obukhov, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of the definition of the energy-momentum tensor of light in general moving media with linear constitutive law. Using the basic principles of classical field theory, we show that for the correct understanding of the problem, one needs to carefully distinguish situations when the material medium is modeled either as a background on which light propagates or as a dynamical part of the total system. In the former case, we prove that the (generalized) Belinfante-Rosenfeld (BR) tensor for the electromagnetic field coincides with the Minkowski tensor. We derive a complete set of balance equations for this open system and show that the symmetries of the background medium are directly related to the conservation of the Minkowski quantities. In particular, for isotropic media, the angular momentum of light is conserved despite of the fact that the Minkowski tensor is non-symmetric. For the closed system of light interacting with matter, we model the material medium as a relativistic non-dissipative...

  17. Comprehending ecological and economic sustainability: comparative analysis of stability principles in the biosphere and free market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

    2010-05-01

    The global environmental imperative demands urgent actions on ecological stabilization, yet the global scale of such actions is persistently insufficient. This calls for investigating why the world economy appears to be so fearful of any potential environmental expenditure. Using the formalism of Lyapunov potential function it is shown that the stability principles for biomass in the ecosystem and for employment in economics are mathematically similar. The ecosystem has a stable and unstable stationary state with high (forest) and low (grasslands) biomass, respectively. In economics, there is a stable stationary state with high employment in mass production of conventional goods sold at low cost price, and an unstable stationary state with lower employment in production of novel products of technological progress sold at higher prices. An additional stable state is described for economics with very low employment in production of life essentials, such as energy and raw materials that are sold at greatly inflated prices. In this state the civilization pays 10% of global GDP for energy produced by a negligible minority of the working population (currently approximately 0.2%) and sold at prices exceeding the cost price by 40 times, a state when any extra expenditures of whatever nature appear intolerable. The reason lies in the fundamental shortcoming of economic theory, which allows for economic ownership over energy sources. This is shown to be equivalent to equating measurable variables of different dimensions (stores and fluxes), which leads to effective violation of the laws of energy and matter conservation in modern economics. PMID:20586764

  18. Multiscale Homogenization Theory: An Analysis Tool for Revealing Mechanical Design Principles in Bone and Bone Replacement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, Christian; Fritsch, Andreas; Dormieux, Luc

    Biomimetics deals with the application of nature-made "design solutions" to the realm of engineering. In the quest to understand mechanical implications of structural hierarchies found in biological materials, multiscale mechanics may hold the key to understand "building plans" inherent to entire material classes, here bone and bone replacement materials. Analyzing a multitude of biophysical hierarchical and biomechanical experiments through homogenization theories for upscaling stiffness and strength properties reveals the following design principles: The elementary component "collagen" induces, right at the nanolevel, the mechanical anisotropy of bone materials, which is amplified by fibrillar collagen-based structures at the 100-nm scale, and by pores in the micrometer-to-millimeter regime. Hydroxyapatite minerals are poorly organized, and provide stiffness and strength in a quasi-brittle manner. Water layers between hydroxyapatite crystals govern the inelastic behavior of the nanocomposite, unless the "collagen reinforcement" breaks. Bone replacement materials should mimic these "microstructural mechanics" features as closely as possible if an imitation of the natural form of bone is desired (Gebeshuber et al., Adv Mater Res 74:265-268, 2009).

  19. LOVE AS THE PRINCIPLE OF THE DYNAMISM OF BEINGS (AN ANALYSIS OF THE ARGUMENTS OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gudaniec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In ancient times, people pondered “cosmic love” (eros, philotes, thymos, i.e., the universal power that underlies the phenomena of the universe. The force of love extends to all things, including man and his action. Philosophers remarked rather early that love is, as it were, the foundation for the phenomena and actions that are experienced. As love is both of the character of a source and is strongly present in its manifestations, it turns out to be something that, on the one hand, is best known, but on the other hand, not easy to understand. In parallel, people also considered the strictly personal form of love—philia, whereby people are joined with each other in a special relation, which is friendship (Aristotle started this conception. The analogical scholastic conception of love was an interesting combination of those two tendencies; love is the foundation of action and in the metaphysical order it becomes the principle that explains the domain of being that we call dynamism. This article discusses Thomas Aquinas’ doctrine of love; first, it analyzes love’s relationship with action, end, and knowledge, then, secondly, investigates the place of love in the order of the causes of action.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Ranking and Accreditation: Exploring a Set of Universal Principles for Higher Education Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O. Michael

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All universities are not equal. Universities are not equal in size, scope, curricular offerings, and resources. More importantly, they are not equal in mission, scale of operation, productivity, and quality. Even two universities located within the same geographical locations may differ considerably in productivity and quality let alone those that are located a world apart. Given the wide range of differences in the environments of these institutions, in the political systems within which they reside, in the economic contexts within which they operate, and in their historical origins, the variations among higher education institutions are understandable and frankly speaking should be anticipated. Given the differences among institutions, how should we approach the issue of their quality? In response to this question, the benefits and process of rankings are compared to that of accreditation. The implications of rankings and accreditation for two “randomly” selected institutions in the US are discussed. By reviewing the standards used by two accrediting commissions, a set of principles that is applicable universally is recommended.

  1. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a ceramic vase

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) was applied to perform non-destructive elemental analysis of a ceramic vase. Appropriate neutron self-shielding and gamma ray detection efficiency calibration factors were derived using Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results of LSNAA were compared against Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) results and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. The ratio of derived concentrations between the two methods was within 0...

  2. 幼儿园数学教育与五大领域活动相互渗透的原则和途径%On Interpenetrative Principles Teaching Activities and Methods of Kindergarten Maths and Five Areas Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宗萍; 钱震; 高燕

    2012-01-01

    现代教育理念和《幼儿园教育指导纲要(试行)》强调要促进幼儿全面、整体发展。数学教育和五大领域活动有机结合,相互渗透,就是为了促进幼儿全面、整体发展。本研究探讨数学教育和五大领域活动相互渗透的原则和基本途径问题。%Both modem educational ideas and "Guidelines for Preschool Education" emphasize the all round development of young children. The combination and interpenetration of maths teaching and five areas activities aims to promote young children's all round development. This paper discusses the interpenetrative principles and effective methods of maths teaching and five areas activities.

  3. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungrog Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  4. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavono...

  5. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  6. Introduction of Prompt Gamma Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xing-hua; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; YAO; Yong-gang; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; HUA; Long; NI; Bang-fa

    2013-01-01

    CARR will provide with maximal neutron flux in Asia,the third of the world.By using the high quality neutron beam and the advanced international experience,Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis(PGNAA)facility will be setup at high level.PGNAA on CARR will promote the development of nuclear analysis technology and improve Chinese status in the nuclear analysis field.

  7. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  9. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;

    2003-01-01

    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  10. Self-healing properties of nanocrystalline materials: a first-principles analysis of the role of grain boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Jian-Bo; Li, Shun-Ning; Liu, Bai-Xin; Jiang, Yong

    2016-07-21

    Understanding the self-healing mechanisms of defects in nanocrystalline materials is of particular importance for developing structural materials that can support the extended lifetime of components under extremely hostile conditions in nuclear reactors. Since grain boundaries are prevalent in nanocrystalline materials, they must affect, to some extent, the overall self-healing properties and the resultant mechanical responses. In the present work, first principles calculations are carried out to investigate the energetic landscape of point defects (i.e. self-interstitials, He-interstitials, and vacancies) induced by the irradiation damage and the kinetics of the self-healing process in the vicinity of grain boundaries (GBs) in copper, focusing on six symmetric tilt grain boundaries that vary in their energies. Our results indicate that the interaction of vacancies with the self-interstitial- and He-interstitial-loaded GBs is very sensitive to the GB character. Low-energy GBs are generally accompanied by a higher propensity for self-healing behavior, in which the inter-granular interstitials and intra-granular vacancies recombine with each other. The recombination process is proved to be regulated by two mechanisms: the interstitial emission mechanism and the vacancy mediated mechanism. For low-energy GBs, the former mechanism demonstrates its efficiency in describing the atomic motion, while for the high-energy ones, the latter turns out to be superior. With the aid of these mechanisms, we conclude that low-energy GBs are comparatively more radiation-resistant than the high-energy counterparts, which may shed light on the rational design of high-performance structural materials based on nanocrystalline alloys. PMID:27326789

  11. Self-healing properties of nanocrystalline materials: a first-principles analysis of the role of grain boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Jian-Bo; Li, Shun-Ning; Liu, Bai-Xin; Jiang, Yong

    2016-07-21

    Understanding the self-healing mechanisms of defects in nanocrystalline materials is of particular importance for developing structural materials that can support the extended lifetime of components under extremely hostile conditions in nuclear reactors. Since grain boundaries are prevalent in nanocrystalline materials, they must affect, to some extent, the overall self-healing properties and the resultant mechanical responses. In the present work, first principles calculations are carried out to investigate the energetic landscape of point defects (i.e. self-interstitials, He-interstitials, and vacancies) induced by the irradiation damage and the kinetics of the self-healing process in the vicinity of grain boundaries (GBs) in copper, focusing on six symmetric tilt grain boundaries that vary in their energies. Our results indicate that the interaction of vacancies with the self-interstitial- and He-interstitial-loaded GBs is very sensitive to the GB character. Low-energy GBs are generally accompanied by a higher propensity for self-healing behavior, in which the inter-granular interstitials and intra-granular vacancies recombine with each other. The recombination process is proved to be regulated by two mechanisms: the interstitial emission mechanism and the vacancy mediated mechanism. For low-energy GBs, the former mechanism demonstrates its efficiency in describing the atomic motion, while for the high-energy ones, the latter turns out to be superior. With the aid of these mechanisms, we conclude that low-energy GBs are comparatively more radiation-resistant than the high-energy counterparts, which may shed light on the rational design of high-performance structural materials based on nanocrystalline alloys.

  12. Ecological Momentary Assessments and Automated Time Series Analysis to Promote Tailored Health Care: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerencia, Ando C; Bos, Elisabeth H; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Riese, Harriëtte; Aiello, Marco; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion can be tailored by combining ecological momentary assessments (EMA) with time series analysis. This combined method allows for studying the temporal order of dynamic relationships among variables, which may provide concrete indications for intervention. However, application of this method in health care practice is hampered because analyses are conducted manually and advanced statistical expertise is required. Objective This study aims to show how this limitation can be overcome by introducing automated vector autoregressive modeling (VAR) of EMA data and to evaluate its feasibility through comparisons with results of previously published manual analyses. Methods We developed a Web-based open source application, called AutoVAR, which automates time series analyses of EMA data and provides output that is intended to be interpretable by nonexperts. The statistical technique we used was VAR. AutoVAR tests and evaluates all possible VAR models within a given combinatorial search space and summarizes their results, thereby replacing the researcher’s tasks of conducting the analysis, making an informed selection of models, and choosing the best model. We compared the output of AutoVAR to the output of a previously published manual analysis (n=4). Results An illustrative example consisting of 4 analyses was provided. Compared to the manual output, the AutoVAR output presents similar model characteristics and statistical results in terms of the Akaike information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion, and the test statistic of the Granger causality test. Conclusions Results suggest that automated analysis and interpretation of times series is feasible. Compared to a manual procedure, the automated procedure is more robust and can save days of time. These findings may pave the way for using time series analysis for health promotion on a larger scale. AutoVAR was evaluated using the results of a previously conducted manual analysis

  13. "Macbeth"Conversation Analysis under Cooperative Violate Principle%会话合作违反原则下《麦克白》对话分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春叶; 许美婷

    2015-01-01

    《麦克白》是莎士比亚的四大悲剧之一。对《麦克白》的研究受国内外学者青睐;会话合作原则是格莱斯的关于语言学研究的主要理论。本文运用会话合作违反原则分析《麦克白》对话,旨在加深对此悲剧的理解及探究人际交往中合适的交流方式。%"Macbeth"is one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies. For"Macbeth"research by scholars pro-Lai;Grice's Coop-erative Principle is the main theory of linguistics. In this paper, in violation of the principles of conversation analysis coop-eration"Macbeth"dialogue aimed at deepening the understanding of this tragedy and to explore appropriate interpersonal communication.

  14. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kisło; Iwona Skoczko

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability crit...

  15. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  16. Development of common principles for the evaluation of quality characteristics of motor activity in the fitness and sports aerobics aesthetic orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Galyna Artemyeva; Valeriy Druz; Albert Lysenko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitati...

  17. Analysis of the Principle of Rational Use of Mass Communication Information%大众传播信息合理使用原则分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆山

    2001-01-01

    The principle of the rational use of the copyright of mass communication is an importamt legal system to protect the right of the social public and individuals to use information. However, this system is facing severe challenges both in technology and in benefit. This paper attempts to analyzes the problems in the principle of rational use, such as the principle of judgement, abuse restriction and the principle of rational use under the network communication conditions.

  18. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  19. Rapid radiochemical separations in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid radiochemical separation procedures based on the removal of metal ions by columns of C18-bonded silica gel after selective complexation are examined and the simplicity of the method demonstrated by its application to the determination of Mn, Cu and Zn in neutron-activated biological material. The method is rapid and reliable and readily adaptable in all radiochemical laboratories. An alternative separation procedure for selenium in blood plasma involving desalination and concentration of the selenium protein complex by gel filtration or ultrafiltration is briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Analysis of Mythical-Metaphorical Narratives as a Resource for Education in the Principles and Values of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutanda, Grian-Antonio; Murga-Menoyo, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to prove that the mythical-metaphorical narratives from cultures in harmonic relationship with their natural environment can be considered as an educational resource within the context of education for sustainable development. Using the Earth Charter as a basis and after establishing as analysis categories the competencies that…

  1. 基于Pushover原理的钢框架静力弹塑性分析%Static elastoplastic analysis of steel frame based on Pushover principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金祥; 肖亚明; 刘顺; 董文秀

    2014-01-01

    Pushover分析是实现结构性态设计目标的方法之一,文章阐述了SAP2000中Pushover分析的基本原理,并根据我国最新的抗震规范,介绍了Pushover分析的计算步骤。在此基础上,利用1个钢框架结构实例进行说明,得出了包括底部剪力-顶部位移关系曲线、层间位移角和结构破坏塑性铰分布的分析结果,表明Pushover分析是当前对钢框架结构在罕遇地震下进行弹性塑性分析的有效方法。%Pushover analysis is an important method to achieve the goal of performance-based seismic design .Based on the latest China code for seismic design ,the principles and procedures of SAP2000 Pushover analysis are reviewed .By means of SAP2000 ,a case of steel frame is presented .With the results of the base shear force-top displacement ,layer displacement angle and distribution of plastic hinges ,it is proved that the Pushover analysis is effective in the elastoplastic analysis of the steel frame structure under rare earthquakes .

  2. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ2 test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author)

  3. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  4. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  5. Insights into the ammonia synthesis from first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, A.; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Remediakis, Ioannis;

    2006-01-01

    -properties, such as apparent activation energies and reaction orders, are calculated from the first-principles model. Our analysis shows that the reaction order of N-2 is unity under all considered conditions, whereas the reaction orders of H-2 and NH3 depend on reaction conditions. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......A new set of measurements is used to further test a recently published first-principles model for the ammonia (NH3) synthesis on an unpromoted Ru-based catalyst. A direct comparison shows an overall good agreement in NH3 productivity between the model and the experiment. In addition, macro...

  6. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  7. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author)

  8. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  9. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF “NERIUM OLEANDER” LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhmili Siham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

  10. Structural and chemical determination of the new nanolaminated carbide Mo2Ga2C from first principles and materials analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following our recent discovery of a new nanolaminated carbide, Mo2Ga2C, we herein present a detailed structural and chemical analysis of this phase based on ab initio calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and neutron powder diffraction. Calculations suggest an energetically and dynamically stable structure for C in the octahedral sites between the Mo layers, with Ga bilayers – stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement – between the Mo2C layers. The predicted elastic properties are below those of the related nanolaminate Mo2GaC. The predicted structure, including lattice parameters and atomic positions, is experimentally confirmed

  11. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kisło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.

  12. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  13. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm3 and 15×15×15 cm3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed

  14. Solutions for complex, multi data type and multi tool analysis: principles and applications of using workflow and pipelining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robin E J; Guo, Yike

    2009-01-01

    Analytical workflow technology, sometimes also called data pipelining, is the fundamental component that provides the scalable analytical middleware that can be used to enable the rapid building and deployment of an analytical application. Analytical workflows enable researchers, analysts and informaticians to integrate and access data and tools from structured and non-structured data sources so that analytics can bridge different silos of information; compose multiple analytical methods and data transformations without coding; rapidly develop applications and solutions by visually constructing analytical workflows that are easy to revise should the requirements change; access domain-specific extensions for specific projects or areas, for example, text extraction, visualisation, reporting, genetics, cheminformatics, bioinformatics and patient-based analytics; automatically deploy workflows directly into web portals and as web services to be part of a service-oriented architecture (SOA). By performing workflow building, using a middleware layer for data integration, it is a relatively simple exercise to visually design an analytical process for data analysis and then publish this as a service to a web browser. All this is encapsulated into what can be referred to as an 'Embedded Analytics' methodology which will be described here with examples covering different scientifically focused data analysis problems. PMID:19597790

  15. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  16. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  17. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  18. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  19. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI

    2007-01-01

    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  20. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  1. Ranking and analysis administrative barriers of fundamental principles and rights at work from the perspective of employers by using parametrical analysis and the TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Bordbar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ILO, adopted and communicated several types of document which include Conventions, recommendations, resolutions and statements etc.among all of them, convention has a special place because the members states accept duties and obligations. Among these conventions, those conventions that are related to the fundamental rights of labor had special importance and prestige. Member countries of the Organization like Iran are required to implement the relevant commitments. this study aimed to analyze administrative obstacles of the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work by getting weight to problems and ranking them. The result of study show that Prohibition of child labor is more important than other aspects of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. in aspect of child labor most important obstacle was "red tape" ,in others categories result was as follow: in lack of collective bargaining most important obstacle was made emotional decisions, in forced labor most important obstacle was distrust of other workers, in gender discrimination most important obstacle was Working environment, in people inequality most important obstacle was Subjective judgments manager.

  2. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  3. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Correlating Acid Properties and Catalytic Function: A First-Principles Analysis of Alcohol Dehydration Pathways on Polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Michael J.; Macht, Josef; Iglesia, Enrique; Neurock, Matthew

    2009-02-05

    Density functional theory calculations and reactivity data were used to examine the mechanism of alcohol dehydration on Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) catalysts and the influence of the POM composition and the degree of substitution of the alcohol on kinetically relevant elimination steps. Dehydration was found to proceed through E1 pathways in which the alcohol CsO bond is cleaved heterolytically via a carbeniumion transition state. Dehydration rates were found to depend on the elimination rate constant and the equilibrium constant for the formation of unreactive alcohol dimers. E2-type elimination transition states, involving concerted CsH and CsO bond cleavage, were not found. The extent of substitution at the R-carbon on the alcohol was found to lead to marked effects on elimination barriers, because substitution increases the proton affinity of the alcohol and the stability of the carbenium-ion transition state. Changes in the central and addenda atoms of the POM cluster and the presence of n-donors, a support, vicinal POM clusters, or charge-compensating cations were found to lead to changes in the deprotonation energy (DPE) of the POM cluster, activation barriers to dehydration, and the stability of the unreactive dimer. These effects are all captured in a general linear relation between activation barriers and deprotonation energy, a rigorous measure of acid strength. The explicit dependence of the E1 activation barrier on the acid deprotonation energy is much weaker than that on reactant proton affinity. This results from the more effective compensation between the acid deprotonation energy and the interaction energy between the cationic hydrocarbon fragment and the anionic POM cluster at the transition state. The direct interactions between the POM protons and the support, other POM clusters, n-donors, base probe molecules, and charge-compensating cations increased the negative charge of the oxide shell of the W12O40 conjugate base, which increased the

  5. Developing operating principles for systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Teresa R; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G

    2007-06-01

    Based on an analysis of the articles in this special issue, the authors propose five operating principles for systems change work. These principles are: clarifying the purpose of the systems change; identifying whether the change is one to an existing system or the change is to create a new system; conceptualize the work as systems change from the beginning; use an eclectic approach; and be open to opportunities that emerge while also undertaking forma analysis to identify leverage points. The authors argue that the time is now ripe to develop such principles and encourage community change agents to engage in a dialogue to explore, revise, eliminate or expand on these principles. PMID:17431758

  6. Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in selected region

    OpenAIRE

    Helcl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis on the topic "Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in the region," focuses on the forms of spending free time in the selected region. The theoretical part deals with the study of scientific publications focusing on leisure and leisure education. The economic concepts are examined to define the work, factors affecting leisure adults and content of leisure activities and leisure educational activities. The legal system of the Czech Republic defining the possibilities of a...

  7. Development of common principles for the evaluation of quality characteristics of motor activity in the fitness and sports aerobics aesthetic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Artemyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and validate methods for quantifying qualitative indicators special physical preparedness of sportsmen in fitness-aerobics and sports aesthetic orientation. Materials and Methods: an analytical synthesis of these scientific and methodical literature, the use of the theory of similarity and dimensionality, biomechanical analysis of motor activity, processing of video. Results: based on the use of similarity theory presents the methods of quantitative evaluation of qualitative characteristics of motor activity in special physical training, which allow an assessment of motor talent of the athlete and to provide objective guidance to training in particular sport. Conclusions: the presented methods quantify the qualitative indicators of the special motor preparation allow us to estimate a measure of motor gifted individual and his susceptibility to training in particular sport

  8. Polluter Pays Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie; Aigul, Myrzabekova

    2015-01-01

    A group presenation to Identify and outline the main features of the polluter pays principle. Show how polluter pays principle (PPP) may be the most effective instrument for ‘greening’ (rejuvenating) the current global economy, and identify any limitations of the polluter pays principle (PPP).

  9. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Sumitra, Tatchai [Chulalongkorn Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  10. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  11. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  12. Eggs-ploiting women: a critical feminist analysis of the different principles in transplant and fertility tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2011-11-01

    Intergovernmental agencies have recognized that inconsistencies in the way that nation states regulate commerce in human kidneys lubricate transplant tourism, and have repeatedly exhorted recalcitrant governments of both organ-importing and organ-exporting nations to criminalize the exchange of cash for kidneys. Yet these same organizations have elected to remain silent on inconsistencies in the regulation of the trade in human eggs that lubricate fertility tourism. This article is a critical feminist analysis of this paradox. Sketches of the histories of regulation of the global markets in human kidneys and human eggs allow attribution of the different approaches to sales of kidneys and eggs to the triumph of neo-liberalism in the 1990s. Neo-liberalism supports the growth of the medical tourism industry and its niche market catering for infertility, and is responsible for exacerbating the relative disadvantage of poor and powerless women in destination countries, thereby creating the conditions for 'bioavailability', that is, the willingness to exchange body parts for cash. The paper identifies a disturbing correlation between deeply engrained conservative attitudes to women and a plentiful supply of eggs, and concludes by suggesting that what women need to lift themselves out of poverty and discrimination is secure and dignified work. PMID:21945266

  13. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark

    2009-05-01

    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  14. Sustainability Principles in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Wenzel, Henrik; Azapagic, Adisa;

    2007-01-01

    , driving force based methods for product-process synthesis and design, employing green chemistry principles will be discussed. For analysis, application of life cycle assessment techniques will be highlighted. For evaluation, the use of sustainability metrics combined with safety and hazards indicators...... manufacture of chemical products and sustainable products and processes that can efficiently manufacture them, will need to be considered to meet the current and future challenges. Some of the important issues in this respect are how to generate/identify sustainable alternatives, how to analyze them, which......The 21st century inherits stark challenges for human society, which are particularly tough for chemical engineering. While on one hand, chemical engineering is responsible for providing most of the products of daily consumption, the base for modern agriculture as well as energy carriers for power...

  15. Relevance of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area to the Bering Strait Region: a Policy Analysis Using Resilience-Based Governance Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hillmer-Pegram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bering Strait, separating the North American and Asian continents, is a productive social-ecological marine system that is vulnerable to increasing maritime traffic. In other parts of the world, the International Maritime Organization (IMO, an agency of the United Nations, has designated similar marine systems as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA in an effort to protect vulnerable resources from international shipping. We present information about the 14 existing PSSAs around the world and the political process by which designation is achieved. We examine specific characteristics of the Bering Strait system that are relevant to a PSSA application; these include vulnerable resources such as marine mammals and their contribution to the food and cultural security of indigenous communities, threats to these resources from shipping activities, and the viable mitigation options to reduce these threats. We then use five criteria derived from empirical research on resilience-based governance to analyze whether a PSSA designation would promote the resilience of marine mammal populations and indigenous communities to increased maritime activities. Despite the elusiveness of a definitive answer, we conclude that although the designation is not a perfect fit from a theoretical standpoint, it still holds the potential to benefit marine mammals and indigenous communities in terms of resilience. We conclude by identifying critical challenges and trade-offs that practitioners would need to negotiate when attempting to apply theoretical governance principles via real-world policy tools.

  16. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NOVEL ACTIVE ACTUATOR TO CONTROL LOW FREQUENCY VIBRATIONS OF SHAFT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at providing with high-load capability in active vibration control of large-scale rotor system, a new type of active actuator to simultaneously reduce the dangers of low frequency flexural and torsional vibrations is designed. The actuator employs electro-hydraulic system and can provide a high and circumferential load. To initialize new research, the characteristics of various kinds of active actuators to control rotor shaft vibration are briefly introduced. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the preliminary results via presenting the structure, functions and operating principles, in particular, the working process of the electro-hydraulic system of the new actuator which includes a set of high speed electromagnetic valves and a series of sloping cone-shaped openings, and presenting the transmission relationships among the control parameters from control signals into the valves to active load onto shaft. The course of the work is dynamic, and a series of spatial forces and moments are put on the shaft to get an external resultant force to reduce excitations that induce vibration of shafts. By checking states of vibration, the actuator can control the impulse width and the interval of injection time for applying different control force to a vibration shaft in two circumference directions through the regulating action of a set of combination directional control valves. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show evidence of that this design can satisfy the case of active process of decreasing of flexural and torsional vibrations.

  17. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  18. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  19. Seismic tomography analysis using finite differential calculation of the eikonal equation and reciplocal principle; Eikonal equation no sabunkaiho to sohan genri wo riyoshita danseiha tomography kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M.; Ashida, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the seismic tomography analysis of underground structures using finite differential calculation (FDC) and a reciprocal principle which points out that a propagation path is constant even if a source and receiver are exchanged with each other. Tomography analysis generally determines a ray length across each underground cell structure by ray tracing method to modify each cell slowness (inverse of velocity). Travel time field was determined by FDC of eikonal equation among ray tracing methods, and a wave propagation path was determined by reciprocity of elastic wave to carry out inversion. In conventional methods, since a wave length is assumed to be infinitesimal by ray theory, false modified slowness structures frequently appears depending on the density of a ray. Wave propagates in a certain width, and is affected by environment. The slowness was thus modified on the basis of the wave propagation path with a certain width by using not ray-tracing but reciprocity. By this modification, false structures were hardly found under a fine grid, and several propagation paths could be considered. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Convergence of ABC and ABM Principles – Guarantee of a Performant Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the principles of Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Management. By its analysis it has been deduced that ABC method becomes the main instrument of providing information for the ABM method. So, the ABM method becomes an important instrument for obtaining performances in business and the warranty for a performing management.

  1. Convergence of ABC and ABM Principles – Guarantee of a Performant Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU; Dana-Maria MARTINESCU

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the principles of Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Management. By its analysis it has been deduced that ABC method becomes the main instrument of providing information for the ABM method. So, the ABM method becomes an important instrument for obtaining performances in business and the warranty for a performing management.

  2. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  3. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  4. A package for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E Medhat; A Abdel-Hafiez; Z Awaad; M A Ali

    2005-08-01

    A package for gamma spectrum analysis (PGSA) was developed using object oriented Borland C++ design for MS-windows. This package consists of five programs which can be used for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis. The advantages of PGSA are its simple algorithms and its need for only minimum amount of input information.

  5. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  6. A precautionary principle for dual use research in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlau, Frida; Höglund, Anna T; Evers, Kathinka; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the principle exist - for example that it stifles scientific development, lacks practical applicability and is poorly defined and vague - the analysis concludes that a Precautionary Principle is applicable to the field. Certain factors such as credibility of the threat, availability of information, clear prescriptive demands on responsibility and directives on how to act, determine the suitability and success of a Precautionary Principle. Moreover, policy-makers and researchers share a responsibility for providing and seeking information about potential sources of harm. A central conclusion is that the principle is meaningful and useful if applied as a context-dependent moral principle and allowed flexibility in its practical use. The principle may then inspire awareness-raising and the establishment of practical routines which appropriately reflect the fact that life science research may be misused for harmful purposes. PMID:19594724

  7. Status Report on the Neutron Activation Analysis Activities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippines has a one megawatt open-pool type nuclear research reactor which is presently utilized in the conduct of nuclear research and development activities. The reactor is operated by the Philippine Atomic Research Center, the research arm of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The reactor is presently utilized in the production of some radioisotopes, nuclear physics experiments and neutron activation analysis. For activation analysis the facilities available include the two 2 inch pneumatic tubes and a 2-inch central core dry-pipe. Although the reactor has been operative since 1963 it was only in the latter part of 1966 that a neutron activation analysis group was organized and almost immediately the training of personnel and setting up of a radiochemical laboratory and nucleonic counting assembly were initiated. Today, the counting system include a 100 channel analyzer with a 3 x 3 inch Nal(Tl) crystal

  8. Survey on Neutron Activation Analysis Activities at the Dalat Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Centre (D.N.R.C.) during the past few years has been involved in conducting an activation analysis service. Work has been carried out in collaboration with other organizations. However, no rigid research programme of our own has been established and thus the Radiochemistry Division of the D.N.R.C. has no personnel and special facilities permanently engaged in this field. The equipment and facilities used are shared with other activities within the Division and the whole Centre. The activities in neutron activation analysis at the D.N.R.C. are sporadically revived by requests for analysis. Up to now, such analyses have been performed free of charge. Most of the work was carried out on biological materials such as vegetables, raw natural rubber (RES smoked sheets of different qualities, crepes and dried rubber films obtained from concentrated natural latex) from hevea tree leaves from various clones

  9. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  10. Methodical ecologization principles in construction management

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzhina Irina Pavlovna; Yudakhina Olga Borisovna

    2015-01-01

    In the article the subject of ecologization of construction sector is presented, the necessity of ecologization technology and technological processes is proved. The article also presents principles of ecologically friendly management of construction and investment activities and describes these principles in detail.

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis for investigation of elemental composition of Amarantus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied for the characterization of the elemental composition of Amaranthus seeds, known in the prehistorical period, a tropical plant with promising nutritional and economic value. The characterization is enriched by the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for cobalt, molybdenum and uranium content. The comparison of the results, for three sorts of edible flour, commercially available: Soya Flour, Corn Bean Flour and Amaranthus Flour, is presented. The validation of the analytical methods used was carried out on the basis of participation in the interlaboratory comparison organized by the INCT (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) and by NIST (SRM 1575a). (author)

  12. Powerful flaring configurations in solar active regions: magnetic topology via special features of delta-structure phenomenon. I. Basic principles of topological model

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, R N; Marushin, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The close connection of magnetic field structure on the one hand and observable features of complex ARs with high flare efficiency on the other one is investigated in frames of so-called dynamic classification of flaring magnetic configurations (FMC) and the simple topological model of interacting magnetic complexes (IMC) suggested by Ikhsanov (1982). The primary objective of the present work is to expose general statements of the specified model and classification, the secondary one assumes the critical analysis and logical generalization of several important regularities being frequently observable in evolution stages of a typical complex AR with powerful flares including proton ones. Those cases are basically examined where the development of photospheric situation was marked by the formation of delta-configuration phenomenon described by Kunzel (1960) as one of the most impressive precursors of high flare activity. Without trying to use any additional assumptions and alternative hypotheses, the qualitativ...

  13. Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System. This work details the development of prompt gamma activation analysis for measuring the diffusion rates of xenon and argon gases through a porous medium. The University of Texas at Austin maintains a prompt gamma activation analysis facility with a peak neutron flux of ∼ 1.5 x 107 cm-2 s-1 and a beam diameter of 1 cm. Due to the relatively large prompt gamma cross sections of many stable xenon isotopes at thermal and sub-thermal neutron energies, prompt gamma activation analysis is a suitable technique for in situ non-destructive analysis of natural xenon. A test chamber has been designed and constructed to utilize prompt gamma activation analysis to measure xenon and argon diffusion through geological materials (e.g., sand, soil, etc.). Initial experiments have been conducted to determine the detection limits for stable gas measurements. The results from these experiments will be utilized to benchmark parts of a xenon transport model that is being used to determine diffusion coefficients for xenon and argon. (author)

  14. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  15. An Analysis of Creative Process Learning in Computer Game Activities Through Player Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilawan Inchamnan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the extent to which creative processes can be fostered through computer gaming. It focuses on creative components in games that have been specifically designed for educational purposes: Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL. A behavior analysis for measuring the creative potential of computer game activities and learning outcomes is described. Creative components were measured by examining task motivation and domain-relevant and creativity-relevant skill factors. The research approach applied heuristic checklists in the field of gameplay to analyze the stage of player activities involved in the performance of the task and to examine player experiences with the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS survey. Player experiences were influenced by competency, autonomy, intuitive controls, relatedness and presence. This study examines the impact of these activities on the player experience for evaluating learning outcomes through school records. The study is designed to better understand the creative potential of people who are engaged in learning knowledge and skills during the course while playing video games. The findings show the creative potential that occurred to yield levels of creative performance within game play activities to support learning. The anticipated outcome is knowledge on how video games foster creative thinking as an overview of the Creative Potential of Learning Model (CPLN. CPLN clearly describes the interrelationships between principles of learning and creative potential, the interpretation of the results is indispensable.

  16. DNQAA program to be used in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of the analysed elements were calculated by the program, based on the instrumental technique of analysis by activation. The DNQAA corrects due to the radioactive decay and to the neutron flow variation or carried particles and too the error propagation involved in the analysis. It is written in ORACL to be used in the ORTEC 6240-42 system. (L.M.J.)

  17. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  18. The precautionary principle and regulation of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Søren

    on conflicting sciences, and a broader analysis of the development of chemicals regulation and the interrelation to the precautionary principle. It is concluded that the precautionary principle in practise requires a vivid debate at all levels including scientific approaches and public deliberation....

  19. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile…

  20. First-principles analysis of electron correlation, spin ordering and phonons in the normal state of FeSe1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present first-principles density-functional-theory-based calculations to determine the effects of the strength of on-site electron correlation, magnetic ordering, pressure and Se vacancies on phonon frequencies and electronic structure of FeSe1-x. The theoretical equilibrium structure (lattice parameters) of FeSe depends sensitively on the value of the Hubbard parameter U of on-site correlation and magnetic ordering. Our results suggest that there is a competition between different antiferromagnetic states due to comparable magnetic exchange couplings between first- and second-neighbor Fe sites. As a result, a short range order of stripe antiferromagnetic type is shown to be relevant to the normal state of FeSe at low temperature. We show that there is a strong spin-phonon coupling in FeSe (comparable to its superconducting transition temperature) as reflected in large changes in the frequencies of certain phonons with different magnetic ordering, which is used to explain the observed hardening of a Raman-active phonon at temperatures (∼100 K) where magnetic ordering sets in. The symmetry of the stripe antiferromagnetic phase permits an induced stress with orthorhombic symmetry, leading to orthorhombic strain as a secondary order parameter at the temperature of magnetic ordering. The presence of Se vacancies in FeSe gives rise to a large peak in the density of states near the Fermi energy, which could enhance the superconducting transition temperature within the BCS-like picture.