WorldWideScience

Sample records for activated sludge samples

  1. Extraction DNA from Activated Sludge-Comparing with Soil Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 奚旦立; 陈季华

    2003-01-01

    DNA directly extraction from activated sludge and soil sample with enzyme lyses methods was investigated in this paper. DNA yield from activated sludge was 3.0 mg/g. VLSS, and 28.2-43.8 μg/g soil respectively. The resulting DNA is suitable for PCR.By studied methods, higher quality and quantity of sludge DNA could be obtained rapidly and inexpensively from large number of samples, and the PCR product obtained from this protocol was not affected by contaminated higher concentration of heavy metals.

  2. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Biases during DNA extraction of activated sludge samples revealed by high throughput sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Standardization of DNA extraction is a fundamental issue of fidelity and comparability in investigations of environmental microbial communities. Commercial kits for soil or feces are often adopted for studies of activated sludge because of a lack of specific kits, but they have never been evaluated regarding their effectiveness and potential biases based on high throughput sequencing. In this study, seven common DNA extraction kits were evaluated, based on not only yield/purity but also seque...

  4. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Klebsiella sp. isolated from an activated sludge sample of waste water treatment plant in Damascus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, I; Orfi, M; Shamma, M

    2007-01-01

    A chlorpyrifos (CPY)-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from an activated sludge sample collected from the Damascus Wastewater Treatment Plant, Syria. The isolation of Klebsiella sp. was facilitated by the addition of CPY at a rate of 3.84 g/L of sludge weekly (selection pressure). Identification of Klebsiella sp. was done using major staining and biochemical differentiation tests (Gram stain, cytochrome oxidase and some relevant saccharide fermentation tests using biochemical assays). Klebsiella sp. was maintained by culturing in a poor medium consisting of mineral salts and CPY as the sole carbon source. When 3 activated sludge samples were incubated in the presence of CPY (13.9 g/L sludge), 46% of added CPY were degraded within 4 d. By comparison, within 4 d the isolated Klebsiella sp. was found to break down 92% of CPY when co-incubated in a poor mineral medium in which CPY was the sole carbon source (13.9 g/L poor medium). Isolated Klebsiella sp. was able to tolerate up to 17.3 g of CPY in the poor medium. PMID:18062192

  5. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  6. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling...... and filtration). It therefore is an important property related to process performance, including process economics. To account for this, rheological behaviour is being included in process design, necessitating its measurement. However, measurements and corresponding protocols in literature are quite diverse...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this....

  7. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.;

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  8. Activated Sludge Ozonation to Reduce Sludge Production in MBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-bing; XUE Gang; WANG Bao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The total experimental period was divided into two stages.At the first stage, a series of batch studies were carried out to get an understanding of the effect of ozonation on sludge properties. At the following stages, three MBRs with different amounts of activated sludge to be ozonated were run in parallel for a long period to evaluate the influence of sludge ozonation on sludge yield and permeate quality.Through batch study, it was found that ozone could disrupt the cell walls and caused the release of plasm from the cells,then the amounts of soluble organics in the solution increased with ozonation time. With the rise of soluble organics, the amount of soluble organics to be mineralized increased as well, which wonld reduce the soluble organics content. For the counteraction between these two aspects, a pseudo-balance could be achieved, and soluble organics would vary in a limited range. Sludge ozonation also increased the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the solution. In addition, ozonation was effective in improving sludge settling property. On the basis of batch study, a suitable ozone dosage of 0.16 kgO3/kgMLSS wasdetermined. Three systems were run in parallel for a total period of 39 days, it was demonstrated that a part of activated sludge ozonation could reduce sludge production significantly, and biological performance of mineralization and nitrification would not be inhibited due to sludge ozonation. Experimental results proved that the combination of ozonation unit with MBR unit could achieve an excellent quality of permeate as well as a small quantity of sludge production, and economic analysis indicated that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and sludge was only 0.096Yuan (US $0.011,5)/m3 wastewater.

  9. Degradation of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Aoi; Kitaichi, Yuko; Uchikura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory tests of the decomposition of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing were investigated. Corticosteroid standards were added to activated sludge, and aliquots were regularly taken for analysis. The corticosteroids were extracted from the samples using a solid-phase extraction method and analyzed LC-MS. Ten types of corticosteroids were measured and roughly classified into three groups: 1) prednisolone, triamcinolone, betamethasone, prednisolone acetate, and hydrocortisone acetate, which decomposed within 4 h; 2) flunisolide, betamethasone valerate, and budesonide of which more than 50% remained after 4 h, but almost all of which decomposed within 24 h; and 3) triamcinolone acetonide, and fluocinolone acetonide of which more than 50% remained after 24 h. The decomposed ratio was correlated with each corticosteroid's Log P, especially groups 2) and 3). PMID:24390495

  10. Cations and activated sludge floc structure

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2002-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of cations on activated sludge characteristics and also to determine their influence on digestion performance. For this purpose, cations in solution and in floc were evaluated along with various activated sludge characteristics and the collected waste activated sludge underwent both anaerobic and aerobic digestion. It was found that large amounts of biopolymer (protein + polysaccharide) remained in the effluent of WWTP that received high in...

  11. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  12. Transient Response of Aerobic and Anoxic Activated Sludge Activities to Sudden Substrate Concentration Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, G.; Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2004-01-01

    The state-of-the-art understanding of activated sludge processes as summarized in activated sludge models (ASMs) predicts an instantaneous increase in the biomass activity (which is measured, e.g., by the corresponding respiration rate OUR, NUR, etc.) under sudden substrate concentration changes...... process. That transient phenomenon exhibits itself immediately upon addition of a substrate source to an endogenously respiring activated sludge sample and it usually takes a few minutes until the activated sludge reaches its maximum possible rate under given environmental conditions. This discrepancy...... response of the activated sludge most likely results from the sequence of intracellular reactions involved in substrate degradation by the activated sludge. Results from studies performed elsewhere with pure cultures (S. cerevisae and E. coli) support the hypothesis. The transient phenomenon can...

  13. Biosorption of fluoroquinolones by activated sludge and aerobic granules sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vanessa R. A.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Cravo, Sara M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Afonso, Carlos M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral communication Antibiotic residues have been detected in various environmental matrices, such as surface water and even drinking water. Although present at low levels (μg/L, ng/L), many antibiotics are bioaccumulative, pseudo-persistent and can promote resistance/alterations in bacterial populations [1]. Recent studies on antibiotics removal by activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granules (AGS) show biosorption as the dominant process, determining the fate of these micropollutants [2-3]....

  14. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  15. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  16. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  17. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  18. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  19. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  20. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  1. Alum sludge: a sampling method for the radioactivity in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alum coagulation and settling steps used in water treatment plants can be the basis of a method to concentrate radionuclides present in very small amounts in soft waters. Indeed, the gamma spectrum of a dried alum sludge shows the presence of a number of naturally occurring radionuclides, of fission and activation products unobservable unless a preconcentration step is carried out. The floc sampling technique is described. The different methods developed to relate the amount of floc to the volume of water, are presented; they are based either on the chemical characterisation of the suspended matter or on the use of internal standards like 137Cs and 7Be. The question of the distribution of some radionuclides between the liquid and the solid phases in the rivers and that of their retention by the floc is discussed: the results show clearly the importance of the suspended matter as a carrier for the radioactivity

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production potential of heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Uchida, Takahiro; Morohoshi, Jota; Sei, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production potential of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge by genotypic and phenotypic characterizations. A total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated from four activated sludge samples taken from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor and three wastewater treatment processes of two municipal wastewater treatment plants. PCR detection of the phaC genes encoding class I and II PHA synthase revealed that 15% of the total isolates possessed phaC genes, all of which had the closest similarities to known phaC genes of α- and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. PHA production experiments under aerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions showed that 68% of the total isolates were capable of producing PHA from at least one of the six substrates used (acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, glucose and glycerol). Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that 75% of the activated sludge bacteria had PHA production potential. Our results also indicated that short-chain fatty acids would be the preferable substrates for PHA production by activated sludge bacteria, and that there might be a variety of unidentified phaC genes in activated sludge.

  3. Extracellular polymers of ozonized waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Lee, C H; Lai, J Y; Wang, K C; Hsu, Y C; Chang, B V

    2001-01-01

    Effect of ozonation on characteristics of waste activated sludge was investigated in the current study. Concentrations of cell-bound extracellular polymers (washed ECPs) did not change much upon ozonation, whereas the sum of cell-bound and soluble extracellular polymers (unwashed ECPs) increased with increasing ozone dose. Washed ECPs in original sludge as divided by molecular weight distribution was 39% 10,000 Da (high MW). It was observed that the low-MW fraction decreased, and the high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The unwashed ECPs were characterized as 44% in low MW, 30% in medium MW, and 26% in high MW. Both low-MW and medium-MW fractions of unwashed ECPs decreased while high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The dewaterability of ozonized sludge, assessed by capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), deteriorated with ozone dose. The optimal dose of cationic polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ozone dose. The production rate and the accumulated amount of methane gas of ozonized sludge were also higher.

  4. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. PMID:22951329

  5. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (Hex , D , and Raeq), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (Hex , D , and Raeq), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  6. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  7. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...

  8. Metaproteomics provides functional insight into activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wilmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis". When EBPR failed, the sludge was dominated by tetrad-forming alpha-Proteobacteria. Representative and reproducible 2D gel protein separations were obtained for all sludge samples. 638 protein spots were matched across gels generated from the phosphate removing sludges. 111 of these were excised and 46 proteins were identified using recently available sludge metagenomic sequences. Many of these closely match proteins from "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" and could be directly linked to the EBPR process. They included enzymes involved in energy generation, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glyoxylate/TCA cycle, fatty acid beta oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and phosphate transport. Several proteins involved in cellular stress response were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Importantly, this study provides direct evidence linking the metabolic activities of "Accumulibacter" to the chemical transformations observed in EBPR. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to current EBPR metabolic models.

  9. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrani Sanae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C. The pozzolanic activity was evaluated by physico- chemical and mechanical methods [1]. Pozzolanicity measurement was carried out based on Chapelle test and conductivity revealed the existence of pozzolanic properties of the calcined samples. The best pozzolanic reactivity was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C. We noticed a decrease in the reactivity of the sample calcined at 850°C. In addition, analysis by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that sludge recrystallization begins at a temperature of 850°C. Pozzolanicity index of the thermally treated samples was determined by measuring the mechanical resistance of mortar specimens previously kept in a saturated lime solution for 28 days (ASTM C618 [2]. The best pozzolanic activity index was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C (109.1%.This work is a contribution to the research for new supplying sources of raw materials and additives in the field of construction. It presents a proposition of a promising solution for the valorization of waste material as an additive instead of being discharged into open air dumps causing a major environmental problem.

  10. The role of lipids in activated sludge floc formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liza Kretzschmar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is widely used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater globally and the formation of activated sludge flocculates (flocs underpins the ability to separate sludge from treated water. Despite the importance of activated sludge flocs to human civilization there have been precious few attempts to rationally design fit for purpose flocs using a bottom-up approach based on a solid scientific foundation. Recently we have been developing experimental models for activated sludge floc formation based on the colonization and consumption of particulate organic matter (chitin and cellulose. In this study we lay the foundation for investigation of activated sludge floc formation based on biofilm formation around spheres of the lipid glycerol trioleate (GT that form spontaneously when GT is introduced into activated sludge incubations. Sludge biomass was observed to associate tightly with the lipid spheres. An increase in extracellular lipase activity was associated with a decrease in size of the colonized lipid spheres over a 25 day incubation. Bacterial community composition shifted from predominantly Betaproteobacteria to Alphaproteobacteria in GT treated sludge. Four activated sludge bacteria were isolated from lipid spheres and two of them were shown to produce AHL like quorum sensing signal activity, suggesting quorum sensing may play a role in lipid spheres colonization and biodegradation in activated sludge. The development of this experimental model of activated sludge floc formation lays the foundation for rational production of flocs for wastewater treatment using lipids as floc nuclei and further development of the flocculate life-cycle concept.

  11. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  12. Denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on measuring substrate depletion rate was developed to evaluate the denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm form in anoxic serum flasks. The adapted activated sludge inoculum was grown as biofilm in an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC). Acetate was used as external carbon source to obtain a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2. The results showed that the specific activity of cells in biofilm form was higher than in planktonic for...

  13. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    OpenAIRE

    Lamrani Sanae; Ben Allal Laïla; Ammari Mohammed; Boutamou Sara; Azmani Amina

    2014-01-01

    This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C). The pozzolanic activity was evaluate...

  14. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  15. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  16. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii Study the effect of bulk concentrations of oxygen and nitrates, power input and substrates diffusivity on the portion aerobic portion of the floc. Approach: An appropriate mathematical model based on heterogeneous modeling is developed for activated sludge flocs. The model was taking into account three growth processes: Carbon oxidation, nitrification and de-nitrification in terms of four components: substrate, nitrate, ammonia, and oxygen. The model accounts for the internal and external mass transfer limitations and relates the external mass transfer resistance with power input. The floc model equations were two- point boundary value differential equations. Therefore a central finite difference method is employed. Results: The percentage aerobic portion increased with increasing with oxygen bulk concentrations and power input and decreases when the bulk concentration of ammonia and substrate increases. Both will compete to consume the internal oxygen by autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria through aerobic growth processes. The biofloc activity through the profiles was either totally active or partially active. The totally active biofloc is either totally aerobic or aerobic and anoxic together. Conclusions: The heterogeneous floc model was able to describe the biofloc characteristics and reflects the real phenomena existing in the activated sludge processes.

  17. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  18. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  19. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. PMID:27038265

  20. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  1. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS.

  2. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  3. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  4. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  5. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian;

    Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows...... that the compressibility has a high influence on the drainage process especially during the start-up phases where the volumetric load on the sludge bed is critical. The load has to be low in order to ensure that the drainage properties of the bed are not destroyed. The data also shows that transport of activated sludge...

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-04-30

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACTIVE DENITRIFIERS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Le-Quy, Vang; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann;

    and when external carbon sources were supplemented to the activated sludge the composition of the denitrifying communities was significantly affected. Transcriptome profiling provided detailed insight in the metabolic pathways in several of the active denitrifiers in activated sludge. In conclusion...... reactor studies. To obtain better identification of active denitrifying communities in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) we applied DNA-SIP with 13C-labelled substrates, and RT-PCR of expressed denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) upon various substrate-inductions. To come around...... were determined with quantitative FISH, while their active metabolic pathways were investigated directly in activated sludge with a tag-based metatranscriptomic approach under acetate-utilizing and denitrifying conditions. The different methods revealed a majority of denitrifiers in all WWTPs belonging...

  9. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  10. Proteomics reliability for micropollutants degradation insight into activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Collado, Neus; Casas, Nuria; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on pharmaceutical trace compounds degradation pathways in wastewater. The potential of the proteomics approach has been evaluated to extract information on activated sludge microbial metabolism in degrading a trace concentration of a pharmaceutical compound (ibuprofen). Ibuprofen is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, measured in wastewater at very high concentrations and, despite its high removal rates, found in different environmental compartments. Aerated and completely mixed activated sludge batch tests were spiked with ibuprofen at 10 and 1,000 μg L(-1). Ibuprofen concentrations were determined in the liquid phase: 100% removal was observed and the kinetics were estimated. The solid phase was sampled for proteomics purposes. The first objective was to apply proteomics to evaluate protein profile variations in a complex matrix such as activated sludge. The second objective was to determine, at different ibuprofen concentrations, which proteins followed pre-defined trends. No newly expressed proteins were found. Nonetheless, the obtained results suggest that proteomics itself is a promising methodology to be applied in this field. Statistical and comparative studies analyses provided, in fact, useful information on biological reproducibility and permitted us to detect 62 proteins following coherent and plausible expected trends in terms of presence and intensity change. PMID:26360747

  11. Immobilization of activated sludge using improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microbial immobilization method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel as an immobilizing material was improved and used for entrapment of activated sludge. The OUR (oxygen uptake rate) was used to characterize the biological activity of immobilized activated sludge. Three kinds of PVA-immobilized particles of activated sludge, that is, PVA-boric acid beads, PVA-sodium nitrate beads and PVA-orthophosphate beads was prepared, and their biological activity was compared by measuring the OUR value. The bioactivity of both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms of activated sludge was determined using different synthetic wastewater media (containing 250 mg/L COD and 25 mg/L NH4+-N). The experimental results showed that the bioactivity and stability of the three kinds of immobilized activated sludge was greatly improved after activation. With respect of the bioactivity and the mechanical stability, the PVA-orthophosphate method may be a promising and economical technique for microbial immobilization.

  12. Activated sewage sludge, a potential animal foodstuff. Part I. Proximate and mineral content; seasonal variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacon, A.G.J.; Ferns, P.N.

    1979-08-01

    A detailed proximate and mineral analysis of activated sewage sludge is described. Samples were collected at bi-weekly intervals from a rural domestic sewage works for one year. The following annual ranges and mean values were determined for the chemical components within the sludge samples: moisture, total nitrogen, crude protein, Lowry protein, fat, saponification value, available carbohydrate as glucose, fiber, ash, acid insoluble ash, and 26 elements. The seasonal variation patterns observed are discussed. 23 references

  13. Microbial diversity differences within aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge flocs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; de Bruin, L M M; Verheijen, P J T; Abbas, B; Habermacher, J; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated during 400 days the microbial community variations as observed from 16S DNA gene DGGE banding patterns from an aerobic granular sludge pilot plant as well as the from a full-scale activated sludge treatment plant in Epe, the Netherlands. Both plants obtained the same wastewater and had the same relative hydraulic variations and run stable over time. For the total bacterial population, a similarity analysis was conducted showing that the community composition of both sludge types was very dissimilar. Despite this difference, general bacterial population of both systems had on average comparable species richness, entropy, and evenness, suggesting that different bacteria were sharing the same functionality. Moreover, multi-dimensional scaling analysis revealed that the microbial populations of the flocculent sludge system moved closely around the initial population, whereas the bacterial population in the aerobic granular sludge moved away from its initial population representing a permanent change. In addition, the ammonium-oxidizing community of both sludge systems was studied in detail showing more unevenness than the general bacterial community. Nitrosomonas was the dominant AOB in flocculent sludge, whereas in granular sludge, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira were present in equal amounts. A correlation analysis of process data and microbial data from DGGE gels showed that the microbial diversity shift in ammonium-oxidizing bacteria clearly correlated with fluctuations in temperature. PMID:23064482

  14. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine D McMahon; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria kn...

  15. Chemical Inhibitors for Biomass Yield Reduction in Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, Maxine Eleanor

    1999-01-01

    Increasing legislation and rising treatment and disposal costs have promoted optimisation of the activated sludge process to encompass reduction of waste biomass. Manipulation of process control such as increasing sludge age and decreasing food to microorganism ratio can lower waste sludge production, but capital works as well as increased operating costs in the form of power requirement for oxygen supply may be required. The need for a cost effective method of biomass reductio...

  16. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  17. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiehm, A; Nickel, K; Zellhorn, M; Neis, U

    2001-06-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217 kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate powerful jet streams exerting strong shear forces in the liquid. The decreasing sludge disintegration efficiency observed at higher frequencies was attributed to smaller cavitation bubbles which do not allow the initiation of such strong shear forces. Short sonication times resulted in sludge floc deagglomeration without the destruction of bacteria cells. Longer sonication brought about the break-up of cell walls, the sludge solids were distintegrated and dissolved organic compounds were released. The anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge following ultrasonic pretreatment causing microbial cell lysis was significantly improved. There was an increase in the volatile solids degradation as well as an increase in the biogas production. The increase in digestion efficiency was proportional to the degree of sludge disintegration. To a lesser degree the deagglomeration of sludge flocs also augmented the anaerobic volatile solids degradation. PMID:11337847

  18. Interference sources in ATP bioluminescence assay of silica nanoparticle toxicity to activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibag, Mark; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Choah; Kim, Hee Jun; Cho, Jinwoo

    2015-06-01

    ATP measurement provides an overview of the general state of microbial activity, and thus it has proven useful for the evaluation of nanoparticle toxicity in activated sludge. ATP bioluminescence assay, however, is susceptible to interference by the components of activated sludge other than biomass. This paper presents the interference identified specific to the use of this assay after activated sludge respiration inhibition test of silica nanoparticles (OECD 209). We observed a high degree of interference (90%) in the presence of 100 mg/L silica nanoparticles and a low level of ATP being measured (0.01 μM); and 30% interference by the synthetic medium regardless of silica nanoparticle concentration and ATP level in the samples. ATP measurement in activated sludge with different MLSS concentrations revealed interference of high biomass content. In conclusion, silica nanoparticles, synthetic medium and activated sludge samples themselves interfere with ATP bioluminescence; this will need to be considered in the evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity to activated sludge when this type of assay is used.

  19. Using Boiling for Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this work we investigated the feasibility of using short time, low superheat boiling to treat biological sludge. The treated sludge exhibited reduced filterability and enhanced settleability. The boiling treatment released a large amount of extra-cellular polymers (ECPs) from the solid phase and reduced the microbial density levels of the total coliform bacteria and the heterotrophic bacteria. A diluted sludge is preferable for its high degree of organic hydrolysis and sufficient reduction in microbial density levels.

  20. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  1. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  2. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  3. Extracellular protein analysis of activated sludge and their functions in wastewater treatment plant by shotgun proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang; Yu Shen; Jin-Song Guo; Chun Li; Han Wang; You-Peng Chen; Peng Yan; Ji-Xiang Yang; Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, proteins in extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic sludges of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed to probe their origins and functions. Extracellular proteins in WWTP sludges were identified using shotgun proteomics, and 130, 108 and 114 proteins in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic samples were classified, respectively. Most proteins originated from cell and cell part, and their most major molecular functions were catalytic activ...

  4. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

  5. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  6. Denitrification, activity of bacterial flocs, and growth of a filamentous bacterium in relation with the bulking of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Activated sludge with poor settling characteristics is caught under the term "bulking" sludge. Various types of bulking activated sludge can be distinguished.1) Sludge containing an abundance of filamentous microorganisms.2) Sludge, characterized by excessive amount of bacterial slime.3) Flotating s

  7. Disturbance and temporal partitioning of the activated sludge metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuono, David C; Benecke, Jan; Henkel, Jochen; Navidi, William C; Cath, Tzahi Y; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-02-01

    The resilience of microbial communities to press disturbances and whether ecosystem function is governed by microbial composition or by the environment have not been empirically tested. To address these issues, a whole-ecosystem manipulation was performed in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The parameter solids retention time (SRT) was used to manipulate microbial composition, which started at 30 days, then decreased to 12 and 3 days, before operation was restored to starting conditions (30-day SRT). Activated sludge samples were collected throughout the 313-day time series in parallel with bioreactor performance ('ecosystem function'). Bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were surveyed from sludge samples resulting in a sequence library of >417,000 SSU rRNA genes. A shift in community composition was observed for 12- and 3-day SRTs. The composition was altered such that r-strategists were enriched in the system during the 3-day SRT, whereas K-strategists were only present at SRTs⩾12 days. This shift corresponded to loss of ecosystem functions (nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal) for SRTs⩽12 days. Upon return to a 30-day SRT, complete recovery of the bioreactor performance was observed after 54 days despite an incomplete recovery of bacterial diversity. In addition, a different, yet phylogenetically related, community with fewer of its original rare members displaced the pre-disturbance community. Our results support the hypothesis that microbial ecosystems harbor functionally redundant phylotypes with regard to general ecosystem functions (carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus accumulation). However, the impacts of decreased rare phylotype membership on ecosystem stability and micropollutant removal remain unknown. PMID:25126758

  8. Disturbance and temporal partitioning of the activated sludge metacommunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuono, David C; Benecke, Jan; Henkel, Jochen; Navidi, William C; Cath, Tzahi Y; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-01-01

    The resilience of microbial communities to press disturbances and whether ecosystem function is governed by microbial composition or by the environment have not been empirically tested. To address these issues, a whole-ecosystem manipulation was performed in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The parameter solids retention time (SRT) was used to manipulate microbial composition, which started at 30 days, then decreased to 12 and 3 days, before operation was restored to starting conditions (30-day SRT). Activated sludge samples were collected throughout the 313-day time series in parallel with bioreactor performance (‘ecosystem function'). Bacterial small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were surveyed from sludge samples resulting in a sequence library of >417 000 SSU rRNA genes. A shift in community composition was observed for 12- and 3-day SRTs. The composition was altered such that r-strategists were enriched in the system during the 3-day SRT, whereas K-strategists were only present at SRTs⩾12 days. This shift corresponded to loss of ecosystem functions (nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal) for SRTs⩽12 days. Upon return to a 30-day SRT, complete recovery of the bioreactor performance was observed after 54 days despite an incomplete recovery of bacterial diversity. In addition, a different, yet phylogenetically related, community with fewer of its original rare members displaced the pre-disturbance community. Our results support the hypothesis that microbial ecosystems harbor functionally redundant phylotypes with regard to general ecosystem functions (carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus accumulation). However, the impacts of decreased rare phylotype membership on ecosystem stability and micropollutant removal remain unknown. PMID:25126758

  9. Microbial lipids and stable foam formation in the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, A J; Forster, C F

    1991-01-01

    The presence of fats and oils in sewage has been related to the formation of stable foams in activated sludge treatment systems. Foam forming microbes can utilise and, in some cases, store lipid substrates. Since surface lipids would confer the hydrophobicity necessary for flotation on the sludge biomass, the extractable lipids in foaming and non-foaming biomass samples were examined. Both pure mono-cultures and sludge samples were used. The results showed that, whilst there were some differences in the lipid profiles of the mono-cultures, the different sludge types did not show any significant pattern or variation which could be used as a lipid-based explanation for foam formation. PMID:1907713

  10. Characterization of the SRNL-Washed tank 51 sludge batch 9 qualification sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) sent SRNL a 3-L sample of Tank 51H slurry to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (after combining with Tank 40H sludge). SRNL has washed the Tank 51H sample per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. A part of the qualification process is extensive radionuclide and chemical characterization of the SRNL-washed Tank 51H slurry. This report documents the chemical characterization of the washed slurry; radiological characterization is in progress and will be documented in a separate report. The analytical results of this characterization are comparable to the Tank Farm projections. Therefore, it is recommended that SRNL use this washed slurry for the ongoing SB9 qualification activities.

  11. CONDITIONING PROCESS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FRESH ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh activated sludge in many wastewater treatment plants may be considered unhealthy due to the large amount of organic and organism content. Due to the lack of research on municipal sludge, there is an apparent scarcity of actual data. Thus, this work will focus on the characterization of fresh activated sludge. The effect of dosage of different polyelectrolytes and coagulants has been investigated at pH level in a comparative fashion that is commonly associated with fresh activated sludge. The results indicated that the cationic polyelectrolytes had significant effluence on the sludge properties, degree of flocculation and water quality. With respect to the optical analyses, it was observed that the floc sizes and densities were increased with rise concentrations of both types of cationic polyelectrolytes. It was found that the cationic CPAM-80 was the most effective chemical among other six used chemicals especially for solutions with pH near neutrality despite of the variations in feed properties of the fresh activated sludge. This polyelectrolyte gave lower turbidity, lower sludge volume index, faster zone settling rate and large floc density.

  12. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length...

  14. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  15. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct ...... bacteria to degrade or transform the target pharmaceuticals was further demonstrated by the limited pharmaceutical removal in an experiment with continuous nitritation and biofilm carriers from a partial nitritation/anammox sludge liquor treatment process....

  16. Application of activated sludge as a complementary in bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzeh Imani; Azam Jeihanipour; Mohammad Ali Asadollahi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Excess activated sludge contains large amounts of components such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur which can theoretically be used as a nutrient source in fermentation processes to produce value added materials. In the present study, the possibility to grow Saccharomyces cerevisiae and produce ethanol on pretreated and untreated activated sludge as a nutrient source was investigated. Materials and methods: In this article, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CEN.PK...

  17. Purification of total DNA extracted from activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge samples was studied. The effects of extraction buffers and lysis treatments (lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sonication, mechanical mill and thermal shock) on yield and purity of the total DNA extracted from activated sludge were investigated. It was found that SDS and mechanical mill were the most effective ways for cell lysis, and both gave the highest DNA yields, while by SDS and thermal shock, the purest DNA extract could be obtained. The combination of SDS with other lysis treatment, such as sonication and thermal shock, could apparently increase the DNA yields but also result in severe shearing. For the purification of the crude DNA extract, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone was used for the removal of humic contaminants. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, potassium acetate and phenol/chloroform were used to remove proteins and polysaccharides from crude DNA. Crude DNA was further purified by isopropanol precipitation. Thus, a suitable protocol was proposed for DNA extraction, yielding about 49.9 mg (DNA)/g volatile suspended solids, and the DNA extracts were successfully used in PCR amplifications for 16S rDNA and 16S rDNA V3 region. The PCR products of 16S rDNA V3 region allowed the DGGE analysis (denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) to be possible.

  18. Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Nils Johan; Hermansson, Malte; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluores...

  19. [Biodiversity and Function Analyses of BIOLAK Activated Sludge Metagenome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Fang-qing; Chen, Shuai; Yao, Yong-jia

    2015-05-01

    The BIOLAK is a multi-stage activated sludge process, which has been successfully promoted worldwide. However, the biological community and function of the BIOLAK activated sludge ( the core component in the process) have not been reported so far. In this study, taking Lianyungang Dapu Industrial Zone WWTP as an example, a large-scale metagenomic data (428 588 high-quality DNA sequences) of the BIOLAK activated sludge were obtained by means of a new generation of high-throughput sequencing technology. Amazing biodiversity was revealed in the BIOLAK activated sludge, which included 47 phyla, 872 genera and 1351 species. There were 33 phyla identified in the Bacteria domain (289 933 sequences). Proteohacteria was the most abundant phylum (62.54%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.29%), Nitrospirae ( 5. 65%) and Planctomycetes (4.79%), suggesting that these groups played a key role in the BIOLAK wastewater treatment system. Among the 748 bacterial genera, Nitrospira (5.60%) was the most prevalent genus, which was a key group in the nitrogen cycle. Followed by Gemmatimonas (2.45%), which was an important genus in the biological phosphorus removal process. In Archaea domain (1019 sequences), three phyla and 39 genera were detected. In Eukaryota domain (1055 sequences), 60 genera and 10 phyla were identified, among which Ciliophora was the largest phylum (257 sequences). Meanwhile, 448 viral sequences were detected in the BIOLAK sludge metagenome, which were dominated by bacteriophages. The proportions of nitrogen, aromatic compounds and phosphorus metabolism in the BIOLAK sludge were 2.50%, 2.28% and 1.56%, respectively, which were higher than those in the sludge of United States and Australia. Among four processes of nitrogen metabolism, denitrification-related genes were most abundant (80.81%), followed by ammonification (12.78%), nitrification,(4.38%) and nitrogen fixation (2.04%). In conclusion, the BIOLAK activated sludge had amazing biodiversity, meanwhile

  20. Application of Gamma irradiation in treatment of Waste Activated Sludge to Obtain Class a Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I. AL-Ghonaiem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of the current study was investigation of the possible application of Gamma irradiation for treatment of the activated sludge generated wastewater treatment stations, to achieve the standard requirements in term of pathogens content. Approach: Activated sludge samples were collected from Riyadh wastewater plant and analyzed quantitatively for the presence of important bacterial parameters including fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. The collected samples were treated with various doses of Gamma irradiation and bacterial count was determined. Results: The results indicated that all tested sludge samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp, with different counts in different stages of wastewater treatment. The raw sludge showed to have the highest coliforms and Salmonella spp counts of 1.1×108 and 2×103 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. Furthermore, coliforms and Salmonella spp were detected in final resulted sludge with count of 2.5×107 and 6×102 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. It was found that treatment of samples with gamma irradiation was able to reduce the fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp effectively and the reduction efficiency was increased by increasing the irradiation dose. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella counts were reduced to less than 100 MPN g-1 dry sludge by exposing to 1.5 and 0.25 kGy respectively. Furthermore, Gamma radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was able to remove both fecal coliforms and Salomnella spp completely. In addition, D10 values were determined and was found to be 0.25 and 0.24 kGy for fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp., respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results indicating that the resulted activated sludge generated from Riyadh wastewater plant are rich with important pathogens and therefore further treatment procedures are necessary to achieve the required standards, before any land application. Application of

  1. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  2. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  3. Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-scale batch experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption and degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at μg/L range in an aerobic activated sludge system. The sorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the sorption of BPA on sludge was mainly a physical process in which partitioning played a dominating role. The values of sorption coefficient Koc were between 621 and 736 L/kg in the temperature range of 10-30 deg. C. Both mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) and temperature influenced BPA sorption on sludge. The degradation of BPA by acclimated activated sludge could be described by first-order reaction equation with the first-order degradation rate constant of 0.80 h-1 at 20 deg. C. The decrease of initial COD concentration and the increase of MLSS concentration and temperature enhanced BPA degradation rate. The removal of BPA in the activated sludge system was characterized by a quick sorption on the activated sludge and subsequent biodegradation

  4. Contamination of PAHs in Sludge Samples from the Yangtze River Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Rong-Yan; LUO Yong-Ming; ZHANG Gang-Ya; TENG Ying; LI Zhen-Gao; WU Long-Hua

    2007-01-01

    To ascertain the contaminated conditions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge and to evaluate the risk of application of this sludge for agricultural purposes, 44 sludge samples obtained from 15 cities in the Yangtze River Delta area of China were investigated using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after ultrasonic extraction and silica gel cleanup. PAHs' contents ranged from 0.0167 to 15.4860 mg kg-1 (dry weight, DW) and averaged 1.376 mg kg-1, with most samples containing<1.5 mg kg-1. Pyrene (PY), fluoranthene (FL), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IND), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were the most dominant compounds, ranging from 0.1582 to 0.2518 mg kg-1. Single PAH, such as naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene rings), phenan-threne (PA, 3-benzene rings), PY (4-benzene rings), and FL (3-benzene rings), had high detection rates (76.1%-93.5%). The distribution patterns of PAHs were found to vary with the sludge samples; however, the patterns showed that a few compounds with 2- and 3-benzene rings were commonly found in the samples, whereas those with 4-, 5-, and 6-benzene rings were usually less commonly found. All the 44 sludge samples were within the B[a]P concentration limit for sludge applied to agricultural land in China (< 3.0 mg kg-1). The probable sources of PAH contamination in the sludge samples were petroleum, petroleum products, and combustion of liquid and solid fuel. The concentrations and distributions of the 16 PAHs in sludge were related to sludge type, source, and treatment technology, together with the physicochemical properties.

  5. Chitosan use in chemical conditioning for dewatering municipal-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmouri, H; Mameri, N; Lounici, H

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential use of chitosan as an eco-friendly flocculant in chemical conditioning of municipal-activated sludge. Chitosan effectiveness was compared with synthetic cationic polyelectrolyte Sedipur CF802 (Sed CF802) and ferric chloride (FeCl₃). In this context, raw sludge samples from Beni-Messous wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were tested. The classic jar test method was used to condition sludge samples. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), cakes dry solid content and filtrate turbidity were analyzed to determine filterability, dewatering capacity of conditioned sludge and the optimum dose of each conditioner. Data exhibit that chitosan, FeCl₃and Sed CF802 improve sludge dewatering. Optimum dosages of chitosan, Sed CF802 and FeCl₃allowing CST values of 6, 5 and 9 s, were found, respectively, between 2-3, 1.5-3 and 6 kg/t ds. Both polymers have shown faster water removal with more permeable sludge. SRF values were 0.634 × 10¹², 0.932 × 10¹² and 2 × 10¹² m/kg for Sed CF802, chitosan and FeCl₃respectively. A reduction of 94.68 and 87.85% of the filtrate turbidity was obtained with optimal dosage of chitosan and Sed CF802, respectively. In contrast, 54.18% of turbidity abatement has been obtained using optimal dosage of FeCl₃.

  6. Cometabolic degradation of organic wastewater micropollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Klaus; Majewsky, Marius

    2014-08-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic trace pollutants. Often, their biodegradability by activated sludge microorganisms is decisive for their elimination during wastewater treatment. Since the amounts of micropollutants seem too low to serve as growth substrate, cometabolism is supposed to be the dominating biodegradation process. Nevertheless, as many biodegradation studies were performed without the intention to discriminate between metabolic and cometabolic processes, the specific contribution of the latter to substance transformations is often not clarified. This minireview summarizes current knowledge about the cometabolic degradation of organic trace pollutants by activated sludge and sludge-inherent microorganisms. Due to their relevance for communal wastewater contamination, the focus is laid on pharmaceuticals, personal care products, antibiotics, estrogens, and nonylphenols. Wherever possible, reference is made to the molecular process level, i.e., cometabolic pathways, involved enzymes, and formed transformation products. Particular cometabolic capabilities of different activated sludge consortia and various microbial species are highlighted. Process conditions favoring cometabolic activities are emphasized. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified, and research perspectives are outlined. PMID:24866947

  7. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  8. Enrichment and activity of methanotrophic microorganisms from municipal wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Vale, Isabel Campante; Dell'Isola, Jéssica; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; Calabria Araujo, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, methanotrophic microorganisms were enriched from a municipal wastewater sludge taken from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor. The enrichment was performed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an autotrophic medium containing nitrite and nitrate. The microbial community composition of the inoculum and of the enrichment culture after 100 days of SBR operation was investigated and compared with the help of data obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analyses. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies were 68% and 53%, respectively, probably due to heterotrophic denitrification. Archaeal cells of the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaic (ANME)-I and ANME-II groups were detected by polymerase chain reaction throughout the whole cultivation period. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that community composition was different among the two samples analysed. The dominant phyla found in the inoculum were Synergistestes, Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota, while Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria prevailed in the enriched biomass. The cultivation conditions decreased Methanobacterium abundance from 8% to 1%, and enriched for methanotrophic bacteria such as Methylocaldum, Methylocistis and Methylosinus. Sequences of Methylocaldum sp. accounted for 2.5% of the total reads. The presence and high predominance of Verrucomicrobia in the enriched biomass suggested that other unknown methanotrophic species related to that phylum might also have occurred in the reactor. Anaerobic methane oxidation activity was measured for both samples, and showed that the activity of the enrichment culture was nearly three times higher than the activity of the inoculum. Taken together, these results showed that the inoculum type and cultivation conditions were properly suited for methanotrophic enrichment. PMID:25495866

  9. Exploring the potential of applying proteomics for tracking bisphenol A and nonylphenol degradation in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Neus; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Kolvenbach, Boris A; Comas, Joaquim; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2013-02-01

    A significant percentage of bisphenol A and nonylphenol removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants relies on biodegradation. Nonetheless, incomplete information is available concerning their degradation pathways performed by microbial communities in activated sludge systems. Hydroquinone dioxygenase (HQDO) is a specific degradation marker enzyme, involved in bisphenol A and nonylphenol biodegradation, and it can be produced by axenic cultures of the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3. Proteomics, a technique based on the analysis of microbial community proteins, was applied to this strain. The bacterium proteome map was obtained and a HQDO subunit was successfully identified. Additionally, the reliability of the applied proteomics protocol was evaluated in activated sludge samples. Proteins belonging to Sphingomonas were searched at decreasing biomass ratios, i.e. serially diluting the bacterium in activated sludge. The protein patterns were compared and Sphingomonas proteins were discriminated against the ones from sludge itself on 2D-gels. The detection limit of the applied protocol was defined as 10(-3) g TTNP3 g(-1) total suspended solids (TSSs). The results proved that proteomics can be a promising methodology to assess the presence of specific enzymes in activated sludge samples, however improvements of its sensitivity are still needed.

  10. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge.

  11. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge. PMID:24620598

  12. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W., E-mail: roel.meulepas@wetsus.nl [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Saikaly, Pascal E. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g{sup −1} of copper, 487 μg g{sup −1} of lead, 793 μg g{sup −1} of zinc, 27 μg g{sup −1} of nickel and 2.3 μg g{sup −1} of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g{sub dry} {sub weight} L{sup −1} waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner.

  13. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g−1 of copper, 487 μg g−1 of lead, 793 μg g−1 of zinc, 27 μg g−1 of nickel and 2.3 μg g−1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L−1 waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner

  14. Use of metagenomic approaches to isolate lipolytic genes from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Ren-Bao; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Wu, Ming-Che; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were to access the bacterial diversity and isolate lipolytic genes using the metagenomic approach in activated sludge of a swine wastewater treatment facility. On the basis of BLASTN analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones, most of these communities (90%) were of uncultivated bacteria. The metagenomic library was constructed using a plasmid vector and DNA extracted directly from activated sludge samples. The average insert size was approximately 5.1 kb. A total of 12 unique and lipolytic clones were obtained using the tributyrin plate assay. The rate of discovering a lipolytic clone in this study was as high as 0.31%. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the 16 putative lipolytic enzymes showed 28-55% identity with non-redundant protein sequences in the database. Briefly, this study demonstrates that activated sludge is an ideal bioresource for isolating new lipolytic enzymes. PMID:20639117

  15. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  16. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  17. Experiences with automatic N and P measurements of an activated sludge process in a research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Temmink, H.

    1996-01-01

    Some of the advantages of on-line automatic measurement of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for studying activated sludge systems are pointed out with the help of examples of batch experiments. Sample taking is performed by cross-flow filtration and measurement of all three analytes is performed...

  18. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows under...... mechanisms can also contribute to substrate removal, depending on the microbial composition and the previous "history" of the biomass. In this paper the type and the extent of this dynamic response is discussed by review of experimental studies on pure cultures, mixed cultures and activated sludges...... and with main reference to its relevance on population dynamics in the activated sludge. Possible conceptual approaches to storage modelling are also presented, including both structured and unstructured modelling. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. High-rate activated sludge communities have a distinctly different structure compared to low-rate sludge communities, and are less sensitive towards environmental and operational variables.

    OpenAIRE

    Meerburg, Francis A; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Roume, Hugo; Seuntjens, Dries; Dietmar H. Pieper; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    High-rate activated sludge processes allow for the recovery of organics and energy from wastewaters. These systems are operated at a short sludge retention time and high sludge-specific loading rates, which results in a higher sludge yield and better digestibility than conventional, low-rate activated sludge. Little is known about the microbial ecology of high-rate systems. In this work, we address the need for a fundamental understanding of how high-rate microbial communities differ from low...

  20. Biodegradability of wastewater and activated sludge organics in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikumi, D S; Harding, T H; Ekama, G A

    2014-06-01

    The investigation provides experimental evidence that the unbiodegradable particulate organics fractions of primary sludge and waste activated sludge calculated from activated sludge models remain essentially unbiodegradable in anaerobic digestion. This was tested by feeding the waste activated sludge (WAS) from three different laboratory activated sludge (AS) systems to three separate anaerobic digesters (AD). Two of the AS systems were Modified Ludzack - Ettinger (MLE) nitrification-denitrification (ND) systems and the third was a membrane University of Cape Town (UCT) ND and enhanced biological P removal system. One of the MLE systems and the UCT system were fed the same real settled wastewater. The other MLE system was fed raw wastewater which was made by adding a measured constant flux (gCOD/d) of macerated primary sludge (PS) to the real settled wastewater. This PS was also fed to a fourth AD and a blend of PS and WAS from settled wastewater MLE system was fed to a fifth AD. The five ADs were each operated at five different sludge ages (10-60d). From the measured performance results of the AS systems, the unbiodegradable particulate organic (UPO) COD fractions of the raw and settled wastewaters, the PS and the WAS from the three AS systems were calculated with AS models. These AS model based UPO fractions of the PS and WAS were compared with the UPO fractions calculated from the performance results of the ADs fed these sludges. For the PS, the UPO fraction calculated from the AS and AD models matched closely, i.e. 0.30 and 0.31. Provided the UPO of heterotrophic (OHO, fE_OHO) and phosphorus accumulating (PAO, fE_PAO) biomass were accepted to be those associated with the death regeneration model of organism "decay", the UPO of the WAS calculated from the AS and AD models also matched well - if the steady state AS model fE_OHO = 0.20 and fE_PAO = 0.25 values were used, then the UPO fraction of the WAS calculated from the AS models deviated significantly

  1. A simple empirical model for activated sludge thickening in secondary clarifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giokas, D L; Kim, Youngchul; Paraskevas, P A; Paleologos, E K; Lekkas, T D

    2002-07-01

    A simple empirical model for the thickening function of the activated sludge secondary clarifiers is presented. The proposed approach relies on the integration of previous models and it is based on the phenomenon of dilution of the incoming activated sludge in the feeding well of the settling tanks. The method provides a satisfactory description of sludge stratification within the clarifier. The only requirements are limited to parameters which are readily incorporated into the routine analysis performed in an activated sludge plant, thereby eliminating the need for additional experimental or computational effort. The method was tested in a full-scale activated sludge plant and it was found that it describes fairly well the return sludge concentration, the diluted sludge blanket concentration, the sludge blanket solids concentration and the sludge blanket height of full-scale secondary clarifiers.

  2. Effect of Various Polar Solvents to The Improvement of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Bacterial Quinones from Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    ., Irvan

    2010-01-01

    Extraction and identification of bacterial quinones is becoming increasingly important. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of extracting quinones from activated sludge using supercritical fluid extraction and also to investigate the effect of various polar solvents in order to improve the yield. A ± 0.1 g freeze-dried activated sludge sample was extracted at 35o C, 20 Mpa using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). This technique was able to extra...

  3. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  4. Determination of the acute toxicities of physicochemical pretreatment and advanced oxidation processes applied to dairy effluents on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrioğlu, Özge; Yonar, Taner

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of raw, physicochemical pre-treated, ozonated, and Fenton reagent applied samples of dairy wastewater toward activated sludge microorganisms, evaluated using the International Organization for Standardization's respiration inhibition test (ISO 8192), are presented. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was measured to determine the biodegradability of physicochemical treatment, ozonation, Fenton oxidation or no treatment (raw samples) of dairy wastewater. Chemical pretreatment positively affected biodegradability, and the inhibition exhibited by activated sludge was removed to a considerable degree. Ozonation and the Fenton process exhibited good chemical oxygen demand removal (61%) and removal of toxins. Low sludge production was observed for the Fenton process applied to dairy effluents. We did not determine the inhibitory effect of the Fenton-process on the activated sludge mixture. The pollutant-removal efficiencies of the applied processes and their associated operating costs were determined.

  5. Impact of solid retention time and nitrification capacity on the ability of activated sludge to remove pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Removal of five acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and clofibric acid) by activated sludge from five municipal activated sludge treatment processes, with various sludge ages and nitrification capacities, was assessed through batch experiments. The increase in aero...

  6. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  7. Re-activation characteristics of preserved aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-li; ZHANG Bo; HUANG Yu-feng; CAI Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    In some industrial plants, wastewater was intermittently or seasonally generated. There may be periods during which wastewater treatment facilities have to be set into an idle phase over several weeks. When wastewater was generated again, the activated sludge flocs may have disintegrated. In this experiment, re-activation characteristics of aerobic granular sludge starved for 2 months were investigated.Specific oxygen utilization rate(SOUR) was used as an indicator to evaluate the metabolic activity of the sludge. The results revealed that aerobic granular sludge could be stored up to two months without running the risk of losing the integrity of the granules and metabolic potentials. The apparent color of aerobic granules stored at room temperature gradually turned from brownish-yellowish to gray brown.They appeared brownish-yellowish again 2 weeks after re-activation. The velocity and strength of granules after 2-month idle period could achieved. A stable effluent COD concentration of less than 150 mg/L was achieved during the re-activation process.

  8. Analysis and modelling of predation on biofilm activated sludge process: Influence on microbial distribution, sludge production and nutrient dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-11-01

    The influence of predation on the biofilm activated sludge (BAS) process is studied using a unified model that incorporates hydrolysis and predation phenomena into the two stages of the BAS system: moving bed biofilm reactor pre-treatment (bacterial-predator stage) and activated sludge (predator stage). The unified model adequately describes the experimental results obtained in a cellulose and viscose full-scale wastewater plant and has been used to evaluate the role and contribution of predator microorganisms towards removal of COD, nutrient requirements, sludge production and microbial distribution. The results indicate that predation is the main factor responsible for the reduction of both nutrient requirements and sludge production. Furthermore, increasing the sludge retention time (SRT) does not influence the total biomass content in the AS reactor of a BAS process in two different industrial wastewater treatments.

  9. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  10. Optimized operation and design of alternating activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Keesman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study with the scope to optimise the plant design and operation strategy of 2-reactors alternating activated sludge processes with only flow schedule and aeration on/off as control inputs. The methodology is to simulate the application of receding horizon optimal con

  11. Theoretical and practical aspects of modelling activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the full-scale validation and calibration of a integrated metabolic activated sludge model for biological phosphorus removal. In chapters 1 and 2 the metabolic model is described, in chapters 3 to 6 the model is tested and in chapters 7 and 8 the model is put into practice. Cha

  12. Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; oxygen transfer; and solids separation.

  13. Activated sludge filterability and full-scale membrane bioreactor operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminski, P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite continuous developments in the field of MBR technology, membrane fouling together with the associated energy demand and related costs issues remain major challenges. The efficiency of the filtration process in an MBR is governed by the activated sludge filterability, which is still limitedly

  14. Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Activated Sludge Flocs: Extraction, Identification, and Investigation of Their Link with Cations and Fate in Sludge Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge are known to account for the flocculent nature of activated sludge. Extensive studies over the last few decades have attempted to extract and characterize activated sludge EPS, but a lack of agreement between studies has also been quite common. The molecular makeup of EPS has, however, remained nearly unexplored, leaving their identity, function, and fate over various stages in the activated sludge system mainly unknown. In spite o...

  15. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  16. Presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in sludge samples from several Spanish water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge samples from eleven potable water treatment plants (PWTP), three waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and an industrial water treatment plant (IWTP), located in different areas of Spain, mainly in Catalonia, were analyzed for their radiological content in order to determine whether they could be considered as industries affected by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In general, samples from the PWTPs showed higher activity values for the alpha and gamma emitting isotopes than the WWTPs and the IWTP. For example, samples from the area located in the north of Catalonia show values of 234U, 235U and 238U in the range of 84.4-792.1 Bq/kg, 3.3-26.8 Bq/kg and 63.8-585.9 Bq/kg, respectively. In general, for PWTP, the values obtained for the gamma emitter and alpha emitter isotopes showed that both the geology and the industrial activities correlate with the values measured. The magnitude of these results demonstrates the need to measure the radionuclide content of these samples before reaching a decision about their final disposal.

  17. Influence of magnetic field on activity of given anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y B; Duan, X J; Yan, J N; Du, Y Y; Sun, S Y

    2009-11-01

    Two modes of magnetic fields were applied in the Cr(6+) removal sludge reactors containing two predominated strains--Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp., respectively. The magnetic field mode I* of 0-4.5 or 0-14 mT between pieces was obtained by setting the magnetic pieces with the surface magnetic density of 0-6 or 0-20 mT into the reactor, and the magnetic field mode II* of 6, 20, or 40 mT on the return line was obtained by controlling the working distance of the permanent magnet outside the sludge return line. The effects of different magnetic fields on the activity of the given anaerobic sludge were studied by comparing with the control (absent of magnetic field). The results showed that the magnetic field of 0-4 mT improved the activity of given sludge most effectively, U(max) CH(4) (the peak methane-producing rate) and the methane producing volume per gCOD(Cr) reached 64.3 mlCH(4)/gVSS.d and 124 mlCH(4)/gCOD(Cr), which increased by 20.6 and 70.7%, respectively, compared with the control. And the magnetic field of 20 mT took second place. It could be concluded that the input of some magnetic field could improve the activity of anaerobic sludge by increasing the transformation efficiency of COD(Cr) matters to methane, and the total organic wastage did not increase.

  18. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Characterization of the fate of lipids in activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangala B.Chipasa; Krystyna Medrzycka

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to characterize the transformation of lipids in activated sludge under aerobic conditions. Results showed that the overall lipid content in the effluent could not be reduced to values below 300 mg/L from an initial content of 2, 000 mg/L. However, the contents of individual fatty acids underwent drastic decreases and increases during all microbial growth phases. These changes in contents of individual fatty acids showed that fatty acids were used as substrates by microorganisms as well as released into the wastewater as by-products. We have therefore suggested a novel model of transformation of lipids in activated sludge, showing that utilization of microbial activity for complete removal of lipids from wastewater is limited.

  20. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  2. Enhanced Lipid and Biodiesel Production from Glucose-Fed Activated Sludge: Kinetics an Microbial Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative approach to increase biofuel feedstock lipid yields from municipal sewage sludge via manipulation of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio and glucose loading in activated sludge bioreactors was investigated. Sludge lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) yields (% cel...

  3. Electrochemical pretreatment of waste activated sludge: effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration degree and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Caihong; Yuan, Haiping; Dai, Xiaohu; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-11-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) requires a long digestion time because of a rate-limiting hydrolysis step - the first phase of anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreatment can be used prior to AD to facilitate the hydrolysis step and improve the efficiency of WAS digestion. This study evaluated a novel application of electrochemical (EC) technology employed as the pretreatment method prior to AD of WAS, focusing on the effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration and subsequent AD process. A superior process condition of EC pretreatment was obtained by reaction time of 30 min, electrolysis voltage of 20 V, and electrode distance of 5 cm, under which the disintegration degree of WAS ranged between 9.02% and 9.72%. In the subsequent batch AD tests, 206 mL/g volatile solid (VS) methane production in EC pretreated sludge was obtained, which was 20.47% higher than that of unpretreated sludge. The AD time was 19 days shorter for EC pretreated sludge compared to the unpretreated sludge. Additionally, the EC + AD reactor achieved 41.84% of VS removal at the end of AD. The analysis of energy consumption showed that EC pretreatment could be effective in enhancing sludge AD with reduced energy consumption when compared to other pretreatment methods.

  4. Activated sewage sludge, a potential animal foodstuff: Parts I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, A.G.J.; Ferns, P.N.

    1979-08-01

    Described are experiments that evaluated the mineral content and nutritive value of activated sludge single-cell protein (ASCP) samples as potential animal feedstuffs. Samples were collected at bi-weekly intervals from rural domestic sludge works for one year. Determined for each sample were annual ranges and values of moisture; fat; total nitrogen; crude protein; Lowry protein; fiber; saponification value; carbohydrates available as glucose; ash; and 26 elements. ASCP was shown to possess a nutritive value equivalent to that of brewers yeast and proved to be a good source of B12 vitamins. However, high treatment costs and public prejudice operate against the acceptance of the use of ASCP as an animal feedstuff. (16 graphs, 52 references, 7 tables)

  5. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Bioadsorption of 4-Chlorophenol to the Activated Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption behaviour of 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solution to activated sludge was quantitatively characterized in this paper. The effects of the initial pH values, initial chlorophenol concentration and adsorbent dosage on bioadsorption were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 110.5 mg/g at 100 mg/L initial concentration. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were applied to describe the biosorption processes and the isotherm constants were evaluated.

  7. Activated sludge filterability and full-scale membrane bioreactor operation

    OpenAIRE

    Krzeminski, P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite continuous developments in the field of MBR technology, membrane fouling together with the associated energy demand and related costs issues remain major challenges. The efficiency of the filtration process in an MBR is governed by the activated sludge filterability, which is still limitedly understood and is determined by the interactions between the biomass, the wastewater and the applied process conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to increase understanding of the factors impa...

  8. Indigenous microalgae-activated sludge cultivation system for wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan, Anbarasan

    2016-01-01

    The municipal wastewater is mainly composed of water containing anthropogenic wastes that are rich in nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. The cost for biological treatment of wastewater is increasing globally due to the population growth in urban cities. In general, the activated sludge (AS) process is a biological nutrient removal process used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The AS is composed of different microorganisms in which bacteria play a crucial role in wastew...

  9. Activated sludge process based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文艺; 蔡建安

    2002-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of creating water quality model for activated sludge system, a typical BP artificial neural network model has been established to simulate the operation of a waste water treatment facilities. The comparison of prediction results with the on-spot measurements shows the model, the model is accurate and this model can also be used to realize intelligentized on-line control of the wastewater processing process.

  10. Rapid determination of filamentous microorganisms in activated sludge; Determinacion rapida de microorganismos filamentosos en fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Jimenez, C.; Estevez, F. [Empresa Municipal de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas de Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Despite many methods available biomass estimation of a bioprocess may sometimes become laborious and impracticable. Samples containing filamentous organisms, as in Wastewater Treatment Plants, present special counting difficulties. If they are abundant they may need to be estimated separately. In this work a counting method for these organisms is show. The main goal is to improve chlorination of activated sludge suffering bulking or foaming through a quantitative record of filamentous bacteria. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  12. Micropollutant degradation via extracted native enzymes from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Daniel; Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Wick, Arne; Bröder, Kathrin; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    A procedure was developed to assess the biodegradation of micropollutants in cell-free lysates produced from activated sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This proof-of-principle provides the basis for further investigations of micropollutant biodegradation via native enzymes in a solution of reduced complexity, facilitating downstream protein analysis. Differently produced lysates, containing a variety of native enzymes, showed significant enzymatic activities of acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase in conventional colorimetric enzyme assays, whereas heat-deactivated controls did not. To determine the enzymatic activity towards micropollutants, 20 compounds were spiked to the cell-free lysates under aerobic conditions and were monitored via LC-ESI-MS/MS. The micropollutants were selected to span a wide range of different biodegradabilities in conventional activated sludge treatment via distinct primary degradation reactions. Of the 20 spiked micropollutants, 18 could be degraded by intact sludge under assay conditions, while six showed reproducible degradation in the lysates compared to the heat-deactivated negative controls: acetaminophen, N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX), atenolol, bezafibrate, erythromycin and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (10-OH-CBZ). The primary biotransformation of the first four compounds can be attributed to amide hydrolysis. However, the observed biotransformations in the lysates were differently influenced by experimental parameters such as sludge pre-treatment and the addition of ammonium sulfate or peptidase inhibitors, suggesting that different hydrolase enzymes were involved in the primary degradation, among them possibly peptidases. Furthermore, the transformation of 10-OH-CBZ to 9-CA-ADIN was caused by a biologically-mediated oxidation, which indicates that in addition to hydrolases further enzyme classes (probably oxidoreductases) are present in the native lysates. Although the

  13. Micropollutant degradation via extracted native enzymes from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Daniel; Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Wick, Arne; Bröder, Kathrin; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    A procedure was developed to assess the biodegradation of micropollutants in cell-free lysates produced from activated sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This proof-of-principle provides the basis for further investigations of micropollutant biodegradation via native enzymes in a solution of reduced complexity, facilitating downstream protein analysis. Differently produced lysates, containing a variety of native enzymes, showed significant enzymatic activities of acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase in conventional colorimetric enzyme assays, whereas heat-deactivated controls did not. To determine the enzymatic activity towards micropollutants, 20 compounds were spiked to the cell-free lysates under aerobic conditions and were monitored via LC-ESI-MS/MS. The micropollutants were selected to span a wide range of different biodegradabilities in conventional activated sludge treatment via distinct primary degradation reactions. Of the 20 spiked micropollutants, 18 could be degraded by intact sludge under assay conditions, while six showed reproducible degradation in the lysates compared to the heat-deactivated negative controls: acetaminophen, N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX), atenolol, bezafibrate, erythromycin and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (10-OH-CBZ). The primary biotransformation of the first four compounds can be attributed to amide hydrolysis. However, the observed biotransformations in the lysates were differently influenced by experimental parameters such as sludge pre-treatment and the addition of ammonium sulfate or peptidase inhibitors, suggesting that different hydrolase enzymes were involved in the primary degradation, among them possibly peptidases. Furthermore, the transformation of 10-OH-CBZ to 9-CA-ADIN was caused by a biologically-mediated oxidation, which indicates that in addition to hydrolases further enzyme classes (probably oxidoreductases) are present in the native lysates. Although the

  14. Investigating the fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Helm, Richard F; Novak, John T

    2008-12-01

    The fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion was investigated using three different cation-associated extraction methods and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Extraction methods used were the cation exchange resin (CER) method for extracting calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), sulfide extraction for removing iron, and base treatment (pH 10.5) for dissolving aluminum. Extracellular polymeric substances extracted were then subjected to SDS-PAGE, and the resultant protein profiles were examined before and after sludge digestion. The SDS-PAGE results showed that three methods led to different SDS-PAGE profiles for both undigested and digested sludges. The results further revealed that CER-extracted proteins remained mainly undegraded in anaerobic digestion, but were degraded in aerobic digestion. While the fate of sulfide- and base-extracted proteins was not clear for aerobic digestion, their changes in anaerobic digestion were elucidated. Most sulfide-extracted proteins were removed by anaerobic digestion, while the increase in protein band intensity and diversity was observed for base-extracted proteins. These results suggest that activated sludge flocs contain different fractions of proteins that are distinguishable by their association with certain cations and that each fraction undergoes different fates in anaerobic and aerobic digestion. The proteins that were resistant to degradation and generated during anaerobic digestion were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification results and their putative roles in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are discussed in this study. PMID:19146099

  15. Effects of total solids content on waste activated sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion and its sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfeng; Chen, Jie; Shen, Honglang; An, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The role of total solids content on sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated in batch reactors. A range of total solids content from 2% to 10% was evaluated with two replicates. The lowest inhibitory concentration for free ammonia and total ammonia of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was 110.9-171.4mg/L and 1313.1-1806.7mg/L, respectively. The volumetric biogas production rate increased with increasing of total solids content, but the corresponding biogas yield per gram volatile solid decreased. The result of normalized capillary suction time indicated that the dewaterability of digested sludge at high total solids content was poor, while solid content of sediment obtained by centrifuging sludge at 2000g for 10min increased with increasing of total solids content of sludge. The results suggest that thickened sludge mixed with dewatered sludge at an appropriate ratio could get high organic loading rate, high biogas yield and adequate dewatering effort. PMID:26897469

  16. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  17. Optimization of Ozonation Process for the Reduction of Excess Sludge Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    OpenAIRE

    Subha, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the c...

  18. Effects of heavy metal and other elemental additives to activated sludge on growth of Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Neuhauser, E.F.; Narahara, A.

    1981-09-01

    The approximate level at which added concentrations of certain elements would cause an activated sludge to induce a toxic effect upon the growth of Eisenia foetida was determined. During 43 trials on sludge samples obtained throughout 1 year of study, earthworms grew from 3 to 10 mg live wt at hatching to 792 mg +- 18% (mean +- C.V.) in 8 weeks, when sludge was 24/sup 0/C and contained no additives. None of several elements commonly used in microbial growth media enhanced the growth rate of the earthworm. At salt concentrations up to about 6.6% on a dry wt basis, none of six anions tested was in and of itself toxic, while five of 15 cations - Co, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cd - appeared specifically to inhibit growth rate or cause death. Manganese, Cr, and Pb were innocuous even at the highest levels of application - 22,000, 46,000, and 52,000 mg/kg, respectively. Neither the anionic nor cationic component of certain salts, such as NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl, could be said to inhibit growth, which occurred only at high concentrations of these salts (about 3.3 and/or 6.6%). Below 7 mmho/cm, toxicity could not be correlated with electrolytic conductance, though higher values may help to explain the nonspecific growth inhibitory effects of salts like NaCl and KCl. Nor could toxicity ever be ascribed to hydrogen ion activity, since sludge pH was not altered even at the highest salt dose. It is concluded that except under very extreme conditions, the levels of heavy metals and salts generally found in activated sludges will not have an adverse affect on the growth of E. foetida.

  19. Ubiquity of activated sludge ferricyanide-mediated BOD methods: a comparison of sludge seeds across wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have described alternatives to the BOD5 standard method, with substantial decreases in incubation time observed. However, most of these have not maintained the features that make the BOD5 assay so relevant - a high level of substrate bio-oxidation and use of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge as the biocatalyst. Two recently described ferricyanide-mediated (FM)-BOD assays, one for trade wastes and one for WWTP influents and treated effluents, satisfy these criteria and were investigated further here for their suitability for use with diverse biocatalysts. Both FM-BOD assays responded proportionately to increasing substrate concentration with sludges from 11 different WWTPs and temporally (months to years) using sludges from a single WWTP, confirming the broad applicability of both assays. Sludges from four WWTPs were selected as biocatalysts for each FM-BOD assay to compare FM-BOD equivalent values with BOD5 (three different sludge seeds) measurements for 12 real wastewater samples (six per assay). Strong and significant relationships were established for both FM-BOD assays. This study has demonstrated that sludge sourced from many WWTPs may be used as the biocatalyst in either FM-BOD assay, as it is in the BOD5 assay. The industry potential of these findings is substantial given the widespread use of the BOD5 assay, the dramatically decreased incubation period (3-6h) and the superior analytical range of both assays compared to the standard BOD5 assay.

  20. Fate and effect of naphthenic acids on oil refinery activated sludge wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiti, Teresa; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of alkyl-substituted acyclic, monocyclic and polycyclic carboxylic acids present in oil sands process waters, crude oil, refinery wastewater and petroleum products. Crude oil, desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent refinery samples were received from six United States refineries. The total acid number (TAN) of the six crudes tested ranged from 0.12 to 1.5 mg KOH/g crude oil and correlated to the total NA concentration in the crudes. The total NA concentration in the desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent samples ranged from 4.2 to 40.4, 4.5 to 16.6, 9.6 to 140.3 and 2.8 to 11.6 mg NA/L, respectively. The NAs in all wastewater streams accounted for less than 16% of the total COD, indicating that many other organic compounds are present and that NAs are a minor component in refinery wastewaters. Susceptibility tests showed that none of the activated sludge heterotrophic microcosms was completely inhibited by NAs up to 400 mg/L. Growth inhibition ranging from 10 to 59% was observed in all microcosms at and above 100 mg NA/L. NAs chronically-sorbed to activated sludge mixed liquor biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were recalcitrant and persistent. More than 80% of the total NAs remained in the solid phase at the end of the 10-day desorption period (five successive desorption steps). Throughout a 90-day incubation period, the total NA concentration decreased by 33 and 51% in PAC-free and PAC-containing mixed liquor microcosms, respectively. The lower molecular weight fraction of NAs was preferentially degraded in both mixed liquors. The persistence of the residual, higher molecular weight NAs is likely a combination of molecular recalcitrance and decreased bioavailability when chronically-sorbed to the biomass and/or PAC. PMID:23141768

  1. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2012-10-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed.

  2. Phylogeny of the filamentous bacterium 'Nostocoida limicola' III from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J R; McKenzie, C A; Seviour, E M; Webb, R I; Blackall, L L; Saint, C P; Seviour, R J

    2001-01-01

    Five strains of the filamentous bacterium 'Nostocoida limicola' III were successfully isolated into pure culture from samples of activated sludge biomass from five plants in Australia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that all isolates were members of the Planctomycetales, most closely related to Isosphaera pallida, but they differed phenotypically from this species in that they did not glide and were not thermotolerant. The ultrastructure of these 'N. limicola' III isolates was also consistent with them being Planctomycetales, in that they possessed complex intracellular membrane systems compartmentalizing the cells. However, the arrangements of these intracellular membranes differed between isolates. These data confirm that 'N. limicola' III is phylogenetically unrelated to both 'N. limicola' I and 'N. limicola' II, activated sludge filamentous bacteria which share morphological features in common with 'N. limicola' III and which have been presumed historically to be the same or very similar bacteria. PMID:11211260

  3. An activated sludge model for xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (ASM-X)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Lehnberg, K.; Dott, W.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of the process model developed by Plósz et al. (2010a) to predict the fate of antibiotics xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (XOMs) in activated sludge systems. Instead of spiking the batch reactors with reference substances, observations were made using...... the XOMs content of pre-clarified municipal sewage. Evaluation of the model structure is carried out in dynamic simulations using data obtained in samples taken in a measuring campaign in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Our results suggest that the sorption...... deteriorate; thereby hindering the effluent quality of secondary treatment step, and thereby increasing the XOM mass load on the tertiary treatment step. Besides the impact of different redox conditions, divalent iron-salt dosing used for enhanced phosphorus removal and pH have been identified as potential...

  4. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  5. Efficiency of conventional activated sludge in the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from municipal sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Khamutian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS is an anionic detergent that is abundantly produced in different countries and discharged into natural environment through wastewater collection systems. Wastewater treatment systems play an important role in the removal of this contaminant. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a conventional activated sludge system in removing linear alkylbenzene sulfonate from wastewater in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on the wastewater in Kermanshah for 10 months. In order to determine the efficiency of the influent activated sludge process, 60 wastewater samples were taken after primary sedimentation and effluent of wastewater treatment system and LAS concentration was measured. All the sampling and testing methods were performed according to the standard method guidelines. Results: The results showed the means of LAS removal in the winter and warm seasons were 90.8% and 96.5%, respectively. The total mean of LAS removal in this system was 93.9 ±3.6. In addition, COD and TSS removal levels in winter were 88.3% and 72.3%; these values, however, in the summer were 86.9%, and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the conventional activated sludge process plays a pivotal role in the removal of LAS concentration. Moreover, the effluent concentration of LAS is less than the environmental standards for discharge into surface water in warm seasons.

  6. Activated sewage sludge, a potential animal foodstuff. Part I. Nutritional characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacon, A.G.J.

    1979-08-01

    The nutritive value of activated sewage sludge is discussed in terms of its amino acid N, non-amino acid N, carbohydrate, fat, mineral, vitamin and microbial content. Processed activated sewage sludge is described as a stable dark brown material of relatively uniform quality, having a nutritive value broadly equivalent to brewers yeast or a protein-rich cereal. The potential hazards associated with the use of activated sewage sludge as a feed ingredient are discussed. 29 references

  7. Activating lignite and sludge by electro-hydraulic impulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deshu; LIAO Zhenfang; DENG Xiaogang; ZHAO Jianxin; KANG Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A uewce to activate lignite and SlUdge by electro-hydraulic impulse is presented. It comprises an impulse current generator constituted by a high voltage transformer, a high voltage silicon rectifier, a current-limiting resistor, a capacitor bank and an air-break switch, and a lignite and sludge appliance made up of two plane electrodes and a working chamber. The installation activates the lignite or sludge delivered to the working chamber by the impulse current that is from the generator to puncture the main gap in the working chamber, raise the temperature therein up to (20 000 to 40 000) K and the energy density to as high as 109 J.rn-3, and form a plasma piston. The alternative development and attenuation of plasma expansion makes the lignite in a number of physical and chemical processes resulting in diverse active radicals and ions, and also breaks it into grains mostly smaller than 250 μm. It is founded by experimental study that the technology can raise the content of nitro nitrogen by 1.4 to 1.5 times and that of dissoluble organic substances by 5 to 10 times which is probably attributed to the decomposition of the ample germs in the lignite. The calculated power requirement to activate lignite is about (50 to 60) kW.h.t-1. In comparison with muck applied to cucumber cultivation, the activated lignite demonstrates its features as an effective and economical green fertilizer by the same yield with half amount. These findings imply a promising access to green fertilizer.

  8. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  9. Functions and behaviors of activated sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS): a promising environmental interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu; ZHENG Lei; SUN De-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the predominant constituents of activated sludge and represent up to 80% of the mass of activated sludge. They play a crucial role in the flocculation, settling and dewatering of activated sludge. Furthermore,EPS also show great efficiency in binding heavy metals. So EPS are key factors influencing reduction in sludge volume and mass, as well as activity and utilization of sludge. EPS are of considerable environmental interest and hundreds of articles on EPS have been published abroad, while information on EPS in China is limited. In this paper, results of over 60 publications related to constituents and characteristics of EPS and their influences on flocculation, settling and dewatering of sludge are compiled and analyzed.Metal-binding ability of EPS is also discussed, together with a brief consideration of possible research interests in the future.

  10. Rapid detection of Nocardia amarae in the activated sludge process using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, K; Miyata, N; Morisada, S; Suzuki, N

    2000-01-01

    Nocardia amarae, a mycolic acid-containing bacterium, has often been reported to cause foaming of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the number of N. amarae cells in the activated sludge process was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-N. amarae polyclonal antibody. Use of the antibody enabled N. amarae to be detected at levels of 10(4) to 10(7) colony forming units. On the other hand, the antibody reacted with only a small portion of activated sludge, in which no N. amarae cells were detected by the plate count method. Competitive ELISA was employed to estimate the N. amarae cells in samples taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, including raw wastewater and activated sludge foam. The cell numbers estimated by competitive ELISA corresponded well with those obtained by plate counts. Hence, the antibody produced in this study was shown to be effective for the rapid monitoring of N. amarae in the activated sludge process. PMID:16232779

  11. Activity, life time and effect of hydrolytic enzymes for enhanced biogas production from sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnell, Anna; Recktenwald, Michael; Stensén, Katarina; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Karlsson, Martin

    2016-10-15

    As an alternative to energy intensive physical methods, enzymatic treatment of sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants for increased hydrolysis and biogas production was investigated. Several hydrolytic enzymes were assessed with a focus on how enzyme activity and life time was influenced by sludge environments. It could be concluded that the activity life time of added enzymes was limited (implementation, enzymes better suited to the sludge environments are needed. PMID:27498254

  12. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  14. Physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida. [Concentration of heavy metals during sludge catabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Hartenstein, F.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements were made of some physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida following conversion of the sludge into wormcasts. Mineralization was accelerated 1.3-fold and 2% of the minerals were assimilated. The rate at which heavy metals were concentrated during sludge catabolism was also accelerated. Castings stabilized within 2 weeks, as indexed by respirometry. Nucleic acids, which can be used as an index of microbial biomass, were present at a greater concentration in the wormcasts than in the sludge, while the phenolic content, which may potentially serve as an index of humification, was less concentrated. Other changes included a reduction in pH and an increase in oxidation-reduction potential and cation exchange capacity. The major general effect of E. foetida on the physicochemical properties of activated sludge is to convert a material which has a relatively small surface/volume ratio into numerous particles with an overall large S/V ratio, thus accelerating decomposition, mineralization, drying, and preclusion of malodor.

  15. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCODconsumed. It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production.

  16. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 ± 2% of the total COD and 98 ± 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 ± 11 mg COD/L and 43 ± 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 ± 3 and 6 ± 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 ± 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 ± 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m-3 day-1. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 ± 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank

  17. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  18. THE EFFECT OF THE SLUDGE RECYCLE RATIO IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMOL'S INDUSTRIAL PARK WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    BAHAR HOSSEINI; GHASEM NAJAFPOUR DARZI; MAEDEH SADEGHPOUR; MOSTAFA ASADI

    2008-01-01

    An activated sludge aeration tank and a sedimentation basin were used to treat Amol’s industrial park effluents originating from all industrial units. A continuous system was implemented and the kinetic parameters were measured.The parameters such as rate constant, substrate utilization rate constant, yield and decay coefficient were 2.12 d-1, 232.4 mg l-1, 0.33 g/g of substrate and 0.096 d−1, respectively. The hydraulic retention times (HRT) were in the range of 9 to 27 h. The sludge recycle...

  19. "The Effects of Temperature and PH on Settlability of Activated Sludge Flocs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Ghanizadeh

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The effluent quality of a sewage treatment plant using activated sludge process and finally secondary treatment depends on the flocculation efficiency and settling of the flocs. The survey of various treatment processes in water and wastewater treatment shows that temperature and pH are the important factors affecting efficiency of flocculation and settling properties. This study was performed to determine the effects of pH and temperature on settling of the flocs in activated sludge process. It was carried out for three months in two phases, using mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS, obtained from aeration tank from one of wastewater treatment plants in Tehran. In the primary phase, the temperature of samples was increased from 15°C to 35°C. As a result, the sludge volume index (SVI and effluent suspended solids increased and consequently, COD removal percent decreased. In the second phase, the pH was increased from 5.7 to 9. As a result, SVI and effluent suspended solids decreased and COD removal percent increased.

  20. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change.

  1. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change. PMID:27035483

  2. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Can ultrasonically disintegrated activated sludge be exploited as an internal carbon source for denitrification?

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Nico; Smets, Ilse; Impe, Jan Van; Dewil, Raf

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of a solubilized sludge carbon source from waste activated sludge by using ultrasonic treatment or a combination of ultrasonic treatment and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. First the release of sCOD and the associated immediate sludge reduction as a result of the ultrasonic disintegration was experimentally studied. Respirometric data were used to quantify the amount of rapidly biodegradable COD (SS) that was formed during the disintegration process. In the second phase of ...

  4. Improving Settling Dynamics of Activated Sludge by Adding Fine Talc Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben; Clauss, F.

    1996-01-01

    . The settling velocity was measured with a recirculated settling column under different concentrations and turbulence levels. Numerical simulation of a secondary settling tank indicates that adding fine powder will improve the overall performance considerably.......The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate...

  5. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Furgal, Karolina;

    2011-01-01

    triclosan- methyl was investigated in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The removal was found to occur mainly under aerobic conditions while under anoxic (nitrate reducing) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were...

  6. Comparison of the Modeling Approach between Membrane Bioreactor and Conventional Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Tao; Sin, Gürkan; Spanjers, Henri;

    2009-01-01

    Activated sludge models (ASM) have been developed and largely applied in conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems. The applicability of ASM to model membrane bioreactors (MBR) and the differences in modeling approaches have not been studied in detail. A laboratory-scale MBR was modeled using ASM...

  7. Reaction invariant-based reduction of the activated sludge model ASM1 for batch applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santa Cruz, Judith A.; Mussati, Sergio F.; Scenna, Nicolás J.;

    2016-01-01

    to batch activated sludge processes described by the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) for carbon and nitrogen removal. The objective of the model reduction is to describe the exact dynamics of the states predicted by the original model with a lower number of ODEs. This leads to a reduction...

  8. Identification of Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules and a Biosynthetic Gene in Alicycliphilus sp. Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Okutsu, Noriya; Xie, Xiaonan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge is a complicated mixture of various microorganisms that is used to treat sewage and industrial wastewater. Many bacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as a quorum-sensing signal molecule to regulate the expression of the exoenzymes used for wastewater treatment. Here, we isolated an AHL-producing bacteria from an activated sludge sample collected from an electronic component factory, which we named Alicycliphilus sp. B1. Clone library analysis revealed that Alicycliphilus was a subdominant genus in this sample. When we screened the activated sludge sample for AHL-producing strains, 12 of 14 the AHL-producing isolates were assigned to the genus Alicycliphilus. A putative AHL-synthase gene, ALISP_0667, was cloned from the genome of B1 and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. The AHLs were extracted from the culture supernatants of the B1 strain and E. coli DH5α cells harboring the ALISP_0667 gene and were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as N-(3-hydroxydecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. The results of comparative genomic analysis suggested that the quorum-sensing genes in the B1 strain might have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer within activated sludge. PMID:27490553

  9. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  10. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  11. Optimization of polyhydroxylalkanoates production from excess activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHAS) produced by microbial fermentation are biodegradable and can be used as environmentally-friendly substitutes for conventional plastics to resolve the environmental problems associated with plastics wastes. However, widespread applications of PHA are hampered by high production cost. In this study, activated sludge bacteria from a conventional wastewater treatment process were induced, by controlling the carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the reactor liquor, to accumulate PHA as a low-cost source of biodegradable plastic. Specific polymer yield increased to a maximum of O.27 g polymer/g dry cell mass when the C:N ratio was increased from 24 to 144, whereas specific growth yield decreased with increasing C:N ratio. An optimum C:N ratio of 96 provided the highest overall polymer production yield of 0.09 g polymer/g carbonaceous substrate consumed. Moreover, an intermittent nitrogen feeding program was established to further optimize the polymer volumetric productivity. The overall polymer production yield of O.11 g polymer/g carbonaceous substrate consumed was achieved under C:N ratio of 96 by feeding nitrogen in the reactor liquor once every 4 cycles. While reducing the production costs of biodegradable plastics, this technique also reduced the amount of excess sludge generated from the wastewater treatment process as the polymer portion of biomass was extracted for use. (Author)

  12. Kinetics of continuous biodegradation of pesticide organic wastewater by activated carbon-activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Organic triazophos wastewater was continuously treated with Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus and activated carbon and activated sludge system(PACT-AS) in a plug bioreactor. A kinetic model of PACT-AS wastewater treatment system was established to provide an useful basis for further simulate scale-up treatment of toxic organic wastewater.

  13. Radiochemical analysis of 210Pb e 226Ra in samples of sludges and scales in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploration and production of oil can generate different types of waste, such as scales, which are formed in the internal surface of pipes and equipment, sludges that is deposited in water/oil separators, storage tanks and valves and water that is removed along with the oil, which bring to the surface some of the radionuclides present in the rock matrix. From a radiological point of view, the most important radionuclides, which appear in sludges and scales are 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Th, since the exposure to these radionuclides can represent a significant dose on workers. The analysis already performed using gamma spectrometry in samples of sludge and scales indicated the presence of high concentrations of radio isotopes, showing the need to enlarge the radiometric survey including other elements of the 238U series. This work focuses on radiochemical determination of 210Pb and 226Ra concentrations in samples of sludge and scales

  14. Improving Settling Characteristics of Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge by Stripping of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundral, Somshekhar; Mudragada, Ratnaji; Coro, Ernesto; Moncholi, Manny; Mora, Nelson; Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    Increased microbial activity at high ambient temperatures can be problematic for secondary clarifiers and gravity concentrators due to carbon dioxide (CO2) production. Production of CO2 in gravity concentrators leads to septic conditions and poor solids separation. The CO2 production can also be corrosive for the concrete surfaces. Effectiveness of CO2 stripping to improve solids settling was investigated using the sludge volume index (SVI) as the indicator parameter. Carbon dioxide was stripped by aeration from the sludge samples. Results from the study show that aeration also increased the pH values in the mixed liquor while removing CO2 and improving sludge settling. After 10 minutes of aeration at a rate of 0.37 m3 air/m3 water/min, 90% CO2 stripping was achieved. Based on the 30 min settling tests, the SVI increased by 26±1% after CO2 stripping while the pH increased by 0.8±0.1 pH units. PMID:26459818

  15. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them.

  16. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  17. Fenton peroxidation improves the drying performance of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Neyens, Elisabeth

    2005-01-31

    Advanced sludge treatment processes (AST) reduce the amount of sludge produced and improve the dewaterability, thus probably also affecting the heat transfer properties and the drying characteristics of the sludge. This paper studies the influence of the Fenton peroxidation on the thermal conductivity of the sludge. Results demonstrate that the Fenton's peroxidation positively influences the sludge cake consistency and hence enhances the mechanical dewaterability and the drying characteristics of the dewatered sludge. For the two sludges used in this study, i.e. obtained from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of Tienen and Sint-Niklaas--the dry solids content of the mechanically dewatered sludge increased from 22.5% to 40.3% and from 18.7% to 35.2%, respectively. The effective thermal conductivity k(e) of the untreated and the peroxidized sludges is measured and used to determine the heat transfer coefficient h(s). An average improvement for k(e) of 16.7% (Tienen) and 5.8% (Sint-Niklaas) was observed. Consequently the value of h(s) increased with 15.6% (Tienen) and 5.0% (Sint-Niklaas). This increased heat transfer coefficient in combination with the increased dewaterability has direct implications on the design of sludge dryers. A plate-to-plate calculation of a multiple hearth dryer illustrates that the number of plates required to dry the peroxidized sludge to 90% DS is less than half the number of plates needed to dry untreated sludge. This results in reduced dryer dimensions or a higher capacity for an existing dryer of given dimensions. PMID:15629575

  18. Sludge reduction potential of the activated sludge process by integrating an oligochaete reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oligochaete reactor linked to an integrated oxidation ditch with vertical cycle (IODVC) was used to investigate the sludge reduction potential induced by worms. The presence of Tubificidae was observed in the worm reactor throughout the operational period after its inoculation, and Tubificidae was occasionally found in the IODVC. Free-swimming worms, Aeolosoma hemprichi, Nais elinguis, and Aulophorus furcatus, were found in both the IODVC and the worm reactor, but A. hemprichi was dominant. A. hemprichi reached its maximum, 322 and 339 Aeolosoma/mL mixed liquor on day 49 in the worm reactor and the IODVC, respectively. The presence of oligochaetes or the integration of worm reactor with the IODVC had little effect on sludge yield, but the worm growth was helpful for improving sludge settling characteristics. The average sludge yield and sludge volume index (SVI) in the IODVC were 0.33 kgSS/kgCODremoved and 78 mL/g, respectively. The worm presence had little impact on effluent quality of the IODVC, but it caused phosphorus release into the effluent. The average COD, NH4+-N, and SS concentrations in the effluent of the IODVC were 49.06, 12.82, and 58.25 mg/L, respectively. No total nitrogen (TN) release into the effluent of the IODVC occurred

  19. Ecological and kinetic aspects of amylolysis and proteolysis in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.M.A.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the enzymic degradation of biopolymers by activated sludge. Starch was chosen as the model substrate; it was administered continuously at different sludge loading values which covered the entire range of loadings applied in sewage purification plants. The acclimatiz

  20. New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Xinrun; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Faming

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adsorption on the biological treatment process of wastewater. In the absence of substrate in the water, activated sludge developed well in the first hour, indicating that the growth of microorganism was not directly related to substrate concentration and the dissolved organic matter in the water assays were performed, no organic matter was detected out, revealing that there was no desorption in the activated sludge adsorption process. Activated sludge batch growth experiments in the presence of different adsorption capacities indicated that specific growth rate increased as specific adsorption capacity increased. The experiment on the relationship of adsorption capacity and substrate concentration or sludge concentration was also carried out. Specific adsorption capacity increased as sludge load increased, presenting linear correlation. The experiment results showed that adsorption should be taken into account in the study of the biological treatment process of wastewater.

  1. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  2. ACTIVATED SLUDGE DESIGN ON MS.EXCEL 8.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal SARICAOĞLU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the planing of the Activated Sludge Method used on Environmental Engineering, was done by MS Excel 8.0, which very commonly used for spread sheet design. The program contained five sections. They are; the "DATA" section to enter the available data for calculations, the "RESULTS" section to show the outcomes of calculations, the "DETERMINATION of DIMENSIONS" section to determine the dimensions of the reactor, the "CALCULATION of AIR DIFFUSER" section to calculate the dimensions and capacity of air diffuser and the "EVALUATION" section to evaluate the results of calculations according to the criteria. The aim of this study was, to demonstrate that every engineer ca do easily needed programs related to her or his field using Excel's functions although can not know about any program language.

  3. Selenite bioremediation potential of indigenous microorganisms from industrial activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbisu, C; Alkorta, I; Carlson, D E; Leighton, T; Buchanan, B B

    1997-12-01

    Ten bacterial strains were isolated from the activated sludge waste treatment system (BIOX) at the Exxon refinery in Benicia, California. Half of these isolates could be grown in minimal medium. When tested for selenite detoxification capability, these five isolates (members of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Aeromonas), were capable of detoxifying selenite with kinetics similar to those of a well characterized Bacillus subtilis strain (168 Trp+) studied previously. The selenite detoxification phenotype of the Exxon isolates was stable to repeated transfer on culture media which did not contain selenium. Microorganisms isolated from the Exxon BIOX reactor were capable of detoxifying selenite. Treatability studies using the whole BIOX microbial community were also carried out to evaluate substrates for their ability to support growth and selenite bioremediation. Under the appropriate conditions, indigenous microbial communities are capable of remediating selenite in situ.

  4. Characterization of Wastewater for Modelling of Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The fractionation of organic matter in the various parts which are used for mathematical modelling is discussed. The fractions include inert soluble, readily biodegradable, rapidly hydrolyzable, slowly hydrolyzable, biomass and inert suspended material. Methods for measuring are also discussed. F...... in a specific wastewater seem to be constant even when concentrations vary. Wastewater input to sewers and the sewer transport system significantly influences the raw wastewater composition at treatment plants........ Fractionation of biomass in wastewater and in activated sludge is difficult at present, as methods are only partly developed. Nitrogen fractions in wastewater are mainly inorganic. The organic nitrogen fractions are coupled to the organic COD fractions. The fractions of COD, biomass and nitrogen found...

  5. [Microbial composition of the activated sludges of the Moscow wastewater treatment plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallistova, A Iu; Pimenov, N V; Kozlov, M N; Nikolaev, Iu A; Dorofeev, A G; Aseeva, V G; Grachev, V A; Men'ko, E V; Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Nozhevnikova, A N; Kevbrina, M V

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the major technologically important microbial groups (ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing, phosphate-accumulating, foam-inducing, and anammox bacteria, as well as planctomycetes and methanogenic archaea) was characterized for the aeration tanks of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities. FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludges were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly. Stage II nitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes were significant constituents of the bacterial component of activated sludge, with Nitrobacter spp. being the dominant nitrifier. No metabolically active anammox bacteria were revealed in the sludge from aeration tanks. The sludge from the aeration tanks using different wastewater treatment technologies were found to differ in characteristics. Abundance of the nitrifying and phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the sludges generally correlated with microbial activity, in microcosms and with efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. The highest microbial numbers and activity were found in the sludges of the tanks operating according to the technologies developed in the universities of Hanover and Cape Town. The activated sludge from the Novokur yanovo facilities, where abundant growth of filamentous bacteria resulted in foam formation, exhibited the lowest activity The group of foaming bacteria included Gordonia spp. and Acinetobacter spp., utilizing petroleum and motor oils, Sphaerotilus spp. utilizing unsaturated fatty acids, and Candidatus 'Microthrix parvicella'. Thus, the data on abundance and composition of metabolically active microorganisms obtained by FISH may be used for the technological control of wastewater treatment. PMID:25844473

  6. THE EFFECT OF THE SLUDGE RECYCLE RATIO IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMOL'S INDUSTRIAL PARK WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHAR HOSSEINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge aeration tank and a sedimentation basin were used to treat Amol’s industrial park effluents originating from all industrial units. A continuous system was implemented and the kinetic parameters were measured.The parameters such as rate constant, substrate utilization rate constant, yield and decay coefficient were 2.12 d-1, 232.4 mg l-1, 0.33 g/g of substrate and 0.096 d−1, respectively. The hydraulic retention times (HRT were in the range of 9 to 27 h. The sludge recycle ratios in the range from 0.3 to 1 were considered. The COD removal, SVI and DO were determined and the optimal values were obtained. It was observed that at HRT of 16 h and the sludge recycle ratio of 0.85, the COD removal and SVI were 95 and 85 %, respectively. The sludge recycle ratio greater than 0.85 had no significant effect on the COD removal.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, R; Bridoux, G; Nauleau, F; Poullain, C; Buffet, J; Peu, P; Sadowski, A G; Béline, F

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sludge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determine the maximum ratio to be used in a CSTR configuration. Additionally, when the ratio of greasy sludge increased from 0% to 60% of the feed COD, CSTR methane production increased by more than 60%. When the greasy sludge ratio increased from 60% to 90% of the feed COD, the reactor yield decreased by 75%.

  8. "Study of the Biological Treatment of Industrial Waste Water by the Activated Sludge Unit"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Sharifi-Yazdi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process simply involves bringing together wastewater and a mixed culture of microorganisms under aerobic conditions. The system usually includes a secondary treatment given to the settled sewage, and requires an environment in which active microorganisms are maintained in intimate contact with wastewater in the presence of sufficient oxygen. In this study, the treatment of industrial effluents, by using laboratory activated sludge unit was investigated. The reduction of the pollution laws was determined, using the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and the chemical oxygen demand (COD methods. The results indicated that the pollution laws was reduced by up to 98% in the activated sludge unit.

  9. Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta;

    2016-01-01

    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. Filaments with the Eikelboom 0092 morphotype are commonly associated with such bulking ...

  10. Removal of Organic Micropollutants by Aerobic Activated Sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Nan

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the removal mechanism of non-acclimated and acclimated aerobic activated sludge for 29 target organic micropollutants (OMPs) at low concentration. The selection of the target OMPs represents a wide range of physical-chemical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge state as well as a diverse range of classes, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. The removal mechanisms of OMPs include adsorption, biodegradation, hydrolysis, and vaporization. Adsorption and biodegradation were found to be the main routes for OMPs removal for all target OMPs. Target OMPs responded to the two dominant removal routes in different ways: (1) complete adsorption, (2) strong biodegradation and weak adsorption, (3) medium biodegradation and adsorption, and (4) weak sorption and weak biodegradatio. Kinetic study showed that adsorption of atenolol, mathylparaben and propylparaben well followed first-order model (R2: 0.939 to 0.999) with the rate constants ranging from 0.519-7.092 h-1. For biodegradation kinetics, it was found that benzafibrate, bisphenol A, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine and DEET followed zero-order model (K0:1.15E-4 to 0.0142 μg/Lh-1, R2: 0.991 to 0.999), while TCEP, naproxen, dipehydramine, oxybenzone and sulfamethoxazole followed first-order model (K1:1.96E-4 to 0.101 h-1, R2: 0.912 to 0.996). 4 Inhibition by sodium azide (NaN3)and high temperature sterilization was compared, and it was found that high temperature sterilization will damage cells and change the sludge charge state. For the OMPs adaptation removal study, it was found that some of OMPs effluent concentration decreased, which may be due to the slow adaptation of the sludge or the increase of certain bacteria culture; some increased due to chromic toxicity of the chemicals; most of the OMPs had stable effluent concentration trend, it was explained that some of the OMPs were too difficutl to remove while other showed strong quick adaptation

  11. [Comparative Metagenomics of BIOLAK and A2O Activated Sludge Based on Next-generation Sequencing Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin

    2016-02-15

    This is the first report of comparative metagenomic analyses of BIOLAK sludge and anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) sludge. In the BIOLAK and A2O sludge metagenomes, 47 and 51 phyla were identified respectively, more than the numbers of phyla identified in Australia EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal), USA EBPR and Bibby sludge. All phyla found in the BIOLAK sludge were detected in the A2O sludge, but four phyla were exclusively found in the A20 sludge. The proportion of the phylum Ignavibacteriae in the A2O sludge was 2.0440%, which was 3.2 times as much as that in the BIOLAK sludge (0.6376%). Meanwhile, the proportion of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes in the BIOLAK sludge was 2.4673%, which was >17 times as much as that in the A2O sludge (0.1404%). The proportion of the bacterial phylum Chlamydiae in the BIOLAK metagenome (0.2192%) was >6 times higher than that in the A2O (0.0360%). Furthermore, 167 genera found in the A20 sludge were not detected in the BIOLAK sludge. And 50 genera found in the BIOLAK sludge were not detected in the A20 sludge. From the analyses of both the phylum and genus levels, there were huge differences between the two biological communities of A2O and BIOLAK sludge. However, the proportions of each group of functional genes associated with metabolism of nitrogen, phosphor, sulfur and aromatic compounds in BIOLAK were very similar to those in A2O sludge. Moreover, the rankings of all six KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes) categories were identical in the two sludges. In addition, the analyses of functional classification and pathway related nitrogen metabolism showed that the abundant enzymes had identical ranking in the BIOLAK and A2O metagenomes. Therefore, comparative metagenomics of BIOLAK and A2O activated sludge indicated similar function assignments from the two different biological communities.

  12. Effects of ozonation on disinfection and microbial activity in waste activated sludge for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lim, Byung-Ran

    2003-07-01

    Effects of ozonation on microbial biomass activity and community structure in waste activated sludges from various treatment plants were investigated. The densities of viable cells and microbial community structure in the sludges treated with ozone at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS were measured on the basis of the respiratory quinone profile and LIVE/DEAD Backlight(TM). The results from the bacterial concentration and quinone profiles of the waste activated sludge showed that respiratory activities of microorganisms were detected at the ozone dose of 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS. However, fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and Salmonella sp. in the ozonized sludge were not detected. This result implies that some microorganisms might be more tolerant to ozonation than the pathogenic indicators. The pathogens reduction requirements for Class A biosolids were still met by the ozonation at 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS.

  13. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  14. Experimental investigation of the external nitrification biological nutrient removal activated sludge (ENBNRAS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Rong; Sötemann, S; Moodley, R; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A

    2003-08-01

    A systematic lab-scale experimental investigation is reported for the external nitrification (EN) biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (ENBNRAS) system, which is a combined fixed and suspended medium system. The ENBNRAS system was proposed to intensify the treatment capacity of BNR-activated sludge (BNRAS) systems by addressing two difficulties often encountered in practice: (a) the long sludge age for nitrification requirement; and (b) sludge bulking. In the ENBNRAS system, nitrification is transferred from the aerobic reactor in the suspended medium activated sludge system to a fixed medium nitrification system. Thus, the sludge age of the suspended medium activated sludge system can be reduced from 20 to 25 days to 8 to 10 days, resulting in a decrease in reactor volume per ML wastewater treated of about 30%. Furthermore, the aerobic mass fraction can also be reduced from 50% to 60% to 55% (if the anaerobic mass fraction is 15%), and thus complete denitrification in the anoxic reactors becomes possible. Research indicates that both the short sludge age and complete denitrification could ameliorate anoxic aerobic (AA) or low food/microorganism (F/M) ratio filamentous bulking, and hence reduce the surface area of secondary settling tanks or increase the treatment capacity of existing systems. The lab-scale experimental investigations indicate that the ENBNRAS system can obtain: (i) very good chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, even with an aerobic mass fraction as low as 20%; (ii) high nitrogen removal, even for a wastewater with a high total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)/COD ratio, up to 0.14; (iii) adequate settling sludge (diluted sludge volume index [DSVI] <100 mL/g); and (iv) a significant reduction in oxygen demand.

  15. Hydrolysis of particulate substrate by activated sludge under aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Mladenovski, C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of hydrolysis of particulate organic substrate by activated sludge has been made. Raw municipal wastewater was used as substrate. It was mixed with activated sludge from a high loaded activated sludge plant with pure oxygen aeration. During 4 days batch experiments under aerobic......, anoxic and anaerobic conditions, the hydrolysis was following through the production of ammonia. The hydrolysis rate of nitrogeneous compounds is significantly affected by the electron donor available. The rate is high under aerobic conditions, medium under anaerobic conditions and low under anoxic...... conditions. The ratio between the hydrolysis rates under aerobic and under anoxic conditions are very similar to the respiration rates measured as electron equivalents....

  16. Removal performance and mechanism of ibuprofen from water by catalytic ozonation using sludge-corncob activated carbon as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Liqiu; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xue; Li, Lu; Feng, Li

    2014-09-01

    To discover the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon in catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen, the performance of sludge-corncob activated carbon and three selected commercial activated carbons as catalysts in catalytic ozonation was investigated. The observation indicates the degradation rate of Ibuprofen increases significantly in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon is much higher than that of the other three commercial activated carbons. Ibuprofen's removal rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics model well. It is also found that the adsorption removal of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon is less than 30% after 40 min. And the removal efficiency of Ibuprofen in the hybrid ozone/sludge-corncob activated carbon system is higher than the sum of sludge-corncob activated carbon adsorption and ozonation alone, which is a supportive evidence for catalytic reaction. In addition, the results of radical scavenger experiments demonstrate that catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon follows a hydroxyl radical reaction pathway. During ozonation of Ibuprofen in the presence of activated carbon, ozone could be catalytically decomposed to form hydrogen peroxide, which can promote the formation of hydroxyl radical. The maximum amount of hydrogen peroxide occurs in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon, which can explain why sludge-corncob activated carbon has the best catalytic activity among four different activated carbons.

  17. [Detection of anaerobic processes and microorganisms in immobilized activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant with intense aeration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litti, Iu V; Nekrasova, V K; Kulikov, N I; Siman'kova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2013-01-01

    Attached activated sludge from the Krasnaya Polyana (Sochi) wastewater treatment plant was studied after the reconstruction by increased aeration and water recycle, as well as by the installation of a bristle carrier for activated sludge immobilization. The activated sludge biofilms developing under conditions of intense aeration were shown to contain both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Activity of a strictly anaerobic methanogenic community was revealed, which degraded organic compounds to methane, further oxidized by aerobic methanotrophs. Volatile fatty acids, the intermediates of anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds, were used by both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) and the presence of obligate anammox bacteria were revealed in attached activated sludge biofilms. Simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organic contaminants by attached activated sludge provides for high rates of water treatment, stability of the activated sludge under variable environmental conditions, and decreased excess sludge formation. PMID:25509405

  18. Ammonium Ion Adsorption and Settleability Improvement Achieved in a Synthetic Zeolite-Amended Activated Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emilia Otal; Luís F. Vilches; Yolanda Luna; Rodrigo Poblete; Juan M. García-Maya; Constantino Fernández-Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants typically exhibit two classic problems:high ammonium concen-tration in water after conventional biological treatment and, in some cases, poor activated sludge sediment ability. Potential solutions to these problems were investigated by adding a synthetic zeolite obtained from coal fly ash to different steps of activated sludge treatment. The experimental results for ammonium removal fit well with the theo-retical adsorption isotherms of the Freundlich model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 13.72 mg·g−1. Utiliza-tion of this kind of zeolite to improve activated sludge sediment ability is studied for the first time in this work. It is found that the addition of the zeolite (1 g·L−1) to an activated sludge with settling problems significantly enhances its sediment ability and compact ability. This is confirmed by the sludge volume index (SVI), which was reduced from 163 ml·g−1 to 70 ml·g−1, the V60 value, which was reduced from 894 ml·L−1 to 427 ml·L−1, and the zeta poten-tial (ζ), which was reduced from−19.81 mV to−14.29 mV. The results indicate that the addition of this synthetic zeolite to activated sludge, as an additional waste management practice, has a positive impact on both ammonium removal and sludge settleability.

  19. Determination of endocrine disrupting compounds using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography: II. Fast screening of free steroids and related low-molecular-mass compounds fraction in the environmental samples derived from surface waters, treated and untreated sewage waters as well as activated sludge material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Włodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2009-10-30

    In the present work solid-phase extraction protocol based on C18 tubes and organic water washing solvents as well as isocratic HPLC procedure focused on quantification of free steroids and related low-molecular-mass endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), characterized by different polarity varied from estetrol to progesterone, were studied. Described separation method involves temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography with mobile phase modified with beta-cyclodextrin. Using such analytical approach the environmental samples derived from Baltic Sea, selected lakes and rivers of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland as well as untreated and treated sewage water from municipal sewage treatment plant near Koszalin were analyzed. Moreover, some preliminary data concerning estriol, testosterone and equilin biodegradation involving activated sludge material were reported. Cluster and principal components analysis of the acquired data sets confirms a high separation and quantification throughput of the solid-phase extraction and isocratic HPLC protocols presented. The method can be useful for simple and rapid classification of the environmental samples characterized by different sources of EDCs loading. The results of this work extend the utility of temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography as an inexpensive, efficient and accurate analytical tool appropriate for characterisation and quantification of complex environmental samples. PMID:19356767

  20. Environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Lin-Ping; Hou, Jing; Chen, Jun-Yu; Han, Jing; Xiang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    Novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) copolymers produced by haloarchaea are excellent candidate biomaterials. However, there is no report hitherto focusing on the biodegradation of PHBHV synthesized by haloarchaea. In this study, an environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced PHBHV films, with 10~60 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) composition and different microchemical structures, was studied in nutrition-depleted activated sludge. The changes in mass, molar mass, chemical composition, thermal properties, and surface morphology were monitored. The mass and molar mass of each film decreased significantly, while the PHA monomer composition remained unchanged with time. Interestingly, the sample of random copolymer PHBHV-2 (R-PHBHV-2) (3HV, 30 mol%) had the lowest crystallinity and was degraded faster than R-PHBHV-3 containing the highest 3HV content or the higher-order copolymer PHBHV-1 (O-PHBHV-1) possessing the highest surface roughness. The order of biodegradation rate was in the opposite trend to the degree of crystallizability of the films. Meanwhile, thermal degradation temperature of most films decreased after biodegradation. Additionally, the surface erosion of films was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The dominant bacteria probably responsible for the degradation process were identified in the activated sludge. It was inferred that the degradation rate of haloarchaea-produced PHBHV films mainly depended on sample crystallinity, which was determined by monomer composition and microchemical structure and in turn strongly influenced surface morphology. PMID:27098259

  1. Metaproteomics of activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püttker, Sebastian; Kohrs, Fabian; Benndorf, Dirk; Heyer, Robert; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the impact of protein fractionation techniques prior to LC/MS analysis was investigated on activated sludge samples derived at winter and summer condition from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For reduction of the sample complexity, different fractionation techniques including RP-LC (1D-approach), SDS-PAGE and RP-LC (2D-approach) as well as RP-LC, SDS-PAGE and liquid IEF (3D-approach) were carried out before subsequent ion trap MS analysis. The derived spectra were identified by MASCOT search using a combination of the public UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot protein database and metagenome data from a WWTP. The results showed a significant increase of identified spectra, enabled by applying IEF and SDS-PAGE to the proteomic workflow. Based on meta-proteins, a core metaproteome and a corresponding taxonomic profile of the wastewater activated sludge were described. Functional aspects were analyzed using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway library by plotting KEGG Orthology identifiers (KO numbers) of protein hits into pathway maps of the central carbon (map01200) and nitrogen metabolism (map00910). Using the 3D-approach, most proteins involved in glycolysis and citrate cycle and nearly all proteins of the nitrogen removal were identified, qualifying this approach as most promising for future studies. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001547 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001547).

  2. Influence of copper nanoparticles on the physical-chemical properties of activated sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available The physical-chemical properties of activated sludge, such as flocculating ability, hydrophobicity, surface charge, settleability, dewaterability and bacteria extracellular polymer substances (EPS, play vital roles in the normal operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. The nanoparticles released from commercial products will enter WWTPs and can induce potential adverse effects on activated sludge. This paper focused on the effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs on these specific physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It was found that most of these properties were unaffected by the exposure to lower CuNPs concentration (5 ppm, but different observation were made at higher CuNPs concentrations (30 and 50 ppm. At the higher CuNPs concentrations, the sludge surface charge increased and the hydrophobicity decreased, which were attributed to more Cu2+ ions released from the CuNPs. The carbohydrate content of EPS was enhanced to defense the toxicity of CuNPs. The flocculating ability was found to be deteriorated due to the increased cell surface charge, the decreased hydrophobicity, and the damaged cell membrane. The worsened flocculating ability made the sludge flocs more dispersed, which further increased the toxicity of the CuNPs by increasing the availability of the CuNPs to the bacteria present in the sludge. Further investigation indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased at higher CuNPs concentrations, which was consistent with the deteriorated physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It seems that the physical-chemical properties can be used as an indicator for determining CuNPs toxicity to the bacteria in activated sludge. This work is important because bacteria toxicity effects to the activated sludge caused by nanoparticles may lead to the deteriorated treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment, and it is therefore necessary to find an easy way to indicate this toxicity.

  3. STABILIZATION OF ACTIVE SLUDGE AFTER WASTEWATER TREATMENT CONTAMINATED BY PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Semenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biochemical purification of wastewater containing refined petroleum products takes place due to the oxidation of pollutants by active sludge organisms. As a result of this process the intense consumption of pollutants by active sludge and its growth occurs. Therefore, the possibility to use active sludge containing refined petroleum products after wastewater treatment requires its stabilization. Methods: In this work the oxidation by a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution was studied for its use as a stabilizer. Chemical oxidizers, including hydrogen peroxide destroy organic polymers retaining free water thus promoting water release from the structure of sludge particles. On the other hand remains of fine structured oxidized biopolymers can lead to filter clogging, that is, reduce moisture exchange of sludge. Results: The experiment was carried out to find out the correlation between the doses of hydrogen peroxide and the resistivity value of sludge filtration. Discussion: Stabilized active sludge can be used as a fuel for boiler rooms, which in its turn will reduce natural gas consumption for the enterprise needs.

  4. ANALYSIS OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 (MACROBATCH 5) FOR CANISTER S02902 AND SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6) FOR CANISTER S03317 DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-10-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), Macrobatch 5 (MB5) on May 29, 2007. Sludge Batch 4 was a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and SB4 material qualified in Tank 51. On November 28, 2008, DWPF began processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40 which is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from SB4, SB5 material qualified in Tank 51 and H-Canyon Pu and Np transfers. SB4 was processed using Frit 510 and SB5 used Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. During the processing of SB4 and SB5, glass samples were obtained during the pouring of canisters S02902 and S03317, respectively. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed (durability, chemical and radionuclide composition). The following observations and conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of the oxides for the chemical composition of both the SB4 and SB5 pour stream glasses is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) acceptance limits (95 {le} sum of oxides {le} 105). (2) The calculated Sludge Dilution Factor (SDF) for SB4 is 2.52. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB4 Waste Acceptance Production Specification (WAPS) sample (References 1 and 19). (3) The calculated SDF for SB5 is 2.60. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB5 WAPS sample (References 2 and 20). (4) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis shows there are noble metal inclusions, primarily ruthenium, present in both pour stream samples. (5) The Product

  5. Performance of calcium peroxide for removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waste activated sludge and promotion of sludge solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai; Wang, Jie; Li, Yongmei

    2015-03-15

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation. Effects of initial pH and CaO2 dosage were investigated. The impacts of CaO2 treatment on sludge solubilization and anaerobic digestion were also evaluated. Specifically, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EDC degradation during CaO2 oxidation was tested. Effects of 6 metal ions contained in the sludge matrix on EDC degradation were also evaluated. The results showed that CaO2 treatment can be a promising technology for EDC removal and facilitating sludge reuse. The EDC removal efficiencies increased with the increase in CaO2 dosage. At CaO2 doses of more than 0.34 g per gram of total solid (g g(-1) TS), more than 50% of EDCs were removed in a wide pH range of 2-12. Higher removal efficiencies were achieved at initial pH values of 12 and 2. The products of EDCs during CaO2 oxidation had less estrogenic activity than the originals. Under the conditions of neutral pH and CaO2 dosage = 0.34 g g(-1) TS, the sludge solubilization can be improved by increasing the soluble total organic carbon (STOC) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction by 25% and 27% in 7 d, respectively; the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was enhanced by 96% in the 15 d following anaerobic digestion. The ROS released by CaO2 are the main factors contributing to EDC removal, among which, hydroxyl radicals (OH) play the most important role. Metal ions contained in the sludge matrix also affected EDC removal. For most cases, Fe, Cu, and Zn had positive effects; Mn and Ag had negative effects; and Mg had an insignificant effect on EDC removal. PMID:25613412

  6. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  7. Sludge reduction by predatory activity of aquatic oligochaetes in wastewater treatment plants: Science or fiction? A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak, C.H.; Verkuijlen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biological aerobic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce a lot of excess sludge. The costs for handling this residual product are increasing, so the search for alternative techniques to reduce the amount of sludge has to be continued. Activated sludge consists of inorganic and organic substanc

  8. Inhibition of total oxygen uptake by silica nanoparticles in activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibag, Mark [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Gyu [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Changwon [Energy Lab, Environment Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Jae Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering and Program in Environmental Technology and Policy, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Maeng, Sung Kyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jinwoo, E-mail: jinwoocho@sejong.edu [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles (SNP) inhibit total oxygen uptake in activated sludge. • Relatively smaller SNP are inhibitorier than larger SNP. • SNP alters C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in activated sludge fatty acid methyl ester profile. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity to biological activities in activated sludge is largely unknown. Among the widely used nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SNP) have a limited number of studies associated with inhibition to the activated sludge process (ASP). We demonstrated SNP inhibition of activated sludge respiration through oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement. Based on the percentage inhibition of total oxygen consumption (I{sub T}), we observed that smaller SNPs (12 nm, I{sub T} = 33 ± 3%; 151 nm, I{sub T} = 23 ± 2%) were stronger inhibitors than larger SNPs (442 and 683 nm, I{sub T} = 5 ± 1%). Transmission electron micrographs showed that some of the SNPs were adsorbed on and/or apparently embedded somewhere in the microbial cell membrane. Whether SNPs are directly associated with the inhibition of total oxygen uptake warrants further studies. However, it is clear that SNPs statistically significantly altered the composition of microbial membrane lipids, which was more clearly described by principal component analysis and weighted Euclidian distance (PCA-ED) of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. This study suggests that SNPs potentially affect the biological activity in activated sludge through the inhibition of total oxygen uptake.

  9. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process

    OpenAIRE

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (...

  10. Inhibitory effect of ammonia nitrogen on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of batch experiments were conducted in 125 mL serum bottles to assess the toxicity of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen to the specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge bed(UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactors. The effects of pH value and temperature on toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to anaerobes were investigated. The results show that the specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge suffers inhibition from ammonia nitrogen, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen that produce 50% inhibition of specific methanogenic activity for sludge from UASB and EGSB reactor are 2.35 and 2.75 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen utilizing methanogens suffers less inhibition from ammonia nitrogen than that of acetate utilizing methanogens. Hydrogen-producing acetogens that utilize propionate and butyrate as substrates suffer serious inhibition from ammonia nitrogen. The toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to anaerobic granular sludge enhances when pH value and temperature increase. Anaerobic granular sludge can bear higher concentrations of ammonia nitrogen after being acclimated by ammonia nitrogen for 7 d.

  11. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  12. Effects of activated sludge flocs and pellets seeds on aerobic granule properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huacheng Xu; Pinjing He; Guanzhao Wang; Liming Shao

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules seeded with activated sludge fiocs and pellets (obtained from activated sludge flocs) were cultivated in two sequencing batch reactors and their characteristics were compared.Compared with granules seeded with activated sludge flocs, those seeded with pellets had shorter start-up time, larger diameter, better chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency, and higher hydrophobicity, suspended solid concentration, and Mg2+ content.The different inocula led the granule surface with different microbial morphologies, but did not result in different distribution patterns of extracellular polymeric substances and cells.The anaerobic bacterium Anoxybacillus sp.was detected in the granules seeded with pellets.These results highlighted the advantage of pellet over activated sludge floc as the seed for aerobic granulation and wastewater treatment.

  13. Management experience on microthrix parvicella bulking in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment processes may give inefficiencies due to biological imbalances involving biomass. In fact, external causes as temperature lowering can increase the proliferation of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella into activated sludge flocks. Microthrix parvicella increases may create dangerous bulking phenomena compromising secondary settling without varying bio-kinetic parameters. In this case of study, a method to defeat growth of Microthrix parvicella has been set up. Aluminium poly-chloride (PAC) has been added to activated sludge contained into oxidation tanks of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, where a large growth of Microthrix parvicella has been periodically observed. It has been demonstrated that a definite PAC concentration can reduce Microthrix parvicella proliferation into activated sludge flocks so bulking phenomena can be well reduced

  14. Comparison of bacterial communities of conventional and A-stage activated sludge systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Lotti, T.; Garcia-Ruiz, M.J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of 10 different wastewater treatment systems and their influents has been investigated through pyrosequencing, yielding a total of 283486 reads. These bioreactors had different technological configurations: conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and very highly

  15. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, Part I: Semi-empirical model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-05-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a model for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems. The model can operate with up to 12 cells (reactors) in series, with biofilm media incorporated to one or more cells, except the anaerobic cells. The process configuration can be any combination of anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic, post-anoxic with or without supplemental carbon, and reaeration; it can also include any combination of step feed and recycles, including recycles for mixed liquor, return activated sludge, nitrates, and membrane bioreactors. This paper presents the structure of the model. The model embeds a biofilm model into a multicell activated sludge model. The biofilm flux rates for organics, nutrients, and biomass can be computed by two methods--a semi-empirical model of the biofilm that is relatively simpler, or a diffusional model that is computationally intensive. The values of the kinetic parameters for the model were measured using pilot-scale activated sludge, IFAS, and MBBR systems. For the semiempirical version, a series of Monod equations were developed for chemical oxygen demand, ammonium-nitrogen, and oxidized-nitrogen fluxes to the biofilm. Within the equations, a second Monod expression is used to simulate the effect of changes in biofilm thickness and fraction nitrifiers in the biofilm. The biofilm flux model is then linked to the activated sludge model. The diffusional model and the verification of the models are presented in subsequent papers (Sen and Randall, 2008a, 2008b). The model can be used to quantify the amount of media and surface area required to achieve nitrification, identify the best locations for the media, and optimize the dissolved oxygen levels and nitrate recycle rates. Some of the advanced features include the ability to apply different media types and fill fractions in cells; quantify nitrification, denitrification, and biomass production in the biofilm and

  16. Adsorption of Phenols and Chlorophenols in Wastewaters on Activated Carbon and Dried Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    YENER, Jülide

    1999-01-01

    One of the methods used for removal of phenols and chlorophenols from the wastewaters of petroleum refineries, coke, medicine, dye, plastics, pesticide, insecticide, and paper industry is the adsorption process. In this study, adsorption of phenol, o-chlorophenol and p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on to granular activated carbon and dried activated sludge was investigated as a function of pH, initial pollutant concentration and functional groups. Effects of these parameters on...

  17. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Y Hashempur; R Rezaei Kalantary; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Jorfi, S.

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC)."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was intro...

  18. N-Tox® - Early warning of nitrification toxicity for activated sludge treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Callister, S.; Stephenson, Tom; Butler, M. D.; Cartmell, Elise

    2006-01-01

    N-Tox® is a new technique for evaluating the nitrification efficiency in industrial or municipal activated sludge systems, using direct measurement of nitrous oxide (N20) as an indicator of nitrification failure. Research using pilot-scale activated sludge plants treating real settled wastewater has demonstrated that detection of increased N2O concentration in the aeration tanks by N-Tox® is able to provide early warning of nitrification failure. The N-Tox® monitor relies on...

  19. The Utilization of Activated Sludge Polyhydroxyalkanoates for the Production of Biodegradable Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Punrattanasin, Warangkana

    2001-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems were used for the development of a system and operating procedures for the high production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by wastewater treatment (activated sludge) bacterial cultures. It was found that unbalanced growth conditions stimulated massive PHA production in activated sludge biomass. Operating conditions had a significant effect on PHA production and the composition of the accumulated copolymer when either laboratory prepared mixtures of org...

  20. Effective Utilization of Waste Activated Sludge For Bioremediation and Bioenergy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nazlina Haiza Mohd Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is widely used in treating wastewater. However, this system creates a lot of waste activated sludge (WAS). The abundance of WAS creates serious problem to municipalities and industries in term of treatment cost and waste management. Hence, the purpose of my Ph. D. study is to seek an appropriate means for WAS management. Here, four approaches for utilizing WAS effectively are investigated; 1) WAS reduction at low temperature by using low temperature tolerant bacteria, ...

  1. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC.

  2. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC. PMID:26877044

  3. [Study on dewatering of activated sludge under applied electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Li; Feng, Jing

    2012-12-01

    For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge (AS), the effect of pH and conductivity of AS, flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field (voltage magnitude, method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated, and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained. The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value (6.93) and conductivity (1.46 mS x cm(-1)). CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process, whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate. The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes, while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes. The delay of applying the electric field had an inhibition effect on the AS electro-dewatering rate. Moreover, the optimum conditions for AS electro-dewatering were followed: CPAM dose of 9 g x kg(-1), electric field strength of 600 V x m(-1), distance between the two plates of 40 mm, dehydration time of 60 minutes. Under above optimum conditions the AS electro-dewatering rate could approach to 85.33% and the moisture content in AS decreased from 99.30% to 95.15% accordingly.

  4. Elucidating further phylogenetic diversity among the Defluviicoccus-related glycogen-accumulating organisms in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Simon; Seviour, Robert J

    2009-12-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) are thought to out-compete the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in activated sludge communities removing phosphate (P). Two GAO groups are currently recognized, the gammaproteobacterial Candidatus'Competibacter phosphatis', and the alphaproteobacterial Defluviicoccus vanus-related tetrad forming organisms (TFOs). Both are phylogenetically diverse based on their 16S rRNA sequences, with the latter currently considered to contain members falling into three distinct clusters. This paper identifies members of an additional fourth Defluviicoccus cluster from 16S rRNA gene clone library data obtained from a laboratory-scale activated sludge plant community removing P, and details FISH probes designed against them. Probe DF181A was designed to target a single sequence and DF181B designed against the remaining sequences in the cluster. Cells hybridizing with these probes in the biomass samples tested always appeared as either TFOs or in large clusters of small cocci. Members of the Defluviicoccus-related organisms were commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatments plants, sometimes as a dominant population. PMID:23765935

  5. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. PMID:26896823

  6. Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant trapper

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Valérie; Perrin, Loïc; Bourgois, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    For the valorisation of metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent of pollutant, it is necessary to make sure that the adsorption matrix (sludge) has characteristics allowing a reproducibility of the valorisation operation. Taking into account the heterogeneity of this solid waste in terms of nature and metal chemical composition, it is necessary to establish if this heterogeneity will have important consequences on the adsorption yield of these sludge. Thus, the study, is relative to the influence ...

  7. Iron and phosphorus speciation in Fe-conditioned membrane bioreactor activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Wang, Yuan; Waite, T David

    2015-06-01

    Iron dosing of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is widely used as a means of meeting effluent phosphorus targets but there is limited understanding of the nature of iron and phosphorus-containing solids that are formed within the bioreactor (an important issue in view of the increasing interest in recovering phosphorus from wastewaters). Of particular challenge is the complexity of the MBR system and the variety of reactions that can occur on addition of iron salts to a membrane bioreactor. In this study, the performances of bench scale MBRs with dosing of either ferrous or ferric salts were monitored for a period of four months. The distributions of Fe and P-species in the Fe-conditioned sludges were determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Fe K-edge and the P K-edge. Regardless of whether iron was dosed to the anoxic or aerobic chambers and regardless of whether ferrous (Fe(II)) or ferric (Fe(III)) iron was dosed, iron present in the minerals in the conditioned sludges was consistently in the +III oxidation state. Fitting of the Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra revealed that an Fe(III)-phosphate species was the main Fe species present in all cases with the remaining fraction dominated by lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) in the Fe(II)-dosed case and ferrihydrite (am-FeOOH) in the Fe(III)-dosed case. Approximately half the phosphorus in the activated sludge samples was present as a distinct Fe-PO4 mineral (such as strengite or an amorphous ferric hydroxyl phosphate analogue of strengite) and half as phosphorus adsorbed to an iron oxyhydroxide mineral phase indicating that both co-precipitation and adsorption of phosphorus by iron contribute to removal of phosphorus from the MBR supernatant.

  8. Preparation of carbonaceous adsorbents from sewage sludge by chemical activation process - application to air and water treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, S.; Le Coq, L.; Faur-Brasquet, C.; Le Cloirec, P. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (UMR CNRS 6144 GEPEA), 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-07-01

    . Firstly, activation mass yield decreases from 45 % to 36 % with increasing temperature and time, when the increase of impregnation ratio has a positive effect on this experimental design response. Surface pH and pH{sub pzc} measurements show that sorbents are acid. And, amount of acidic surface groups are more important that basic groups. The increase of temperature and time leads to a decrease of surface groups, whereas the increase of impregnation ratio allows acidic surface groups to be increased. Then, experimental design factors influence porosity development within the samples. The increase of impregnation ratio leads to specific surface area and pore volumes to be developed. And, at temperature above 700 C, A pore widening or destruction phenomenon would occur, leading to a decrease of specific surface area and micro-pore volume. Carbonaceous sorbents developed from sludge allow copper ion, phenol and dyes to be removed from aqueous solution as well as VOC from gas phase. According to experimental conditions, copper adsorption capacity varies from 77 to 83 mg g{sup -1}, phenol adsorption capacity varies between 41-53 mg g{sup -1} and VOC adsorption capacities (acetone and toluene) range from 12 to 54 mg g{sup -1}. The organic pollutant adsorption may be related with porous properties, whereas copper adsorption is dependent on the surface chemistry of the adsorbents. Finally, surface response methodology enable to define the following optimal conditions, 700 C during 145-160 min with impregnation ratio of 1.5 g g{sup -1}, that are more appropriate for use of sludge-based sorbent in water and gas treatments. (authors)

  9. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hashempur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was introduced to a bench scale batch decant activated sludge reactor with hydraulic retention times of 6 and 12 hour. PAC was added to aeration tank directly at the rate of 3.5 g/L."nResults:TCOD, SCOD, NH3 and P removal efficiency with addition of PAC in HRT of 6 h were 90,87, 98.3 and 94 % respectively and 96, 95, 99.2 and 98.7 5 in HRT of 12 h."nConcusion:According to obtained data from this work, it can be concluded that Strurvite precipitation before batch decant activated sludge process and simultaneous addition of PAC is promising technology for leachate treatment and can meet effluent standards for discharge to the receiving waters.

  10. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity. PMID:27344252

  11. Key factors governing alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianli Shi; Li Deng; Fangfang Sun; Jieyu Liang; Xu Deng

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline pretreatment is an effective technology to disintegrate sewage sludge, where alkali dosage and sludge concentration are two important factors. pH value or alkali concentration is usually adjusted in order to deter-mine a proper dosage of alkali. Our work has found that this is not a good strategy. A new parameter, the ratio of alkali to sludge (Ra/s), is more sensitive in controlling the alkali dosage. The sludge concentration Cs and reten-tion time t are two other important factors to consider. The validity of these arguments is confirmed with model-ing and experiments. The individual effect of Ra/s, Cs and t was studied separately. Then the combined effect of these three factors was evaluated. The sludge disintegration degree of 44.7%was achieved with the optimized factors. Furthermore, an alkaline-microwave combined pretreatment process was carried out under these optimized conditions. A high disintegration degree of 62.3%was achieved while the energy consumption of microwave was much lower than previously reported.

  12. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) accepance evaluation: Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a compositioniv expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  13. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) acceptance evaluation. Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  14. Optimum operation conditions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal by a biofilm-activated-sludge system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the biofilm and activated sludge combined system, denitrifying bacteria attached on the fibrous carriers in the anoxic tank, while the sludge containing nitrifying and phosphorus removal bacteria was only recirculated between the aerobic and anaerobic tanks. Therefore, the factors affected and restricted nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal in a traditional A/A/O process were resolved. This paper describes the optimum operation conditions for nitrogen and phosphorus removal using this system.

  15. TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER USING A CONTINUOUS FLOW ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM AT PILOT-SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. ABOULHASSAN; S. SOUABI; H. EL OUARGHI; M. A. BAHLAOUI

    2014-01-01

    Textile industry wastewaters contain high concentrations of organic matter, toxic substances and dyes and pigments, and are harmful to receiving environment. Activated sludge system at pilot scale with continuous feeding, was used for the treatment of a dyeing unit effluent. The results showed that treatment allows a removal rate of 40-56 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 13 to 30 % of color. The adsorption on sludge appears to be the main process responsible for the color removal of was...

  16. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling.

  17. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling. PMID:24284260

  18. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, part II: multilayer biofilm diffusional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-07-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a diffusional model of the biofilm that can be applied in lieu of a semi-empirical model to upgrade an activated sludge system to an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) or moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system. The model has been developed to operate with up to 12 cells (reactors) in series, with biofilm media incorporated to one or more of the zone cells, except the anaerobic zone cells. The values of the kinetic parameters for the model were measured using pilot-scale activated sludge, IFAS, and MBBR systems. The biofilm is divided into 12 layers and has a stagnant liquid layer. Diffusion and substrate utilization are calculated for each layer. The equations are solved simultaneously using a finite difference technique. The biofilm flux model is then linked to the activated sludge model. Advanced features include the ability to compute the biofilm thickness and the effect of biofilm thickness on performance. The biofilm diffusional model is also used to provide information and create a table of biofilm yields at different substrate concentrations that can be used in the semi-empirical model. PMID:18710146

  19. Identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors (Blrs) with anaerobic granular sludge and residual activated sludge for brewery wastewater treatment and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu; Huang, Zhenxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-10-01

    Two identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors treating brewery wastewater were inoculated with different types of sludge to compare their operational conditions, sludge characteristics, and kinetic models at a mesophilic temperature. One reactor (R1) started up with anaerobic granular sludge in 12 weeks and obtained a continuously average organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.4 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 80%, and effluent COD of 450 mg/L. The other reactor (R2) started up with residual activated sludge in 30 weeks and granulation accomplished when the reactor reached an average OLR of 8.3 kg COD/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 90%, and effluent COD of 240 mg/L. Differences in sludge characteristics, biogas compositions, and biogas-lift processes may be accounted for the superior efficiency of the treatment performance of R2 over R1. Grau second-order and modified StoverKincannon models based on influent and effluent concentrations as well as hydraulic retention time were successfully used to develop kinetic parameters of the experimental data with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.95), which further showed that R2 had higher treatment performance than R1. These results demonstrated that residual activated sludge could be used effectively instead of anaerobic granular sludge despite the need for a longer time. PMID:24494489

  20. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g-1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  1. Application of a novel functional gene microarray to probe the functional ecology of ammonia oxidation in nitrifying activated sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Short

    Full Text Available We report on the first study trialling a newly-developed, functional gene microarray (FGA for characterising bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers in activated sludge. Mixed liquor (ML and media biofilm samples from a full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS plant were analysed with the FGA to profile the diversity and relative abundance of ammonia-oxidising archaea and bacteria (AOA and AOB respectively. FGA analyses of AOA and AOB communities revealed ubiquitous distribution of AOA across all samples - an important finding for these newly-discovered and poorly characterised organisms. Results also revealed striking differences in the functional ecology of attached versus suspended communities within the IFAS reactor. Quantitative assessment of AOB and AOA functional gene abundance revealed a dominance of AOB in the ML and approximately equal distribution of AOA and AOB in the media-attached biofilm. Subsequent correlations of functional gene abundance data with key water quality parameters suggested an important functional role for media-attached AOB in particular for IFAS reactor nitrification performance and indicate possible functional redundancy in some IFAS ammonia oxidiser communities. Results from this investigation demonstrate the capacity of the FGA to resolve subtle ecological shifts in key microbial communities in nitrifying activated sludge and indicate its value as a tool for better understanding the linkages between the ecology and performance of these engineered systems.

  2. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA. PMID:23323416

  3. Innovative strategies for the reduction of sludge production in activated sludge plant: BIOLYSIS O and BIOLYSIS E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleris, Stephane; Larose, A.; Geaugey, V.; Lebrunn, Thierry

    2003-07-01

    Management of the excess sludge production resulting from biological wastewater treatment is one of the most important economic and environmental issues for the next decade. New stringent regulations regarding sludge treatment and disposal imposed in several countries as well as social and environmental concerns, have resulted in an increasing interest in processes allowing the reduction of excess sludge production. Following a 5 years research program, Ondeo-Degremont has developed two processes, Biolysis O and Biolysis E, designed to reduce sludge production during biological wastewater treatment. Experiment performed with Biolysis technologies confirmed that high (up to 80%) reduction of excess sludge production can be reached while good treatment performances are maintained, in agreement with regulation standards. Economical data demonstrate the competitiveness of Biolysis processes. Such processes appear to be a valuable alternative to solve the problem of sludge treatment, to protect operators from the evolution of legislation of sludge treatment and from risks inherent to final sludge disposal.

  4. Design and simulation of an activated sludge unit associated to a continuous reactor to remove heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Avila, J.S.; Nascimento, R.R. [Ambientec Consultoria Ltda., Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A software was developed to design and simulate an activated sludge unit associated to a new technology to remove heavy metals from wastewater. In this process, a continuous high efficiency biphasic reactor operates by using particles of activated peat in conjugation with the sludge unit. The results obtained may be useful to increase the efficiency or to reduce the design and operational costs involved in a activated sludge unit. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: Batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design

    OpenAIRE

    Girault, R.; Bridoux, G.; Nauleau, F.; Poullain, C.; Buffet, J.; Peu, P.; Sadowski, A.G.; Béline, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sluvdge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determi...

  6. Enhancing denitrification using a carbon supplement generated from the wet oxidation of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, P J; McDonald, B; Gapes, D J

    2011-05-01

    This study compared the effect of four pure carbon supplements on biological denitrification to a liquor derived as a by-product from the wet oxidation (WO) of waste activated sludge. Sequencing batch reactors were used to acclimate sludge biomass, which was used in batch assays. Acetate, WO liquor and ethanol-supplementation generated the fastest denitrification rates. Acetate and WO liquor were efficiently utilised by all acclimated biomass types, while poor rates were achieved with methanol and formate. When comparing an inoculum from an ethanol-supplemented and non-supplemented wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the ethanol-acclimated sludge obtained superior denitrification rates when supplemented with ethanol. Similarly high nitrate removal rates were achieved with both sludge types with acetate and WO liquor supplementation, indicating that WO liquors could achieve excellent rates of nitrate removal. The performance of the WO liquor was attributed to the variety of organic carbon substrates (particularly acetic acid) present within the liquor. PMID:21196117

  7. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  8. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    2016-01-01

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction. PMID:27508364

  9. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Click, D.; Jones, M.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) confirms applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples.1 DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem (CC) Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). In addition to the CC method confirmation, the DWPF lab's mercury (Hg) digestion method was also evaluated for applicability to SB6 (see DWPF procedure 'Mercury System Operating Manual', Manual: SW4-15.204. Section 6.1, Revision 5, Effective date: 12-04-03). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples. For validation of the DWPF lab's Hg method, only SRAT receipt material was used and compared to AR digestion results. The SB6 SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB6 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), to form the SB6 Blend composition. In addition to the 16 elements currently measured by the DWPF, this report includes Hg and thorium (Th) data (Th comprising {approx}2.5 - 3 Wt% of the total solids in SRAT Receipt and SRAT Product, respectively) and provides specific details of ICP-AES analysis of Th. Thorium was found to interfere with the U 367.007 nm emission line, and an inter-element correction (IEC) had to be applied to U

  10. Chronic Response of Waste Activated Sludge Fermentation to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinguang Chen; Hui Mu; Xiong Zheng⁎

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large-scale production and wide applications, many nanoparticles (NPs) enter wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in activated sludge. It is reported that titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs show severe damage to many model microbes. However, it is stil unknown whether the long-term (e.g., 100 d) presence of TiO2 NPs would affect the performance of sludge fermentation. In this study, long-term exposure experiments (105 d) were conducted to investigate the potential risk of TiO2 NPs to sludge fermentation system. It is found that the presence of environmental y relevant [6 mg·(g TSS)−1] and higher [150 mg·(g TSS)−1] concentrations of TiO2 NPs does not affect methane production from sludge fermentation. The analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridiza-tion indicates that these concentrations of TiO2 NPs present marginal influences on abundances of bacteria and methanogenic archaea in sludge fermentation system. The viability of sludge microorganisms and activities of key enzymes related to methane production such as protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420 are unchanged by the long-term presence of 6 and 150 mg·(g TSS)−1 of TiO2 NPs. Further investigations reveal that the insolu-bility of NPs and the protection role of sludge extracellular polymeric substances are the main reasons for the marginal influence of TiO2 NPs on sludge fermentation.

  11. ACTIVE PEC APPLICATIONS, THE PEC WEBSITE, AND SLUDGE STABILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since it's creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing novel sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether these novel technolog...

  12. Real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geets, J.; Cooman, M. de; Wittebolle, L.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N. [Ghent Univ. (BE). Lab. of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Heylen, K.; Vanparys, B.; Vos, P. de [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Microbiology

    2007-05-15

    In order to improve wastewater treatment processes, a need exists for tools that rapidly give detailed insight into the community structure of activated sludge, supplementary to chemical and physical data. In this study, the advantages of microarrays and quantitative polymerase chin reaction (PCR) methods were combined into a real-time PCR assay that allows the simultaneous quantification of phylogenetic and functional genes involved in nitrification and denitrification processes. Simultaneous quantification was possible along a 5-log dynamic range and with high linear correlation (R{sup 2}>0.98). The specificity of the assay was confirmed by cloning and sequencing analyses of PCR amplicons obtained from activated sludge. The real-time assay was validated on mixed liquid samples of different treatment plants, which varied in nitrogen removal rate. The abundance of ammonia oxidizers was in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 6} down to 10{sup 4} ml{sup -1}, whereas nitrite oxidizers were less abundant (10{sup 3}-10{sup 1} order of magnitude). The results were in correspondence with the nitrite oxidation rate in the sludge types. As for the nirS, nirK, and nosZ gene copy numbers, their abundance was generally in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 5}. When sludge samples were subjected to lab-scale perturbations, a decrease in nitrification rate was reflected within 18 h in the copy numbers of nitrifier genes (decrease with 1 to 5 log units), whereas denitrification genes remained rather unaffected. These results demonstrate that the method is a fast and accurate tool for the analysis of the (de)nitrifying community structure and size in both natural and engineered environmental samples. (orig.)

  13. Study on factors of affecting sedimentation performance of activated sludge in A-step of AB process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUJian; TIANWenlong; LONGTengrui

    2003-01-01

    The factors including inflow SS, pythogenous sewage, loading rate Ns, dissolved oxygen which affect sedimentation performance of A-step activated sludge were studied in the paper. The experimental results indicated: the inflow SS distinctly improve sedimentation performance of activated sludge; the pythogenous sewage easily worsen sedimentation performance of activated sludge, and canceling primary sedimentation tank and cesspool would avail to stable running of sewage treatment plant. The effect of loading rate Ns on EPS is highly remarkable, and EPS and polysaccharide are correlated evidently with sedimentation performance of activated sludge. When high loading rate Ns is 3.0 kgBOD5/kgMLSS·d, EPS is 17.15mgEPS/gVSS and polysaccharide is 8.15mg/g VSS, which is less 40% than activated sludge of 0.3 kgBOD5/kgMLSS·d loading rate Ns; meanwhile the effect of dissolved oxygen on EPS is less, and dissolved oxygen does not affect sedimentation performance of activated sludge in high loading rate; the polysaccharide content of activated sludge in high loading rate does not benefit the growth of filament, and furthermore the hydrophobicity of activated sludge is good, which cause good sedimentation performance of sludge in high loading rate.

  14. A comparative adsorption study: 17β-estradiol onto aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-ying; He, Yu-jie; Chen, Wei; Wang, Ming-yang; Cao, Su-lan; Ni, Ming; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption plays a significant role in removing hydrophobic 17β-estradiol (E2) from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted to compare the adsorption of E2 onto activated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and activated sludge (AS), and features evaluated included the adsorption kinetics, thermodynamics, and influence of other environmental factors. By using a non-chemical wet-heat technique, both AGS and AS were treated to inactivated status. Then, after loading E2, the adsorption equilibrium capacity of the AGS was found to be greater than that of the AS at the same initial concentration of E2. Moreover, both the adsorption processes corresponded to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model; the adsorption rate constant of AGS was found to be higher and the half-adsorption time was shorter than that of AS. Next, evaluations of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the adsorption process was mainly a physical process. Lower temperatures facilitated a higher equilibrium adsorption capacity. However, the adsorption binding sites of AGS were distributed more uniformly at higher temperature, in contrast to the distribution found for AS. Finally, acidic conditions and an appropriate ionic strength (0.4 mol/L) were found to be particularly conducive to the adsorption process. Overall, the results showed that AGS has the potential to adsorb E2 with significant efficiency, thereby offering a new and more efficient means of treating E2 and trace oestrogens in wastewater.

  15. Study of kinetics of degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid by acclimated activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Shi, Shuian; Chen, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge contains complex microorganisms, which are highly effective biodegrading agents. In this study, the kinetics of biodegradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) by an acclimated aerobic activated sludge were investigated. The results showed that after 180 days of acclimation, the activated sludge could steadily degrade >90% of the CHCA in 120 h. The degradation of CHCA by the acclimated activated sludge could be modeled using a first-order kinetics equation. The equations for the degradation kinetics for different initial CHCA concentrations were also obtained. The kinetics constant, kd, decreased with an increase in the CHCA concentration, indicating that, at high concentrations, CHCA had an inhibiting effect on the microorganisms in the activated sludge. The effects of pH on the degradation kinetics of CHCA were also investigated. The results showed that a pH of 10 afforded the highest degradation rate, indicating that basic conditions significantly promoted the degradation of CHCA. Moreover, it was found that the degradation efficiency for CHCA increased with an increase in temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen under the experimental conditions.

  16. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  17. Effect of polyhydroxyalkanoates on dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-04-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), an intracellular energy and carbon storage polymer, can be accumulated in activated sludge in substantial quantities under wastewater dynamic treatment (i.e., substrate feast-famine) conditions. However, its influence on hydrogen production has never been investigated before. This study therefore evaluated the influences of PHA level and composition in waste activated sludge (WAS) on hydrogen production. The results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA content from 25 to 178 mg per gram volatile suspended solids (VSS) hydrogen production from WAS alkaline anaerobic fermentation increased from 26.5 to 58.7 mL/g VSS. The composition of PHA was also found to affect hydrogen production. When the dominant composition shifted from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) to polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV), the amount of generated hydrogen decreased from 51.2 to 41.1 mL/g VSS even under the same PHA level (around 130 mg/g VSS). The mechanism studies exhibited that the increased PHA content accelerated both the cell solubilization and the hydrolysis process of solubilized substrates. Compared with the PHB-dominant sludge, the increased PHV fraction not only slowed the hydrolysis process but also caused more propionic acid production, with less theoretical hydrogen generation in this fermentation type. It was also found that the increased PHA content enhanced the soluble protein conversion of non-PHA biomass. Further investigations with enzyme analyses showed that both the key hydrolytic enzyme activities and hydrogen-forming enzyme activities were in the sequence of the PHB-dominant sludge > the PHV-dominant sludge > the low PHA sludge, which was in accord with the observed order of hydrogen yield. PMID:25697693

  18. The effect of the ammonium ion on activated-sludge settling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, John Thomas

    2001-01-01

    High levels of sodium in wastewater have been found to be detrimental to activated-sludge. settling and dewatering. Another potentially troublesome monovalent cation in activated-sludge systems is the ammonium ion. This study was conducted to determine if the ammonium ion could alter activated...... that the ammonium concentration would increase or by adding sodium. These studies showed that an increase in either sodium or ammonium would cause activated-sludge settling properties to deteriorate. When the monovalent-to-divalent cation ratio on a charge-equivalent basis was increased from 2.4 to 4.7 either...... by addition of sodium or ammonium, the interfacial settling velocity decreased, although the greatest drop was in the reactor containing ammonium. When addition of the nitrification inhibitor was stopped, rapid recovery of nitrification occurred but the settling properties improved more slowly. It seemed...

  19. Investigation of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4) Glass Sample Anomalous Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Bibler, N. E.; Peeler, D. K.

    2005-08-15

    Two Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass samples from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) (Macrobatch 4) were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on February 23, 2005. One sample, S02244, was designated for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and elemental and radionuclide analyses. The second sample, S02247, was designated for archival storage. The samples were pulled from the melter pour stream during the feeding of Melter Feed Tank (MFT) Batch 308 and therefore roughly correspond to feed from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Batches 306-308. During the course of preparing sample S02244 for PCT and other analyses two observations were made which were characterized as ''unusual'' or anomalous behavior relative to historical observations of glasses prepared for the PCT. These observations ultimately led to a series of scoping tests in order to determine more about the nature of the behavior and possible mechanisms. The first observation was the behavior of the ground glass fraction (-100 +200 mesh) for PCT analysis when contacted with deionized water during the washing phase of the PCT procedure. The behavior was analogous to that of an organic compound in the presence of water: clumping, floating on the water surface, and crawling up the beaker walls. In other words, the glass sample did not ''wet'' normally, displaying a hydrophobic behavior in water. This had never been seen before in 18 years SRNL PCT tests on either radioactive or non-radioactive glasses. Typical glass behavior is largely to settle to the bottom of the water filled beaker, though there may be suspended fines which result in some cloudiness to the wash water. The typical appearance is analogous to wetting sand. The second observation was the presence of faint black rings at the initial and final solution levels in the Teflon vessels used for the mixed acid digestion of S02244 glass conducted for compositional analysis. The digestion is composed

  20. GC/MS analysis of triclosan and its degradation by-products in wastewater and sludge samples from different treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Fatemeh; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its degradation products including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD), and methyl triclosan (MTCS) in wastewater and sludge samples. The method provides satisfactory detection limit, accuracy, precision and recovery especially for samples with complicated matrix such as sewage sludge. Liquid-liquid extraction and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods were applied for the extraction, and column chromatography was employed for the sample cleanup. Analysis was performed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was successfully applied to wastewater and sludge samples from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained as 91(±4)-106(±7)%, 82(±3)-87(±4)%, 86(±6)-87(±8)%, and 88(±4)-105(±3)% in wastewater and 88(±5)-96(±8)%, 84(±2)-87(±3)%, 84(±7)-89(±4)%, and 88(±3)-97(±5)% in sludge samples for TCS, 2,4-DCP, 2,8-DCDD, and MTCS, respectively. TCS degradation products were detected based on the type of the wastewater and sludge treatment. 2,8-DCDD was detected in the plant utilizing UV disinfection at the mean level of 20.3(±4.8) ng/L. 2,4-DCP was identified in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) applying chlorine disinfection at the mean level of 16.8(±4.5) ng/L). Besides, methyl triclosan (MTCS) was detected in the wastewater collected after biological treatment (10.7 ± 3.3 ng/L) as well as in sludge samples that have undergone aerobic digestion at the mean level of 129.3(±17.2) ng/g dry weight (dw).

  1. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  2. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  3. Characteristics of PAHs adsorption on inorganic particles and activated sludge in domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J J; Wang, X C; Fan, B

    2011-05-01

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was investigated in a 1 year period. In order to understand how PAHs were removed at different stages of the treatment process, adsorption experiments were conducted using quartz sand, kaolinite, and natural clay as inorganic adsorbents and activated sludge as organic adsorbent for adsorbing naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. As a result, the adsorption of PAHs by the inorganic adsorbents well followed the Langmuir isotherm while that by the activated sludge well followed the Freundlich isotherm. By bridging equilibrium partitioning coefficient with the parameters of adsorption isotherm, a set of mathematical models were developed. Under an assumption that in the primary settler PAHs removal was by adsorption onto inorganic particles and in the biological treatment unit it was by adsorption onto activated sludge, the model calculation results fairly reflected the practical condition in the WWTP.

  4. IASON - Intelligent Activated Sludge Operated by Nanotechnology - Hydrogel Microcarriers in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleit, E.; Melicz, Z.; Sándor, D.; Zrínyi, M.; Filipcsei, G.; László, K.; Dékány, I.; Király, Z.

    Performance of biological wastewater treatment depends to a large extent on mechanical strength, size distribution, permeability and other textural properties of the activated sludge flocs. A novel approach was developed in applying synthetic polymer materials to organize floc architecture instead of spontaneously formed activated sludge floc. Developed microcarrier polymer materials were used in our experiments to mitigate technological goals. Preliminary results suggest that the PVA-PAA (polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid copolymer) is a feasible choice for skeleton material replacing "traditional" activated sludge floc. Use of PVA-PAA hydrogel material as microreactors and methods for biofilm formation of wastewater bacteria on the carrier material are described. Laboratory scale experimental results with microscopic size bioreactors and their potential application for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification are presented.

  5. Activity, life time and effect of hydrolytic enzymes for enhanced biogas production from sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnell, Anna; Recktenwald, Michael; Stensén, Katarina; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Karlsson, Martin

    2016-10-15

    As an alternative to energy intensive physical methods, enzymatic treatment of sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants for increased hydrolysis and biogas production was investigated. Several hydrolytic enzymes were assessed with a focus on how enzyme activity and life time was influenced by sludge environments. It could be concluded that the activity life time of added enzymes was limited (enzymes, due to endogenous protease activity. In biogas in situ experiments, subtilisin at a 1% mixture on basis of volatile solids, was the only enzyme providing a significantly increased biomethane production of 37%. However, even at this high concentration, subtilisin could not hydrolyze all available substrate within the life time of the enzyme. Thus, for large scale implementation, enzymes better suited to the sludge environments are needed.

  6. Virus elimination in activated sludge systems: from batch tests to mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Emma; Ulbricht, Katharina; Nogueira, Regina; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    A virus tool based on Activated Sludge Model No. 3 for modeling virus elimination in activated sludge systems was developed and calibrated with the results from laboratory-scale batch tests and from measurements in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The somatic coliphages were used as an indicator for human pathogenic enteric viruses. The extended model was used to simulate the virus concentration in batch tests and in a municipal full-scale WWTP under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The experimental and modeling results suggest that both adsorption and inactivation processes, modeled as reversible first-order reactions, contribute to virus elimination in activated sludge systems. The model should be a useful tool to estimate the number of viruses entering water bodies from the discharge of treated effluents. PMID:25259502

  7. [Comparative Metagenomics of BIOLAK and A2O Activated Sludge Based on Next-generation Sequencing Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin

    2016-02-15

    This is the first report of comparative metagenomic analyses of BIOLAK sludge and anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) sludge. In the BIOLAK and A2O sludge metagenomes, 47 and 51 phyla were identified respectively, more than the numbers of phyla identified in Australia EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal), USA EBPR and Bibby sludge. All phyla found in the BIOLAK sludge were detected in the A2O sludge, but four phyla were exclusively found in the A20 sludge. The proportion of the phylum Ignavibacteriae in the A2O sludge was 2.0440%, which was 3.2 times as much as that in the BIOLAK sludge (0.6376%). Meanwhile, the proportion of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes in the BIOLAK sludge was 2.4673%, which was >17 times as much as that in the A2O sludge (0.1404%). The proportion of the bacterial phylum Chlamydiae in the BIOLAK metagenome (0.2192%) was >6 times higher than that in the A2O (0.0360%). Furthermore, 167 genera found in the A20 sludge were not detected in the BIOLAK sludge. And 50 genera found in the BIOLAK sludge were not detected in the A20 sludge. From the analyses of both the phylum and genus levels, there were huge differences between the two biological communities of A2O and BIOLAK sludge. However, the proportions of each group of functional genes associated with metabolism of nitrogen, phosphor, sulfur and aromatic compounds in BIOLAK were very similar to those in A2O sludge. Moreover, the rankings of all six KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes) categories were identical in the two sludges. In addition, the analyses of functional classification and pathway related nitrogen metabolism showed that the abundant enzymes had identical ranking in the BIOLAK and A2O metagenomes. Therefore, comparative metagenomics of BIOLAK and A2O activated sludge indicated similar function assignments from the two different biological communities. PMID:27363155

  8. Micropollutant removal by attached and suspended growth in a hybrid biofilm-activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falås, P; Longrée, P; la Cour Jansen, J; Siegrist, H; Hollender, J; Joss, A

    2013-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants in a hybrid biofilm-activated sludge process was investigated through batch experiments, modeling, and full-scale measurements. Batch experiments with carriers and activated sludge from the same full-scale reactor were performed to assess the micropollutant removal rates of the carrier biofilm under oxic conditions and the sludge under oxic and anoxic conditions. Clear differences in the micropollutant removal kinetics of the attached and suspended growth were demonstrated, often with considerably higher removal rates for the biofilm compared to the sludge. For several micropollutants, the removal rates were also affected by the redox conditions, i.e. oxic and anoxic. Removal rates obtained from the batch experiments were used to model the micropollutant removal in the full-scale process. The results from the model and plant measurements showed that the removal efficiency of the process can be predicted with acceptable accuracy (± 25%) for most of the modeled micropollutants. Furthermore, the model estimations indicate that the attached growth in hybrid biofilm-activated sludge processes can contribute significantly to the removal of individual compounds, such as diclofenac. PMID:23764599

  9. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production. PMID:26698921

  10. APPLICATION OF RESPIROMETRIC TESTS FOR ASSESSMENT OF METHANOGENIC BACTERIA ACTIVITY IN WASTEWATER SLUDGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cimochowicz-Rybicka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of a methane-rich gas (‘biogas’ is contemporary popular sludges processing technology which allows to generate thermal and/or electric energy. Formal requirements issued by the European Union to promote so called renewable energy resources made these process more attractive leading to its application in WWTPs which were designed based on different sludge handling processes. Authors (as active design engineers noted that dimensioning sludge digestion chamber is usually based on SRT assessment without any emphasis on sludge characteristics. Bio-mass characteristics and the estimation of its activity with respect to methane production are of great importance, from both scientific and practical points of view, as anaerobic digestion appears to be one of crucial processes in municipal wastewater handling and disposal. The authors propose respirometric tests to estimate a biomass potential to produce ‘a biogas’ and several years’ laboratory and full scale experience proved its usefulness and reliability both as a measurement and a design tool applicable in sludge handling. Dimensioning method proposed by authors, allows to construct and optimize operation of digestion chambers based on a methanogenic activity.

  11. Preparation of highly porous carbonaceous sorbents from sewage sludge by physical and chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, A.; Martin, M.J. [Girona Univ., Lab. d' Enginyerie Quimica i Ambiental, Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica, Agraria i Tecnologia Agroalimentaria, Facultat de Ciencies (Spain); Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A. [Alicante Univ., Dept. de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Fuente, E.; Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Among the different porous materials, activated carbon (AC) is the most widely used for environmental applications such as gas-phase pollutant removal, gas separation, solvent recovery and water purification, because of its high specific surfacea. Commercial activated carbons are generally produced from coals and lignocellulosic materials [1]. Additionally, in the latest years great attention is being focused on the reuse of wastes such as sewage sludges [2,3]. The objective of this study is to find more effective activating procedures to prepare AC from sewage sludge. Both dried sludges from two different WWTP (SL, SB) and their corresponding chars prepared by pyrolysis (SL-P, SB-P) were activated using physical activation (CO{sub 2}) and chemical activation (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, NaOH and KOH). As shown in Table 1, pyrolysis of the raw sludges slightly increased the specific surface area, up to 50 m{sup 2}/g. Acid-washing of the pyrolyzed samples with 5 M HCl removes part of the metal content leading to an increase in the specific surface areas for both SL-PD and SB-PD, with surface areas of 428 m{sup 2}/g and 188 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. This simple washing treatment is useful for the development of porous adsorbents, especially in the case of SL derived materials. Our results show that CO{sub 2} physical activation of the pyrolyzed and the HCl-washed samples develops no appreciable porosity in the final materials, under the experimental conditions used. For CO{sub 2} activation, maximum temperatures of 870 C and holding times up to 4 hours in CO{sub 2} (100 ml/min) were used. Chemical activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} of the pristine samples and those pyrolyzed was performed at 450 C, a temperature typically used for the activation by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} of lignocellulosic precursors, and using two different H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solutions (30 and 50% wt). These conditions were not either suitable for an efficient porosity development. A detailed study about the

  12. Kinetic analysis of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge is a promising process for the enhancement of nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal in conventional activated sludge systems that can be used for upgrading biological nutrient removal, particularly when they have space limitations or need modifications that will require large monetary expenses. In this research, successful implementation of hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge process at temperate zone wastewater treatment facilities has been studied by the placement of fixed film media into aerobic, anaerobic and anoxic zones. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal into hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge systems and study the interactions between the fixed biomass and the mixed liquor suspended solids with respect to substrate competition and nutrient removal efficiencies. A pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic configuration system was used. The system was operated at different mean cell residence times and influent chemical oxygen demand/total phosphorus ratios and with split influent flows. The experimental results confirmed that enhanced biological phosphorus removal could be incorporated successfully into hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge system, but the redistribution of biomass resulting from the integration of fixed film media and the competition of organic substrate between enhanced biological phosphorus removal and denitrification would affect performances. Also, kinetic analysis of the reactor with regarding to phosphorus removal has been studied with different kinetic models and consequently the modified Stover-Kincannon kinetic model has been chosen for modeling studies and experimental data analysis of the hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge reactor

  13. SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL GROWTH IN IMPROVED ACTIVATEDSLUDGE SYSTEM BY PAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Djaafarzadeh

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC into the aeration zone of an activated-sludge (AS system for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, was investigated during more than 12 months in a PACT pilot-scale model. Besides the evaluation of organics removal efficiency and determination of basic design factors kinetic coefficients, a series of experiments were conducted in order to study the variations in biological growth (especially bacteria and monocellular organisms related to PAC addition. After sampling from mixed liquor and microscopical studies, adequate samples were filtered, dewatered and fixed. The samples were then coated by 100 A films of (Au and were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results showed significant improvement of bacteria and monocellular organisms in the presence of PAC, which may be raised from providing more contact surface and better nutrient availability for microorganisms, decreasing the effects of toxic shock loads and providing better conditions for microorganisms against intensive mixing. Electronic photomicrographs by SEM confirmed good attachments of ciliate to PAC particles, along with appropriate efficiency of bacteria diffusion into its meso and microspores. Also, the comparison between the count number of protozoa in two pilots of PACT and AS, showed better conditions for growth of microorganisms, using PAC.

  14. Fractionation of biogas plant sludge material improves metaproteomic characterization to investigate metabolic activity of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Fabian; Wolter, Sophie; Benndorf, Dirk; Heyer, Robert; Hoffmann, Marcus; Rapp, Erdmann; Bremges, Andreas; Sczyrba, Alexander; Schlüter, Andreas; Reichl, Udo

    2015-10-01

    With the development of high resolving mass spectrometers, metaproteomics evolved as a powerful tool to elucidate metabolic activity of microbial communities derived from full-scale biogas plants. Due to the vast complexity of these microbiomes, application of suitable fractionation methods are indispensable, but often turn out to be time and cost intense, depending on the method used for protein separation. In this study, centrifugal fractionation has been applied for fractionation of two biogas sludge samples to analyze proteins extracted from (i) crude fibers, (ii) suspended microorganisms, and (iii) secreted proteins in the supernatant using a gel-based approach followed by LC-MS/MS identification. This fast and easy method turned out to be beneficial to both the quality of SDS-PAGE and the identification of peptides and proteins compared to untreated samples. Additionally, a high functional metabolic pathway coverage was achieved by combining protein hits found exclusively in distinct fractions. Sample preparation using centrifugal fractionation influenced significantly the number and the types of proteins identified in the microbial metaproteomes. Thereby, comparing results from different proteomic or genomic studies, the impact of sample preparation should be considered. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001508 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001508).

  15. Effect of activated sludge in the bottom zone on biogenic sulfate reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagafarov, G.G.; Bikchentayeva, A.G.; Yagafarov, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that sulfate destruction in the Arlansk group of fields is caused by infection of the formation by sulfate reducing bacteria in the drilling process and flooding by surface water. For the first time, the necessity is shown of considering the activated sludge formed from particles suspended in water and biocenosis of microorganisms during microbiological investigation of wells. It is suggested that biodecomposition of surfactants is possible only in the area of formation of activated sludge around the bottom of the injection well.

  16. Modelling as a tool when interpreting biodegradation of micro pollutants in activated sludge systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Henze, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present work were to improve the biodegradation of the endocrine disrupting micro pollutant, bisphenol A (BPA), used as model compound in an activated sludge system and to underline the importance of modelling the system. Previous results have shown that BPA mainly is degraded under...... aerobic conditions. Therefore the aerobic phase time in the BioDenitro process of the activated sludge system was increased from 50% to 70%. The hypothesis was that this would improve the biodegradation of BPA. Both the influent and the effluent concentrations of BPA in the experiment dropped...

  17. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...... model is a purely empirical model, which connects the effluent quality with the hydraulic load, suspended solids load and the nitrate load. The paper describes the model and gives some basic examples on computer simulations and verification of the model....

  18. Biofac, a microbiological multimedia tool to perform the analysis of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and structure of the macrobiotic that is part of the active sludge, its temporal evolution, and the analysis of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of it are a source of information of great help in making decisions for plant operators. Lack of training and access to specific information linked to the missing standardization of analysis processes hinder the implementation and interpretation of them. Using a multimedia tool in DVD, Facsa has developed the Biofac, an application in which it is documented and illustrated the most relevant aspects that allow the user to perform the analysis of activated sludge. (Author)

  19. Theoretical evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-bing; PENG Yong-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process at the standpoint of reaction kinetics and process kinetics was conducted. Theoretical biological nitrogen removal efficiency was deduced based on the mass balance of nitrate in the last stage. The comparison of pre-denitrification process and step feed process in the aspects of nitrogen removal efficiency, volume of reactor and building investment was studied, and the results indicated that step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process was superior to pre-denitrification process in these aspects.

  20. A Comprehensive Insight into Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Kailong Huang; Junying Tang; Xu-Xiang Zhang; Ke Xu; Hongqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively investigate tetracycline resistance in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sludge cultured with different concentrations of tetracycline. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that tetracycline treatment greatly affected the bacterial community structure of the sludge. Nine genera cons...

  1. Proposal for a screening test to evaluate the fate of organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Roberta; Vismara, Renato; Dal Ben, Ilaria; Gorla, Elena; Romele, Laura

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of organic micropollutants are usually low in wastewaters (order of magnitude of mg L(-1)). However, their emission standards, especially in the case of carcinogenic and bioaccumulating substances, are often much lower (order of magnitude of microg L(-1)). Since these substances, in some cases, can be adsorbable or volatile, their removal via volatilization, biodegradation or sludge adsorption in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) becomes a significant feature to include in the usual design process, in order to verify the emission standards in gas and sludge too. In this study a simple screening batch test for the evaluation of the fate of organic micropollutants in water, air and sludge is presented. The test is set up by means of simple laboratory instruments and simulates an activated sludge tank process. In this study the results obtained for four substances with different chemical properties (i.e. toluene, benz(a)anthracene, phenol and benzene) are presented. The screening test proposed can be a useful tool to assess in about one month the fate of organic micropollutants in an activated sludge tank of a WWTP. Moreover, the test can constitute a useful support in the use of mathematical models, since it allows the verification of model results and the calibration of the reactions involved in the removal process. PMID:21877546

  2. Degradation of PPCPs in activated sludge from different WWTPs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xijuan; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Dall, Agnieszka Gieraltowska; Bester, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs) are often found in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to insufficient removal during wastewater treatment processes. To understand the factors affecting the removal of PPCPs in classical activated sludge WWTPs, the present study was performed to assess the removal of frequently occurring pharmaceuticals (Naproxen, Fenoprofen, Ketoprofen, Dichlofenac, Carbamazepine) and the biocide Triclosan in activated sludge from four different Danish WWTPs. The respective degradation constants were compared to operational parameters previous shown to be of importance for degradation of micropollutants such as biomass concentration, and sludge retention time (SRT). The most rapid degradation, was observed for NSAID pharmaceuticals (55-90% for Fenoprofen, 77-94% for Ketoprofen and 46-90% for Naproxen), followed by Triclosan (61-91%), while Dichlofenac and Carbamazepine were found to be persistent in the systems. Degradation rate constants were calculated as 0.0026-0.0407 for NSAID pharmaceuticals and 0.0022-0.0065 for triclosan. No relationships were observed between degradation rates and biomass concentrations in the diverse sludges. However, for the investigated PPCPs, the optimal SRT was within 14-20 days (for these values degradation of these PPCPs was the most efficient). Though all of these parameters influence the degradation rate, none of them seems to be overall decisive. These observations indicate that the biological composition of the sludge is more important than the design parameters of the respective treatment plant. PMID:26407712

  3. Impacts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on nutrient removal from wastewater and bacterial community structure in activated sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reti Hai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs will inevitably lead to the exposure of wastewater treatment facilities. However, knowledge of the impacts of MWCNTs on wastewater nutrient removal and bacterial community structure in the activated sludge process is sparse. AIMS: To investigate the effects of MWCNTs on wastewater nutrient removal, and bacterial community structure in activated sludge. METHODS: Three triplicate sequencing batch reactors (SBR were exposed to wastewater which contained 0, 1, and 20 mg/L MWCNTs. MiSeq sequencing was used to investigate the bacterial community structures in activated sludge samples which were exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs. RESULTS: Exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs had no acute (1 day impact on nutrient removal from wastewater. After long-term (180 days exposure to 1 mg/L MWCNTs, the average total nitrogen (TN removal efficiency was not significantly affected. TN removal efficiency decreased from 84.0% to 71.9% after long-term effects of 20 mg/L MWCNTs. After long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs, the total phosphorus removal efficiencies decreased from 96.8% to 52.3% and from 98.2% to 34.0% respectively. Further study revealed that long-term exposure to 20 mg/L MWCNTs inhibited activities of ammonia monooxygenase and nitrite oxidoreductase. Long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs both inhibited activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase. MiSeq sequencing data indicated that 20 mg/L MWCNTs significantly decreased the diversity of bacterial community in activated sludge. Long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs differentially decreased the abundance of nitrifying bacteria, especially ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The abundance of PAOs was decreased after long-term exposure to 20 mg/L MWCNTs. The abundance of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs was increased after long-term exposure to 1 mg/L MWCNTs. CONCLUSION: MWCNTs have adverse effects on

  4. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, part III: analysis and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-07-01

    Research was undertaken to analyze and verify a model that can be applied to activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems. The model embeds a biofilm model into a multicell activated sludge model. The advantage of such a model is that it eliminates the need to run separate computations for a plant being retrofitted from activated sludge to IFAS or MBBR. The biofilm flux rates for organics, nutrients, and biomass can be computed by two methods-a semi-empirical model of the biofilm that is relatively simpler, or a diffusional model of the biofilm that is computationally intensive. Biofilm support media can be incorporated to the anoxic and aerobic cells, but not the anaerobic cells. The model can be run for steady-state and dynamic simulations. The model was able to predict the changes in nitrification and denitrification at both pilot- and full-scale facilities. The semi-empirical and diffusional models of the biofilm were both used to evaluate the biofilm flux rates for media at different locations. The biofilm diffusional model was used to compute the biofilm thickness and growth, substrate concentrations, volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration, and fraction of nitrifiers in each layer inside the biofilm. Following calibration, both models provided similar effluent results for reactor mixed liquor VSS and mixed liquor suspended solids and for the effluent organics, nitrogen forms, and phosphorus concentrations. While the semi-empirical model was quicker to run, the diffusional model provided additional information on biofilm thickness, quantity of growth in the biofilm, and substrate profiles inside the biofilm. PMID:18710147

  5. Improving the biogas production performance of municipal waste activated sludge via disperser induced microwave disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Vinoth Kumar, J; Rajkumar, M

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of disperser induced microwave pretreatment was investigated to analyze the proficiency of floc disruption on subsequent disintegration and biodegradability process. Initially, the flocs in the sludge was disrupted through disperser at a specific energy input of 25.3kJ/kgTS. The upshot of the microwave disintegration presents that the solids reduction and solubilization of floc disrupted (disperser induced microwave pretreated) sludge was found to be 17.33% and 22% relatively greater than that achieved in microwave pretreated (9.3% and 16%) sludge alone. The biodegradability analysis, affords an evaluation of parameter confidence and correlation determination. The eventual biodegradability of microwave pretreated, and floc disrupted sludges were computed to be 0.15(gCOD/gCOD) and 0.28(gCOD/gCOD), respectively. An economic assessment of this study offers a positive net profit of about 104.8USD/ton of sludge in floc disrupted sample. PMID:26897472

  6. A laboratory-scale test of anaerobic digestion and methane production after phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Kishino, Machiko; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2004-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes, activated sludge microorganisms accumulate large quantities of polyphosphate (polyP) intracellularly. We previously discovered that nearly all of polyP could be released from waste activated sludge simply by heating it at 70 degrees C for about 1 h. We also demonstrated that this simple method was applicable to phosphorus (P) recovery from waste activated sludge in a pilot plant-scale EBPR process. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of this sludge processing (heat treatment followed by calcium phosphate precipitation) on anaerobic digestion in laboratory-scale experiments. The results suggested that the sludge processing for P recovery could improve digestive efficiency and methane productivity at both mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (53 degrees C) temperatures. In addition, heat-treated waste sludge released far less P into the digested sludge liquor than did untreated waste sludge. It is likely that the P recovery step prior to anaerobic digestion has a potential advantage for controlling struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) deposit problems in sludge handling processes. PMID:16233643

  7. Quantification of Hyphomicrobium Populations in Activated Sludge from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment System as Determined by 16S rRNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, A C; Karanth, P. N.; Lajoie, C. A.; Meyers, A J; Gregory, I. R.; Stapleton, R. D.; Taylor, D E; Sayler, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of the activated sludge from a 25 million-gal-per-day industrial wastewater treatment plant was investigated using rRNA analysis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries were created from three sludge samples taken on different dates. Partial rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 46 rDNA clones, and nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for 18 clones. Seventeen of these clones were members of the beta subdivision, and their sequences showed high homolog...

  8. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  9. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/271999 During Sludge Core Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-12-29

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371, Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2.

  10. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/27/1999, During Sludge Core Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371/Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA(trademark) canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2

  11. Degradation of PPCPs in activated sludge from different WWTPs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund;

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs) are often found in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to insufficient removal during wastewater treatment processes. To understand the factors affecting the removal of PPCPs in classical activated sludge WWTPs, the present study...... previous shown to be of importance for degradation of micropollutants such as biomass concentration, and sludge retention time (SRT). The most rapid degradation, was observed for NSAID pharmaceuticals (55–90 % for Fenoprofen, 77–94 % for Ketoprofen and 46–90 % for Naproxen), followed by Triclosan (61...

  12. Effect of process variables on the production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Nader; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Vasheghani Farahani, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are known to be temporarily stored by microorganisms in activated sludge, especially in anaerobic-aerobic processes. Due to the problems resulted from the disposals of plastic wastes and excess sludge of wastewater treatment plants, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by treating activated sludge and determining the effect of process variables were the main issues of this paper. In this research, an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to make microorganism adapted and a batch aerobic reactor was used for enriching them. The variables affecting polyhydroxyalkanoates production including aeration time, sludge retention time, and volatile fatty acids concentration of the influent in sequencing batch reactor, and also carbon to nitrogen ratio and cultivation time in polymer production reactor, were investigated using Taguchi statistical approach to determine optimum conditions. The maximum polymer production of 29% was achieved at sludge retention time of 5-10 days, aeration time of 2 hours, supplementation of 40% of volatile fatty acids in the influent and increasing of carbon to nitrogen ratio of polymer production reactor to above 25 g/g. Based on the results, in optimum conditions, the volatile fatty acids concentration which increased the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates up to 49% was the most effective variable. Carbon to nitrogen ratio, sludge retention time and aeration time were ranked as the next affecting parameters. Although the polyhydroxyalkanoates content achieved in present study is much lower than that by pure culture, but the proposed method may still serve well as an environmental friendly means to convert waste into valuable product. PMID:23369512

  13. Local adaptive approach toward segmentation of microscopic images of activated sludge flocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Lo, Po Kim; Yap, Vooi Voon

    2015-11-01

    Activated sludge process is a widely used method to treat domestic and industrial effluents. The conditions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (AS-WWTP) are related to the morphological properties of flocs (microbial aggregates) and filaments, and are required to be monitored for normal operation of the plant. Image processing and analysis is a potential time-efficient monitoring tool for AS-WWTPs. Local adaptive segmentation algorithms are proposed for bright-field microscopic images of activated sludge flocs. Two basic modules are suggested for Otsu thresholding-based local adaptive algorithms with irregular illumination compensation. The performance of the algorithms has been compared with state-of-the-art local adaptive algorithms of Sauvola, Bradley, Feng, and c-mean. The comparisons are done using a number of region- and nonregion-based metrics at different microscopic magnifications and quantification of flocs. The performance metrics show that the proposed algorithms performed better and, in some cases, were comparable to the state-of the-art algorithms. The performance metrics were also assessed subjectively for their suitability for segmentations of activated sludge images. The region-based metrics such as false negative ratio, sensitivity, and negative predictive value gave inconsistent results as compared to other segmentation assessment metrics.

  14. Control and identification in activated sludge processes = Regeling en indentifikatie in aktief-slib processen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is about control and identification in activated sludge processes (ASP's). The chapters in this thesis are divided in two parts. Part I deals with the development of the best feasible, close-to-optimal adaptive receding horizon optimal controller (RHOC) for N-removal in a continuously mi

  15. Bacterial community analysis of activated sludge: an evaluation of four commonly used DNA extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanysacker, L.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Hellemans, B.; De Meester, L.; Vankelecom, I.; Declerck, P.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of three commercially available direct DNA isolation kits (Mobio, Fast, Qiagen) and one published direct DNA extraction protocol (Bead) for extracting bacterial DNA from different types of activated sludge was investigated and mutually compared. The DNA quantity and purity were det

  16. Immobilization study of biosorption of heavy metal ions onto activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-suo; ZHANG Ai-qiang; WANG Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Activated sludge was immobilized into Ca-alginate beads via entrapment, and biosorption of three heavy metal ions, copper(Ⅱ), zinc(Ⅱ), and chromimum(Ⅱ), from aqueous solution in the concentration range of 10-100 mg/L was studied by using both entrapped activated sludge and inactivated free biomass at pH≤ 5. A biphasic metal adsorption pattern was observed in all immobilized biomass experiments. The biosorption of metal ions by the biosorbents increased with the initial concentration increased in the medium. The adsorption rate of immobilized pretreated activated sludge(PAS) was much lower than that of free PAS due to the increase in mass transfer resistance resulting from the polymeric matrix. Biosorption equilibrium of beads was established in about 20 h and the adsorbed heavy metal ions did not change further with time. No significant effect of temperature was observed in the test for free biomass while immobilized PAS appeared to be strong temperature dependent in the test range of 10 and 40℃.Besides, the content of activated sludge in the calcium alginate bead has an influence on the uptake of heavy metals. The sorption equilibrium was well modeled by Langmuir isotherm, implying monomolecular adsorption mechanism. Carboxyl group in cell wall played an important role in surface adsorption of heavy metal ions on PAS.

  17. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

  18. Ecophysiology of novel core phylotypes in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta;

    limited to no information is available for their ecophysiology in activated sludge. A combination of MAR-FISH and SIP was applied to identify members of the genera Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas and Sulfuritalea, all within the class Betaproteobacteria, to be core denitrifiers in these systems. Similar...

  19. Start-up of anaerobic ammonia oxidation bioreactor with nitrifying activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; LIN Feng-mei; HU Bao-lan; CHEN Jian-song

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation(Anammox) bioreactor was successfully started up with the nitrifying activated sludge. After anaerobically operated for 105 d, the bioreactor reached a good performance with removal percentage of both ammonia and nitrite higher high efficiency and stability because it held a large amount of biomass in the bioreactor.

  20. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng;

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  1. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik;

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which...

  2. Wastewater and Biomass Characterization for the Activated Sludge Model No. 2: Biological Phosphorus Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.;

    1995-01-01

    The characterization of wastewater and biomass in relation to the Activated Sludge Model No. 2 is described. A new fraction of organic fermentable matter is needed. Phosphate accumulating organisms and their structural compounds polyphosphate and polyhydroxyalkanoate have to be included in the bi...

  3. An Operations Manual for Achieving Nitrification in an Activated Sludge Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    In Ontario, the attainment of nitrification (oxidation of ammonia) in activated sludge plants is receiving increased attention. Nitrification of waste water is a necessary requirement because it reduces plant discharge of nitrogenous oxygen demand and/or toxic ammonia. However, this new requirement will result in added responsibility for…

  4. A comparison between model and rule based control of a periodic activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Thornberg, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two strategies for control of nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge plant are compared. One is based on simple model predictions determining the cycle length at the beginning of each cycle. The other is based on simple rules relating present ammonia and nitrate concentrations. Both ...

  5. TOC, ATP AND RESPIRATION RATE AS CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to determine the feasibility of using TOC, ATP and respiration rates as tools for controlling a complete mix activated sludge plant handling a significant amount of industrial waste. Control methodology was centered on using F/M ratio which was determi...

  6. A new method study biodegradation kinetics of anorganic trace pollutants by activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, H.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    A reliable prediction of the behaviour of organic trace compounds in activated sludge plants requires an accurate input of the biodegradation kinetics. Often these kinetics are extrapolated from the results of standardised biodegradation tests. However, these tests generally are not designed to yiel

  7. Dosing of anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors with cobalt: Impact of cobalt retention on methanogenic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Fermoso, Fernando G.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of dosing a metal limited anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with a metal pulse on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge has thus far not been successfully modeled. The prediction of this effect is crucial in order to optimize the strategy for metal dosage and to prevent unnecessary losses of resources. This paper describes the relation between the initial immobilization of cobalt in anaerobic granular sludge cobalt dosage into the reactor and the evolution of methanogenic activity during the subsequent weeks. An operationally defined parameter (A0· B0) was found to combine the amount of cobalt immobilized instantaneously upon the pulse (B0) and the amount of cobalt immobilized within the subsequent 24. h (A0). In contrast with the individual parameters A0 and B0, the parameter A0· B0 correlated significantly with the methanogenic activity of the sludge during the subsequent 16 or 35. days. This correlation between metal retention and activity evolution is a useful tool to implement trace metal dosing strategies for biofilm-based biotechnological processes. © 2010.

  8. High-rate activated sludge communities have a distinctly different structure compared to low-rate sludge communities, and are less sensitive towards environmental and operational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis A; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Roume, Hugo; Seuntjens, Dries; Pieper, Dietmar H; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Boon, Nico

    2016-09-01

    High-rate activated sludge processes allow for the recovery of organics and energy from wastewaters. These systems are operated at a short sludge retention time and high sludge-specific loading rates, which results in a higher sludge yield and better digestibility than conventional, low-rate activated sludge. Little is known about the microbial ecology of high-rate systems. In this work, we address the need for a fundamental understanding of how high-rate microbial communities differ from low-rate communities. We investigated the high-rate and low-rate communities in a sewage treatment plant in relation to environmental and operational variables over a period of ten months. We demonstrated that (1) high-rate and low-rate communities are distinctly different in terms of richness, evenness and composition, (2) high-rate community dynamics are more variable and less shaped by deterministic factors compared to low-rate communities, (3) sub-communities of continuously core and transitional members are more shaped by deterministic factors than the continuously rare members, both in high-rate and low-rate communities, and (4) high-rate community members showed a co-occurrence pattern similar to that of low-rate community members, but were less likely to be correlated to environmental and operational variables. These findings provide a basis for further optimization of high-rate systems, in order to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater. PMID:27183209

  9. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge by using H₂O₂ oxidation, electrolysis, electro-oxidation and thermo-alkaline pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, Emna; Khoufi, Sonia; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration of municipal waste-activated sludge (WAS) is regarded as a prerequisite of the anaerobic digestion process to reduce sludge volume and improve biogas yield. Pretreatment of WAS using thermo-alkaline (TA), H2O2 oxidation, electrolysis and electro-oxidation (EO) processes were investigated and compared in term of COD solubilization and biogas production. For each pretreatment, the influences of different operational variables were studied in detail. At optimum conditions, EO gave the maximum COD solubilization (28 %). The effects of pretreatments under the optimum conditions on anaerobic digestion were experienced with biochemical methane potential assay. Significant increases in biogas yield up to 78 and 40 % were observed respectively in the EO and TA pretreated samples compared to raw sludge. Results clearly revealed that the application of EO is a significant alternative method for the improvement of WAS anaerobic digestion. PMID:25982985

  10. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5–15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  11. Enhancement of anaerobic biohydrogen/methane production from cellulose using heat-treated activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, C H; Chang, F Y; Chu, C Y; Chen, C C; Chi, Y C; Hsieh, T T; Huang, H H; Lin, C Y

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective technology to convert cellulosic wastes to methane and hydrogen. Heat-treatment is a well known method to inhibit hydrogen-consuming bacteria in using anaerobic mixed cultures for seeding. This study aims to investigate the effects of heat-treatment temperature and time on activated sludge for fermentative hydrogen production from alpha-cellulose by response surface methodology. Hydrogen and methane production was evaluated based on the production rate and yield (the ability of converting cellulose into hydrogen and methane) with heat-treated sludge as the seed at various temperatures (60-97 degrees C) and times (20-60 min). Batch experiments were conducted at 55 degrees C and initial pH of 8.0. The results indicate that hydrogen and methane production yields peaked at 4.3 mmol H2/g cellulose and 11.6 mmol CH4/g cellulose using the seed activated sludge that was thermally treated at 60 degrees C for 40 min. These parameter values are higher than those of no-treatment seed (HY 3.6 mmol H2/g cellulose and MY 10.4 mmol CH4/g cellulose). The maximum hydrogen production rate of 26.0 mmol H2/L/d and methane production rate of 23.2 mmol CH4/L/d were obtained for the seed activated sludge that was thermally treated at 70 degrees C for 50 min and 60 degrees C for 40 min, respectively.

  12. Biosorption behaviors of Cu2+,Zn2+, Cd2+ and mixture by waste activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sheng-lian; YUAN Lin; CHAI Li-yuan; MIN Xiao-bo; WANG Yun-yan; FANG Yan; WANG Pu

    2006-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, was carried out using waste activated sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant as adsorption material, and the effects of parameters, such as pH value, temperature, reaction time and sorption duration, were studied in detail. The results indicate that the removal rates of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ with low concentration are 96.47%, 80% and 90%, respectively, adsorbed by waste activated sludge. Little effect of dosage of activated sludge on the adsorption of Cu2+ and more effects on the adsorption of Zn2+ and Cd2+ are observed. Little effect oftemperature is observed, while pH value and adsorption time exert important influence on the sorption process. The adsorption behaviors of heavy metal ions all have parabolic relationships with pH value. The optimum pH value is between 6 and 10, and the optimum adsorption time is 1 h. In single heavy metal ion system, the sorption processes of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ are in accordance with Freundlich model, which indicates that it is suitable for the treatment of these three heavy metal ions using intermittent operation. In addition, the sorption capacity of the sludge for Cu2+ is preferential to the other two ions.

  13. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  14. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed

  15. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-09

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment.

  16. The impact of peroxydisulphate and peroxymonosulphate on disintegration and settleability of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacławek, Stanisław; Grübel, Klaudiusz; Černík, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Chemical treatment processes have mostly been considered as an efficient way for biosolid minimization. The improvement of sludge dewatering was more a welcome side-effect of these sequential processes. In this study, heat-activated sodium peroxydisulphate (PDS) and potassium peroxymonosulphate (MPS) were applied in order to disintegrate waste activated sludge (WAS). PDS and MPS treatment of WAS results in the polymer transfer of organic matter from the solid phase to the liquid phase. Our research work was done for chemical disintegration of WAS by PDS and MPS in doses of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% (169.5, 339.0, 508.5, 678.0 and 847.5 mg [Formula: see text]) activated at temperatures of 60°C and 90°C for 30 min. The application of these methods causes the soluble chemical oxygen demand value to increase in the supernatant. In addition, there was a positive influence on the sludge volume index which decreased for the highest doses of PDS of over 63% and 77% and MPS of over 78% and 82% through heat activation at temperatures of 60°C and 90°C, respectively. Furthermore, MPS was more successful in the floc particle destruction, therefore it caused a higher sludge settlement acceleration (sedimentation/compaction speed) than PDS. The experimental results demonstrated that the application of heat-activated PDS and MPS may become a novel effective way of processing sewage sludge. PMID:26503018

  17. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ± 0.7% and 8.8 ± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  18. Incorporation of inorganic material in anoxic/aerobic-activated sludge system mixed liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, M C; Ubisi, M F; Lakay, M T; Ekama, G A

    2002-12-01

    In the bioreactor of the nitrification denitrification (ND)-activated sludge system, the mixed liquor is made up of organic and inorganic materials. In the current design procedures and simulation models, the influent wastewater characteristics and biological processes that influence the bioreactor mixed liquor organic solids (as volatile suspended solids, VSS, or COD) are explicitly included. However, the mixed liquor total suspended solids (TSS, i.e. organic + inorganic solids) are calculated simply from empirical ratios of VSS/TSS. The TSS concentration is fundamental in the design of secondary settling tanks and waste activated sludge disposal. Clearly, the empirical approach to obtaining an estimate for TSS is not satisfactory within the framework of a fundamentally based model. Accordingly, the incorporation of the inorganic material present in the influent wastewater into ND-activated sludge system mixed liquor was investigated. From an experimental investigation into the distribution of inorganics in the influent, mixed liquor and effluent of a laboratory-scale ND-activated sludge system, it was concluded inter alia that (i) of the total inorganic solids in the influent, only a small fraction (2.8-7.5%) is incorporated into the mixed liquor, (ii) most of the inorganics in the influent (mean 88%) and effluent (mean 98.5%) are in the dissolved form, the balance being particulate, and (iii) the influent and effluent inorganic dissolved solids concentrations are closely equal (mean effluent to influent ratio 100%). Further, a number of models were developed to quantify the mixed liquor inorganic, and, hence, total solids. From an evaluation of these models against the experimental data, it would appear that the best approach to model the incorporation of inorganics into the activated sludge mixed liquor is to follow the concepts and principles used to develop the existing models for organic materials. With this approach, reasonably close correlation between

  19. Comparison of microbial communities of activated sludge and membrane biofilm in 10 full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Jun; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Chung-Hak; Kim, Tae Gwan

    2016-09-15

    Operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is hampered by the membrane biofouling resulting from microbial activities. However, the knowledge of the microbial ecology of both biofilm and activated sludge in MBRs has not been sufficient. In this study, we scrutinized microbial communities of biofilm and activated sludge from 10 full-scale MBR plants. Overall, Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Nitrospira were abundant in order of abundance in biofilm, whereas Dechloromonas, Flavobacterium and Haliscomenobacter in activated sludge. Community structure was analyzed in either biofilm or activated sludge. Among MBRs, as expected, not only diversity of microbial community but also its composition was different from one another (p  0.05). Effects of ten environmental factors on community change were investigated using Spearman correlation. MLSS, HRT, F/M ratio and SADm explained the variation of microbial composition in the biofilm, whereas only MLSS did in the activated sludge. Microbial networks were constructed with the 10 environmental factors. The network results revealed that there were different topological characteristics between the biofilm and activated sludge networks, in which each of the 4 factors had different associations with microbial nodes. These results indicated that the different microbial associations were responsible for the variation of community composition between the biofilm and activated sludge.

  20. Assembly, start and operation of an activated sludge reactor for the industrial effluents treatment: physico chemical and biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Assalin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although of the immense available bibliography regarding the activated sludge process, little it is found in relation to the basic procedure to be adopted to implant, to activate and to monitor a reactor of activated sludge in laboratory scales. This article describes the assembly, departure and operation of an activated sludge system, operating in continuous process, at a laboratory scale, to study effluents treatments, using as example, Kraft E1 pulp mill effluent. Factors as biodegradability of the effluent to be treated, stationary state of the reactor, conventional operation parameters as physical chemistry and biological parameters are presented.

  1. "Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Present in the Activated Sludge Unit, in the Treatment of Industrial Waste Water "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Sharifi-Yazdi1

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge or extended aeration treatment involves a continous system where aerobic biological growths are mixed with waste water and then separated in a gravity clarifier. Therefore, waste treatment system such as the activated sludge system depend on the activities of communities of living organism. In this study, an attempt was made on the indentification of the bacterial population involved in the laboratory activated sludge unit. The results showed that gram-negative bacilli with a yellow pigment was considered as a major group of the population.

  2. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  3. Optimization of ozonation process for the reduction of excess sludge production from activated sludge process of sago industry wastewater using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, B; Muthukumar, M

    2012-01-01

    Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R(2)) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  4. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples.

  5. Sludge Retention Time as a Suitable Operational Parameter to Remove Both Estrogen and Nutrients in an Anaerobic–Anoxic–Aerobic Activated Sludge System

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Qingling; Li, Yongmei; Yang, Shijia

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen in wastewater are responsible for a significant part of the endocrine-disrupting effects observed in the aquatic environment. The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal and fate of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in an anaerobic–anoxic–oxic activated sludge system designed for nutrient removal was investigated by laboratory-scale experiments using synthetic wastewater. With a hydraulic retention time of 8 h, when SRT ranged 10–25 days, E2 was almost co...

  6. Characteristics of microfauna and their relationships with the performance of an activated sludge plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kexin; XU Muqi; LIU Biao; CAO Hong

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and abundance of the microfauna groups were compared with the physico-chemical and operational parameters of the Baoding Lugang Sewage Treatment Plant in China. Attached and crawling ciliates were the dominant groups of ciliates. Crawling ciliates and testate amoebae showed a strong association with effluent BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand). Therefore, these two groups are likely to be useful bioindicators since their number decreased as the process produced poor quality effluent. Testate amoebae also had significant negative correlations with effluent TN (total nitrogen), NH4+-N, SS (suspended solids) and SVI (sludge volumetric index), which means that this group of ciliates may be indicators of good performance of the activated sludge system. Carnivorous ciliates and flagellates had significant positive correlations with SVI, suggesting that these two groups may be indicators of bad settlement conditions of sludge. As identification of the microfauna species is difficult and time-consuming, we recommend using microfauna functional groups to evaluate the performance of the activated sludge system.

  7. A hybrid anaerobic membrane bioreactor coupled with online ultrasonic equipment for digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meilan; Wen, Xianghua; Yu, Zhiyong; Li, Yushan; Huang, Xia

    2011-05-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactor and online ultrasonic equipment used to enhance membrane filtration were coupled to form a hybrid system (US-AnMBR) designed for long-term digestion of waste activated sludge. The US-AnMBR was operated under volatile solids loading rates of 1.1-3.7 gVS/L·d. After comprehensive studies on digestion performance and membrane fouling control in the US-AnMBR, the final loading rate was determined to be 2.7 gVS/L·d with 51.3% volatile solids destruction. In the US-AnMBR, the improved digestion was due to enhanced sludge disintegration, as indicated by soluble matter comparison in the supernatant and particle size distribution in the digested sludge. Maximum specific methanogenic activity revealed that ultrasound application had no negative effect on anaerobic microorganisms. Furthermore, implementing ultrasound effectively controlled membrane fouling and successfully facilitated membrane bioreactor operation. This lab-scale study demonstrates the potential feasibility and effectiveness of setting up a US-AnMBR system for sludge digestion. PMID:21421308

  8. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Microbial Population and Settling of Dairy Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to identify and study the settling characteristics of the dairy activated sludge. The causes and the control measure for the sludge bulking were studied. The activated sludge was generated by running a batch reactor of capacity of 10 liters for a θC of 10 days. It was operated until steady state conditions were reached. pH, DO, MLSS and COD were taken as the parameters. The settling studies were carried out for different MLSS concentrations ranging from 2g/L to 20g/L. The addition of Chlorine was selected as the control measure and was added for various doses such as 1 ml, 2 ml and 3 ml of Bleaching powder solution (1 ml of Bleaching powder solution contains 0.515 mg of Chlorine. Settling curves between interface height and time were observed before and after the addition of the Chlorine. From the settling curve the limiting solids flux were obtained. After the addition of Chlorine, there was a considerable increase in the settling velocity that improves the settling nature of the sludge. Area of Secondary settling tank was calculated from the modified solids flux method.

  9. Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

    2005-08-01

    Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals.

  10. Using the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d) to understand and predict the phosphorus accumulating organisms mechanism in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in relation to disintegrated sludge as a carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Boontian, Nittaya

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sources are considered as one of the most important factors in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Disintegrated sludge (DS) can act as carbon source to increase the efficiency of EBPR. This research explores the influence of DS upon phosphorus removal efficiency using mathematical simulation modeling. Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) is one of the most useful of activated sludge (AS) models. This is because ASM2d can express the integrated mechanisms...

  11. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  12. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  13. Characterization of the in situ ecophysiology of novel phylotypes in nutrient removal activated sludge treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants...... with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information...... for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class...

  14. SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL GROWTH IN IMPROVED ACTIVATEDSLUDGE SYSTEM BY PAC

    OpenAIRE

    N. Djaafarzadeh; S Nasseri; A. Mesdaghinia

    1999-01-01

    In this research, the effects of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the aeration zone of an activated-sludge (AS) system for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, was investigated during more than 12 months in a PACT pilot-scale model. Besides the evaluation of organics removal efficiency and determination of basic design factors kinetic coefficients, a series of experiments were conducted in order to study the variations in biological growth (especially bacteria and monoce...

  15. Methane production and microbial community structure for alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xing, Defeng; Jia, Jianna; Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    Alkaline pretreatment was studied to analyze the influence on waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction, methane production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from alkaline pretreated sludge (A-WAS) (pH = 12) increased from 251.2 mL/Ld to 362.2 mL/Ld with the methane content of 68.7% compared to raw sludge (R-WAS). Sludge reduction had been improved, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) removal rate and protein reduction had increased by ∼ 10% and ∼ 35%, respectively. The bacterial and methanogenic communities were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene. Remarkable shifts were observed in microbial community structures after alkaline pretreatment, especially for Archaea. The dominant methanogenic population changed from Methanosaeta for R-WAS to Methanosarcina for A-WAS. In addition to the enhancement of solubilization and hydrolysis of anaerobic digestion of WAS, alkaline pretreatment showed significant impacts on the enrichment and syntrophic interactions between microbial communities.

  16. [Effect of powdered activated carbon on the sludge mixed liquor characteristics and membrane fouling of MBR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Feng; Gao, Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Effect of dosing powder activated carbon (PAC) on the characteristics of the sludge mixed liquor in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated by parallel tests. And the reason that PAC mitigated membrane fouling was also explored. The results showed that PAC could decrease mixture viscosity and increase sludge particle size, which led to less trans-membrane pressure developing. Extracellular polymer substances (EPS) content, sludge specific resistance and cake layer resistance (R(c)) had a good correlation. Adding PAC could decrease EPS concentration, sludge specific resistance and then slow down the increase of R(c), which mitigated membrane fouling. Membrane pore blocking resistance (R(p)) increased exponentially with increasing of the soluble microbial products (SMP) concentration in the supernatant. Dosing PAC reduced the SMP concentration and slowed down the growth rate of R(p), which was helpful to mitigating membrane fouling. R(c) and R(p) increased along with the operation of MBRs and R(c)/R(f) (26.32% -63.16%) was always greater than R(p)/R(f) (7.89% -35.32%) which suggested the R(c) was the main factor in membrane fouling. Moreover, it was also found that controlling of dosing PAC on R(c) was better than it on R(p). PMID:21528575

  17. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  18. Impact of membrane solid-liquid separation on design of biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M; Wentzel, M C; Merritt, R; Ekama, G A; Young, T; Buckley, C A

    2005-03-20

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only in the design of the BNR system itself, but also in the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multizone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic zones (i.e., fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the interreactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage in membrane BNR systems over conventional BNR systems with SSTs, because it allows for changing of the mass fractions to optimize biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios in the upper range (f(q) approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) secondary settling tanks is not as large (40% to 60%), the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilization costs. Moving from a flow-unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow-balanced (f(q) = 1), low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilization. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be paid from the savings from the increased WWTP capacity.

  19. Addition of Al and Fe salts during treatment of paper mill effluents to improve activated sludge settlement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agridiotis, V; Forster, C F; Carliell-Marquet, C

    2007-11-01

    Metal salts, ferrous sulphate and aluminium chloride, were added to laboratory-scale activated sludge plant treating paper mill effluents to investigate the effect on settlement characteristics. Before treatment the sludge was filamentous, had stirred sludge volume index (SSVI) values in excess of 300 and was moderately hydrophobic. The use of FeSO4.7H2O took three weeks to reduce the SSVI to 90. Microscopic examination showed that Fe had converted the filamentous flocs into a compact structure. When the iron dosing was stopped, the sludge returned to its bulking state within four weeks. In a subsequent trial, the addition of AlCl3 initially resulted in an improvement of the settlement index but then caused deterioration of the sludge properties. It is possible that aluminium was overdosed and caused charge reversal, increasing the SSVI. PMID:17113285

  20. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. PMID:17268774

  1. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  2. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  3. Reactivity Studies of Sludge and Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T Afzal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sludge and biomass are wastes with energy value. Both can provide a renewable energy in the form of gaseous fuels through thermal conversion processes. Proper understanding of the thermal properties and reaction kinetic of sludge and biomass is important for efficient design, operation and modeling of the conversion process. This study was carried out to obtain the kinetics data of the sludge and biomass in pure oxygen atmosphere at 30 mlmin-1 with the combustion temperature ranging from 50 to 900oC. The effect of sample size and heating rate on thermal degradation were studied and kinetic parameters of sludge, bagasse and sawdust combustion were described using Arrhenius equation. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for sludge, bagasse and sawdust samples. The activation energy and pre-exponential factors, in the first zone were found to be significantly higher than that of the second zone where as the opposite way for sawdust.

  4. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Gujer, W.; Mino, T.;

    : Introduction, ASM 2, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Wastewater Characterization for Activated Sludge Processes, Calibration of the ASM 2, Model Limitations, Conclusion, Bibliography ASM 1: Introduction, Method of Model Presentation, Model Incorporating Carbon......This book has been produced to give a total overview of the Activated Sludge Model (ASM) family at the start of 2000 and to give the reader easy access to the different models in their original versions. It thus presents ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3 together for the first time.Modelling of activated...... in the Model, ASM3: Stoichiometry, ASM3: Kinetics, Limitations of ASM3, Aspects of application of ASM3, ASM3C: A Carbon based model, Conclusion ASM 2d: Introduction, Conceptual Approach, ASM 2d, Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Kinetic and Stoichiometric Constants, Limitations, Conclusion ASM 2...

  5. Enhancement of waste activated sludge dewaterability using calcium peroxide pre-oxidation and chemical re-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Teng; Bai, Runying; Yu, Dezhong

    2016-10-15

    The effects of combined calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation with chemical re-flocculation on dewatering performance and physicochemical properties of waste activated sludge was investigated in this study. The evolutions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) distribution, composition and morphological properties were analyzed to unravel the sludge conditioning mechanism. It was found that sludge filtration performance was enhanced by calcium peroxide oxidation with the optimal dosage of 20 mg/gTSS. However, this enhancement was not observed at lower dosages due to the absence of oxidation and the performance deteriorated at higher dosages because of the release of excess EPS, mainly as protein-like substances. The variation in soluble EPS (SEPS) component can be fitted well with pseudo-zero-order kinetic model under CaO2 treatment. At the same time, extractable EPS content (SEPS and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS)) were dramatically increased, indicating sludge flocs were effectively broken and their structure became looser after CaO2 addition. The sludge floc structure was reconstructed and sludge dewaterability was significantly enhanced using chemical re-flocculation (polyaluminium chloride (PACl), ferric iron (FeCl3) and polyacrylamide (PAM)). The inorganic coagulants performed better in improving sludge filtration dewatering performance and reducing cake moisture content than organic polymer, since they could act as skeleton builders and decrease the sludge compressibility. PMID:27450355

  6. Removal of Cu(II) ions by biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) prior to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit: a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoglu, M Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing Cu(II) ions was realized in an activated sludge unit with pre-adsorption of Cu(II) onto powdered waste sludge (PWS). Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate Cu(II), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions. The independent variables were the solids retention time (SRT, 5-30 d), hydraulic residence time (HRT, 5-25 h), feed Cu(II) concentration (0-50 mg L(-1)) and PWS loading rate (0-4 g h(-1)) while percent Cu(II), COD, toxicity (TOX) removals and the sludge volume index (SVI) were the objective functions. The data were correlated with a quadratic response function (R2=0.99). Cu(II), COD and toxicity removals increased with increasing PWS loading rate and SRT while decreasing with the increasing feed Cu(II) concentration and HRT. Optimum conditions resulting in maximum Cu(II), COD, toxicity removals and SVI values were found to be SRT of 30 d, HRT 15 h, PWS loading rate 3 g h(-1) and feed Cu(II) concentration of less than 30 mg L(-1).

  7. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  8. Investigation of Cadmium (II Ions Biosorption onto Pretreated Dried Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D.C. Soltani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metals have been one of hazardous components in industrial effluents that can be damaged on the environment by discharging uncontrolled wastewater. The aims of this investigation were biosorption of Cd (II ions onto pretreated dried activated sludge and determination of kinetic and isotherm of biosorption. Approach: Activated sludge was obtained from Tehran municipal wastewater treatment plant. Activated Sludge was dried and used for biosorbtion of Cd (II ions from aqueous solution. Dried Activated Sluge (DAS was pretreated with three different solutions (H2O2, NaOH and ethanol. Biosorption capacity of different types of DAS to remove Cd (II ions was investigated as a function of Cd (II concentrations at variable initial Cd (II concentrations between 10 and 500 mg L−1 with a DAS particle size 0.2-0.3 mm using batch biosorption experiments. Results: Biosorption of Cd (II by Dried Activated Sludge (DAS was found to perform better than the others after pretreatment with H2O2. The maximum biosorption capacity was given 256.41, 217.39, 212.77 and 204.08 mg g−1 for the H2O2, NaOH; Ethanol pretreated and untreated DAS, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to be more suitable than the pseudo-first order kinetic model to correlate the experimental data for all types of DAS (R2>0.9. The Freundlich isotherm was found to fit the experimental data slightly better than the Langmuir isotherm model for all pretreated and untreated DAS (R2>0.99. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pretreatment DAS yield higher Cd (II biosorption capacity, especially DAS that pretreated with H2O2.

  9. CO-TREATABILITY OF A DOMESTIC AND AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTAINING DYESTUFF BY THE ACTIVATED - SLUDGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    MURATHAN, Ayşe

    1999-01-01

    Co-treatment of an industrial wastewater containing dyestuff was studied with a domestic wastewater by the activated-sludge method was investigated. Treatment efficiency was obtained by determining. BOD, COD and total suspended solids values.

  10. Physiological and transcriptional responses of nitrifying bacteria exposed to copper in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fan; Zhai, Hongyan; Ji, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Dong, Zhao

    2016-01-15

    Cu inhibition of gene transcription in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were rarely studied simultaneously in activated sludge. In this study, the transcription of amoA (for AOB) and nxrB (for NOB), nitrification efficiencies, AOB and NOB respiratory rates, and Cu distribution were simultaneously investigated. Modeling the relationships among the aforementioned parameters revealed that in complex activated sludge systems, nitrification efficiency was an insensitive parameter for showing Cu inhibition. Respiration activities and gene transcription were sensitive to Cu and positively correlated with each other. The transcription of amoA and nxrB genes indicated that the Cu had different inhibitory effects on AOB and NOB. AOB were more susceptible to Cu toxicity than NOB. Moreover, the degree of Cu inhibition on ammonia oxidation was greater than on nitrite oxidation. The analysis and related modeling results indicate that the inhibitory actions of Cu on nitrifying bacteria could mainly be attributed to intracellular Cu. The findings from this study provide insight into the mechanism of Cu inhibition on nitrification in complex activated sludge systems. PMID:26348150

  11. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, Laura; Boiocchi, Riccardo; Flores Alsina, Xavier;

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice in wastewater engineering to extend standard activated sludge models (ASMs) with extra process equations derived from batch experiments. However, such experiments have often been performed under conditions different from the ones normally found in wastewater treatment plants......: problems related to the overall mathematical model structure and problems related to the published set of parameter values. The paper describes the model implementation incompatibilities, the variability in parameter values and the difficulties of reaching similar conditions when simulating a full......-scale activated sludge plant. Finally, the simulation results show large differences in oxygen uptake rates, nitritation rates and consequently the quantity of N2O emission (G(N2O)) using the different models...

  12. Application of BP NN and RBF NN in Modeling Activated Sludge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维斌; 郑丕谔; 李金勇

    2003-01-01

    Based on the operation data from a certain wastewater treatment plant(WWTP) in northeast China, the models of back propagation neural network(BP NN) and radial basis function neural network(RBF NN) have been designed respectively and the ability of convergence and generalization has been analyzed separately. As for BP NN, the effects of numbers of layers and nodes have been studied; as for RBF NN, the influences of the number of nodes and the RBF′s width have been studied. It is concluded that BP NN has converged much slowly in comparison with RBF NN. The conclusion that the RBF NN is suitable for modeling activated sludge system has been drawn. An automatically optimum design program for RBF NN has been developed, through which the RBF NN model of traditional activated sludge system has been established.

  13. Secondary clarifier hybrid model calibration in full scale pulp and paper activated sludge wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreckovic, G.; Hall, E.R. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thibault, J. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada); Savic, D. [Exeter Univ., School of Engineering, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    The issue of proper model calibration techniques applied to mechanistic mathematical models relating to activated sludge systems was discussed. Such calibrations are complex because of the non-linearity and multi-model objective functions of the process. This paper presents a hybrid model which was developed using two techniques to model and calibrate secondary clarifier parts of an activated sludge system. Genetic algorithms were used to successfully calibrate the settler mechanistic model, and neural networks were used to reduce the error between the mechanistic model output and real world data. Results of the modelling study show that the long term response of a one-dimensional settler mechanistic model calibrated by genetic algorithms and compared to full scale plant data can be improved by coupling the calibrated mechanistic model to as black-box model, such as a neural network. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Modelling the fate of ciprofloxacin in activated sludge systems - The relevance of the sorption process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang;

    H conditions, rather than reduced salt dosing, can be responsible for the decrease of ciprofloxacin sorption in the full-scale WWTP. The most accurate predictions were obtained for Freundlich parameter values of K=0.01 (μg(1-1/n) L1/n mg-1) and 1/n=1.33. A pH increase was therefore estimated to cause reduced....... In a previous study [1], a daily systematic reduction of ciprofloxacin removal in a full-scale WWTP (Bekkelaget, Norway) was associated to deteriorated sorption. Therefore, in this study we further investigated the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge at laboratory- and full-scale. Targeted batch...... experiments were performed to estimate sorption model parameters using Freundlich isotherms under specific pH and iron salt dosing (used for chemical phosphorus removal) conditions. We used the previously tested activated sludge framework model for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X) to assess the fate...

  15. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong;

    2015-01-01

    of one activated sludge reactor, two HybasTM reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been operated for 10 months, where after batch and continuous flow tests were performed for the degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first...... amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect of removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas train. In the continuous flow experiment......Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process, has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. Hybas...

  16. Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of factorial design optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel O. Cristóvão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydraulic retention time (HRT and initial organic matter concentration for dissolved organic carbon (DOC abatement of wastewater from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal by activated sludge was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. The two parameters were chosen since it was found that the treatment efficiency is mainly influenced by them. The experimental data on DOC removal were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using factorial design and RSM. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing the response surface of a three-dimensional plot and by solving the regression model equation. The obtained results showed a HRT of 6.4 h and an initial DOC of 406.2 mg/L as the best treatment conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted DOC removal was 88.0%, confirming the feasibility and the reliability of fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge for organic content removal.

  17. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Denitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1995-01-01

    wastewaters from fish, potato and onion industries all stimulated denitrification. Reject water from anaerobic treatment of excess sludge had no significant effect on the denitrification processes. For isobutyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acid the undissociated compounds appear to act as the inhibitor......The effect of volatile fatty acids and trimethylamine on denitrification activity of activated sludge was studied in laboratory batch experiments. Formic acid had no effect on the denitrification rates. Acetic acid, n-butyric acid and trimethylamine all enhanced the rates. Acetate is the compound...... with the strongest effect, n-butyric acid has a moderate effect, while TMA only have a small effect in stimulating the rates. Propionic, isobutyric, n-valeric, isovaleric and caproic acid inhibit denitrification, nitrate reduction being more inhibited than nitrite reduction. The inhibitor concentration, KI, at which...

  18. A site-specific curated database for the microorganisms of activated sludge and anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca;

    the composition and dynamics of the most abundant organisms. However, to understand the relationship between the population dynamics and operational parameters of the system, a functional role must be attributed to each organism. The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) and Anaerobic Digesters (AD......) presented here provides a site specific curated taxonomy for abundant and important microorganisms and integrates it into a community knowledge web platform about the microbes in activated sludge (AS) and their associated ADs (www.midasfieldguide.org). The MiDAS taxonomy, a manual curation of the SILVA...... taxonomy, proposes putative names for each genus-level-taxon that can be used as a common vocabulary for all researchers in the field. The online database covers >250 genera found to be abundant and/or important in biological nutrient removal treatment plants, based on extensive in-house surveys with 16S r...

  19. Newly isolated alkalophilic Advenella species bioaugmented in activated sludge for high p-cresol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenofontos, Eleni; Tanase, Ana-Maria; Stoica, Ileana; Vyrides, Ioannis

    2016-03-25

    In this work, an alkalophilic bacterium (LVX-4) capable of using p-cresol as sole source of carbon and energy was screened and isolated from soil polluted by used oil. Phylogenetic (16S rRNA) and phenotypic characterization using Biolog GN microplates and API 20NE strips indicated that LVX-4 strain is a new Advenella species. It showed both the capability to degrade of p-cresol at high concentrations (750 mg/L) and to use p-cresol for growth in a pH from 7 to 10, although the optimum pH was 9. Moreover bioaugmentation of activated sludge with this strain lead to the complete removal of p-cresol in less than 100 h. This is the first study that shows the potential of Advenella sp. to be bioaugmented in activated sludge system for p-cresol biodegradation. PMID:26596887

  20. Efficiency Study of Nickel (II and Cadmium (II Biosorption by Powder of Waste Activated Sludge from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackground and Objective: Nickel (II and cadmium (II are important in environmental pollutant. Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions because of the decrease in sludge problems, economical issues, high efficiency and compatibility with the environment."nMaterials and Methods: power of wasted activated sludge have been contact with nickel (II and cadmium (II solutions in 0.25 and 0.75 milli molar invarious pHs and mixing pace, at 24-26 0C temperature on batch reactor system .After two hours (continuously 5-420 min in kinetic study samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer."nResults:The kinetic study results show that equilibrium adsorption time for nickel (II and cadmium"n(II reached within 2 hr, but the profile curve of cadmium (II biosorption was smoother than nickel (II biosorption. Both metals adsorption followed the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax for nickel (II and cadmium (II was 0.195 and 0.37 milli mole per gram respectively. The increase in pH resulted in adsorption increase for both metals. For cadmium (II at 0.25 and 0.75 mMinitial concentration there was no adsorption at pH 2 where as nickel (0.25 mM adsorption was observed at the same pH. The optimum mixing rate for both metals was 200 rpm and this effect was more obviously in greater concentration."nConclusion: Like othe biosorbents ,wasted activated sludge showed greater capacity for cadmium(II biosorption than nickel (II. Cadmium (II in modeling and biosorption characteristics study had more conformity than nickel (II.

  1. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL ASDM PARAMETERS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATING IN THE SEQUENTIAL–FLOW TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calibration of activated sludge model with the use of computer program BioWin. Computer scheme has been developed on the basis of waste water treatment plant operating in the sequential – flow technology. For calibration of the activated sludge model data of influent and treated effluent from the existing object were used. As a result of conducted analysis was a change in biokinetic model and kinetic parameters parameters of wastewater treatment facilities. ...

  2. Parameter subset selection for the dynamic calibration of activated sludge models (ASMs): experience versus systems analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano, MV; Ribes, J; de Pauw, DJW;

    2007-01-01

    to describe nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the Haaren WWTP (The Netherlands). The parameter significance ranking shows that the temperature correction coefficients are among the most influential parameters on the model output. This outcome confronts the previous identifiability studies and the experience......). An appropriate combinations of both approaches is proposed which offers a realistic (doable) and sound approach for parameter subset selection in activated sludge modelling....

  3. Microbial community structure of activated sludge in treatment plants with different wastewater compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M.; George S Krasnov; Belova, Anastasia A.; Alexey A Dmitriev; Sergey eKharitonov; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Nataliya V. Melnikova; Anna V Kudryavtseva

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming was...

  4. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M.; George S Krasnov; Belova, Anastasia A.; Alexey A Dmitriev; Kharitonov, Sergey L.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Nataliya V. Melnikova; Anna V Kudryavtseva

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wa...

  5. Conversion of Agricultural Wastes to Biogas using as Inoculum Cattle Manure and Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Simina Neo; Teodor Vintilă; Marian Bura

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural wastes represent a large unexploited energy potential that could be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion. In the present study there has been analysed the way in which agricultural wastes are converted into biogas by using as inoculum cattle manure as compared with activated sludge. To carry out this experiment on small scale there have been designed 5 batch bottles. For the batch process all substrate was put into the bottles at start. The biogas process was initiated af...

  6. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia R.; Pinto J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be rem...

  7. The Removal of Composite Reactive Dye from Dyeing Unit Effluent Using Sewage Sludge Derived Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY, Sajjala SREEDHAR

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from dried municipal sewage sludge and batch mode adsorption experiments were conducted to study its potential to remove composite reactive dye from dyeing unit effluent. Adsorption parameters for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined and the effects of effluent pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. The toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP) was used to assess the acceptability of sewage ...

  8. Performance of Conventional Activated Sludge to Remove Nitrogen Compounds from Tomato Factory Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Meghdad Pirsaheb; Kiomars Sharafi; Golchin Rostami; Serveh Hosainie

    2012-01-01

    Today discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) to the surface water causing an Utrification phenomenon, will be due to excessive growth of algae in the receptive water source. Each of the of wastewater treatment system, providing principled design and operation can be reduced nutrients to standard level [1]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional activated sludge systems to remove nitrogen compounds from wa...

  9. Biological anoxic phosphorus removal in a continuous-flow external nitrification activated sludge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapagiannidis, A. G.; Aivasidis, A.

    2009-07-01

    Application of Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in wastewater treatment is necessitated for the protection of water bodies from eutrophication. an alternative BNR method is tested for simultaneous Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) removal in a continuous-flow bench scale plant for municipal wastewater treatment. The plant operation is based on the activity of two microbial populations which grow under different operational conditions (two sludge system). (Author)

  10. Ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion of dehydrated waste-activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashimada, Yutaka; Ohshima, Yasutaka; Minami, Hisao; Yabu, Hironori; Namba,Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi

    2008-01-01

    In repeated batch-wise thermophilic anaerobic digestion of dehydrated waste-activated sludge with 80% (w/w) water content (DWAS), although methane production reached 30 % of total organic carbon in DWAS in the first run of 15d, it gradually decreased and finally stopped in the subsequent runs together with an increase in ammonia concentration. When the loading of DWAS on anaerobic digestion was investigated, methane production at 30d significantly decreased with the increase in the amount of ...

  11. Insights into the amplification of bacterial resistance to erythromycin in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are significant reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance. However, little is known about wastewater treatment effects on the variation of antibiotic resistance. The shifts of bacterial resistance to erythromycin, a macrolide widely used in human medicine, on a lab-scale activated sludge system fed with real wastewater was investigated from levels of bacteria, community and genes, in this study. The resistance variation of total heterotrophic bacteria was studied during the biological treatment process, based on culture dependent method. The alterations of bacterial community resistant to erythromycin and nine typical erythromycin resistance genes were explored with molecular approaches, including high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that the total heterotrophs tolerance level to erythromycin concentrations (higher than 32 mg/L) was significantly amplified during the activated sludge treatment, with the prevalence increased from 9.6% to 21.8%. High-throughput sequencing results demonstrated an obvious increase of the total heterotrophic bacterial diversity resistant to erythromycin. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the two dominant phyla in the influent and effluent of the bioreactor. However, the prevalence of Proteobacteria decreased from 76% to 59% while the total phyla number increased greatly from 18 to 29 through activated sludge treatment. The gene proportions of erm(A), mef(E) and erm(D) were greatly amplified after biological treatment. It is proposed that the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes through the variable mixtures of bacteria in the activated sludge might be the reason for the antibiotic resistance amplification. The amplified risk of antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment needs to be paid more attention. PMID:25957255

  12. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted.

  13. Evaluation of aeration energy saving in two modified activated sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingyu; Lim, Honglae; Jung, Byunghun; Colosimo, Mark F; Kim, Hyunook

    2015-12-01

    A variety of modified activated sludge processes are widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing organics and nutrients (N and P). Since energy consumption in aeration basin accounts for the major part of the overall energy usage in WWTPs, efforts have been made to find ways to reduce aeration energy. In this study, two modified activated sludge processes in a pilot scale designed for nutrient removal were evaluated for the extent of energy saving: (1) ABA(2) process - adjusting air on/off period (i.e., with a temporal change); and (2) MB-A(2)O process - changing volume ratio of aerobic tank to anoxic tank (i.e., with a spatial change). For the 1st process, the air on/off period was fixed at 60min/45min with aerobic fraction being 0.57, while for the 2nd process, the aerobic/anoxic volume ratio was reduced from 0.58 to 0.42. The results demonstrate that the effluent COD, TN, NH4(+) and TP concentrations are acceptable while reduced aeration time/volume certainly saves significant energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is 1st attempt to reduce the aeration period or aeration volume to save the aeration energy in these two modified activated sludge processes. The implication of these observations is further discussed.

  14. Comparison of heavy metal removal efficiencies in four activated sludge processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 高定; 陈同斌; 雷梅; 郑国砥; 周小勇

    2015-01-01

    The removal efficiencies of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were investigated in the 17 operating municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and compared with those in four main activated sludge processes. Significant differences of heavy metal removal efficiencies were observed among four activated sludge processes. The removal efficiency for As (75.5%) in the oxidation ditch (OD) process is significantly higher than that in the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process (38.6%) or sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process (51.4%). The mean removal efficiencies for Cu and Ni in the OD process are 90.5% and 46.7%, respectively, while low mean removal efficiencies are observed for Cu (69.9%) and Ni (16.5%), respectively, in the SBR process. The removal efficiencies for Cu and Ni in the OD process are significantly higher than those in the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2-O) process. These results highlight the differences of removal efficiencies for heavy metals in different processes and should be considered when selecting a wastewater treatment process.

  15. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  16. Biofilms Versus Activated Sludge: Considerations in Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Removal from Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Connie; Zhang, Wen

    2016-08-16

    The increasing application of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in consumer products has led to a growth in concentration of these nanoparticles in wastewater as emerging contaminants. This may pose a threat to ecological communities (e.g., biological nutrient removal units) within treatment plants and those subject to wastewater effluents. Here, the toxicity, fate, and process implications of Me(O)NPs within wastewater treatment, specifically during activated sludge processing and biofilm systems are reviewed and compared. Research showed activated sludge achieves high removal rate of Me(O)NPs by the formation of aggregates through adsorption. However, recent literature reveals evidence that inhibition is likely for nutrient removal capabilities such as nitrification. Biofilm systems were much less studied, but show potential to resist Me(O)NP inhibition and achieve removal through possible retention by sorption. Implicating factors during bacteria-Me(O)NP interactions such as aggregation, surface functionalization, and the presence of organics are summarized. At current modeled levels, neither activated sludge nor biofilm systems can achieve complete removal of Me(O)NPs, thus allowing for long-term environmental exposure of diverse biological communities to Me(O)NPs in streams receiving wastewater effluents. Future research directions are identified throughout in order to minimize the impact of these nanoparticles released. PMID:27437755

  17. Stepwise calibration of the activated sludge model no. 1 at a partially denitrifying large wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C; Espinosa-Rodriguez, M A; Flores-Alamo, N; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Hooijmans, C M

    2011-11-01

    Activated sludge modeling technology is maturing; however, currently, there exists a great need to increase its use in daily engineering practice worldwide. A good way for building the capacities of the practitioners is to promote good modeling practices and standardize the protocols. In this study, a systematic procedure was proposed to calibrate the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) at a large wastewater treatment plant, by which the model adequately predicted the quality of the effluent and the sludge quantities. A hydraulics model was set up and validated through a tracer test. The Vesilind settling constants were measured and combined with the default value of the flocculent zone settling parameter, to calibrate the clarifiers. A virtual anoxic tank was installed in the return activated sludge to mimic the denitrification occurring in the settlers. In ASM1, the calibrated parameters were only two influent chemical oxygen demand fractions and one kinetic constant (oxygen half-saturation coefficient). PMID:22195426

  18. Back to Basics – The Influence of DNA Extraction and Primer Choice on Phylogenetic Analysis of Activated Sludge Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Karst, Søren Michael; Ziegler, Anja Sloth;

    2015-01-01

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in allmicrobial amplicon sequencing analyses. Although the biases are well known, no com- prehensive analysis has been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we systematically explored...... and metatranscriptomics. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization was used as a DNA extraction-independent method for qualitative comparison. In general, an effect on the observed community was found on all parameters tested, although bead beating and primer choice had the largest effect. The effect of bead...... the impact of a number of parameters on the observed microbial community: bead beating intensity, primer choice, extracellular DNA removal, and various PCR settings. In total, 176 samples were subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and selected samples were investigated throughmetagenomics...

  19. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  20. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  1. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  2. Removal of phenol by activated carbons prepared from palm oil mill effluent sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A. MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2006-01-01

    The study was attempted to produce activated carbons from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced was evaluated in aqueous solution of phenol. Two types of activation were followed, namely,thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃, and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment). A control (raw POME sludge) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced. The results indicated that the activation temperature of 800℃showed maximum absorption capacity by the activated carbon (POME 800) in aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon of POME 800. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption of phenol onto the activated carbon POME 800 was studied in terms of pseudo- first and second order kinetics to predict the rate constant and equilibrium capacity with the effect of initial phenol concentrations. The rate of adsorption was found to be better correlation for the pseudo-second order kinetics compared to the first order kinetics.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system by tracer experiment and analytical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F; Viedma, A; Kaiser, A S

    2016-09-15

    Fluid dynamic behaviour plays an important role in wastewater treatment. An efficient treatment requires the inexistence of certain hydraulic problems such as dead zones or short-circuiting flows. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis is an excellent technique for detecting these inefficiencies. However, many wastewater treatment installations include water or sludge recycling systems, which prevent us from carrying out a conventional tracer pulse experiment to obtain the RTD curve of the installation. This paper develops an RTD analysis of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system. A tracer experiment in the reactor is carried out. Three analytical models, derived from the conventional pulse model, are proposed to obtain the RTD curve of the reactor. An analysis of the results is made, studying which model is the most suitable for each situation. This paper is useful to analyse the hydraulic efficiency of reactors with recycling systems.

  4. Hydraulic characterization of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system by tracer experiment and analytical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F; Viedma, A; Kaiser, A S

    2016-09-15

    Fluid dynamic behaviour plays an important role in wastewater treatment. An efficient treatment requires the inexistence of certain hydraulic problems such as dead zones or short-circuiting flows. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis is an excellent technique for detecting these inefficiencies. However, many wastewater treatment installations include water or sludge recycling systems, which prevent us from carrying out a conventional tracer pulse experiment to obtain the RTD curve of the installation. This paper develops an RTD analysis of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system. A tracer experiment in the reactor is carried out. Three analytical models, derived from the conventional pulse model, are proposed to obtain the RTD curve of the reactor. An analysis of the results is made, studying which model is the most suitable for each situation. This paper is useful to analyse the hydraulic efficiency of reactors with recycling systems. PMID:27288672

  5. Effect of acclimation and nutrient supply on 5-tolyltriazole biodegradation with activated sludge communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Bastian; Yuan, Heyang; Lemmer, Hilde; Horn, Harald; Müller, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    The corrosion inhibitor 5-tolyltriazole (5-TTri) can have a detrimental impact on aquatic systems thus implying an acute need to reduce the effluent concentrations of 5-TTri. In this study, 5-TTri biodegradation was enhanced through acclimation and nutrient supply. Activated sludge communities (ASC) were setup in nine subsequent ASC generations. While generation two showed a lag phase of five days without biodegradation, generations four to nine utilized 5-TTri right after inoculation, with biodegradation rates from 3.3 to 5.2 mg L(-1)d(-1). Additionally, centrifuged AS supernatant was used to simulate the nutrient conditions in wastewater. This sludge supernatant (SS) significantly enhanced biodegradation, resulting in removal rates ranging from 3.2 to 5.0 mg L(-1)d(-1) without acclimation while the control groups without SS observed lower rates of ⩽ 2.2 mg L(-1)d(-1). PMID:24841493

  6. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Yp/s) was highest (0.184 g g-1 COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  7. Effects of various pretreatments on biological sulfate reduction with waste activated sludge as electron donor and waste activated sludge diminution under biosulfidogenic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study focused on the influences of various pretreatments, including alkaline, ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments on biological sulfate reduction with waste activated sludge (WAS) as sole electron donor. Our results showed that thermal and ultrasonic pretreatments increased the sulfate reduction percentage by 14.8% and 7.1%, respectively, compared with experiment with raw WAS, while alkaline pretreatment decreased the sulfate reduction percentage by 46%. By analyzing the WAS structure, particle size distribution, organic component, and enzyme activity after different pretreatments, we studied the effects of these pretreatments on WAS as well as on the mechanisms of how biological sulfate reduction was affected. The reduction of WAS and variation of WAS structure in the process of sulfate reduction were investigated. Our results showed that biosulfidogenesis was an efficient method of diminishing WAS, and various pretreatments could enhance the reduction efficiency of volatile solid in the WAS.

  8. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be removed. Sludge removal represents the major operating costs for wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work is to propose an optimization model to minimize sludge generation using a superstructure in which the streams from pumping-stations can be sent to the equalization tank. In addition, the aeration tank is divided into cells that can be fed in series and parallel. The model relies on mass balances, kinetic equations, and the resulting Nonlinear Programming problem generates the best operational strategy for the system feed streams with a high substrate removal. Reductions of up to 30 % can be achieved with the proposed strategy maintened BOD efficiency removal upper than 98 %.

  9. Comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle via activated sludge, microalgae and combination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinli; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-07-01

    Algal-bacterial synergistic cultivation could be an optional wastewater treatment technology in temperate areas. In this study, a locally screened vigorous Chlorella strain was characterized and then it was used in a comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle assessment via activated sludge (AS), microalgae and their combination systems. Chlorella sp. cultured with AS in light showed the best performance, in which case the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TP were 87.3%, 99.2% and 83.9%, respectively, within a short period of 1day. Algal-bacterial combination in light had the best settleability. Chlorella sp. contained biomass, could be processed to feed, fertilizer or fuel due to the improved quality (higher C/H/N) compared with sludge. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that two types of rhizobacteria, namely, Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium hauense were enriched in sludge when cultured with algae in light, serving as the basics for artificial consortium construction for improved wastewater treatment. PMID:26995615

  10. The biotransformation of ibuprofen to trihydroxyibuprofen in activated sludge and by Variovorax Ibu-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Robert W; Hay, Anthony G

    2015-04-01

    A bacterium was isolated from activated sewage sludge that has the ability to use ibuprofen as its sole carbon and energy source. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the strain in the Variovorax genus within the β-proteobacteria. When grown on ibuprofen it accumulated a transient yellow intermediate that disappeared upon acidification, a trait consistent with meta ring-fission metabolites. GC/MS analysis of derivatized culture supernatant yielded two spectra consistent with trihydroxyibuprofen bearing all three hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring. These metabolites were only detected when 3-fluorocatechol, a meta ring-fission inhibitor, was added to Ibu-1 cultures and the supernatant was then derivatized with aqueous acetic anhydride and diazomethane. These findings suggest the possibility of ibuprofen metabolism proceeding via a trihydroxyibuprofen meta ring-fission pathway. Identical spectra, consistent with these putative ring-hydroxylated trihydroxyibuprofen metabolites, were also obtained from ibuprofen-spiked sewage sludge, but only when it was poisoned with 3-fluorocatechol. The presence of the same trihydroxylated metabolites in both spiked sewage sludge and culture supernatants suggests that this trihydroxyibuprofen extradiol ring-cleavage pathway for the degradation of ibuprofen may have environmental relevance.

  11. The Microbial Database for Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal (MiDas-DK) – a tool for understanding activated sludge population dynamics and community stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Larsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    , analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge......Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called ‘The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)’. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected...... ecosystems, and, besides many scientific articles on fundamental issues on mixed communities encompassing nitrifiers, denitrifiers, bacteria involved in P-removal, hydrolysis, fermentation, and foaming, the project has provided results that can be used to optimize the operation of full-scale plants and carry...

  12. Updated activated sludge model number 1 parameter values for improved prediction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge processes: validation at 13 full-scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, Jean-Marc; Stricker, Anne-Emmanuelle; Marquot, Aurélien; Racault, Yvan; Gillot, Sylvie; Héduit, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model number 1 (ASM1) is the main model used in simulation projects focusing on nitrogen removal. Recent laboratory-scale studies have found that the default values given 20 years ago for the decay rate of nitrifiers and for the heterotrophic biomass yield in anoxic conditions were inadequate. To verify the relevance of the revised parameter values at full scale, a series of simulations were carried out with ASM1 using the original and updated set of parameters at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The simulation results were compared with data collected at 13 full-scale nitrifying-denitrifying municipal treatment plants. This work shows that simulations using the original ASM1 default parameters tend to overpredict the nitrification rate and underpredict the denitrification rate. The updated set of parameters allows more realistic predictions over a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:19860142

  13. Degradation of malathion by Pseudomonas during activated sludge treatment system using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hashmi Imran; Khan M Altaf; Kim Jong-Guk

    2006-01-01

    Popular descriptive multivariate statistical method currently employed is the principal component analyses (PCA) method.PCA is used to develop linear combinations that successively maximize the total variance of a sample where there is no known group structure. This study aimed at demonstrating the performance evaluation of pilot activated sludge treatment system by inoculating a strain of Pseudomonas capable of degrading malathion which was isolated by enrichment technique. An intensive analytical program was followed for evaluating the efficiency of biosimulator by maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 4.0 mg/L.Analyses by high performance liquid chromatographic technique revealed that 90% of malathion removal was achieved within 29 h of treatment whereas COD got reduced considerably during the treatment process and mean removal efficiency was found to be 78%.The mean pH values increased gradually during the treatment process ranging from 7.36-8.54. Similarly the mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) values were found to be fluctuating between 19.425-28.488 mg/L, mean nitrite-nitrogen (NO3-N) ranging between 1.301-2.940 mg/L and mean nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) ranging between 0.0071-0.0711 mg/L. The study revealed that inoculation of bacterial culture under laboratory conditions could be used in bioremediation of environmental pollution caused by xenobiotics. The PCA analyses showed that pH, COD, organic load and total malathion concentration were highly correlated and emerged as the variables controlling the first component, whereas dissolved oxygen, NO3-N and NH3-N govemed the second component. The third component repeated the trend exhibited by the first two components.

  14. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  15. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10-3 Ci/m3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10-3 Ci/m3, detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  16. Occurrence of fungi degrading aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge biocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grabińska-Łoniewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of 21 strains of yeast-like microorganisms isolated from biocenoses of aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems were assayed for their ability to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole C-source. Basing on the achieved results, the highly biochemically active strains for application in enhancing of wastewaters and exhaust gases purification as well as soil bioremediation were selected.

  17. Activated sludge morphology characterization through an image analysis procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Perez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a digital image analysis procedure to characterize microbial flocs obtained in three different WWTP: a bench-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR dealing with phenol and nitrogen biological removal, a municipal treatment unit (Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and an industrial wastewater treatment plant (Ciba - Estrada do Colégio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The developed procedure permits to obtain its morphological parameters like equivalent diameter, compactness, roundness and porosity properties as well as the fractal dimension. This procedure was validated and lead to identify the major relationships between the analysed morphological parameters. A minimum of 300 flocs should be included in the image analysis and a significant influence of the sample dilution step on the mean size of the flocs was verified. The porosity parameter positively correlated with the fractal dimension of microbial aggregates indicating the that highly porous flocs are very irregular.

  18. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system.

  19. Back to basics – the influence of DNA extraction and primer choice on phylogenetic analysis in activated sludge communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Karst, Søren Michael; Ziegler, Anja Sloth;

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in all phylogenetic analyses. Although the biases are well known, no comprehensive analysis have been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we investigated the effect of bead beating...... intensity and primer choice on the observed community using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was used as a DNA extraction independent method to evaluate the results. The bead beating intensity correlated with cell-wall strength and showed...... that the manufacture recommended settings were insufficient to retrieve a large part of the community. In addition, the in silico “best” primer set was found to greatly underestimate a number of important phyla when compared to qFISH results. The findings underline the need for sample specific and DNA extraction...

  20. Metaproteomics Applied to Activated Sludge for Industrial Wastewater Treatment Revealed a Dominant Methylotrophic Metabolism of Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carlo; Benndorf, Dirk; Kluge, Sabine; Palese, Luigi Leonardo; Reichl, Udo; Pollice, Alfieri

    2016-07-01

    In biological wastewater treatments, microbial populations of the so-called activated sludge work together in the abatement of pollutants. In this work, the metabolic behavior of the biomass of a lab-scale plant treating industrial pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated through a metaproteomic approach. The complete treatment process included a membrane biological reactor (MBR) coupled with an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for partial breakdown of non-biodegradable molecules. Proteins from biomass samples collected pre- and post-AOP application were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and finally identified by database search. Results showed that most proteins remained constant between pre- and post-AOP. Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) belonging to Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii appeared as the most constantly expressed protein in the studied consortium. Other identified proteins belonging to Hyphomicrobium spp. revealed a predominant methylotrophic metabolism, and H. zavarzinii appeared as a key actor in the studied microbial community. PMID:27090901

  1. Cadmium uptake by wheat from sewage sludge used as a plant nutrient source: a comparative study using flameless atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnman, L.; Andersson, A.; Nilsson, K.O.; Lind, B.; Kjellstroem, T.; Friberg, L.

    1973-07-01

    Wheat has been grown in test pots at four different sewage sludge concentrations and three different pH levels in order to study the cadmium uptake from sewage sludge. The sludge contained 10 parts per million (ppm) cadmium, which is below the average cadmium concentration in sludge from Swedish sewage sludge plants. The analysis of cadmium in wheat has been performed by two methods, atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis, and good agreement was found between results from the methods. The results show that the cadmium uptake increases strongly with increasing sewage sludge concentrations. It can be concluded beyond any doubt that cadmium from sewage sludge used as a plant nutrient source is resorbed by plants. The pH of the soil was found to be of great importance for the uptake of cadmium. Lower pH gave greater cadmium uptake. 7 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. ATP as an indicator of biomass activity in thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This work investigated the biomass activity in a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor of wastewater treatment. Synthetic textile wastewater with pH 10-11, COD level of 2000-3000 mg/L was tested. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in volatile solids (VS; mg ATP/gVS) was measured and expressed as specific ATP content to compare the biomass activity in up zone and lower zone in UASB reactor. The result shows that the specific ATP content based on total volatile solids (VS)in lower zone (0. 046 mgATP/gVS average) is much lower than that in up zone (0.62 mgATP/gVS average) due to high content of inactive biomass and high pH in lower zone. The SATP in up zone increases as HRT increases and approaches to a maximum value of 0.85 mgATP/gVS at HRT of 7h, then decreases. It shows most of the total VS in up zone represent active bacterial biomass at HRT of 7h. Rate of subtract utilization is directly related to the activity of microorganisms in the reactor. The effect of HRT on SATP in lower zone is not as significant as on SATP in up zone. The buffer capacity of the thermophilic UASB reactor is very good. It is the activity of sludge granules in lower zone that give the UASB reactor such a good buffer capacity to the inlet high pH.

  3. Identification of biotransformation products of citalopram formed in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretsou, Vasiliki G; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Aalizadeh, Reza; Fenner, Kathrin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-10-15

    Citalopram (CTR) is a worldwide highly consumed antidepressant which has demonstrated incomplete removal by conventional wastewater treatment. Despite its global ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments, little is known about its behaviour and transformation processes during wastewater treatment. The present study aims to expand the knowledge on fate and transformation of CTR during the biological treatment process. For this purpose, batch reactors were set up to assess biotic, abiotic and sorption losses of this compound. One of the main objectives of the study was the identification of the formed transformation products (TPs) by applying suspect and non-target strategies based on liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The complementary use of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for the identification of polar TPs, and the application of in-house developed quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) prediction models, in addition to the comprehensive evaluation of the obtained MS/MS spectra, provided valuable information to support identification. In total, fourteen TPs were detected and thirteen of them were tentatively identified. Four compounds were confirmed (N-desmethylCTR, CTR amide, CTR carboxylic acid and 3-oxo-CTR) through the purchase of the corresponding reference standard. Probable structures based on diagnostic evidence were proposed for the additional nine TPs. Eleven TPs are reported for the first time. A transformation pathway for the biotransformation of CTR was proposed. The presence of the identified TPs was assessed in real wastewater samples through retrospective analysis, resulting in the detection of five compounds. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by CTR and its TPs to different trophic levels of aquatic organisms was evaluated by means of risk quotients. PMID:27459150

  4. Addition of polyaluminiumchloride (PACl) to waste activated sludge to mitigate the negative effects of its sticky phase in dewatering-drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Dewil, Raf; Vernimmen, Luc; Van den Bogaert, Benno; Smets, Ilse Y

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new application of polyaluminiumchloride (PACl) as a conditioner for waste activated sludge prior its dewatering and drying. It is demonstrated at lab scale with a shear test-based protocol that a dose ranging from 50 to 150 g PACl/kg MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids) mitigates the stickiness of partially dried sludge with a dry solids content between 25 and 60 %DS (dry solids). E.g., at a solids dryness of 46% DS the shear stress required to have the pre-consolidated sludge slip over a steel surface is reduced with 35%. The salient feature of PACl is further supported by torque data from a full scale decanter centrifuge used to dewater waste sludge. The maximal torque developed by the screw conveyor inside the decanter centrifuge is substantially reduced with 20% in the case the sludge feed is conditioned with PACl. The beneficial effect of waste sludge conditioning with PACl is proposed to be the result of the bound water associated with the aluminium polymers in PACl solutions which act as a type of lubrication for the intrinsically sticky sludge solids during the course of drying. It can be anticipated that PACl addition to waste sludge will become a technically feasible and very effective method to avoid worldwide fouling problems in direct sludge dryers, and to reduce torque issues in indirect sludge dryers as well as in sludge decanter centrifuges.

  5. Biosorption of copper (II) ions from synthetic aqueous solutions by drying bed activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaissa, H., E-mail: ho_benaissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Sorbent Materials and Water Treatment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Elouchdi, M.A. [Laboratory of Sorbent Materials and Water Treatment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Dried activated sludge has been investigated for the removal of copper ions from aqueous synthetic solutions, in batch conditions. {yields} Copper uptake was time contact, initial copper concentration, initial pH solution and copper salt type dependent. {yields} Maximum copper uptake obtained was q{sub m} = 62.50 mg/g (0.556 mmol/g) under the investigated experimental conditions. - Abstract: In the present work, the usefulness of dried activated sludge has been investigated for the removal of copper ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Kinetic data and equilibrium sorption isotherm were measured in batch conditions. The influence of some parameters such as: contact time, initial copper concentration, initial pH of solution and copper salt nature on copper biosorption kinetics has been studied. Copper uptake was time contact, initial copper concentration, initial pH solution and copper salt type dependent. Maximum copper sorption was found to occur at initial pH 5. Two simplified kinetic models including a first-order rate equation and a pseudo second-order rate equation were selected to describe the biosorption kinetics. The process followed a pseudo second-order rate kinetics. The process mechanism was found to be complex, consisting of external mass transfer and intraparticle mass transfer diffusion. Copper biosorption process was particle-diffusion-controlled, with some predominance of some external mass transfer at the initial stages for the different experimental parameters studied. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe sorption equilibrium data at natural pH of solution. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich model. Maximum copper uptake obtained was q{sub m} = 62.50 mg/g (0.556 mmol/g) under the investigated experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray energy dispersed analysis for copper-equilibrated dried activated sludge

  6. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Litty, Klaus; Christensson, Magnus; Kragelund, Caroline; Andersen, Henrik R; Bester, Kai

    2015-10-15

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted during 10 months of continuous operation. After this adaption phase batch and continuous experiments were performed for the determination of degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly. The removal of pharmaceuticals (including X-ray contrast media, β-blockers, analgesics and antibiotics) was fitted to a single first-order kinetics degradation function, giving degradation rate constants from 0 to 1.49 h(-1), from 0 to 7.78 × 10(-1)h(-1), from 0 to 7.86 × 10(-1)h(-1) and from 0 to 1.07 × 10(-1)h(-1) for first, second, third and fourth reactors respectively. Generally, the highest removal rate constants were found in the first and third reactors while the lowest were found in the second one. When the removal rate constants were normalized to biomass amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect to removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas™ train. In the continuous flow experiments, the measured removals were similar to those estimated from the batch experiments, but the concentrations of a few pharmaceuticals appeared to increase during the first treatment step. Such increase

  7. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g CODrem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  8. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  9. Adsorption of reactive brilliant red K-2BP on activated carbon developed from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankun XIE; Qinyan YUE; Hui YU; Wenwen YUE; Renbo LI; Shengxiao ZHANG; Xiaona WANG

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from the sewage sludge of municipal wastewater treatment plant by chemical activation (activation reagent is ZnCl2) and was used for the adsorption of dye (reactive brilliant red K-2BP). The impact of adsorbent amount, adsorption time and pH value on adsorption effect, the adsorption kinetics, and the adsorption thermodynamics were dis-cussed according to batch adsorption tests. The results indicated that the activated carbon developed from sewage sludge (ACSS), which was mesoporous, possessed opened porous structures. The iodine number of the ACSS was heavy metals in the leachate didn't exceed the contents limit. The adsorption kinetics of reactive brilliant red K-2BP on the ACSS was accorded with the two-step kinetics rate equation and pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Compared to the Freundlich isotherm equation, the Langmuir isotherm equation showed better applicability for the adsorption. The adsorption which was favorable was an endothermic (enthalpy △H > 0) and spontaneous (flee energy △G 0).

  10. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  11. Comparative study of phenol and cyanide containing wastewater in CSTR and SBR activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, C A; Samaras, P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the examination of the performance of two bench scale activated sludge systems, a conventional Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR) and a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), for the treatment of wastewaters containing phenol and cyanides and the assessment of the toxicity reduction potential by bioassays. The operation of the reactors was monitored by physicochemical analyses, while detoxification potential of the systems was monitored by two bioassays, the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The reactors influent was highly toxic to both organisms, while activated sludge treatment resulted in the reduction of toxicity of the influent. An increased toxicity removal was observed in the SBR; however CSTR system presented a lower ability for toxicity reduction of influent. The performance of both systems was enhanced by the addition of powdered activated carbon in the aeration tank; activated carbon upgraded the performance of the systems due to the simultaneous biological removal of pollutants and to carbon adsorption process; almost negligible values of phenol and cyanides were measured in the effluents, while further toxicity reduction was observed in both systems.

  12. Thermo-alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge at low-temperatures: effects on sludge disintegration, methane production, and methanogen community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Yu, Youngseob; Lee, Changsoo

    2013-09-01

    Low-temperature thermo-alkaline pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) was studied, within the region of 0-0.2 M NaOH and 60-90°C, for the effects of NaOH concentration and temperature on sludge degradability in anaerobic digestion (AD). Significant disintegration of sludge solids (up to 75.6%) and an increase in methane production (up to 70.6%) were observed in the pretreatment trials. Two quadratic models were successfully generated by response surface analysis (R(2)>0.9, pmethane production (MP) respond to changes in the pretreatment conditions. The maximum responses of SD (77.8%) and MP (73.9% increase over the control) were shown at [0.16 M NaOH, 90°C] and [0.10 M NaOH, 73.7°C], respectively. NaOH addition showed a significant influence on the evolution of methanogen community structure during AD, whereas temperature did not. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina speceies were likely the major methanogens.

  13. EFFECT OF HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF 2.4-DCP ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Uysal; Ayşen TÜRKMAN

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP) was investigated with a mixed culture in a continuous activated sludge bioreactor. Glucose was used as co-substrate. Experiments were carried out at the feed 2.4-DCP concentrations between 5-450 mg/l, and the removal efficiencies of 2.4-DCP and COD were determined. The removal efficiencies and specific removal rates of 2.4-DCP for feed 2.4-DCP concentration up to 350 mg/l varied between 96.3-98.6 % and 0.007-1.15 mg/mg X.day respectively. Removal...

  14. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from activated sludge system; Eliminacion biologica del fosfor en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidre Bocardo, J. R.; Toja Santillana, J.; Alonso Alvarez, E. [Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    A literature review of enhanced biological phosphorus removal was performed. This biological removal is based on the selective enrichment of bacteria accumulating inorganic polyphosphate, obtained at a cyclic regime of alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions; or anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones for combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Some bacterial groups may to be implicate in this process, the gen Acinetobacter has been the most studied. In this paper a study of phosphorate forms from wastewater for a conventional activated sludge system is presented. (Author) 40 refs.

  15. Comparative study between activated sludge versus membrane bioreactor for textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena; Crespi Rosell, Martin; Salazar Cano, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experimental work was to evaluate the carbonaceous constituents in textile wastewater, and the infl uence of slowly biodegradable products, also to compare two processes: Membrane bioreactor (MBR) and activated sludge (AS) for treating textile wastewater. The MBR pilot plant includes an aerobic reactor of 50 l, and membranes of micro and ultra fi ltration, the AS pilot plant has an aerobic reactor of 4 l. The processes were run 3 times over 244 d, with the same relative F/M an...

  16. Stoichiometric deduction of activated sludge process for organic carbon and nitrogen removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-yong; ZOU Lian-pei

    2009-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment method. The ASP for the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen can be looked as the combination of eight processes. In order to set up an ASP model, the stoichiometric coefficients should be deduced so that the stoichiometric matrix can be presented. The important assumptions and simplifications behind the model for ASP are enumerated. Using the matrix, mass balance equation and consistent units, the stoichiometric coefficients in the eight processes are exclusively deduced one by one.

  17. Evaluation of the persistence of micropollutants through pure-oxygen activated sludge nitrification and denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kish, G.

    2006-01-01

    The persistence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and household and industrial chemicals through a pure-oxygen activated sludge, nitrification, denitrification wastewater treatment facility was evaluated. Of the 125 micropollutants that were tested in this study, 55 compounds were detected in the untreated wastewater, and 27 compounds were detected in the disinfected effluent. The persistent compounds included surfactants, fire-retardant chemicals, pesticides, fragrance compounds, hormones, and one pharmaceutical. Physical-chemical properties of micropollutants that affected partitioning onto wastewater solids included vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficients.

  18. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica [Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Chhetri, Ravi Kumar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ooi, Gordon [Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Litty, Klaus [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Allé 29, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Christensson, Magnus [AnoxKaldnes, Klosterängsvägen 11A, 226 47 Lund (Sweden); Kragelund, Caroline [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Allé 29, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bester, Kai, E-mail: kb@envs.au.dk [Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted during 10 months of continuous operation. After this adaption phase batch and continuous experiments were performed for the determination of degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly. The removal of pharmaceuticals (including X-ray contrast media, β-blockers, analgesics and antibiotics) was fitted to a single first-order kinetics degradation function, giving degradation rate constants from 0 to 1.49 h{sup −1}, from 0 to 7.78 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1}, from 0 to 7.86 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1} and from 0 to 1.07 × 10{sup −1} h{sup −1} for first, second, third and fourth reactors respectively. Generally, the highest removal rate constants were found in the first and third reactors while the lowest were found in the second one. When the removal rate constants were normalized to biomass amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect to removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas™ train. In the continuous flow experiments, the measured removals were similar to those estimated from the batch experiments, but the concentrations of a few pharmaceuticals appeared to increase

  19. MiDAS: A curated database for the microorganisms of activated sludge and anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca;

    A deep understanding of the microbial communities and dynamics in wastewater treatment systems is a powerful tool for process optimization and design (Rittmann et al., 2006). With the advent of amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the diversity within the microbial communities can now...... web platform about the microbes in activated sludge and their associated ADs. The MiDAS taxonomy proposes putative names for each genus-level-taxon that can be used as a common vocabulary for all researchers in the field....

  20. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted during 10 months of continuous operation. After this adaption phase batch and continuous experiments were performed for the determination of degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly. The removal of pharmaceuticals (including X-ray contrast media, β-blockers, analgesics and antibiotics) was fitted to a single first-order kinetics degradation function, giving degradation rate constants from 0 to 1.49 h−1, from 0 to 7.78 × 10−1 h−1, from 0 to 7.86 × 10−1 h−1 and from 0 to 1.07 × 10−1 h−1 for first, second, third and fourth reactors respectively. Generally, the highest removal rate constants were found in the first and third reactors while the lowest were found in the second one. When the removal rate constants were normalized to biomass amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect to removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas™ train. In the continuous flow experiments, the measured removals were similar to those estimated from the batch experiments, but the concentrations of a few pharmaceuticals appeared to increase during the first treatment step. Such

  1. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from “negative removal” to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological risk to algae. Therefore, further control of PhACs in effluent and sludge is required before their discharge and application to prevent their introduction into the environment. - Highlights: • All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and 18 in sludge. • The removal of PhACs was insignificant in

  2. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Qing, E-mail: qyan2005@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environments of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); College of Geography Science and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047 (China); Gao, Xu, E-mail: gaoxu@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environments of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Chen, You-Peng [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environments of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 401122 (China); Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environments of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Guo, Jin-Song [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environments of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 401122 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from “negative removal” to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H{sub 2}O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant

  3. Characteristics of STP Pre-2004 Archived KE Basin Sludge Samples Before and After Re-Jarring in the RPL - April 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2012-09-28

    This report describes results of work performed in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory (SAL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) with archive K East (KE) Basin sludge samples obtained before the year 2004, with some of them composited and initially characterized five years ago (Delegard et al. 2011). The previously performed testing included the physical properties determinations for selected samples (settled and particle densities, water and solids concentrations), the pH, as well as identification of crystalline phases by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for selected samples. Another objective of the previous characterization and testing campaign was to transfer some sludge composites and individual samples into new storage containers to overcome the embrittlement effect which develops in original glass containers as a result of extended exposure to high radiation fields and which increases probability of sample loss.

  4. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity and availability of various P fractions for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in some calcareous soils amended with municipal sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raeisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship of various P fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity with bean indices growing in 10 calcareous soils, amended with municipal sewage sludge from Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, a greenhouse research was carried out. Soil samples were incubated for one month with sludge at a rate equivalent to 1% (w/w. Then, the P fractions, including P adsorbed by Fe and Al oxides (]NaOH+CB]-P, occluded P (CBD-P and P absorbed by Ca (HCl-P, were determined by Olsen and Summers' sequential fractionation procedure. Furthermore, total P, organic P and residual P were determined. Also, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured. A pot experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications in the ten soils was done to evaluate the bean plant indices. The results showed that the amount of P fractions decreased in the following order: HCl-P>residual-P>]NaOH+CB]-P > OP>CBD-P. The results also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with CBD-P fraction, organic P and total P. In addition, significant correlations were found between ([NaOH+CB]-P and HCl-P and plant shoots. In general, the results of this research showed that P fractionation method appears to be a powerful tool to identify the P status and availability in the soils amended with sewage sludge.

  5. Identification of selected microorganisms from activated sludge capable of benzothiazole and benzotriazole transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Felis, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Benzothiazole (BT) and benzotriazole (BTA) are present in the environment - especially in urban and industrial areas, usually as anthropogenic micropollutants. BT and BTA have been found in the municipal and industrial wastewater, rivers, soil, groundwater, sediments and sludge. The origins of those substances' presence in the environment are various industry branches (food, chemical, metallurgical, electrical), households and surface runoff from industrial areas. Increasingly strict regulations on water quality and the fact that the discussed compounds are poorly biodegradable, make them a serious problem in the environment. Considering this, it is important to look for environmentally friendly and socially acceptable ways to remove BT and BTA. The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms capable of BT and BTA transformation or/and degradation in aquatic environment. Selected microorganisms were isolated from activated sludge. The identification of microorganisms capable of BT and BTA removal was possible using molecular biology techniques (PCR, DNA sequencing). Among isolated microorganisms of activated sludge are bacteria potentially capable of BT and BTA biotransformation and/or removal. The most common bacteria capable of BT and BTA transformation were Rhodococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp. They can grow in a medium with BT and BTA as the only carbon source. Microorganisms previously adapted to the presence of the studied substances at a concentration of 10 mg/l, showed a greater rate of growth of colonies on media than microorganisms unconditioned to the presence of such compounds. Results of the biodegradation test suggest that BT was degraded to a greater extent than BTA, 98-100% and 11-19%, respectively. PMID:26641641

  6. Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids by Activated Sludge Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Mihálková, Adriána; Šergovičová, Magdaléna; Guoth, Alexander; Nádašská, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate toxicity of metalworking fluids to bacterial consortium of activated sludge according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) and a potential of the same sludge to degrade a part of the fluids according to OECD 302B. Toxic impact can affect different responses, particularly the inhibition of respiration measured from the oxygen consumption in a closed bottle. The degradation rate was calculated from COD according to the authors such as van der Gast and Ian Thompson (1, 2) who tested the degradability of some MWFs in bioreactors by measuring the COD. The lowest toxic MWF's were Cimstar 597 and Emulzin H (the highest tested concentration was below EC50), then Zubora TXS (EC50 - 11 349 mg l-1), Aquamet LAK-E (EC50 - 5 228 mg l-1), Adrana D 407 (EC50 - 4 351 mg l-1) followed, and finally, Hocut 3380 (EC50 - 2 339 mg l-1) was assessed as the most toxic. Important in this test (OECD 302B) is that the starting concentration of the tested substance must not decrease below 20% after 3 hours of cultivating. After that, it is impossible to distinguish biological degradation of organic matter from abiotic elimination from the suspension through adsorption. Tested were 8 MWFs of similar concentration and different addition of activated sludge - 0.25 g l-1, 0.50 g l-1 and 1.00 g l-1. The test showed that, after the first 3 hours of cultivating, adsorption grew with the increasing amount of inoculums, except of Akvol B (the decrease of the starting concentration after the first 3 hours of cultivating was the lowest of all and below 20%). It can be stated that, according to the test basic conditions, all the tested MWFs have a potential to ultimate degradation.

  7. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  8. Impact of activated sludge process configuration on removal of micropollutants and estrogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlaja, O O; Parker, W J

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of three different wastewater treatment configurations, conventional activated sludge (CAS), nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) and biological nutrient removal (BNR) for removal of selected micropollutants from authentic wastewater was investigated. The processes were also characterized based on their proficiency to reduce the estrogenic activity of the influent wastewater using the in vitro recombinant yeast assay. The removal efficiency of trimethoprim improved with the complexity of the three treatment process configurations. Ibuprofen, androstendione, sulfamethoxazole, nonyl-phenol, estrone and bisphenol-A had moderate to high removals (>65%) while carbamazepine and meprobamate remained recalcitrant in the three treatment process configurations. The removal of gemfibrozil was better in the NAS than in BNR and CAS treatment configurations. The yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay analyses showed an improvement in estrogenicity removal in the BNR and NAS treatment configurations as compared to the CAS treatment configuration. Comparing the estrogenic responses from the three treatment configurations, the removal efficiencies followed the order of BNR=NAS>CAS and all were greater than 81%. PMID:26177411

  9. Fate of xenobiotic compounds and plants activity in reed bed sludge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauli, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan;

    Sludge reed beds have been used for dewatering (draining and evapotranspiration) and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. Although reed beds are considered as a low cost and low contamination method in reducing volume, breaking down organic matter and increasing the density of sludge....... A mass balance calculating showed that

  10. Determination of heavy metals in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of heavy metals in sludge has been investigated. The sludge was separated from waste water sewage by precipitation. The heavy metals analysis has been done using neutron activation (NAA) and x-ray fluorescence. The existence of some metals (Cu, Fe, Ca, K, and Ti) is very important for plants. Otherwise, Pb and Cr had polluted the environment. The results are compared with sheep dung, rubbish and cow dung that are used as natural fertilizer. It is found that the sludge has a low concentration of heavy metals than other. Tow standard samples derived from IAEA have been analyzed with our samples. It is found that our sludge contains some concentration of heavy metals less than the standard. It is found that the increase of Cu and Zn concentration due to uses of pesticides. (author)

  11. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL ASDM PARAMETERS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATING IN THE SEQUENTIAL–FLOW TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calibration of activated sludge model with the use of computer program BioWin. Computer scheme has been developed on the basis of waste water treatment plant operating in the sequential – flow technology. For calibration of the activated sludge model data of influent and treated effluent from the existing object were used. As a result of conducted analysis was a change in biokinetic model and kinetic parameters parameters of wastewater treatment facilities. The presented method of study of the selected parameters impact on the activated sludge biokinetic model (including autotrophs maximum growth rate, the share of organic slurry in suspension general operational, efficiency secondary settling tanks can be used for conducting simulation studies of other treatment plants.

  12. Response of aerobic granular sludge to the long-term presence to nanosilver in sequencing batch reactors: Reactor performance, sludge property, microbial activity and community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) raises concerns about their potential toxic effects on the environment. Granular shape sludge is a special type of microbial aggregate. The response of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) to the long-term presence of Ag NPs has not been well studied. In this study, AGS was exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L Ag NPs in sequence batch reactors (SBRs) for 69 days, and its response was evaluated based on the sludge properties, microbial activity and community, and reactor performance. The results showed that Ag NPs caused inhibition to microbial activities of AGS from Day 35. At the end of 69 days of Ag NPs exposure, the microbial activity of AGS was significantly inhibited in terms of inhibitions of the ammonia oxidizing rate (33.0%), respiration rate (17.7% and 45.6%) and denitrification rate (6.8%), as well as decreases in the ammonia mono-oxygenase and nitrate reductase activities. During the long-term exposure, the AGS maintained its granular shape and large granule size (approximately 900 μm); the microbial community of AGS slightly changed, but the dominant microbial population remained. Overall, the AGS tolerated the toxicity of Ag NPs well, but a long-term exposure may produce chronic toxicity to the AGS, which is concerning. - Highlights: • AGS demonstrated a good tolerance to the long-term presence of Ag NPs. • Ag NPs did not produce acute toxicity but cause chronic toxicity to AGS. • AGS maintained granular shape, granule size and good settling ability. • The microbial community of AGS slightly changed after long-term Ag NPs exposure

  13. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient...... viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through...... and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational...

  14. Start-up of the anammox process from the conventional activated sludge in a hybrid bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Duan; Jiti Zhou; Sen Qiao; Xin Yin; Tian Tian; Fangdi Xu

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was successfully started up from conventional activated sludge using a hybrid bioreactor within 2 months.The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite were both over 80%,and the maximum total nitrogen removal rate of 1.85 kg1 N/(m3·day) was obtained on day 362 with the initial sludge concentration of 0.7 g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)/L.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge in the hybrid reactor clearly showed a high degree of compactness and cell sphericity,and the cell size was quite uniform.Transmission electron microscope photos showed that cells were round or oval,the cellular diameter was 0.6-1.0 μm,and the percentage of the anammoxosome compartment was 51%-85% of the whole cell volume.Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) indicated that anammox bacteria became the dominant population in the community (accounting for more than 51% of total bacteria on day 250).Seven planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in the 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biomass and affiliated to Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Brocadia sp.,a new anammox species.In addition,the average effluent suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations of outlets Ⅰ (above the non-woven carrier) and Ⅱ (below the non-woven carrier) were 0.0009 and 0.0035 g/L,respectively.This showed that the non-woven carrier could catch the biomass effectively,which increased biomass and improved the nitrogen removal rate in the reactor.

  15. Enhancement of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhi Chi; Yuyou Li; Xuening Fei; Shaopo Wang; Hongying Yun

    2011-01-01

    Pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment (MAP) was studied to improve thermophilic anaerobic digestion efficiency.Uniform design was applied to determine the combination of target temperature (110-210℃),microwave holding time (1-51 min),and NaOH dose (0-2.5 g NaOH/g suspended solids (SS)) in terms of their effect on volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization.Maximum solubilization ratio (85.1%) of VSS was observed at 210℃ with 0.2 g-NaOH/g-SS and 35 min holding time.The effects of 12 different pretreatment methods were investigated in 28 thermophilic batch reactors by monitoring cumulative methane production (CMP).Improvements in methane production in the TWAS were directly related to the microwave and alkaline pretreatment of the sludge.The highest CMP was a 27% improvement over the control.In spite of the increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration and the decrease in dewaterability of digested sludge,a semi-continuous thennophilic reactor fed with pretreated TWAS without neutralization (at 170℃ with 1 rain holding time and 0.05 g NaOH/g SS) was stable and functioned well,with volatile solid (VS) and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) reductions of 28% and 18%,respectively,which were higher than those of the control system.Additionally,methane yields (L@STP/g-CODadded,at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions of 0℃ and 101.325 kPa) and (L@STP/g VSadded) increased by 17% and 13%,respectively,compared to the control reactor.

  16. EFFECT OF HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF 2.4-DCP ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Uysal

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP was investigated with a mixed culture in a continuous activated sludge bioreactor. Glucose was used as co-substrate. Experiments were carried out at the feed 2.4-DCP concentrations between 5-450 mg/l, and the removal efficiencies of 2.4-DCP and COD were determined. The removal efficiencies and specific removal rates of 2.4-DCP for feed 2.4-DCP concentration up to 350 mg/l varied between 96.3-98.6 % and 0.007-1.15 mg/mg X.day respectively. Removal efficiencies and specific removal rates ranged between 75.66-92.0 % and 0.43-1.29 mg/mg X.day for COD. When 2.4-DCP concentration was increased from 350 to 450 mg/l, the removal efficiency and specific removal rate of 2.4-DCP decreased to 42.6 % and 0.77 mg/mg X.day due to the substrate inhibition on the microorganisms. Also, these values decreased to 7.85 % and 0.18 mg/mg X.day for COD. These results indicate that the adaptation of activated sludge could tolerate as high as 350 mg/l 2.4-DCP concentration as to the removal of 2.4-DCP and COD.

  17. The Effect of Microbial Population and Bioregeneration of used GAC in an Activated Sludge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAEED REZA ASEMI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work an attempt is made to study the role of microbial population on bioregenerationof granular activated carbon (GAC loaded with phenol compounds in continues bioreactor. The GAC used to treat industrial wastewater of the Mobarakeh steel factory (Esfahan-Iran, is regenerated by means of biological method. Industrial microbes that obtained from the chemical wastewater treatment unit (in the Mobarakeh steel factory, were used in the bioregeneration process of activated carbon. The relationships between each two important parameters of bioregeneration such as adsorbed phenol, pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS, total suspended solids (TSS and sludge volume index (SVI were studied. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the bioregenerated GAC increased during the two months of bioregeneration. Furthermore, it was found that pH gradually decreased with degradation of chemical compounds within pores of used GAC. The phenol adsorption capacity increased with increasing microbial cells concentration. In addition, the sludge volume index (SVI decreased from around 231.11 mL mg1*, to 32.68 mL mg-1 during two months of bioregeneration of used GAC. While microbial concentration increases during thebioregeneration process in continues bioreactor.

  18. CFD-aided modelling of activated sludge systems - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinska, Anna M; Bridgeman, John

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the major challenges in the wastewater sector is the successful design and reliable operation of treatment processes, which guarantee high treatment efficiencies to comply with effluent quality criteria, while keeping the investment and operating cost as low as possible. Although conceptual design and process control of activated sludge plants are key to ensuring these goals, they are still based on general empirical guidelines and operators' experience, dominated often by rule of thumb. This review paper discusses the rationale behind the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to model aeration, facilitating enhancement of treatment efficiency and reduction of energy input. Several single- and multiphase approaches commonly used in CFD studies of aeration tank operation, are comprehensively described, whilst the shortcomings of the modelling assumptions imposed to evaluate mixing and mass transfer in AS tanks are identified and discussed. Examples and methods of coupling of CFD data with biokinetics, accounting for the actual flow field and its impact on the oxygen mass transfer and yield of the biological processes occurring in the aeration tanks, are also critically discussed. Finally, modelling issues, which remain unaddressed, (e.g. coupling of the AS tank with secondary clarifier and the use of population balance models to simulate bubbly flow or flocculation of the activated sludge), are also identified and discussed. PMID:26615385

  19. New mechanistically based model for predicting reduction of biosolids waste by ozonation of return activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass inactivation followed an exponential decay with increasing ozone doses. • From pure cultures, inactivation did not result in significant COD solubilization. • Ozone dose inactivation thresholds resulted from floc structure modifications. • Modeling description of biomass inactivation during RAS-ozonation was improved. • Model best describing inactivation resulted in best performance predictions. - Abstract: Two pilot-scale activated sludge reactors were operated for 98 days to provide the necessary data to develop and validate a new mathematical model predicting the reduction of biosolids production by ozonation of the return activated sludge (RAS). Three ozone doses were tested during the study. In addition to the pilot-scale study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted with mixed liquor suspended solids and with pure cultures to parameterize the biomass inactivation process during exposure to ozone. The experiments revealed that biomass inactivation occurred even at the lowest doses, but that it was not associated with extensive COD solubilization. For validation, the model was used to simulate the temporal dynamics of the pilot-scale operational data. Increasing the description accuracy of the inactivation process improved the precision of the model in predicting the operational data

  20. Degradation of mixture of phenolic compounds by activated sludge processes using mixed consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, M. Rajani; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad 500 085 (India)

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the feasibility of aerobic treatment of wastewater having mixed Phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-4dinitrophenol, 2-4dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol) by using 9L lab scale Activated Sludge Process (ASP) at HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Time) varying between 3.0 ,2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1 day. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP), Chemical Oxidation Demand (COD) , compound reduction is used to asses the treatment efficiency of ASP. The highest percentage COD removal and percentage compound reduction of 98% and 99.3% of phenol was observed at 3.0 d HRT respectively. After treatment pollutants are removed in the order of phenol > 4chlorophenol (4CP) > 4nitrophenol (4NP) > 2-4dichlorophenol (2-4DCP) > 2-4 dinitrophenol (2,4DNP). The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor was found to be 1-3 mg/L and 7-8 respectively. The optimum biomass concentration was 2500-3000 mg/L, whereas the corresponding SVI was found to be around 70mL/g. The morphological characterization of aerobic granules was carried out by using SEM. Thus the results obtained indicate that ASP could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater containing mixed phenols.

  1. Degradation of mixture of phenolic compounds by activated sludge processes using mixed consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajani Rani, D. Sreekanth, V. Himabindu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the feasibility of aerobic treatment of wastewater having mixed Phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-4dinitrophenol, 2-4dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol by using 9L lab scale Activated Sludge Process (ASP at HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Time varying between 3.0 ,2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1 day. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP, Chemical Oxidation Demand (COD , compound reduction is used to asses the treatment efficiency of ASP. The highest percentage COD removal and percentage compound reduction of 98% and 99.3% of phenol was observed at 3.0 d HRT respectively. After treatment pollutants are removed in the order of phenol > 4chlorophenol (4CP > 4nitrophenol (4NP > 2-4dichlorophenol (2-4DCP > 2-4 dinitrophenol (2,4DNP. The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor was found to be 1-3 mg/L and 7-8 respectively. The optimum biomass concentration was 2500-3000 mg/L, whereas the corresponding SVI was found to be around 70mL/g. The morphological characterization of aerobic granules was carried out by using SEM. Thus the results obtained indicate that ASP could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater containing mixed phenols.

  2. Efficiency of the Activated Sludge Model no. 3 for German wastewater on six different WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, M; Lübken, M; Blömer, R; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the Activated Sludge Model No. 3 by the IWA Task Group on Mathematical Modelling for the Design and Operation of Biological Wastewater Treatment was presented. The model is used for the simulation of nitrogen removal. The simulations in this paper were done on the basis of a new calibration of the ASM 3 by Koch et al., with the easily degradable COD measured by respiration. For modelling of EBPR the BioP-Module of Rieger et al., was used. Six German wastewater treatment plants were simulated during this research to test the existing set of parameters of the models on various large scale plants. It was shown that changes for nitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal in the set of biological parameters were necessary. Sensible parameters and recommended values are presented in this article. Apart from the values of the changed biological parameters, we will in our examination discuss the modelling of the different activated sludge systems and the influent fractioning of the COD. Two plants with simultaneous denitrification in the recirculation ditch (EBPR) are simulated, one with preliminary dentrification, one with intermittent denitrification (EBPR), one with cascade denitrification (EBPR), and one pilot plant according to the Johannesburg-process (EBPR) which was simulated over a period of three months. PMID:12906292

  3. Survey of Ability of Activated Sludge Isolated Bacteria in Removal of RB-B Dyestuff from Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Reactive dyestuff has potential of toxicity, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis for mammals and aquatic organisms. The current physical and chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation, precipitation, filtration and ... can been used for removing of dyestuff. Biological treatment which is effective and economic for decontamination of dyestuff wastewaters was preferred because of limitation and difficulty of physicochemical methods. In order to investigate the trend of pollution reduction of color compounds, ability of Remazol Black-B dyestuff removal from aqueous medium by bacterial consortium under anoxic conditions was studied."nMaterials and Methods: The mix culture of bacteria from textile industries activated sludge was enriched in luria broth medium containing RB-B dyestuff as a carbon source. Then biodegradation was assessed in 4 batch reactors. Microbial population of bacterial and decolorization quantities of samples were detected by MPN and UV-Vis spectrophotometer."nResults: Decolorization efficiency by the bacterial consortium was obtained more than 99% for 50 and 250 mg/L concentrations in 72 and 144 h (3 and 6 days respectively, while for the initial concentration of 500 mg/L was 98.1in 240 h (10 days of biodegradation period. Dyestuff reduction rate after completed removal was about 0.69, 1.74,2 mg/L/h for initial concentration of 50, 250, 500 mg/L respectively."nConclusion: Results showed that Alcaligenes denitrificans and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteria"nwhich were isolated from activated sludge have good potential of RB-B dyestuff removal and this removal is depending on primary concentration of dye. Removal efficiency increased as primary concentration went up.

  4. Biosorption of cadmium(Ⅱ) and lead(Ⅱ) ions from aqueous solutions onto dried activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-jiang; XIA Si-qing; CHEN Ling; ZHAO Jian-fu; CHOVELON Jean-marc; NICOLE Jaffrezic-renault

    2006-01-01

    The removal of heavy-metal ions from aqueous solutions by using dried activated sludge has been investigated in batch systems. Effect of solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were determined. The results of the kinetic studies showed that the uptake processes of the two metal ions(Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ)) followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The equilibrium data fitted very well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The FT-IR analysis showed that the main mechanism of Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) biosorption onto dried activated sludge was their binding with amide I group.

  5. Study on activated carbon derived from sewage sludge for adsorption of gaseous formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qingbo; Li, Caiting; Cai, Zhihong; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Hongliang; Chen, Lijun; Zeng, Guangming; Shu, Xin; Zhao, Yapei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the adsorption performances of activated carbon derived from sewage sludge (ACSS) for gaseous formaldehyde removal compared with three commercial activated carbons (CACs) using self-designing adsorption and distillation system. Formaldehyde desorption of the activated carbons for regeneration was also studied using thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The porous structure and surface characteristics were studied using N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that ACSS has excellent adsorption performance, which is overall superior to the CACs. Adsorption theory indicates that the ACSS outperforms the CACs due to its appropriate porous structure and surface chemistry characteristics for formaldehyde adsorption. The TG analysis of desorption shows that the optimum temperature to regenerate ACSS is 75°C, which is affordable and economical for recycling.

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of biofouling bacteria and profiling of quorum sensing signal molecules from membrane bioreactor activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-02-04

    The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling.

  7. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Biofouling Bacteria and Profiling of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules from Membrane Bioreactor Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs. In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling.

  8. Monitoring and troubleshooting of non-filamentous settling and dewatering problems in an industrial activated sludge treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, B. V.; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    A large industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plant had temporary problems with settling and dewatering of the sludge. Microscopical investigations revealed that the poor settling properties were not due to presence of filamentous bacteria, but poor floc properties. In order...... at this industrial plant. The described strategy can be useful in general to find and solve many solid/liquid separation problems in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants....... had started after summer closedown. Possible reasons for the changes in floc properties in the process tanks were found by a) analysing change in wastewater composition by evaluating the different production lines in the industrial plant, b) evaluating the operation of the plant, and c) performing...

  9. Digestion of high rate activated sludge coupled to biochar formation for soil improvement in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansubuga, Irene; Banadda, Noble; Ronsse, Frederik; Verstraete, Willy; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-09-15

    High rate activated sludge (HRAS) is well-biodegradable sludge enabling energy neutrality of wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion. However, even through successful digestion a notable residue still remains. Here we investigated whether this residue can be converted to biochar, for its use as a fertilizer or as a solid fuel, and assessed its characteristics and overall process efficiency. In a first phase, HRAS was anaerobicaly digested under mesophilic conditions at a sludge retention time of 20 days. HRAS digested well (57.9 ± 6.2% VS degradation) producing on average 0.23 ± 0.04 L CH4 per gram VS fed. The digestate particulates were partially air-dried to mimic conditions used in developing countries, and subsequently converted to biochar by fixed-bed slow pyrolysis at a residence time of 15 min and at highest heating temperatures (HHT) of 300 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C. Subsequently, the produced chars were characterized by proximate analysis, CHN-elemental analysis, pH in solution and bomb calorimetry for higher heating value. The yield and volatile matter decreased with increasing HHT while ash content and fixed carbon increased with increasing HHT. The produced biochar showed properties optimal towards soil amendment when produced at a temperature of 600 °C with values of 5.91 wt%, 23.75 wt%, 70.35% on dry basis (db) and 0.44 for volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content and H/C ratio, respectively. With regard to its use for energy purposes, the biochar represented a lower calorific value than the dried HRAS digestate likely due to high ash content. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion of HRAS and its subsequent biochar formation at HHT of 600 °C represents an attractive route for sludge management in tropic settings like in Uganda, coupling carbon capture to energy generation, carbon sequestration and nutrient recovery. PMID:26072019

  10. A comparative study of extraction and purification methods for environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2006-01-01

    An important prerequisite for a successful metagenome library construction is an efficient extraction procedure for DNA out of environmental samples. In this study we compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity and time requirement. A special focus was set on methods which are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct ex...

  11. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  12. Effect of components in activated sludge liquor on membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shui-li; ZHAO Fang-bo; ZHANG Xiao-hui; JING Guo-lin; ZHEN Xiang-hua

    2006-01-01

    By a membrane bioreactor with a settle tank in long-term operation and batch experiments, the effects of flocs, soluble microorganism products (SMPs) and metal ions in activated sludge liquor on membrane fouling were investigated. The results showed that foulants absorbed each other and formed a fouling layer as a "second membrane" influencing the permeability of the membrane.The "gel layer" caused by SMPs and "cake layer" by flocs showed great differences in morphology by analysis of scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The "gel layer" was more compact and of poor permeability. When the membrane flux was MPa/h). SMPs played very important roles on membrane fouling. In the bu1king sludge, with SMPs increasing, the rate of membrane fouling (0.0132 MPa/h) was faster. While after flocculation of the SMPs, the rate of fouling decreased to 0.0034 MPa/h. Flocs could keep holes in their overlaps. They could alleviate membrane fouling by preventing the SMPs directly attaching on membrane surface.

  13. Effects of cadmium on growth and motility in Euplotes aediculatus isolated from activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, H.; Gracia, M.P.; Amigo, J.M.; Rius, M. [Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    The presence of heavy metals as pollutants in aquatic environments has unfortunately become a common problem in recent years. The main source is sewage from industries, and its presence can cause toxic effects in aquatic environments, while reducing the efficiency of biological waste water treatment due to sludge intoxication. Despite this, most of the heavy metals are retained in the bioflocs, but cadmium (Cd) is one of the metals with the lowest retention rates, due to competition with other metals. Such low retention of this metal can result in serious problems for biological sewage treatment processes and, consequently, in the waters that receive this effluent. Since the microorganisms present in biological sewage treatment processes are fundamental in their efficiency, knowledge of the effects of biofloc-unretained heavy metals on the organisms and communities of protozoa of activated sludge is important but quite complex. Since not all species are affected in the same way, the toxic effects of heavy metals may induce unforeseen changes in the dynamics of communities, making calculation of lethal doses and tolerance limits difficult. Thus, to study the effects of a toxic agent on a particular species, it is better to carry out tests with isolated species. This study contributes to the knowledge of the toxic effects of cadmium on ciliate protozoa. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  15. The effects of waste-activated sludge pretreatment using hydrodynamic cavitation for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2013-11-01

    Disintegration of waste-activated sludge (WAS) is regarded as a prerequisite of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process to reduce sludge volume and increase methane yield. Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), which shares a similar underlying principle with ultrasonication but is energy-efficient, was employed as a physical means to break up WAS. Compared with ultrasonic (180-3600 kJ/kg TS) and thermal methods (72,000 kJ/kg TS), HC (60-1200 kJ/kg TS) found to consume significantly low power. A synergetic effect was observed when HC was combined with alkaline treatment in which NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2 were used as alkaline catalysts at pH ranging from 8 to 13. As expected, the production yield of CH4 gas increased proportionally as WAS disintegration proceeded. HC, when combined with alkaline pretreatment, was found to be a cost-effective substitute to conventional methods for WAS pretreatment. PMID:23618849

  16. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by dried activated sludge biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch experiments were conducted to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using activated sludge biomass. The effects of acid pretreatment of the biomass, initial pH, biomass and Cr(VI) concentrations on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Proton consumption during the removal process and the reducing capacity of sludge biomass were studied. The results show that acid pretreatment could significantly improve Cr(VI) removal efficiency and increase Cr(VI) reducing capacity by 20.4%. Cr(VI) removal was remarkably pH-dependent; lower pH (pH = 1, 2) facilitated Cr(VI) reduction while higher pH (pH = 3, 4) favored sorption of the converted Cr(III). Lower Cr(VI) concentration as well as higher biomass concentration could accelerate Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) reduction was not the only reason for proton consumption in the removal process. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model could successfully simulate Cr(VI) removal except under higher pH conditions (pH = 3, 4).

  17. Laboratory Scale Study of Activated Sludge Process in Jet Loop Reactor for Waste WaterTreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP for the treatment of synthetic wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions.A laboratory scale Compact jet loop reactor model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose.Settled synthetic wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the influent and effluent was measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (θ. The results of the studydemonstrated that an efficiency of above 95% could be obtained for COD if the ASP is operated atan MLVSS concentration of 3000 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 1 hour.In the present investigation the preliminary studies were carried out in a lab scale Jet loop reactor made of glass. Synthetic waste water having a composition of 1000 mg/L mixed with other nutrients such as Urea, Primary and secondary Potassium phosphates, Magnesium sulfate, Iron chloriderequired for the bacteria was prepared in the laboratory and reduction in COD and the increase inSuspended Solids (SSand the Sludge Volume Index (SVI were determined.

  18. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  19. Effects of hydraulic retention time on nitrification activities and population dynamics of a conventional activated sludge system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan LI; Yu ZHANG; Min YANG; Yoichi KAMAGATA

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the nitrification activities and population dynamics of a conventional activated sludge system fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater were investigated over a period of 260 days. When the HRT was gradually decreased from 30 to 5 h, the specific ammonium-oxidizing rates (SAOR) varied between 0.32 and 0.45kg NH4+-N (kg mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)·d)-1, and the specific nitrate-forming rates (SNFR) increased from 0.11 to 0.50kg NO3-N (kg MLSS·d)1l, showing that the decrease in HRT led to a significant increase in the nitrite oxidation activity. According to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis results, the proportion of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) among the total bacteria decreased from 33% to 15% with the decrease in HRT, whereas the fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOBs), particularly the fast-growing Nitrobacter sp., increased significantly (from 4% to 15% for NOBs and from 1.5% to 10.6% for Nitrobacter sp.) with the decrease in HRT, which was in accordance with the changes in SNFR. A short HRT favored the relative growth of NOBs, particularly the fast-growing Nitrobacter sp., in the conventional activated sludge system.

  20. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  1. Extracellular polymeric substances, microbial activity and microbial community of biofilm and suspended sludge at different divalent cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wei, Junfeng; Ma, Kedong; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yusuo; Yu, Shuping

    2016-04-01

    The differences between biofilm and suspended sludge (S-sludge) in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbial activity, and microbial community in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) at different concentrations of divalent cadmium (Cd(II)) were investigated. As the increase of Cd(II) concentration from 0 to 50mgL(-1), the specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR), and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) of biofilm decreased from 4.85, 5.22 and 45mgNg(-1) VSSh(-1) to 1.54, 2.38 and 26mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1), respectively, and the SAOR, SNOR and SNRR of S-sludge decreased from 4.80, 5.02 and 34mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1) to 1.46, 2.20 and 17mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1), respectively. Biofilm had higher protein (PN) content in EPS than S-sludge. Contrast to S-sludge, biofilm could provide Nitrobacter vulgaris, beta proteobacterium INBAF015, and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana with the favorable conditions of growth and reproduction. PMID:26829529

  2. A Comprehensive Insight into Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailong Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively investigate tetracycline resistance in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in sludge cultured with different concentrations of tetracycline. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that tetracycline treatment greatly affected the bacterial community structure of the sludge. Nine genera consisting of Sulfuritalea, Armatimonas, Prosthecobacter, Hyphomicrobium, Azonexus, Longilinea, Paracoccus, Novosphingobium and Rhodobacter were identified as potential TRB in the sludge. Results of qPCR, molecular cloning and metagenomic analysis consistently indicated that tetracycline treatment could increase both the abundance and diversity of the tet genes, but decreased the occurrence and diversity of non-tetracycline ARG, especially sulfonamide resistance gene sul2. Cluster analysis showed that tetracycline treatment at subinhibitory concentrations (5 mg/L was found to pose greater effects on the bacterial community composition, which may be responsible for the variations of the ARGs abundance. This study indicated that joint use of 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used to explore ARB and ARGs in the environment, and future studies should include an in-depth investigation of the relationship between microbial community, ARGs and antibiotics in sewage treatment plant (STP sludge.

  3. Dynamics of the diversity and structure of the overall and nitrifying microbial community in activated sludge along gradient copper exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fan; Ji, Min; Zhai, Hongyan; Dong, Zhao; Ye, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Diversity and composition of the microbial community, especially the nitrifiers, are essential to the treatment efficiency of wastewater in activated sludge systems. Heavy metals commonly present in the wastewater influent such as Cu can alter the community structure of nitrifiers and lower their activity. However, the dynamics of microbial community along a gradient of metal exposure have largely been unexplored, partially due to the limitations in traditional molecular methods. This study explored the dynamics regarding the diversity and community structures of overall and nitrifying microbial communities in activated sludge under intermittent Cu gradient loadings using Illumina sequencing. We created a new local nitrifying bacterial database for sequence BLAST searches. High Cu loadings (>10.9 mg/L) impoverished microbial diversity and altered the microbial community. Overall, Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in the activated sludge system, in which Zoogloea, Thauera, and Dechloromonas (genera within the Rhodocyclaceae family of the Beta-proteobacteria class) were the dominant genera in the presence of Cu. The abundance of unclassified bacteria at the phylum level increased substantially with increasing Cu loadings. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira were the predominant nitrifiers. The nitrifying bacterial community changed through increasing abundance and shifting to Cu-tolerant species to reduce the toxic effects of Cu. Our local nitrifying bacterial database helped to improve the resolution of bacterial identification. Our results provide insights into the dynamics of microbial community in response to various metal concentrations in activated sludge systems and improve our understanding regarding the effect of metals on wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:27098258

  4. The Microbiota and Abundance of the Class 1 Integron-Integrase Gene in Tropical Sewage Treatment Plant Influent and Activated Sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna C Paiva

    Full Text Available Bacteria are assumed to efficiently remove organic pollutants from sewage in sewage treatment plants, where antibiotic-resistance genes can move between species via mobile genetic elements known as integrons. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed bacterial diversity and class 1 integron abundance in tropical sewage. Here, we describe the extant microbiota, using V6 tag sequencing, and quantify the class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1 in raw sewage (RS and activated sludge (AS. The analysis of 1,174,486 quality-filtered reads obtained from RS and AS samples revealed complex and distinct bacterial diversity in these samples. The RS sample, with 3,074 operational taxonomic units, exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices. Among the 25 phyla, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes represented 85% (AS and 92% (RS of all reads. Increased relative abundance of Micrococcales, Myxococcales, and Sphingobacteriales and reduced pathogen abundance were noted in AS. At the genus level, differences were observed for the dominant genera Simplicispira and Diaphorobacter (AS as well as for Enhydrobacter (RS. The activated sludge process decreased (55% the amount of bacteria harboring the intI1 gene in the RS sample. Altogether, our results emphasize the importance of biological treatment for diminishing pathogenic bacteria and those bearing the intI1 gene that arrive at a sewage treatment plant.

  5. Production of biodegradable plastics from volatile fatty acids using activated sludge; Kassei odei wo mochiiru kihatsuei teikyu shibosan kara no seibunkaisei plastic no seisan to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Soejima, T.; Tomozawa, T. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Doi, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Kiya, F. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-21

    The production of biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from volatile fatty acids (VFA) by aerobic or anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge was investigated. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyesters composed of 2-4 monomer units from VFA(C 2-C 5), and that the contents in dried sludge were as high as 7.8. -18.2wt%. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyester composed of [R]-hydroxybuyrate (3HB), [R]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), [R]-3-hydroxynonanoate(3HN), and [R]-3-hydroxydecanoate (3HD) with high yield of 40 wt% from acetic acid as the sole carbon source in nitrogen-free wastewater for 6-12 h. It was suggested that PHA production from wastewater treatment was possible by using the anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge. 9 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  7. The influence of redox chemistry and pH on chemically active forms of arsenic in sewage sludge-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, A.; Jugsujinda, A.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Inst.; Burlo, F. [Univ. Miguel Hernandez, Alicante (Spain). Div. Tecnologia de Alimentos; Sirisukhodom, S. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Environmental Health Science Dept.; Anurakpongsatorn, P. [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1999-07-01

    Chemical fractionation procedures were used to quantify the effect of the sediment redox and pH conditions on the adsorption and solubility of arsenic (As) in municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge-amended soil. Sludge and sludge-amended soil were incubated in microcosms in which Eh-pH conditions were controlled. Samples were sequentially extracted to determine As in various chemical forms (water soluble, exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to insoluble organics and sulfides) and the chemically inactive fraction (mineral residues). In both sewage sludge and sludge-amended soil, As chemistry was governed by large molecular humic matter and sulfides and Fe and Mn-oxides. Solubility of As remained low and constant under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions in sludge-amended soil. After dissolution of Fe and Mn-oxides, As{sup 5+} was released into sludge solution, reduced to As{sup 3+} and likely precipitated as sulfide. Therefore, an organic amendment rich in sulfur compounds, such as sewage sludge, would drastically reduce the potential risks derived from As pollution under highly anoxic conditions by precipitation of this toxic metalloid as insoluble and immobile sulfides.

  8. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  9. Mechanism on minimization of excess sludge in oxic-settlinganaerobic (OSA) process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang WANG; Qingliang ZHAO; Wenbiao JIN; Jikan LIN

    2008-01-01

    The oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process is a promising wastewater treatment technique for efficiently reducing sludge production and improving the stability of process operation. In this paper, the possible factors of sludge reduction sucli as sludge decay, uncoupled metabol-ism, and anaerobic oxidation with low sludge production were discussed in the OSA process. It has been confirmed that sludge decay is the decisive cause in the OSA process, accounting for 66.7% of sludge production reduction. Sludge decay includes hydrolysis and acidogenesis of dead microorganisms and particle organic carbon adsorbed in sludge floc and endogenous metabolism. By batch experi-ments, it has been proven that there is energetic uncoupling in the OSA system since microorganisms were exposed to alternative anaerobic and aerobic environment. It accounts for about 7.5% of sludge production reduction. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) released from the anaerobic sludge tank in the OSA process was used as the substrate for cryptic growth. The substrate was used for anoxic denitrifying, anaerobic phosphorus release, sulfate reduction, and methane production. These anaerobic reactions in the sludge anaerobic tank have lower sludge production than in the aerobic oxidation when equivalent SCOD is consumed, which may lead to approximately 23% of sludge reduction in the OSA process. It has been concluded that multiple causes resulted in the minimization of excess sludge in the OSA system. The microbial community structure and diversity of sludge samples from the CAS (conventional activated sludge) and OSA systems were investigated by 16 SrDNA PCR-DG-DGGE (poly-merase chain reaction-double gradient-denaturing gradient gel electropboresis). DGGE profile and cluster analysis showed more abundant species in the OSA system contrasting to microbial communities in the CAS system.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  11. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable biomass...

  12. Structured model of bacterial growth and tests with activated sludge in a one-stage and two-stage chemostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, A.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic model for a growing culture of micro-organisms was developed that correlated the biochemical structure of cells with quantitative physiological behaviour. The three-compartment model was adequate for simulation of continuous, batch and transient experiments with activated sludge fed on van

  13. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  14. Performance of iron filings and activated sludge as media for permeable reactive barriers to treat zinc contaminated groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayapat Hassapak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the important contaminants in groundwater. Removal of zinc by iron filings, activated sludge and lateritic soil was studied with batch test. The lowest optimum pH for removal of zinc by iron filings, activated sludge and lateritic soil was 6. From isotherm studies iron filings and activated sludge were chosen as media for permeable reactive barrier (PRB. The PRB of 0.5-m thick was simulated in the unconfined aquifer with the distance of 21.5 m downgradient of the zinc contaminated site having constant concentration of 100 mg/l. The groundwater flow in the site was induced by the hydraulic gradient of 0.02. Simulation results indicated that the concentration of zinc of treated groundwater was less than 5 mg/l, which met Thai Groundwater Quality Standard for Drinking Purposes. The continuous PRBs using iron filings and activated sludge could treat zinc for 2,170 and 2,248 days, respectively

  15. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2016-07-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  16. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of microbial community structure and gene expression of activated sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    Full Text Available The present study applied both metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to characterize microbial structure and gene expression of an activated sludge community from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Hong Kong. DNA and cDNA were sequenced by Illumina Hi-seq2000 at a depth of 2.4 Gbp. Taxonomic analysis by MG-RAST showed bacteria were dominant in both DNA and cDNA datasets. The taxonomic profile obtained by BLAST against SILVA SSUref database and annotation by MEGAN showed that activated sludge was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia phyla in both DNA and cDNA datasets. Global gene expression annotation based on KEGG metabolism pathway displayed slight disagreement between the DNA and cDNA datasets. Further gene expression annotation focusing on nitrogen removal revealed that denitrification-related genes sequences dominated in both DNA and cDNA datasets, while nitrifying genes were also expressed in relative high levels. Specially, ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidase demonstrated the high cDNA/DNA ratios in the present study, indicating strong nitrification activity. Enzyme subunits gene sequences annotation discovered that subunits of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA, amoB, amoC and hydroxylamine oxygenase had higher expression levels compared with subunits of the other enzymes genes. Taxonomic profiles of selected enzymes (ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxygenase showed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria present mainly belonged to Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira species and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea sequences were detected in both DNA and cDNA datasets.

  17. Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced

  18. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong;

    2015-01-01

    of one activated sludge reactor, two HybasTM reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been operated for 10 months, where after batch and continuous flow tests were performed for the degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first...... reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly. The removal of pharmaceuticals (including x-ray contrast media, ß-blockers, analgesics and antibiotics) were fitted to a single first-order kinetics degradation function, giving degradation rate constants from 0 to 1.49 h-1, from 0 to 7.78×10-1 h-1...... amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect of removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas train. In the continuous flow experiment...

  19. Factors influencing sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge: Experimental assessment and modelling implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang;

    2015-01-01

    to identify whether the assessed factors caused a significant increase of aqueous ciprofloxacin concentration in full-scale bioreactors. Simulation results suggest that a pH increase, rather than a reduction in iron salt dosing, could be responsible for a systematic deterioration of sorption of ciprofloxacin...... and described, particularly for zwitterionic chemicals. Here we present an assessment of the effects of pH and iron salt dosing on the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge using laboratory experiments and full-scale fate modelling. Experimental results were described with Freundlich isotherms...... and showed that non-linear sorption occurred under all the conditions tested. The greatest sorption potential was measured at pH = 7.4, at which ciprofloxacin is speciated mostly as zwitterion. Iron salt dosing increased sorption under aerobic and, to a lesser extent, anoxic conditions, whereas no effect...

  20. Effect of azithromycin on enhancement of methane production from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Maeda, Toshinari; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2014-07-01

    In the methane production from waste activated sludge (WAS), complex bacterial interactions in WAS have been known as a major contribution to methane production. Therefore, the influence of bacterial community changes toward methane production from WAS was investigated by an application of antibiotics as a simple means for it. In this study, azithromycin (Azm) as an antibiotic was mainly used to observe the effect on microbial changes that influence methane production from WAS. The results showed that at the end of fermentation, Azm enhanced methane production about twofold compared to control. Azm fostered the growth of acid-producing bacterial communities, which synthesized more precursors for methane formation. DGGE result showed that the hydrolysis as well as acetogenesis stage was improved by the dominant of B1, B2 and B3 strains, which are Clostridium species. In the presence of Azm, the total population of archaeal group was increased, resulting in higher methane productivity achievement.

  1. The Aerobic Biodegradability of Mono-fluorophenols by the Activated Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao-jie; ZHOU Qi; CHEN Ling; YUAN Yuan

    2006-01-01

    By measuring the respiratory oxygen consumption, a study on the aerobic biodegradability of 2-fluorophenol, 3-fluorophenol and 4-fluorophenol was conducted using activated sludge acclimated by themselves respectively. The experimental results showed that bio-oxidation ratios of 2-fluorophenol, 3- fluorophenol and 4- fluorophenol were 25.30%, 35.28% and 36. 60% respectively, and the oxygen consuming rate constants were 0.009 3, 0.0133 and 0.0145 L/gSS· h respectively. The aerobic biodegradability of the mono-fluorophenols decreased in the order of 4- fluorophenol>3 - fluorophenol >2 - fluorophenol, resulting mainly from the different octanol/water partition coefficient and the different steric parameter of the fluorophenols which can affect the penetration of fluorophenol into cell membrane.

  2. N2O production dynamics in nitrifying/denitrifying activated sludge under defined environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Petersen, Morten S.;

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous pollutant emitted as an unwanted product in wastewater treatment plants during the nitrification-denitrification process. Even though the emission capacity of the process with respect to this compound is still under debate, N2O has been identified as an important...... contributor to global warming and the destruction of the ozone layer. The present study makes use of unique datasets collected during controlled batch tests with activated sludge biomass to test and calibrate a pseudo-mechanistic model that predicts N2O production by nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria....... The proposed model described successfully the observed N2O production dynamics and confirmed that the availability of ammonia, low dissolved oxygen and nitrite accumulation were the main factors triggering N2O production. Nitrifier-denitrification was proposed as the main pathway catalyzing the conversion...

  3. Microbial electrolysis contribution to anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, leading to accelerated methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Guo, Zechong;

    2016-01-01

    Methane production rate (MPR) in waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion processes is typically limitedby the initial steps of complex organic matter degradation, leading to a limited MPR due to sludgefermentation speed of solid particles. In this study, a novel microbial electrolysis AD reactor (ME......-AD) wasused to accelerate methane production for energy recovery from WAS. Carbon bioconversion wasaccelerated by ME producing H2 at the cathode. MPR was enhanced to 91.8 gCH4/m3 reactor/d in themicrobial electrolysis ME-AD reactor, thus improving the rate by 3 times compared to control conditions (30.6 gCH4......-AD reactor allowed to significantly enhance carbon degradation and methaneproduction from WAS....

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intermittent aeration activated sludge system of an urban wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Z. de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the emission of N2O during the sequential aerated (60-min and non-aerated (30-min stages of an intermittent aeration cycle in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. N2O emission occurred during both stages; however, emission was much higher during aeration. Air stripping is the major factor controlling transfer of N2O from the sewage to the atmosphere. The N2O emissions exclusively from the aeration tank represented 0.10% of the influent total nitrogen load and the per capita emission factor was almost 3 times higher than that suggested by the IPCC for inventories of N2O emission from WWTPs.

  5. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; ZHOU Qi

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification(SND),which is more economical compared with the traditional method for nitrogen removal,is studied in this paper.In order to find the suitable conditions of this process,a mixed flow activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration is investigated,and some key control parameters are examined for nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater.The results show that SND is accessible when oxygen concentration is 0.3-0.8 mg/L.The nitrogen removal rate can be obtained up to 66.7% with solids retention time(SRT)0f 45 d,C/N value of 10,and F/M ratio of 0]1g COD/(g MLSS-d).Theoretical analysis indicates that SND is a physical phenomenon and governed by oxygen diffusion in flocs.

  6. Linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 for interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhalla, Abdelhay; Houssou, Mohamed; Charif, Moussa

    2010-08-01

    This paper deals with the linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 (ASM1) in the scope of interaction analysis. For consistency, the linearization procedure is developed and validated within the BSM1 simulation benchmark framework. It is based on reaction rate approximation by linear combinations of states. The linear rate models are identified and incorporated in the mass balance equations, yielding a linear locally equivalent to the ASM1 model. Linear models for anoxic and aerated compartments are proposed. It is observed that the presented models track very closely the nonlinear ASM1 responses to various influent data. The key feature of this linearization strategy is that the gotten linear version of the ASM1 model is linear time invariant (LTI) and that it conserves the states biological interpretation and the original ASM1 dimension. It allows, therefore, application of interaction analysis methods and makes it possible to determine motivated control configurations for the ASM1 model. PMID:20131068

  7. Integrated fungal biomass and activated sludge treatment for textile wastewaters bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Romagnolo, Alice; Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2012-11-01

    A combined biological process was investigated for effective textile wastewater treatment. The process consisted of a first step performed by selected fungal biomasses, mainly devoted to the effluent decolourisation, and of a subsequent stage by means of activated sludge, in order to reduce the remaining COD and toxicity. In particular, the treatment with Trametes pubescens MUT 2400, selected over nine strains, achieved very good results in respect to all parameters. The final scale-up phase in a moving bed bioreactor with the supported biomass of the fungus allowed to verify the effectiveness of the treatment with high volumes. Despite promising results, further steps must be taken in order to optimize the use of these biomasses for a full exploitation of their oxidative potential in textile wastewater treatment. PMID:22940306

  8. Making classifying selectors work for foam elimination in the activated-sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denny; Geary, Steve; Jones, Garr; McIntyre, Lori; Oppenheim, Stuart; Pedregon, Vick; Pope, Rod; Richards, Tyler; Voigt, Christine; Volpe, Gary; Willis, John; Witzgall, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Classifying selectors are used to control the population of foam-causing organisms in activated-sludge plants to prevent the development of nuisance foams. The term, classifying selector, refers to the physical mechanism by which these organisms are selected against; foam-causing organisms are enriched into the solids in the foam and their rapid removal controls their population at low levels in the mixed liquor. Foam-causing organisms are wasted "first" rather than accumulating on the surface of tanks and thereby being wasted "last", which is typical of the process. This concept originated in South Africa, where pilot studies showed that placement of a flotation tank for foam removal prior to secondary clarifiers would eliminate foam-causing organisms. It was later simplified in the United States by using the aeration in aeration tanks or aerated channels coupled with simple baffling and adjustable weirs to make continuous separation of nuisance organisms from the mixed liquor. PMID:12683467

  9. Biofilm activity and sludge characteristics affected by exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactones in biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huizhi; He, Junguo; Liu, Jian; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study verified the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentrations on mature biofilm systems. Three concentrations of an AHL mixture were used in the batch test. Introducing of 5nM AHLs significantly increased biofilm activity and increased sludge characteristics, which resulted in better pollutant removal performance, whereas exogenous 50nM and 500nM AHLs limited pollutant removal, especially COD and nitrogen removal. To further identify how exogenous signal molecular affects biofilm system nitrogen removal, analyzing of nitrifying bacteria through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that these additional signal molecules affect nitrifying to total bacteria ratio. In addition, the running state of the system was stable during 15days of operation without an AHL dose, which suggests that the changes in the system due to AHL are irreversible. PMID:27030953

  10. Monitoring of growth and physiological activities of biofilm during succession on polystyrene from activated sludge under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Iffat; Batool, Syeda Ain-ul; Ali, Naeem; Khatoon, Nazia; Atiq, Niama; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-08-01

    The present research work monitored the successive biofilm development and its catabolic role in the degradation of polystyrene (PS). PS material was artificially colonized with biofilm by incubating it with activated sludge under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation was monitored by gravimetric weight analysis, spectrophotometric absorbance technique, heterotrophic plate count, and scanning electron microscopy under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The wet weight (1.59 and 1.17 g) and dry weight (0.41 and 0.08 g) of a biofilm showed a significant constant increase under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, from first till 9 weeks of incubation. Plate count of the selected bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) considerably declined (90-99 %) in the biofilm after seventh and fifth weeks of incubation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, indicating a positive shift from pathogenic to beneficial microbial community. While most probable number index of fecal coliforms and E. coli in the sludge showed more reduction (98 and 99 %) under aerobic as compare to anaerobic conditions (86 and 91 %) after 9 weeks of biofilm formation on PS cubes. Correspondingly, the decreasing levels of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (up to 73 %) showed signs of sludge digestion. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope revealed nature of PS media containing high carbon content. However, biofilm development proved to be involved in the biochemical transformation of the PS medium as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  12. DETECTION OF PHENOL DEGRADING BACTERIA AND PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan ، H. Khorsandi ، R. Salehi ، M. Nikaeen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the organic pollutants in various industrial wastewaters especially petrochemical and oil refining. Biological treatment is one of the considerable choices for removing of phenol present in these wastewaters. Identification of effective microbial species is considered as one of the important priorities for production of the biomass in order to achieve desirable kinetic of biological reactions. Basic purpose of this research is identification of phenol-degrading Pseudomonas Putida in activated sludge by polymerase chain reaction (PCR that has high speed and specificity. In this research, 10 various colonies of phenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from municipal activated sludge and the rate of phenol removal and growth rate of these bacteria were assessed in different concentrations of phenol (200 – 900 mg/L. Confirmation of the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH gene and gene coding the N fragment in Pseudomonas Putida-derived methyl phenol operon (DmpN gene through PCR were used for general identification of phenol-degrading bacteria and Pseudomonas Putida, respectively. Presence of a 600 bp (base pairs bond in all of isolated strains indicated that they contain phenol hydroxylase gene. 6 of 10 isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas Putida because they produced a 199 bp PCR product by DmpN primers. According to PCR results in this study, the best phenol-degrading bacteria that can utilize 500 – 600 mg/L phenol completely after 48 hours incubation, belong to Pseudomonas Putida strains. It is clear that use of isolated bacteria can lead to considerable decrease of treatment time as well as promotion of phenol removal rate.

  13. Modeling of organic substrate transformation in the high-rate activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Thomas; Randall, Andrew; Jimenez, Jose; Takacs, Imre; Bott, Charles; Miller, Mark; Murthy, Sudhir; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the development of a modified activated sludge model No.1 framework to describe the organic substrate transformation in the high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process. New process mechanisms for dual soluble substrate utilization, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), absorption of soluble substrate (storage), and adsorption of colloidal substrate were included in the modified model. Data from two HRAS pilot plants were investigated to calibrate and to validate the proposed model for HRAS systems. A subdivision of readily biodegradable soluble substrate into a slow and fast fraction were included to allow accurate description of effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) in HRAS versus longer solids retention time (SRT) systems. The modified model incorporates production of EPS and storage polymers as part of the aerobic growth transformation process on the soluble substrate and transformation processes for flocculation of colloidal COD to particulate COD. The adsorbed organics are then converted through hydrolysis to the slowly biodegradable soluble fraction. Two soluble substrate models were evaluated during this study, i.e., the dual substrate and the diauxic models. Both models used two state variables for biodegradable soluble substrate (SBf and SBs) and a single biomass population. The A-stage pilot typically removed 63% of the soluble substrate (SB) at an SRT <0.13 d and 79% at SRT of 0.23 d. In comparison, the dual substrate model predicted 58% removal at the lower SRT and 78% at the higher SRT, with the diauxic model predicting 32% and 70% removals, respectively. Overall, the dual substrate model provided better results than the diauxic model and therefore it was adopted during this study. The dual substrate model successfully described the higher effluent soluble COD observed in the HRAS systems due to the partial removal of SBs, which is almost completely removed in higher SRT systems.

  14. Mechanisms for Reduced Excess Sludge Production in the Cannibal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Marc-André; Dold, Peter L; Comeau, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Reducing excess sludge production is increasingly attractive as a result of rising costs and constraints with respect to sludge treatment and disposal. A technology in which the mechanisms remain not well understood is the Cannibal process, for which very low sludge yields have been reported. The objective of this work was to use modeling as a means to characterize excess sludge production at a full-scale Cannibal facility by providing a long sludge retention time and removing trash and grit by physical processes. The facility was characterized by using its historical data, from discussion with the staff and by conducting a sampling campaign to prepare a solids inventory and an overall mass balance. At the evaluated sludge retention time of 400 days, the sum of the daily loss of suspended solids to the effluent and of the waste activated sludge solids contributed approximately equally to the sum of solids that are wasted daily as trash and grit from the solids separation module. The overall sludge production was estimated to be 0.14 g total suspended solids produced/g chemical oxygen demand removed. The essential functions of the Cannibal process for the reduction of sludge production appear to be to remove trash and grit from the sludge by physical processes of microscreening and hydrocycloning, respectively, and to provide a long sludge retention time, which allows the slow degradation of the "unbiodegradable" influent particulate organics (XU,Inf) and the endogenous residue (XE). The high energy demand of 1.6 kWh/m³ of treated wastewater at the studied facility limits the niche of the Cannibal process to small- to medium-sized facilities in which sludge disposal costs are high but electricity costs are low.

  15. Mechanisms for Reduced Excess Sludge Production in the Cannibal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Marc-André; Dold, Peter L; Comeau, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Reducing excess sludge production is increasingly attractive as a result of rising costs and constraints with respect to sludge treatment and disposal. A technology in which the mechanisms remain not well understood is the Cannibal process, for which very low sludge yields have been reported. The objective of this work was to use modeling as a means to characterize excess sludge production at a full-scale Cannibal facility by providing a long sludge retention time and removing trash and grit by physical processes. The facility was characterized by using its historical data, from discussion with the staff and by conducting a sampling campaign to prepare a solids inventory and an overall mass balance. At the evaluated sludge retention time of 400 days, the sum of the daily loss of suspended solids to the effluent and of the waste activated sludge solids contributed approximately equally to the sum of solids that are wasted daily as trash and grit from the solids separation module. The overall sludge production was estimated to be 0.14 g total suspended solids produced/g chemical oxygen demand removed. The essential functions of the Cannibal process for the reduction of sludge production appear to be to remove trash and grit from the sludge by physical processes of microscreening and hydrocycloning, respectively, and to provide a long sludge retention time, which allows the slow degradation of the "unbiodegradable" influent particulate organics (XU,Inf) and the endogenous residue (XE). The high energy demand of 1.6 kWh/m³ of treated wastewater at the studied facility limits the niche of the Cannibal process to small- to medium-sized facilities in which sludge disposal costs are high but electricity costs are low. PMID:26237684

  16. Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Compounds in Wastewater Sludge and Aqueous Samples using GC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitroshkov, Alexandre V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilmore, Tyler J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Bioenergy Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating the feasibility of converting wastewater sludge materials to fuels. Wastewater sludge from various municipalities will be used in the evaluation process and as with any municipal waste, there is the potential for residual contaminates to remain in the sludge following wastewater treatment. Many surveys and studies have confirmed the presence of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater and effluents (World Health Organization, 2011). Determination of the presence and concentrations of the contaminants is required to define the proper handling of this sludge. A list of targeted compounds was acquired from the literature and an analytical method was developed for the pharmaceutical and personal care compounds. The presence of organics complicated the analytical techniques and, in some cases, the precision of the results. However, residual concentrations of a range of compounds were detected in the wastewater sludge and the presence and concentrations of these compounds will be considered in identifying the appropriate handling of this material in conduct of research.

  17. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  18. Salt stress in a membrane bioreactor: dynamics of sludge properties, membrane fouling and remediation through powdered activated carbon dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Temmerman, L; Maere, T; Temmink, H; Zwijnenburg, A; Nopens, I

    2014-10-15

    Membrane bioreactors are a well-established technology for wastewater treatment. However, their efficiency is adversely impacted by membrane fouling, primarily inciting very conservative operations of installations that makes them less appealing from an economic perspective. This fouling propensity of the activated sludge is closely related to system disturbances. Therefore, improved insight into the impact of fouling is crucial towards increased membrane performance. In this work, the disturbance of a salt shock was investigated with respect to sludge composition and filterability in two parallel lab-scale membrane bioreactors. Several key sludge parameters (soluble microbial products, sludge-bound extracellular polymeric substances, supramicron particle size distributions (PSD), submicron particle concentrations) were intensively monitored prior to, during, and after a disturbance to investigate its impact as well as the potential governing mechanism. Upon salt addition, the supramicron PSD immediately shifted to smaller floc sizes, and the total fouling rate increased. Following a certain delay, an increase in submicron particles, supernatant proteins, and polysaccharides was observed as well as an increase in the irreversible membrane fouling rate. Recovery from the disturbance was evidenced with a simultaneous decrease in the above mentioned quantities. A similar experiment introducing powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition used for remediation resulted in either no or less significant changes in the above mentioned quantities, signifying its potential as a mitigation strategy. PMID:24999116

  19. Cadmium biosorption by ozonized activated sludge: The role of bacterial flocs surface properties and mixed liquor composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Julien, E-mail: jlaurent@me.com [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, 16 rue Atlantis, Parc ESTER Technopole, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Casellas, Magali, E-mail: casellas@ensil.unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, 16 rue Atlantis, Parc ESTER Technopole, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Pons, Marie-Noelle, E-mail: marie-noelle.pons@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, CNRS, Nancy Universite, INPL, 1 rue Granville, BP 451, F-54001 Nancy (France); Dagot, Christophe, E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, 16 rue Atlantis, Parc ESTER Technopole, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Cadmium uptake by activated sludge was studied following modifications of sludge composition and surface properties induced by ozone treatment. Ozone leads to the solubilization of sludge compounds as well as their mineralization, especially humic like substances. Small particles were formed following floc disintegration, leading to a decrease of average floc size. The study of surface properties underlined the mineralization as the number of surface binding sites decreased with the increase of ozone dose. Depending on ozone dose, cadmium uptake by activated sludge flocs was either increased or decreased. Different mechanisms were involved: below 10 mg O{sub 3}/g TS, the increase of floc specific surface area following floc size decrease as well as the release of phosphate ions yielded an increase by 75% of cadmium uptake, due to the better availability of biosorption sites and the increase of precipitation. Inversely, at higher ozone doses, the number of biosorption sites decreased due to oxidation by ozone. Moreover, dissolved organic matter concentration increased and provided ligands for metal complexation. Cadmium uptake was therefore limited for ozone doses ranging from 10 to 16.8 mg O{sub 3}/g TS.

  20. Degradation of organic pollutants and characteristics of activated sludge in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor treating chemical industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.