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Sample records for activated partial thromboplastin

  1. Deceptive prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times in alcoholic cirrhosis.

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    Sirikonda, P. R.; Spillert, C. R.; Koneru, B.; Ponnudurai, R.; Wilson, D. J.; Lazaro, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that perioperative hemorrhage, in the hepatoportal area, results from a coagulopathy. This study determined if this could be quantitated by a modified recalcification time (MRT) test developed in our laboratory. Unlike prothrombin (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT), the MRT is performed with whole blood to ensure the role of blood cells and chemicals (particularly tissue factor, a potent procoagulant) in the coagulation process. Candidates for liver transplantation (n = 11) were studied. Samples (5 mL) of citrated venous blood were obtained from the patients. Aliquots (1 mL) from these samples were divided into groups of vials labeled C, S, and E. Groups C and S received 20 microL saline and group E, 20 microL of saline containing 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B5W). Vial C was incubated for 10 minutes and vials S and E for 120 minutes, all at 37 degrees C. Then, the MRT was determined on 300 microL of blood from each vial after adding 40 microL of 0.1M calcium chloride. Mean MRT values (minutes +/- standard deviation) for C (MRTC), for S (MRTS), and for E (MRTE) were compared with like values from healthy controls (n = 29). Despite prolonged PT and APTT values, MRT values were shortened in patients with cirrhosis. This hypercoagulability detected by the MRT exonerates a hemorrhagic coagulopathy and possibly implicates widened and thinned gaps in the walls of the portal venous tributaries as the cause of perioperative hemorrhage. PMID:8667440

  2. Sequential thrombosis and bleeding in a woman with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time

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    Pearce Michael I

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous or sequential haemorrhage and thrombosis in the presence of a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT is a rare occurrence: we describe the case a 37 year old lady who developed post-delivery deep vein thrombosis treated with low molecular heparin and warfarin followed a week later by extensive bruising over legs and forearms, a significant drop in haemoglobin and a very prolonged aPTT. Further tests revealed an acquired factor VIII inhibitor at 35 Bethesda Units. We discuss the clinical and laboratory implications and provide a literature review of simultaneous thrombophilia and haemophilia in the presence of a prolonged aPTT.

  3. Shortened activated partial thromboplastin time, a hemostatic marker for hypercoagulable state during acute coronary event.

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    Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Moufak, Shaimaa K; Yusof, Zurkurnai; Mohamad, Mohd Sapawi; Kamarul, I M

    2010-06-01

    Various factors may contribute to a hypercoagulable state and acute vascular thrombosis. A prospective study was conducted involving 165 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients from the Cardiology Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among factor VIII (FVIII), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and activated protein C resistance (APC-R) state among CHD patients and to look for potential clinical applications from these laboratory findings. There were 110 cases diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whereas another 55 were stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients. PT, APTT, FVIII, and APC-R assays were performed on all subjects. There was a significant difference between the FVIII level and the APTT results (P value < 0.0001). A negative relationship was found between the FVIII level and the APTT from linear regression analysis (R(2) = 10%, P value < 0.0001). For each 1% increase in the FVIII level, the APTT was reduced by 0.013 s (95% confidence interval (CI) between -0.019 and -0.007). Interestingly, none of the SCAD patients had abnormally short APTT. Approximately 68.4% of cases with a positive APC-R assay were found to have a high FVIII level. In conclusion, the APTT test is a potential hemostatic marker for hypercoagulable state including in arterial thrombosis.

  4. The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the infusion of N-acetylcysteine decreased the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in healthy persons. N-acetylcysteine was administered intraveneously 10 mg kg-1 as a loading dose and then at a rate of 10...... mg kg-1 h-1 for 32 h in six male subjects. The intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathway of coagulation were monitored with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time, respectively. In addition, the extrinsic coagulation pathway was monitored with the clotting activity of single...... factors II, VII, and X. No effect on the intrinsic coagulation pathway was observed. There was a significant and rapid decrease in prothrombin time. Coagulation factors II, VII and X, the three components of prothrombin time, decreased significantly to different degrees. We conclude that infusion of N...

  5. Antifactor Xa levels versus activated partial thromboplastin time for monitoring unfractionated heparin.

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    Vandiver, Jeremy W; Vondracek, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) remains an important therapeutic agent, particularly in the inpatient setting, for anticoagulation. Historically, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been the primary laboratory test used to monitor and adjust UFH. The aPTT test has evolved since the 1950s, and the historical goal range of 1.5-2.5 times the control aPTT, which first gained favor in the 1970s, has fallen out of favor due to a high degree of variability in aPTT readings from one laboratory to another, and even from one reagent to another. As a result, it is now recommended that the aPTT goal range be based on a corresponding heparin concentration of 0.2-0.4 unit/ml by protamine titration or 0.3-0.7 unit/ml by antifactor Xa assay. Given that several biologic factors can influence the aPTT independent of the effects of UFH, many institutions have transitioned to monitoring heparin with antifactor Xa levels, rather than the aPTT. Clinical data from the last 10-20 years have begun to show that a conversion from aPTT to antifactor Xa monitoring may offer a smoother dose-response curve, such that levels remain more stable, requiring fewer blood samples and dosage adjustments. Given the minimal increased acquisition cost of the antifactor Xa reagents, it can be argued that the antifactor Xa is a cost-effective method for monitoring UFH. In this review, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the aPTT, antifactor Xa, and protamine titration tests, and provide a clinical framework to guide practitioners who are seeking to optimize UFH monitoring within their own institutions.

  6. Effects of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in healthy subjects.

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    De Kam, Pieter-Jan; Grobara, Peter; Prohn, Marita; Höppener, Floris; Kluft, Cornelis; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Langdon, Ronald B; Peeters, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio for prothrombin time (PT(INR)) in healthy subjects and characterize the concentration-dependency of sugammadex effects on APTT and prothrombin time (PT) in normal human plasma in vitro. Eight healthy subjects (18 - 45 years of age) were administered intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg sugammadex, 16 mg/kg sugammadex, or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, three period cross-over trial. The primary endpoint was area under the curve from 2 to 60 minutes post-dose (AUC2-60min) for APTT and PT(INR). In vitro, the effects of sugammadex on APTT and PT were assessed in pooled normal human citrate plasma. In subjects dosed with 4 and 16 mg/kg sugammadex, geometric mean ratios (treated vs. placebo) for AUC2-60min were 1.085 (95% confidence interval, 0.888 - 1.325) and 1.019 (0.868 - 1.195), respectively, for APTT, and 1.047 (0.904 - 1.213) and 1.096 (0.953 - 1.261), respectively, for PT(INR). At individual timepoints, mean APTT and PT(INR) increased by up to 22% after 16 mg/kg sugammadex compared with placebo. All such increases occurred within 30 minutes post-dose. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In the in vitro experiments, addition of sugammadex to plasma resulted in limited, concentration dependent increases in both APTT and PT. At 200 μg/mL (the mean maximum concentration reached therapeutically), the relative increases were 29% and 19%, respectively. Administration of sugammadex is associated with a dose-related, limited and transient prolongation of APTT and PT(INR) that is unlikely to be of clinical relevance.

  7. Partial thromboplastin time test with kaolin

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    Matchett, Myrtle O.; Ingram, G. I. C.

    1965-01-01

    The partial thromboplastin time test provides a convenient and sensitive screening procedure for deficiencies of thromboplastic factors, especially factors VIII and IX. The test is carried out after preincubating the plasma for 10 minutes with kaolin, and Inosithin is used as a platelet substitute. The `normal range' of the test has been estimated in terms of the differences encountered between random normal plasmas tested in pairs, because individual patients are usually tested against single control subjects. A patient's partial thromboplastin time should be regarded as abnormal if it is more than six seconds longer than the control time. In the diagnosis of haemophilia, patients' plasmas with concentrations of factor VIII as low as about 20% might be regarded as being within the range of normal, if the selected control subject's factor VIII happened to lie near the lower end of the normal range. When mild haemophilia is suspected, discrimination may be improved by diluting both the patient's and the control plasmas 1 in 20 in haemophilic plasma. With the test modified in this way the clotting time is prolonged, though the range of differences among normal subjects is unaltered, and plasmas with factor VIII concentrations below about 30%, i.e., in undiluted plasma, would be unlikely to be regarded as normal. The partial thromboplastin time may be similarly modified as a screening test for factor IX deficiency. Some clinical examples are reported. PMID:14318702

  8. Unusual Initial Manifestation of Acquired Hemophilia A: A Normal Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, Intramuscular Hematoma and Cerebral Hemorrhage

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    Tsuyama, Nobuaki; Ichiba, Toshihisa; Naito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of acquired hemophilia A with a normal activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT), intramuscular hematoma and cerebral hemorrhage occurring in a 73-year-old man. The patient visited our emergency department with gait disturbance, pain and swelling in his right leg. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed intramuscular hematoma and intracranial hemorrhage. The results of initial coagulation studies were normal, but repeated coagulation studies revealed an isolated prolongation of the aPTT. Additional laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. If the initial aPTT is normal, we should therefore repeat the aPTT and also perform other coagulation studies including a mixing study, factor VIII level and inhibitor, to investigate the underlying diseases in elderly patients with spontaneous hemorrhaging of unknown etiology. PMID:27853081

  9. Effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration on canine plasma samples

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    Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The present study was to assess the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen concentration in blood samples of healthy dogs. Thirty-five dogs of various breeds were included in the study. Citrated blood samples were obtained and plasma was divided into four aliquots to assess selected clotting parameters by means of a coagulometer. The first aliquot was analysed within 1 h after collection, while the remaining 3 were stored at 8℃ for 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance documented a significant decreasing effect on PT at 24 h compared to 8 h and on fibrinogen concentration after 8 and 24 h compared to sampling time and at 4 and 24 h compared to 8 h post sampling. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that only fibrinogen appears prone to significant decrease. In fact, aPTT is not substantially affected by refrigeration for at least 24 h post sampling and PT showed a statistical difference that does not necessary indicate biological significance as the results obtained were within reference intervals for the dog. PMID:20458152

  10. Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Testing: A Comparative Effectiveness Study in a Million-Patient Sample.

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    Manu N Capoor

    Full Text Available A substantial fraction of all American healthcare expenditures are potentially wasted, and practices that are not evidence-based could contribute to such waste. We sought to characterize whether Prothrombin Time (PT and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT tests of preoperative patients are used in a way unsupported by evidence and potentially wasteful.We evaluated prospectively-collected patient data from 19 major teaching hospitals and 8 hospital-affiliated surgical centers in 7 states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. A total of 1,053,472 consecutive patients represented every patient admitted for elective surgery from 2009 to 2012 at all 27 settings. A subset of 682,049 patients (64.7% had one or both tests done and history and physical (H&P records available for analysis. Unnecessary tests for bleeding risk were defined as: PT tests done on patients with no history of abnormal bleeding, warfarin therapy, vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency, or liver disease; or aPTT tests done on patients with no history of heparin treatment, hemophilia, lupus anticoagulant antibodies, or von Willebrand disease. We assessed the proportion of patients who received PT or aPTT tests who lacked evidence-based reasons for testing.This study sought to bring the availability of big data together with applied comparative effectiveness research. Among preoperative patients, 26.2% received PT tests, and 94.3% of tests were unnecessary, given the absence of findings on H&P. Similarly, 23.3% of preoperative patients received aPTT tests, of which 99.9% were unnecessary. Among patients with no H&P findings suggestive of bleeding risk, 6.6% of PT tests and 7.1% of aPTT tests were either a false positive or a true positive (i.e. indicative of a previously-undiagnosed potential bleeding risk. Both PT and aPTT, designed as diagnostic tests, are apparently used as screening tests

  11. A comparison of red blood cell transfusion utilization between anti-activated factor X and activated partial thromboplastin monitoring in patients receiving unfractionated heparin.

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    Belk, K W; Laposata, M; Craver, C

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Anti-activated factor X (Anti-Xa) monitoring is more precise than activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT). 20 804 hospitalized cardiovascular patients monitored with Anti-Xa or aPTT were analyzed. Adjusted transfusion rates were significantly lower for patients monitored with Anti-Xa. Adoption of Anti-Xa protocols could reduce transfusions among cardiovascular patients in the US. Background Anticoagulant activated factor X protein (Anti-Xa) has been shown to be a more precise monitoring tool than activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) for patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH) anticoagulation therapy. Objectives To compare red blood cell (RBC) transfusions between patients receiving UFH who are monitored with Anti-Xa and those monitored with aPTT. Patients/Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (N = 14 822), diagnosed with ischemic stroke (STK) (N = 1568) or with a principal diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (N = 4414) in the MedAssets data from January 2009 to December 2013. Anti-Xa and aPTT groups were identified from hospital billing details, with both brand and generic name as search criteria. Propensity score techniques were used to match Anti-Xa cases to aPTT controls. RBC transfusions were identified from hospital billing data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant drivers of transfusions. Results Anti-Xa patients had fewer RBC transfusions than aPTT patients in the ACS population (difference 17.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.4-18.7%), the STK population (difference 8.2%; 95% CI 4.4-11.9%), and the VTE population (difference 4.7%; 95% CI 3.3-6.1%). After controlling for patient age and gender, diagnostic risks (e.g. anemia, renal insufficiency, and trauma), and invasive procedures (e.g. cardiac catheterization, hemodialysis, and coronary artery bypass graft), Anti-Xa patients were less likely to have a transfusion while

  12. 21 CFR 864.7925 - Partial thromboplastin time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... screening for coagulation abnormalities, for evaluation of the effect of therapy on procoagulant disorders... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial thromboplastin time tests. 864.7925 Section 864.7925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF PERSEA AMERICANA(AVOCADO PEAR ON PROTHROMBIN TIME AND ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN MICE

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    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P and lt;0.05. The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P and gt;0.05. The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.

  14. Thromboelastography as a Better Indicator of Postinjury Hypercoagulable State Than Prothrombin Time or Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time

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    2009-08-01

    anticoagulation therapy with warfarin or antiplatelet agents , and patients with known underlying coagulopathies were excluded. In addition, 20 healthy...pectoris (22–24). Finally, key anticoagulant factors such as protein C, antithrombin III (AT III), and the tissue factor pathway inhibitor are...procoagulant and anticoagulant activity and that these processes would be similar for both injury groups. Materials and Methods This study was reviewed and

  15. Thrombin generation, ProC(®)Global, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in thawed plasma stored for seven days and after methylene blue/light pathogen inactivation.

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    Thiele, Thomas; Hron, Gregor; Kellner, Sarah; Wasner, Christina; Westphal, Antje; Warkentin, Theodore E; Greinacher, Andreas; Selleng, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Methylene blue pathogen inactivation and storage of thawed plasma both lead to changes in the activity of several clotting factors. We investigated how this translates into a global loss of thrombin generation potential and alterations in the protein C pathway. Fifty apheresis plasma samples were thawed and each divided into three subunits. One subunit was stored for 7 days at 4 °C, one was stored for 7 days at 22 °C and one was stored at 4 °C after methylene blue/light treatment. Thrombin generation parameters, ProC(®)Global-NR, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed on days 0 and 7. The velocity of thrombin generation increased significantly after methylene blue treatment (increased thrombin generation rate; time to peak decreased) and decreased after storage (decreased thrombin generation rate and peak thrombin; increased lag time and time to peak). The endogenous thrombin generation potential remained stable after methylene blue treatment and storage at 4 °C. Methylene blue treatment and 7 days of storage at 4 °C activated the protein C pathway, whereas storage at room temperature and storage after methylene blue treatment decreased the functional capacity of the protein C pathway. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time showed only modest alterations. The global clotting capacity of thawed plasma is maintained at 4 °C for 7 days and directly after methylene blue treatment of thawed plasma. Thrombin generation and ProC(®)Global are useful tools for investigating the impact of pathogen inactivation and storage on the clotting capacity of therapeutic plasma preparations.

  16. INCREASED RISK OF THROMBOEMBOLISM AS A RESULT OF HIGH THROMBIN PRODUCTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH SHORT ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN CANCER PATIENTS ON AND AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Indranil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available : To investigate wheather cancer patients during and following chemotherapy with short activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTTs have increased thrombin generation and are at increased risk for thromboembolism, this prospective study was designed. Routine coagulation specimens of such patients were screened for the presence of short or normal aPTT for 5-month period, and, accordingly, 250 specimens were collected. Prothrombin fragment F1+2 (F1+2 was measured to evaluate thrombin activation, and a second aPTT was performed with a different reagent. Clinical history were obtained from medical records after conclusion of sample collection. 6 to12months later, patients were questioned on thromboembolic events during the previous 18 months by questionnaire. F1+2 and the incidence of venous thromboses were elevated significantly in the short aPTT group. Patients with acute bleeding had short aPTTs, but 36% of these also had thromboembolic events during the 18 months proximal to blood collection. These findings were confirmed with the second aPTT reagent. Patients with short aPTTs have increased thrombin generation and are at increased risk for thromboembolism, mainly venous thromboses, despite the fact that a short aPTT can occur in the acute setting of bleeding.

  17. Valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa em cães Reference ranges of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT in dogs

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    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores de coagulação são parte integrante da hemostasia normal, e tanto as coagulopatias hereditárias como adquiridas que envolvem este sistema são de grande importância veterinária, geralmente evidenciadas por manifestações clínicas, tais como, petéquias, equimoses, hematomas e sangramentos tardios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a determinação dos valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa, por métodos manuais. Para tanto, utilizou-se "kits" para dosagens humanas, devido à inexistência de produtos similares de uso específico veterinário. Foram utilizados 40 cães clinicamente sadios, sem raça definida, machos ou fêmeas, de diferentes idades. As amostras sanguíneas foram de 2,5ml cada, colhidas por venopunção cefálica e acondicionadas em tubos de centrífuga contendo 0,25ml de citrato de sódio a 3,8%. O plasma foi imediatamente separado por centrifugação e as determinações de TP e TTPa foram realizadas utilizando-se "kits" comerciais "HemoStat Thromboplastin-SIª" e "HemoStat aPTT-El b", respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram de 6,87 ± 1,4 segundos para o TP com valores mínimo e máximo de 4,07 e 9,67, respectivamente, e de 15,10 ± 1,6 segundos para TTPa com valores mínimo e máximo de 11,9 e 18,3, respectivamente. Conclui-se, que os valores obtidos neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como referência. Os reagentes utilizados para plasma humano podem ser empregados para o plasma de cães.The coagulation factors are part of normal hemostasis, and both hereditary and acquired coagulopathies that involve this system have an important role in veterinary medicine, generally evidenced by clinical signs such as: petechias, ecchymosis, hematomas and late hemorrhagies. The objective of this experiment was to determine reference range values of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, for manual methods. Human commercial

  18. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

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    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  19. Avaliação do desempenho dos reagentes do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada utilizados para detectar o anticoagulante lúpico Assessment of the performance of reagents of activated partial thromboplastin time used to detect the lupus anticoagulant

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    Fernanda Chiuso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O anticoagulante lúpico é uma imunoglobulina pertencente à família dos anticorpos antifosfolípides. A sua ação in vitro é interferir nos testes de coagulação dependentes de fosfolípides. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA é um teste utilizado como screening na pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico. Os reagentes utilizados neste teste apresentam grandes variações quanto à sensibilidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos reagentes do TTPA e detectar a presença do anticoagulante lúpico através de diferentes testes da coagulação. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico foi realizada em 50 amostras plasmáticas de pacientes do sexo feminino através dos testes do TTPA, do tempo de coagulação do caulim (TCC, do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada diluída (TTPAd e do tempo do veneno da víbora de Russel diluído (TVVRd. Três cefalinas comerciais foram avaliadas pelos testes do TTPA e do TTPAd. Na comparação entre os reagentes estudados foi aplicado o cálculo do intervalo de confiança (95%. RESULTADOS: Os três reagentes avaliados apresentaram boa concordância e os métodos utilizados responderam bem à pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: As três cefalinas comerciais avaliadas podem ser utilizadas na rotina laboratorial para a pesquisa do anticoagulante lúpico.INTRODUCTION: The lupus anticoagulant is an immunoglobin which belongs to the antiphospholid antibodies family. Its in vitro function is to interfere with coagulation tests that are dependent on phospholipids. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT is a test used as screening on lupus anticoagulant research. Reagents used in this test demonstrate wide sensitivity ranges. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of APTT reagents and detect the presence of lupus anticoagulant through various coagulation tests. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The lupus anticoagulant research was performed in plasma from 50

  20. Unbelievable but true: Partial thromboplastin time, kaolin 120 s and yet no surgical bleed!

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    Shagun Bhatia Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thromboplastin time, kaolin (PTTK is a global test sensitive to low levels of all the coagulation factors, except Factor VII and Factor XIII. Patients with extensive cancer have a propensity to develop a shortened PTTK. Our breast cancer patient had a prolonged PTTK result roughly 4 times the normal values. A detailed description of the preoperative workup including the special investigations is required to ascertain the cause of the prolongation and precautions taken, leading to successful breast cancer surgery and postoperative period in this patient follows. Allowing the surgeon to operate a patient with a PTTK >120 s and simultaneously at risk of thrombosis due to lupus anticoagulant is possible with a calculated risk and thorough preoperative evaluation. Prophylactic fresh frozen plasma and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis have an important role.

  1. Preoperative screening for coagulopathy using prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time in patients requiring primary cranial vault remodeling.

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    Genecov, David G; Por, Yong-Chen; Barcelo, Carlos Raul; Salyer, Kenneth E; Mulne, Arlynne F; Morad, Ammar B

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abnormal preoperative screening prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time in patients listed for primary cranial vault remodeling that required hematologic workup and their diagnoses and subsequent management. This retrospective analysis was performed from January of 2000 to December of 2003 at the International Craniofacial Institute, Dallas, Texas, on a total of 168 patients. All patients had a normal prothrombin time. Abnormally raised partial thromboplastin time was found in six patients (prevalence of 3.57 percent), one who had factor XI deficiency, one who had a borderline factor XI deficiency and circulating inhibitor, one who had an intermittent factor XI deficiency and circulating inhibitor, one who had a borderline von Willebrand's disease with low factor XII, and the remaining two who had a circulating inhibitor of coagulation. Of these six patients, the perioperative management was altered in four of five patients, and one patient declined surgery out of fear of surgical morbidity. The surgery of one patient was aborted intraoperatively because of abnormal bleeding without clot formation after the calvarial burr holes had been drilled. The mean blood loss was 183 ml for the four patients with completed surgery and 100 ml for one patient. The authors conclude that even though the prevalence of abnormal screening partial thromboplastin time in these patients was low (3.57 percent), detection of an abnormal result required preoperative correction of coagulopathy in 80 percent of cases.

  2. Prothrombin-activator (thromboplastin) generation in the blood of water snake (Natrix piscator).

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    Srivastava, V M; Dube, B; Dube, R K; Agarwal, G P

    1981-12-23

    The generation of prothrombin-activator (thromboplastin) in water snake (Natrix piscator) is clearly delayed, compared to a mammalian system, but the final activity is well comparable to that in man, when homologous sources of "phospholipid" (erythrocyte-lysate) and of substrate plasma are employed in one stage "thromboplastin generation test". The use of heterologous source of either of the above reagents resulted in significantly longer clotting times; hence the need for homologous source of above reagents in the test is emphasized for comparative studies on animal haemostasis.

  3. Implementation of the ISTH classification of non-overt DIC in a thromboplastin induced rabbit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Line Olrik; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Wiinberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    , but the scoring systems have rarely been applied to animal models of DIC. In this study, we use rabbit brain thromboplastin (thromboplastin) to induce DIC in a rabbit model and test the applicability of the ISTH criteria for standardized diagnosis of DIC. Cardiovascular and haematological parameters from rabbits...... thromboplastin/kg was lethal. For the remaining groups, a dose dependent decrease in blood pressure, platelet count and fibrinogen level together with a dose dependent increase in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, level of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrin degradation products...

  4. Avaliação de fibrinogênio, tempo de tromboplastina parcial e tempo de protrombina em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio Evaluation of fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Lavall Dias

    2007-04-01

    during the acute phase of AMI were related to cardiovascular death or a new AMI event. This incidence was higher in the age range of 44 to 75 years in men, and 56 to 90 in women. Approximately 73% of patients presented family history of coronary heart disease (CHD, 66% were smokers, 63% presented hypertension and most of them were sedentary. Increased incidence of AMI in extreme temperatures was also observed. For fibrinogen concentrations (Fbr, results demonstrated significant difference (p < 0.05 between control and AMI patients. Considering troponin (TROP, creatine kinase (CK, the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB and leukocytes count, results showed statistically significant differences. However, partial thromboplastin time activated (PTAT, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglyceride levels presented no significant difference between the studied groups. In conclusion, this work demonstrated a trend towards increasing fibrinogen concentration in patients with AMI, revealing that it may be considered one of the cardiac markers for AMI.

  5. 两种动脉置管处采血法应用于血气分析与活化部分凝血活酶时间检测结果的比较%Comparison of two arterial catheter blood sampling methods for blood gas analysis and activated partial thromboplastin time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许月春; 杨小霞; 张群; 赵晓燕; 蒋耘; 陈俊; 邹国锦; 姚圣连; 丁翠君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of blood sampling methods from heparin maintained arterial catheter for blood gas analysis and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT).Methods Conventional and modified arterial catheter blood sampling methods were applied at the same period of time to 30 cases with arterial pressure measurement.3-5 ml blood containing heparin was disposed in conventional method.No blood was disposed for the modified method.The samples were used for blood gas analysis and APTT.The operation time of the sampling by two methods were compared.Results No significant difference was seen for the blood gas analysis and APTT from the blood samples collected by two different methods (P > 0.05).The operation time of modified method was significantly shorter than that of the conventional method [(187.87 ±15.05)s vs (275.73 ±14.75)s,t =22.84;P<0.01].Conclusions Arterial catheter blood sampling from heparin maintained blood by the modified method gives accurate clinical laboratory results,in this case,the blood gas analysis and the APTT.No blood is wasted and the operation time for the nurses is reduced.The modified method could be an alternative to the conventional blood collection method.%目的 探讨一种既不浪费血液,又能准确检测血气分析、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)的从肝素维持的动脉置管中采血的方法.方法 对30例动脉测压的患儿,用常规法(弃含有肝素的血液3~5ml)和改良法(不弃血)分别在同一时段从动脉置管处采血.用采集的血样检测血气分析和APTT,并比较两种方法采血所需的时间.结果 两种采血方法检测的血气分析、APTT结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).改良法操作时间明显短于常规法[(187.87±15.05)s比(275.73±14.75)s],差异有统计学意义(t=22.84,P<0.01).结论 不弃血采血法检测血气分析、APTT结果准确,可以替代常规采血法,做到了不弃血,不浪费血液,大大降低医源性失

  6. Comparing the Effect of Continuous and Intermittent Irrigation Techniques on Complications of Arterial Catheter and Partial Thromboplastin Time in Patients Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Arta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different approaches are available to irrigate the arterial catheter, such as continuous and intermittent techniques. However, there is a disagreement regarding the most appropriate method. Aim: this study aimed to compare the effect of two continuous and intermittent irrigation methods on complications of arterial catheter and partial thromboplastin time (PTT in patients with coronary artery bypass (CABG surgery. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 participants undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in open-heart surgery ICU at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. In continuous group, the arterial catheter was continuously irrigated with heparin solution at the rate of 2cc/h, and in the intermittent group with a syringe containing 5cc heparin solution every 3 hours. In both groups, catheter was monitored and recorded every 3 hours (until 48 hours and 3 times from enrollment in terms of complications of partial thromboplastin time. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: The findingsof independent t-test showed that the two groups are homogeneous in age (P =0.48. The result of Fisher's exact test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in terms of average incidence of complications during the first 24 hours (P=0.55 and second 24 hours (P=0.55 after catheterization. Also during the 48 hours after surgery, independent t-test results showed no statistically significant difference in partial thromboplastin time (P=0.53 between the two groups. Implications for Practice: According to the results of the research based on the lack of difference between continuous and intermittent irrigation methods up to 48 hours after catheter replacement in terms of arterial catheter complications, further long-term follow-up researches are recommended.

  7. Normalization of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Correlates with Low Levels of Dabigatran in a Patient with Severe Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Rikke Ebenhard; Thorup, Stine Borch; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2015-01-01

    treated with dabigatran etexilate was admitted to intensive care unit with severe sepsis and acute renal failure and in need of bilateral lower limp amputation due to ischemia. The patient had severe coagulopathy and was treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration in attempt to remove dabigatran......The oral anticoagulant dabigatran etexilate can be a challenge when patients need acute surgery. Sepsis and acute renal failure exacerbate the anticoagulant effect. There is no specific reversal agent for dabigatran etexilate, but it can be removed by hemodialysis. We present a case where a patient...

  8. Anticoagulant screening of marine algae from Mexico, and partial characterization of the active sulfated polysaccharide from Eisenia arborea

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ochoa, Mauricio; Murillo-Álvarez, Jesús Iván; Rodríguez Montesinos, Yoloxochilt Elizabeth; Hernández Carmona, Gustavo; Arvizu Higuera, Dora Luz; Peralta Cruz, Javier;; Lizardi Mendoza, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro anticoagulant activity of 41 water extracts of various seaweeds from Baja California Sur, Mexico was evaluated. In this study, nine extracts exhibited anticoagulant activity in the prothrombin time assay, and 29 extracts were active in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. The water extract obtained at 25°C from the brown seaweed Eisenia arborea was the most active in both assays, increasing the normal blood clotting-time over 300 s at 100 mg mL-1. The fractionation of...

  9. 6,7-Dihydroxy-3-phenylcoumarin inhibits thromboplastin induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Tugba; Yarat, Aysen; Bulut, Mustafa; Emekli, Nesrin

    2004-07-01

    6,7-Dihydroxy-3-phenylcoumarin (DHPC) was tested to determine whether it had any effect on vitamin K inhibition, by investigating the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen level and platelet count. The anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of DHPC were compared with those of warfarin by conducting a 4 h acute trial on thromboplastin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), investigating various haemostatic and antioxidant system parameters and performing a haemogram. Of most significance was that in the 5-d DHPC trial on healthy controls, PT, APTT, fibrinogen, platelet count remained within normal levels. In the 4-h DIC trial, both DHPC (0.025 mg/kg, i.v.) and warfarin (0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly inhibited DIC, by reducing the PT, APTT, and fibrin degradation products and increasing fibrinogen levels and platelet count. In the DIC drug groups, lipid peroxidation significantly increased only in the warfarin group and glutathione significantly increased only in the DHPC group. However leucocyte count was significantly higher in the DHPC than the warfarin group. Further investigation is required for why DHPC is effective on the parameters investigated, at doses one-tenth of those of warfarin.

  10. Comparison of thromboplastins using the ISI and INR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, H T; Lam-Po-Tang, P R; Anastas, N

    1990-04-01

    Twelve thromboplastins were tested against a secondary reference thromboplastin (human brain CRM BCR No. 147) or a tertiary house standard (human brain thromboplastin) with plasmas from normal healthy individuals and patients on oral anticoagulant therapy. The relationship between the prothrombin ratios of the thromboplastins tested versus the reference reagent was either a straight or curved line. The International Sensitivity Index (ISI) was estimated for each of the test thromboplastins and these ranged from 0.98 to 2.24. Some ISIs stated by manufacturers were different from our results. Thromboplastins with a high ISI showed a loss of sensitivity in assessing the level of anticoagulation at the upper end of the therapeutic range. In addition, the 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of the ISI estimations were widest for thromboplastins with the highest ISIs. Conversion of the prothrombin ratio to International Normalized Ratio (INR) was most accurate with the Australasian Reference Thromboplastin (ART) and least accurate with reagents having an ISI of 2.00 and over. Thromboplastins with an ISI between 1.10 and 1.50 may be adequate for the control of oral anticoagulant therapy, but were less accurate than a thromboplastin with an ISI approximating 1.00. Factors other than ISI should be considered in the choice of a thromboplastin, in particular a measurement of the accuracy of the ISI estimation such as the 95% confidence interval estimation used here.

  11. Bactericidal activity of partially oxidized nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Julia; Dringen, Ralf; Zare, Richard N; Maas, Michael; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2014-06-24

    Nanodiamonds are a class of carbon-based nanoparticles that are rapidly gaining attention, particularly for biomedical applications, i.e., as drug carriers, for bioimaging, or as implant coatings. Nanodiamonds have generally been considered biocompatible with a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. We show that, depending on their surface composition, nanodiamonds kill Gram-positive and -negative bacteria rapidly and efficiently. We investigated six different types of nanodiamonds exhibiting diverse oxygen-containing surface groups that were created using standard pretreatment methods for forming nanodiamond dispersions. Our experiments suggest that the antibacterial activity of nanodiamond is linked to the presence of partially oxidized and negatively charged surfaces, specifically those containing acid anhydride groups. Furthermore, proteins were found to control the bactericidal properties of nanodiamonds by covering these surface groups, which explains the previously reported biocompatibility of nanodiamonds. Our findings describe the discovery of an exciting property of partially oxidized nanodiamonds as a potent antibacterial agent.

  12. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M A; Alves, L G; de Queiroz, K C S; Santos, M G L; Marques, C T; Chavante, S F; Rocha, H A O; Leite, E L

    2005-04-01

    The brown algae Padina gymnospora contain different fucans. Powdered algae were submitted to proteolysis with the proteolytic enzyme maxataze. The first extract of the algae was constituted of polysaccharides contaminated with lipids, phenols, etc. Fractionation of the fucans with increasing concentrations of acetone produced fractions with different proportions of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate. One of the fractions, precipitated with 50% acetone (v/v), contained an 18-kDa heterofucan (PF1), which was further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 using 0.2 M acetic acid as eluent and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis in 0.05 M 1,3 diaminopropane/acetate buffer at pH 9.0, methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Structural analysis indicates that this fucan has a central core consisting mainly of 3-beta-D-glucuronic acid 1-> or 4-beta-D-glucuronic acid 1 ->, substituted at C-2 with alpha-L-fucose or beta-D-xylose. Sulfate groups were only detected at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units. The anticoagulant activity of the PF1 (only 2.5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin) estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-sulfation at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units is responsible for the anticoagulant activity of the polymer.

  13. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva T.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown algae Padina gymnospora contain different fucans. Powdered algae were submitted to proteolysis with the proteolytic enzyme maxataze. The first extract of the algae was constituted of polysaccharides contaminated with lipids, phenols, etc. Fractionation of the fucans with increasing concentrations of acetone produced fractions with different proportions of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate. One of the fractions, precipitated with 50% acetone (v/v, contained an 18-kDa heterofucan (PF1, which was further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 using 0.2 M acetic acid as eluent and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis in 0.05 M 1,3 diaminopropane/acetate buffer at pH 9.0, methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Structural analysis indicates that this fucan has a central core consisting mainly of 3-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1-> or 4-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1 ->, substituted at C-2 with alpha-L-fucose or ß-D-xylose. Sulfate groups were only detected at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units. The anticoagulant activity of the PF1 (only 2.5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-sulfation at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units is responsible for the anticoagulant activity of the polymer.

  14. 21 CFR 864.7900 - Thromboplastin generation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thromboplastin generation test. 864.7900 Section 864.7900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and identify coagulation factor deficiencies and coagulation inhibitors. (b) Classification. Class I...

  15. Partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in raspberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E M; de Ancos, B; Cano, M P

    1999-10-01

    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in raspberry fruits is described. Two early cultivars harvested in May/June (Heritage and Autumm Bliss) and two late cultivars harvested in October-November (Ceva and Rubi) were analyzed for PPO activity. Stable and highly active PPO extracts were obtained using insoluble poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and Triton X-100 in sodium phosphate, pH 7.0 buffer. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of raspberry extracts under nondenaturing conditions resolved in one band (R(f)()(1) = 0.25). Raspberry PPO activity has pH optima of 8.0 and 5.5, both with catechol (0.1 M). Maximum activity was with D-catechin (catecholase activity), followed by p-coumaric acid (cresolase activity). Heritage raspberry also showed PPO activity toward 4-methylcatechol. Ceva and Autumm Bliss raspberries showed the higher PPO activity using catechol as substrate.

  16. Saline obtaining and time standardization of prothrombin using thromboplastin of human placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining prothombine ‘s time is an important lab test in the study of coagulation disorders. To develop this essay the main reactive was thromboplastin , a substance that is presented in tissue and that has been obtained habitually from the human brain or certain animals but its extraction in labs or its commercial acquisition is difficult at present. Objective: To obtain Thromboplastin throughout the extraction of human placenta and to standardise the determination of pro-time into the obtained reactive Method: Placenta from normal delivery was used from which thromboplastin was obtained using a saline extraction. The reactive was compared with thromboplastin from human brain from ¨Dr. Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ Hospital in Havana City in a group of patients with and without anticoagulant treatment . With the extracted thromplastin similar or compatible results were obtained than with the habitual reactives by using easier and cheaper process.

  17. Proton catalysis with active carbons and partially pyrolyzed carbonaceous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Strelko; S. S. Stavitskaya; Yu. I. Gorlov

    2014-01-01

    The development of environmentally friendly solid acid catalysts is a priority task. Highly oxidized activated carbon and their ion-substituted (saline) forms are effective proton transfer catalysts in esterification, hydrolysis, and dehydration, and thus are promising candidates as solid acid cata-lysts. Computations by the ab initio method indicated the cause for the enchanced acidity of the carboxylic groups attached to the surface of highly oxidized carbon. The synthesis of phosphorilated carbon was considered, and the proton transfer reactions catalyzed by them in recent studies were analyzed. The development of an amorphous carbon acid catalyst comprising polycyclic carbonaceous (graphene) sheets with-SO3H,-COOH and phenolic type OH-groups was carried out. These new catalysts were synthesized by partial pyrolysis and subsequent sulfonation of carbohydrates, polymers, and other organic compounds. Their high catalytic activities in proton transfere reactions including the processing of bio-based raw materials was demonsrated.

  18. A comparison of five commercial thromboplastins: ISI re-evaluation on an automated coagulometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, K; McArdle, B; Kesteven, P J

    1995-03-01

    Five commercial rabbit brain thromboplastins were compared with an International Reference Preparation on an ACL coagulometer, using 90 patients stabilized on warfarin and 22 normal individuals. The prothrombin times were converted to INRs using the thromboplastin manufacturers' quoted ISI. The quoted ISIs were reassigned using orthogonal regression analysis and then used to recalculate INRs for patient and commercial INR control plasmas. This showed that the manufacturers' quoted ISIs and the INR control plasma results were inconsistent. With one thromboplastin the manufacturers quoted ISI changed from 1.17 to 1.05 whilst the control plasma results changed from an INR of 4.3 to an INR of 3.7 (manufacturer's INR, 3.3). In most routine laboratories ISI reassignment is not practical. We conclude that the availability of a reliable plasma calibrant is essential for the accurate calculation of INRs at a local level.

  19. Partial Agonists Activate PPARgamma Using a Helix 12 Independent Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, J.B.; Chalmers, M.J.; Prasad, S.; Bushby, S.A.; Kamenecka, T.A.; He, Y.; Nettles, K.W.; Griffin, P.R.

    2009-05-28

    Binding to helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{gamma} is required for full agonist activity. Previously, the degree of stabilization of the activation function 2 (AF-2) surface was thought to correlate with the degree of agonism and transactivation. To examine this mechanism, we probed structural dynamics of PPAR{gamma} with agonists that induced graded transcriptional responses. Here we present crystal structures and amide H/D exchange (HDX) kinetics for six of these complexes. Amide HDX revealed each ligand induced unique changes to the dynamics of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Full agonists stabilized helix 12, whereas intermediate and partial agonists did not at all, and rather differentially stabilized other regions of the binding pocket. The gradient of PPAR{gamma} transactivation cannot be accounted for solely through changes to the dynamics of AF-2. Thus, our understanding of allosteric signaling must be extended beyond the idea of a dynamic helix 12 acting as a molecular switch.

  20. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  1. Haemophilus ducreyi partially activates human myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Keith E; Humphreys, Tricia L; Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Wilkes, David S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2007-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses to bacteria. How Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes genital ulcers and regional lymphadenitis, interacts with DC is unknown. H. ducreyi evades uptake by polymorphonuclear leukocyte and macrophage-like cell lines by secreting LspA1 and LspA2. Many H. ducreyi strains express cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), and recombinant CDT causes apoptosis of DC in vitro. Here, we examined interactions between DC and H. ducreyi 35000HP, which produces LspA1, LspA2, and CDT. In human volunteers infected with 35000HP, the ratio of myeloid DC to plasmacytoid DC was 2.8:1 in lesions, compared to a ratio of 1:1 in peripheral blood. Using myeloid DC derived from monocytes as surrogates for lesional DC, we found that DC infected with 35000HP remained as viable as uninfected DC for up to 48 h. Gentamicin protection and confocal microscopy assays demonstrated that DC ingested and killed 35000HP, but killing was incomplete at 48 h. The expression of LspA1 and LspA2 did not inhibit the uptake of H. ducreyi, despite inactivating Src kinases. Infection of DC with live 35000HP caused less cell surface marker activation than infection with heat-killed 35000HP and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibited maturation by LPS. However, infection of DC with live bacteria caused the secretion of significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha than infection with heat-killed bacteria and LPS. The survival of H. ducreyi in DC may provide a mechanism by which the organism traffics to lymph nodes. Partial activation of DC may abrogate the establishment of a full Th1 response and an environment that promotes phagocytosis.

  2. Variability in the results of inr (international normalized ratio: a comparison of six commercial thromboplastin brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniela Serralvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficacy and safety in treatment with oral anticoagulants are dependent on the monitoring of the effect of anticoagulants by the prothrombin time (PT. The system INR (International Normalized Ratio was developed to minimize the variability in the PT, mainly because of the thromboplastin reagent used. Objective: Compare the results of INR employing six thromboplastins and plasmas of patients using oral anticoagulants. Materials and Methods: For this study, 96 patients using oral anticoagulants and that had TP collected for monitoring anticoagulants were selected randomly. INR values were determined using six commercially available thromboplastin brands. Results and Discussion: Of the 96 patients, 29 were with the INR between 2 and 3 when used reagents Dade-Behring®, Human do Brasil® and Diagnostica Stago®. Regardless of the range of INR, the results obtained with the reagent Labtest® were statistically different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech and Bios Diagnostica®. With INR between 2 and 3 only differences were observed between the results of brands and Bios Diagnostica® Labtest®. With INR above 3, the results of Labtest® were different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech® and Bios Diagnostica®. Conclusion: Despite the establishment of INR, there are still significant differences in INR results depending on the thromboplastin brand used, which can interfere with the therapeutic approach in relation to oral anticoagulants.

  3. Simulation of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations and Stochastic Active Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Annika

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses several aspects of the simulation of stochastic partial differential equations. First, two fast algorithms for the approximation of infinite dimensional Gaussian random fields with given covariance are introduced. Later Hilbert space-valued Wiener processes are constructed out of these random fields. A short introduction to infinite-dimensional stochastic analysis and stochastic differential equations is given. Furthermore different definitions of numerical stability for...

  4. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    greater in vitro antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract. SDS-PAGE .... was added to 4 ml of 0.004 % methanol solution of DPPH. After a ... Superoxide anion scavenging activity ... SDS-PAGE was performed to identify the proteins in ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of rhizome of curcuma aromatica and partial purification of active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Revathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains. Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ΅g/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone.

  6. Partial characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) DNase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Junaid; Panjwani, Shamvil; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    The deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype were investigated. Using zymographic assays, the DNase activities had approximate molecular masses of 25 and 35 kDa. A. castellanii DNases exhibited activity at wide-ranging temperature of up to 60 °C and at pH ranging from 4 to 9. The DNases activities were unaffected by proteinase-K treatment, divalent cations such as Ca(++), Cu(++), Mg(++), and Zn(++), or divalent cation chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The non-reliance on divalent cations and homology data suggests that A. castellanii DNases belong to the class of eukaryotic lysosomal DNase II but exhibit robust properties. The DNases activity in A. castellanii interfered with the genomic DNA extraction. Extraction methods involving EDTA, SDS, and proteinase-K resulted in low yield of genomic DNA. On the other hand, these methods resulted in high yield of genomic DNA from human cells suggesting the robust nature of A. castellanii DNases that are unaffected by reagents normally used in blocking eukaryotic DNases. In contrast, the use of chaotropic agent such as guanidine thiocyanate improved the yield of genomic DNA from A. castellanii cells significantly. Further purification and characterization of Acanthamoeba DNases is needed to study their non-classic distinct properties and to determine their role in the biology, cellular differentiation, cell cycle progression, and arrest of Acanthamoeba.

  7. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  8. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... optimum pH and temperature of the crude enzyme were about 6.0 and 60°C respectively. ... Key words: Mango seeds, crude extract, amylase activity. .... from a standard curve of starch (substrate) concentration against.

  9. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  10. The effect of sample size on fresh plasma thromboplastin ISI determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Van Den Besselaar, A M; Jespersen, J;

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of reduction of numbers of fresh coumarin and normal plasmas has been studied in a multicentre manual prothrombin (PT) calibration of high international sensitivity index (ISI) rabbit and low ISI human reference thromboplastins at 14 laboratories. The number of calibrant plasmas...... was reduced progressively by a computer program which generated random numbers to provide 1000 different selections for each reduced sample at each participant laboratory. Results were compared with those of the full set of 20 normal and 60 coumarin plasma calibrations. With the human reagent, 20 coumarins...... and seven normals still achieved the W.H.O. precision limit (3% CV of the slope), but with the rabbit reagent reduction coumarins with 17 normal plasmas led to unacceptable CV. Little reduction of numbers from the full set of 80 fresh plasmas appears advisable. For maximum confidence, when calibrating...

  11. Partial Agonist and Antagonist Activities of a Mutant Scorpion β-Toxin on Sodium Channels*

    OpenAIRE

    Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z.; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Scorpion β-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu15 in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased a...

  12. Better at work: activation of partially disabled workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijn, Trudie; van Wel, Frits

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a unique analysis of how activation agen-cies in the Netherlands cope with partially disabled employeeson the basis of tailor-made individual assessments, representingand executing the shift towards a policy paradigm in activationto work–a synchronic instead of diachronic appro

  13. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  14. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    2002-01-01

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce incremen

  15. Novel high-activity catalysts for partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parmaliana, A

    1993-05-07

    Full Text Available Vanadium oxide-silica catalysts can effect the partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde with extremely high activities and the space time yield (STY) can reach a value in excess of 800 g kg-1cat h-1; bare silica also shows appreciable STY value...

  16. A partially active mutant aldolase B from a patient with hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C C; Tolan, D R

    1994-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal autosomal recessive disease of carbohydrate metabolism. HFI patients are deficient in aldolase B, the isozyme expressed in fructose-metabolizing tissues. The eight protein coding exons, including splicing signals, of the aldolase B gene from one American HFI patient were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequence determination were applied to the amplified fragments. The mutations in the patient's alleles were identified as a nonsense mutation (R59op) in exon 3 and a missense mutation (C134R) in exon 5. These mutations were confirmed by sequence determination of cloned PCR-amplified exons 3 and 5 from the patient. Allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridizations of amplified exons 3 and 5 showed the Mendelian inheritance of both mutations. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate an expression plasmid for the C134R mutation, and the mutant enzyme was expressed in bacteria. Assays of partially purified enzyme preparations showed that this missense mutation results in an apparently unstable enzyme that retains partial activity. This is the first evidence for a partially active aldolase B from an HFI individual with an identified mutation, and supports the hypothesis that adequate gluconeogenesis/glycolysis is maintained in HFI patients by the presence of partially active enzymes.

  17. Partially resonant active filter using the digital PWM control circuit with the DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Hirofumi; Kurokawa, Fujio; Luo, Zongxin; Makino, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Yoichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan); Oshikata, Tetsuya [Shindengen Elect. Mfg. Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The partially resonant active filter, as a pre-regulator, using the digital PWM control circuit with the DSP is proposed to improve the power factor and input current harmonic distortion factor. The steady-state and dynamic characteristics of this active filter are analysed and the relationship among the circuit parameters, variables and performance characteristics such as the pre-regulation of the output voltage, input power factor, input current harmonic distortion, boundaries of stability and so forth are defined. Using the partially resonant active filter, the high power efficiency over 91% is obtained and the high frequency switching noise is suppressed. Also, the digital control with the DSP is versatile and consequently, the power factor over 0.99 and total harmonic distortion factor less than 1% are easily realized. (orig.)

  18. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment problem with time delay for active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. M.; Singh, K. V.; Datta, B. N.

    2009-08-01

    Partial pole assignment in active vibration control refers to reassigning a small set of unwanted eigenvalues of the quadratic eigenvalue problem (QEP) associated with the second order system of a vibrating structure, by using feedback control force, to suitably chosen location without altering the remaining large number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. There are several challenges of solving this quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment problem (QPEVAP) in a computational setting which the traditional pole-placement problems for first-order control systems do not have to deal with. In order to these challenges, there has been some work in recent years to solve QPEVAP in a computationally viable way. However, these works do not take into account of the practical phenomenon of the time-delay effect in the system. In this paper, a new "direct and partial modal" approach of the quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment problem with time-delay is proposed. The approach works directly in the quadratic system without requiring transformation to a standard state-space system and requires the knowledge of only a small number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors that can be computed or measured in practice. Two illustrative examples are presented in the context of active vibration control with constant time-delay to illustrate the success of our proposed approach. Future work includes generalization of this approach to a more practical complex time-delay system and extension of this work to the multi-input problem.

  19. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  20. Treatment of partial seizures and seizure-like activity with felbamate in six dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehlmann, D; Podell, M; March, P

    2001-08-01

    Six dogs with partial seizures or partial seizure-like activity were treated with the antiepileptic drug felbamate between 1993 and 1998. All dogs had a history and results of diagnostic testing suggestive of either primary (idiopathic) or occult secondary epilepsy. Dogs ranged between four months and eight years of age at the onset of seizure activity. The median time period between onset of the first seizure and the start of felbamate therapy was 3.8 months (range 0.75 to 36 months). Median duration of therapy was nine months (range two to 22 months). All dogs experienced a reduction in seizure frequency after felbamate administration. Median total number of seizures post-treatment was two (range 0 to 9). Two dogs had an immediate and prolonged cessation of seizure activity. Steady-state trough serum felbamate concentrations measured at two weeks, and one, 12 and 22 months after the commencement of therapy in four dogs ranged between 13 and 55 mg/litre (median 35 mg/litre). Reversible haematological adverse effects were detected in two dogs, with one dog developing concurrent keratoconjunctivitis sicca. These results suggest that felbamate can be an effective antiepileptic drug without life-threatening complications when used as monotherapy for partial seizures in the dog.

  1. Partial Agonist and Antagonist Activities of a Mutant Scorpion β-Toxin on Sodium Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z.; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Scorpion β-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu15 in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased and decreased affinities for binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on sodium channels. Css4E15R is unique among this set of mutants in that it retained nearly normal binding affinity but lost its functional activity for modification of sodium channel gating in our standard electrophysiological assay for voltage sensor trapping. More detailed analysis of the functional effects of Css4E15R revealed weak voltage sensor trapping activity, which was very rapidly reversed upon repolarization and therefore was not observed in our standard assay of toxin effects. This partial agonist activity of Css4E15R is observed clearly in voltage sensor trapping assays with brief (5 ms) repolarization between the conditioning prepulse and the test pulse. The effects of Css4E15R are fit well by a three-step model of toxin action involving concentration-dependent toxin binding to its receptor site followed by depolarization-dependent activation of the voltage sensor and subsequent voltage sensor trapping. Because it is a partial agonist with much reduced efficacy for voltage sensor trapping, Css4E15R can antagonize the effects of wild-type Css4 on sodium channel activation and can prevent paralysis by Css4 when injected into mice. Our results define the first partial agonist and antagonist activities for scorpion toxins and open new avenues of research toward better understanding of the structure-function relationships for toxin action on sodium channel voltage sensors and toward potential toxin

  2. Partial agonist and antagonist activities of a mutant scorpion beta-toxin on sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Scorpion β-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu(15) in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased and decreased affinities for binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on sodium channels. Css4(E15R) is unique among this set of mutants in that it retained nearly normal binding affinity but lost its functional activity for modification of sodium channel gating in our standard electrophysiological assay for voltage sensor trapping. More detailed analysis of the functional effects of Css4(E15R) revealed weak voltage sensor trapping activity, which was very rapidly reversed upon repolarization and therefore was not observed in our standard assay of toxin effects. This partial agonist activity of Css4(E15R) is observed clearly in voltage sensor trapping assays with brief (5 ms) repolarization between the conditioning prepulse and the test pulse. The effects of Css4(E15R) are fit well by a three-step model of toxin action involving concentration-dependent toxin binding to its receptor site followed by depolarization-dependent activation of the voltage sensor and subsequent voltage sensor trapping. Because it is a partial agonist with much reduced efficacy for voltage sensor trapping, Css4(E15R) can antagonize the effects of wild-type Css4 on sodium channel activation and can prevent paralysis by Css4 when injected into mice. Our results define the first partial agonist and antagonist activities for scorpion toxins and open new avenues of research toward better understanding of the structure-function relationships for toxin action on sodium channel voltage sensors and toward

  3. Extraction and partial purification of coagulation active components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An active coagulation component was extracted from common bean seed by NaCl solution and the obtained crude extract was partially purified through a sequence of steps that included precipitation of protein by ammonium sulphate, desalting by dialysis and anion exchange. A turbid water was treated by protein fractions obtained in the anion- exchange elution process by stepwise increase in NaCl concentration. The jar tests were conducted at various dosages of eluates. Different mode of relation between coagulation activity and applied coagulant dose for each protein fraction indicated the existence of different mechanisms of coagulation/flocculation, depending of characteristics of different proteins in the fractions.

  4. Sulfation, anticoagulant and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from green algae Enteromorpha linza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhongshan; Yao, Zhiyun; Zhao, Mingxing; Qi, Huimin

    2013-07-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was relative to degree of sulfation, molecular weight, substitution position and chain conformation. In present study, the polysaccharide with low molecular weight (LEP) from Enteromorpha linza was sulfated with chlorosulfuric acid in formamide. The obtained polysaccharide sulfate was selected to evaluate their antioxidant activities and the anticoagulant activity in the coagulation assays, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT). The data obtained in vitro models indicated that high DS and moderate Mw showed the best anticoagulant and antioxidant activities.

  5. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers – two independent studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, Leon; Ibrahim, S.; Keown, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). Methods...... thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. Results: In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human.......5% with bovine/combined reagents with local ISI calibrations and to 2.9% with the PT/INR Line. Mean INR dispersion was reduced with all thromboplastins and automated systems using the PT/INR Line. Conclusions: The procedure using the PT/INR Line provides reliable INR derivation without the need for WHO ISI...

  6. 75 FR 51754 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon... Activated Carbon Plant; Datong Forward Activated Carbon Co., Ltd.; Datong Guanghua Activated Carbon Co.,...

  7. Increased 99mTc-MDP Activity in a Partially Calcified Malignant Mediastinal Teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Linqi; Zhang, Rusen

    2016-02-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with cough and shortness of breath for 3 weeks. Chest x-ray and CT showed a large, partially calcified soft tissue mass adjacent to the right side of the heart. Whole-body bone was acquired to evaluate possible metastases, which showed abnormal accumulation of Tc-MDP in the right chest. Further SPECT/CT imaging that demonstrated intense Tc-MDP activity was mainly in the calcification portion of mass. Histopathological examination from biopsy specimen of the lesion was consistent with malignant teratoma.

  8. Unraveling the photoelectrochemical properties of ionic liquids: cognizance of partially reversible redox activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipal B; Chauhan, Khushbu R; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2014-11-01

    Ionic liquid based electrolytes are gaining great interest in the field of photoenergy conversion. We have found that the ionic liquids namely BMIm Cl, BMIm PF6 and BMIm Tf2N inherently offer redox activity. The device performance of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells of the configuration PbOx (0.25 cm(2))|blank ionic liquids|platinum (2 cm(2)) was analyzed in detail to get insights into the working principle of such systems. It was found that partially reversible redox ion pairs diminish the performance of such cells as power generating devices. The partial redox activity of the ionic liquids was confirmed by a number of observations derived from the PEC spectra. The important parameter, Vredox, which determines the performance of any PEC cell was also calculated for all the ionic liquids. The difficulties that arise in high frequency C-V measurements for ionic liquid systems were overcome by choosing the appropriate probing frequency. The evaluated Vredox of BMIm Cl, BMIm PF6 and BMIm Tf2N ionic liquids was found to be -0.30, -0.20 and -0.78 V (vs. NHE), respectively. This study will be beneficial to understand the role of ionic liquids as redox active electrolyte media in several applications.

  9. Disrupted NF-κB activation after partial hepatectomy does not impair hepatocyte proliferation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stéphanie Laurent; Yves Horsmans; Peter St(a)rkel; Isabelle Leclercq; Christine Sempoux; Luc Lambotte

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effects of NF-κB inhibition by antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or TNF inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH).METHODS: Saline, PDTC or PTX were injected 1 h before PH and rats were killed at 0.5 and 24 h after PH. Several control groups were used for comparison (injection control groups).RESULTS: Compared to saline injected controls, NF-κB activation was absent 0.5 h after PH in rats treated with PDTC or PTX. At 24 h after PH, DNA synthesis and PCNA expression were identical in treated and control rats and thus occurred irrespectively of the status of NF-κB activation at 0.5 h. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation was observed already 0.5 h after PH in saline, PDTC or PTX group and was similar to Stat3 activation in response to injection without PH.CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that (1)NF-κB p65/p50 DNA binding produced in response to PH is not a signal necessary to initiate the liver regeneration,(2) Stat3 activation is a stress response unrelated to the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, NF-κB activation is not critically required for the process of liver regeneration after PH.

  10. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vizoná Liberato

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs. We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10 bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5, linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  11. Partial characterization of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in blackberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E M; de Ancos, B; Cano, M P

    2000-11-01

    A partial characterization of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in blackberry fruits is described. Two cultivars of blackberry (Wild and Thornless) were analyzed for POD and PPO activities. Stable and highly active POD and PPO extracts were obtained using insoluble poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and Triton X-100 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate, pH 7.5, buffer. Blackberry POD and PPO activities have a pH optimum of 6.5, in a reaction mixture of 0.2 M sodium phosphate. Optimal POD activity was found with 3% o-dianisidine. Maximum PPO activity was found with catechol (catecholase activity) followed by 4-methylcatechol. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of blackberry extracts under non-denaturing conditions resolved in various bands. In the POD extracts of Wild fruits, there was only one band with a mobility of 0.12. In the Thornless POD extracts there were three well-resolved bands, with R(f) values of 0.63, 0.36, and 0.09. Both the Wild and Thornless blackberry cultivars produced a single band of PPO, with R(f) values of 0.1 for Wild and 0.06 for Thornless.

  12. Antibacterial activity of rhizome of curcuma aromatica and partial purification of active compounds

    OpenAIRE

    S. Revathi; Malathy, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains). Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ...

  13. Aggregate size and architecture determine biomass activity for one-stage partial nitritation and anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    In partial nitritation/anammox systems, aerobic and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and AnAOB) remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about this type of granulation so far. In this study......, aggregates of three reactors (A, B, C) with different inoculation and operation were studied. The test objectives were to quantify the AerAOB and AnAOB abundance and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes, and to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively...... to the inoculation and operation of the reactors. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on aggregate sections to quantify AerAOB and AnAOB, as well as to visualize the aggregate architecture. The activity balance of the aggregates was calculated as the nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR), i...

  14. Triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for apple's anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangjiu; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-05-30

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of apple peels was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. Thirteen triterpenoids were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified. Antiproliferative activities of the triterpenoids against human HepG2 liver cancer cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells were evaluated. Most of the triterpenoids showed high potential anticancer activities against the three human cancer cell lines. Among the compounds isolated, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid showed higher antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 cancer cells. Ursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cancer cells. All triterpenoids tested showed antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cancer cells, especially 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, maslinic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, which displayed much higher antiproliferative activities. These results showed the triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for the anticancer activities of whole apples.

  15. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements.

  16. Anticoagulant activity of native and partially degraded glycoglucuronomannan after chemical sulfation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Barddal, Helyn Priscila; Gracher, Ana Helena Pereira; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    Heparin has great clinical importance as anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent. However, because of its risks of causing bleeding and contamination by animal pathogens, several studies aim to obtain alternatives to heparin. In the search for anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents from a non-animal source, a glycoglucuronomannan from the gum exudate of the plant Vochysia thyrsoidea was partially hydrolyzed, and both native and partially degraded polysaccharides were chemically sulfated, yielding VThS and Ph-VThS respectively. Methylation analysis indicated that sulfation occurred preferentially at the O-5 position of arabinose units in the VThS and at the O-6 position of mannose units in Ph-VThS. In vitro aPTT assay showed that VThS and Ph-VThS have anticoagulant activity, which could be controlled by protamine, and ex vivo aPTT assay demonstrated that Ph-VThS is absorbed by subcutaneous route. Like heparin, they were able to inhibit α-thrombin and factor Xa by a serpin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, VThS and Ph-VThS reduced thrombus formation by approximately 50% at a dose of 40 IU/kg, similarly to heparin. The results demonstrated that the chemically sulfated polysaccharides are promising anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents.

  17. Active vibration control of thin-plate structures with partial SCLD treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wang, Pan; Zhan, Zhenfei

    2017-02-01

    To effectively suppress the low-frequency vibration of a thin-plate, the strategy adopted is to develop a model-based approach to the investigation on the active vibration control of a clamped-clamped plate with partial SCLD treatment. Firstly, a finite element model is developed based on the constitutive equations of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic materials. The characteristics of viscoelastic materials varying with temperature and frequency are described by GHM damping model. A low-dimensional real modal control model which can be used as the basis for active vibration control is then obtained from the combined reduction. The emphasis is placed on the feedback control system to attenuate the vibration of plates with SCLD treatments. A modal controller in conjunction with modal state estimator is designed to solve the problem of full state feedback, making it much more feasible to real-time control. Finally, the theoretical model is verified by modal test, and an active vibration control is validated by hardware-in-the-loop experiment under different external excitations. The numerical and experimental study demonstrate how the piezoelectric actuators actively control the lower modes (first bending and torsional modes) using modal controller, while the higher frequency vibration attenuated by viscoelastic passive damping layer.

  18. Partial least squares modeling and genetic algorithm optimization in quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K; Funatsu, K

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies based on chemometric techniques are reviewed. Partial least squares (PLS) is introduced as a novel robust method to replace classical methods such as multiple linear regression (MLR). Advantages of PLS compared to MLR are illustrated with typical applications. Genetic algorithm (GA) is a novel optimization technique which can be used as a search engine in variable selection. A novel hybrid approach comprising GA and PLS for variable selection developed in our group (GAPLS) is described. The more advanced method for comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) modeling called GA-based region selection (GARGS) is described as well. Applications of GAPLS and GARGS to QSAR and 3D-QSAR problems are shown with some representative examples. GA can be hybridized with nonlinear modeling methods such as artificial neural networks (ANN) for providing useful tools in chemometric and QSAR.

  19. Influence of blood collection systems on the prothrombin time and international sensitivity index determined with human and rabbit thromboplastin reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, Anton M H P; Hoekstra, Martha M C L; Witteveen, Evelina; Didden, Jan H; van der Meer, Felix J M

    2007-05-01

    Three brands of blood collection tubes were studied for their influence on the prothrombin time (PT) and international sensitivity index (ISI) for 5 commercial thromboplastin reagents. With all reagents, PTs were shorter in Vacutainer (Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Systems, Plymouth, England) samples than in S-Monovette (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany) or Venosafe (Terumo Europe, Leuven, Belgium) samples. ISI values were higher with Vacutainer samples than with S-Monovette or Venosafe samples. The ISI differences between the tubes were small for Thromborel-S (2.1%; Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany) and Hepato Quick (1.1%; Diagnostica Stago, Asnières, France; Roche Diagnostics Nederland, Almere, the Netherlands) but greater for Neoplastin Plus (5.5%; Diagnostica Stago; Roche Diagnostics Nederland), Simplastin HTF (8.3%; bioMérieux, Durham, NC), and Innovin (8.8%; Dade Behring). The PT and ISI differences between the tubes could be explained mostly by the effect of magnesium ion contamination in the sodium citrate solutions. When PT ratios were transformed into international normalized ratios (INRs) using crossover ISI (ie, samples collected with one type of tube and ISI determined with another collection system for the PT reagent), the differences in mean INRs could be approximately 10%. For ISI calibration of reference thromboplastins, blood collection tubes should be used with minimal divalent metal ion contamination of the citrate solution.

  20. Corticomuscular Activity Modeling by Combining Partial Least Squares and Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticomuscular activity modeling based on multiple data sets such as electroencephalography (EEG and electromyography (EMG signals provides a useful tool for understanding human motor control systems. In this paper, we propose modeling corticomuscular activity by combining partial least squares (PLS and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. The proposed method takes advantage of both PLS and CCA to ensure that the extracted components are maximally correlated across two data sets and meanwhile can well explain the information within each data set. This complementary combination generalizes the statistical assumptions beyond both PLS and CCA methods. Simulations were performed to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. We also applied the proposed method to concurrent EEG and EMG data collected in a Parkinson’s disease (PD study. The results reveal several highly correlated temporal patterns between EEG and EMG signals and indicate meaningful corresponding spatial activation patterns. In PD subjects, enhanced connections between occipital region and other regions are noted, which is consistent with previous medical knowledge. The proposed framework is a promising technique for performing multisubject and bimodal data analysis.

  1. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoniyi, Omolaja; Onajobi, Funmi

    2003-11-01

    Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant commonly grown in the Tropics, is traditionally used as a haemostatic. Investigation of the coagulant activity of the latex of Jatropha curcas showed that whole latex significantly (Platex, however, prolonged the clotting time: at high dilutions, the blood did not clot at all. This indicates that Jatropha curcas latex possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests on plasma confirm these observations. Solvent partitioning of the latex with ethyl acetate and butanol led to a partial separation of the two opposing activities: at low concentrations, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a procoagulant activity, while the butanol fraction had the highest anticoagulant activity. The residual aqueous fraction had no significant effect on the clotting time of blood and the PT but slightly prolonged the APTT.

  2. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data.

  3. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.; (GSKNC); (GSKPA)

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  4. GBF-dependent family genes morphologically suppress the partially active Dictyostelium STATa strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Nao; Kanno-Tanabe, Naoko; Minemura, Kakeru; Kawata, Takefumi

    2008-02-01

    Transcription factor Dd-STATa, a functional Dictyostelium homologue of metazoan signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins, is necessary for culmination during development. We have isolated more than 18 putative multicopy suppressors of Dd-STATa using genetic screening. One was hssA gene, whose expression is known to be G-box-binding-factor-dependent and which was specific to prestalk A (pstA) cells, where Dd-STATa is activated. Also, hssA mRNA was expressed in pstA cells in the Dd-STATa-null mutant. At least 40 hssA-related genes are present in the genome and constitute a multigene family. The tagged HssA protein was translated; hssA encodes an unusually high-glycine-serine-rich small protein (8.37 kDa), which has strong homology to previously reported cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-inducible 2C and 7E proteins. Overexpression of hssA mRNA as well as frame-shifted versions of hssA RNA suppressed the phenotype of the partially active Dd-STATa strain, suggesting that translation is not necessary for suppression. Although overexpression of prespore-specific genes among the family did not suppress the parental phenotype, prestalk-specific family members did. Although overexpression of the hssA did not revert the expression of Dd-STATa target genes, and although its suppression mechanism remains unknown, morphological reversion implies functional relationships between Dd-STATa and hssA.

  5. Thymus derived inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation : III—Partial purification and characteristic biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijke, E.O.; Ballieux, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A crude factor isolated from bovine thymus was partially purified using ion exchange chromatography. The resulting fraction was tested for inhibitory properties towards the proliferation of various human and murine lymphoid cells in culture. It was found that this partially purified thymic factor (T

  6. Simultaneous abrogation of NOS-2 and COX-2 activities is lethal in partially hepatectomised mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeini, Miriam; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Través, Paqui G; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Boscá, Lisardo

    2004-06-01

    We have investigated the role of the nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs), respectively, synthesized by nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in the outcome of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Liver mass recovery and molecular parameters related to cell proliferation and apoptotic death have been determined. NOS-2 and COX-2 are normally both expressed in the remnant liver after PH, and inhibition of either one delays regeneration. We found, however, that simultaneous suppression of the activities of NOS-2 (by gene knockout) and COX-2 (by pharmacological inhibition) resulted in animal death between 24 and 72 h after PH. Analysis of liver mass recovery and molecular parameters related to cell proliferation and apoptotic death revealed increased liver-cell apoptosis and an insufficient proliferative response. Broad-specificity caspase inhibitors, such as z-Val-Ala-Asp.fmk (z-VAD), or administration of NO-donors, rescued animals from death, revealing a critical apoptotic bias at this stage of proliferation. These findings demonstrate that simultaneous signaling by NO and prostaglandins plays an important role in the mechanism of liver regeneration after PH by protecting the remnant tissue from apoptotic death.

  7. Active vibration control by piezoceramic actuators on a jet aircraft partial frame structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Leonardo; Viscardi, Massimo; Cantoni, Stefania

    1996-04-01

    During the last five years, the Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering of the University of Naples, has carried out a lot of work, especially on the experimental side, focused on assessing the feasibility of an active vibration and noise control approach, based on the use of piezoceramic actuators and sensors bonded to different structural elements. This paper concerns an application of this technique relative to a partially curved stiff frame of a medium civil transport jet aircraft. The general procedure, as previously assessed on different test articles, requires as first step, the dynamic characterization of the test article, to best point out the target of control procedure in terms of deformed shapes relative to the frequency of most interest. The use of PZT piezoactuators to be bonded on the structure guarantee at the same time high actuators forces in front of a low weight increment. The hearth of the MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) feedforward control algorithm that is usually applied, is then represented by an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) control algorithm that use the evaluation of experimental FRF as measured by reference accelerometer, to calculate the optimum control forces to be applied to the actuators to minimize a target cost function. Experimental results provided over 32 dB of overall vibration level reduction in a single controlled mode shape, without any spillover effect.

  8. Partial ozonation of activated sludge to reduce excess sludge, improve denitrification and control scumming and bulking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Marc; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2003-07-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge is forbidden and agricultural use of stabilized sludge will be banned in 2005 in Switzerland. The sludge has to be dewatered, dried, Incinerated and the ashes disposed in landfills. These processes are cost intensive and lead also to the loss of valuable phosphate resources incorporated in the sludge ash. The implementation of processes that could reduce excess sludge production and recycle phosphate is therefore recommended. Partial ozonation of the return sludge of an activated sludge system reduces significantly excess sludge production, improves settling properties of the sludge and reduces bulking and scumming. The solubilized COD will also improve denitrification if the treated sludge is recycled to the anoxic zone. But ozonation will partly inhibit and kill nitrifiers and might therefore lead to a decrease of the effective solid retention time of the nitrifier, which reduces the safety of the nitrification. This paper discusses the effect of ozonation on sludge reduction, the operation stability of nitrification, improvement of denitrification and gives also an energy and cost evaluation. (author)

  9. Effects of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allograft in the thymus of chicken embryos: thymostimulin localization and enzymatic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis and hypophyseal allograft were investigated. Chicken embryos were partially decerebrated at 36-40 hr of incubation and on day 12 received a hypophyseal allograft from 18-day-old donor embryos. The embryonic thymuses were collected on day 18 and examined with histological methods, tested for the anti-thymostimulin- like immune-reaction, and for histoenzymatic activities and compared with normal and sham-operated embryos at the same age. After partial decerebration, the thymic cortical and medullary compartments diminished markedly in size. Anti-thymostimulin, succinic dehydrogenase and ATPase enzymatic activities tested, yielded negative reactions. In partially decerebrated hypophyseal allografted embryos, the same thymic compartments improved and anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction and enzymatic activities partially recovered. These findings confirmed the key role of hypophysis in thymic ontogenic development and provided new information in metabolic enzymatic pathways and synthesis of a thymostimulin-like substance in the thymus

  10. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  11. Haploinsufficiency of Def activates p53-dependent TGFβ signalling and causes scar formation after partial hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhu

    Full Text Available The metazoan liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate lost liver mass without leaving a scar following partial hepatectomy (PH. Whilst previous studies have identified components of several different signaling pathways that are essential for activation of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, the mechanisms that enable such regeneration to occur without accompanying scar formation remain poorly understood. Here we use the adult zebrafish liver, which can regenerate within two weeks following PH, as a new genetic model to address this important question. We focus on the role of Digestive-organ-expansion-factor (Def, a nucleolar protein which has recently been shown to complex with calpain3 (Capn3 to mediate p53 degradation specifically in the nucleolus, in liver regeneration. Firstly, we show that Def expression is up-regulated in the wild-type liver following amputation, and that the defhi429/+ heteroozygous mutant (def+/- suffers from haploinsufficiency of Def in the liver. We then show that the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is up-regulated in the def+/- liver, which leads to distortion of the migration and the clearance of leukocytes after PH. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signalling is thus activated in the wound epidermis in def+/- due to a prolonged inflammatory response, which leads to fibrosis at the amputation site. Fibrotic scar formation in def+/- is blocked by the over-expression of Def, by the loss-of-function of p53, and by treatment with anti-inflammation drug dexamethasone or TGFβ-signalling inhibitor SB431542. We finally show that the Def- p53 pathway suppresses fibrotic scar formation, at least in part, through the regulation of the expression of the pro-inflammatory factor, high-mobility group box 1. We conclude that the novel Def- p53 nucleolar pathway functions specifically to prevent a scar formation at the amputation site in a normal amputated liver.

  12. Differential pathway coupling efficiency of the activated insulin receptor drives signaling selectivity by xmeta, an allosteric partial agonist antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    XMetA, an anti-insulin receptor (IR) monoclonal antibody, is an allosteric partial agonist of the IR. We have previously reported that XMetA activates the “metabolic-biased” Akt kinase signaling pathway while having little or no effect on the “mitogenic” MAPK signaling pathwayof ERK 1/2. To inves...

  13. Differences in neurohormonal activity partially explain the obesity paradox in patients with heart failure: The role of sympathetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Núria; Aranyó, Júlia; Enjuanes, Cristina; Verdú-Rotellar, José María; Ruiz, Sonia; Gonzalez-Robledo, Gina; Meroño, Oona; de Ramon, Marta; Moliner, Pedro; Bruguera, Jordi; Comin-Colet, Josep

    2015-02-15

    Obese patients with chronic Heart Failure (HF) have better outcome than their lean counterparts, although little is known about the pathophysiology of this obesity paradox. Our aim was to evaluate the hypothesis that patients with chronic HF and obesity (defined as body mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m(2)), may have an attenuated neurohormonal activation in comparison with non-obese patients. The present study is the post-hoc analysis of a cohort of 742 chronic HF patients from a single-center study evaluating sympathetic activation by measuring baseline levels of norepinephrine (NE). Obesity was present in 33% of patients. Higher BMI and obesity were significantly associated with lower NE levels in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for covariates (p70th percentile) carrying out a separate analysis in obese and non-obese patients we found that in both groups NE remained a significant independent predictor of poorer outcomes, despite the lower NE levels in patients with chronic HF and obesity: all-cause mortality hazard ratio=2.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-4.94) and hazard ratio=1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.4) in obese and non-obese respectively; and cardiovascular mortality hazard ratio=3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.01) in obese patients and hazard ratio=2.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.05) in non-obese patients. Patients with chronic HF and obesity have significantly lower sympathetic activation. This finding may partially explain the obesity paradox described in chronic HF patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of long-term malathion or diazinon ingestion on the activity of hepatic synthesized clotting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lox, C D; Davis, J R

    1983-12-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a drinking solution of 1 ppm Diazinon or malathion dissolved in water for 6 months. At the conclusion of the experiment liver tissue and plasma were examined. Clotting studies included the prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, and factors II, V, VII, X, plus the platelet count. Hepatic morphology, basically hepatocyte degeneration, was altered by malathion while diazinon had no notable effect. Likewise, malathion prolonged both the PT and APTT, the only changes in clotting activity.

  15. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  16. Analysis of Partial Discharge Activity for Evaluation of the State of High Power Electric Generators Stator Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Sorin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the importance of trending of partial discharge activity in assessing the insulation condition. It is presented the principle of the measurement method and the quantities that characterize partial discharges and also the criteria utilized for the assessement of the insulation condition of the hydrogenerators. Results of the measurements made on several hydrogenerators are presented, like the variation with time of the two main quantities that characterize the partial discharges, maximum magnitude, Qm and the normalized quantity, NQN over a period of about 10 years. Further, a classification of the insulation condition by 3 main and 2 intermediary categories and the definition of these categories are given. The criteria used for the assessment of the insulation condition are presented in the form of a table: quantitative criteria by the ± NQN and ± Qm values and qualitative criteria for the analysis of the 2D and 3D diagrams. At the end of each set of measurements, an analyze of the insulation condition annual evaluation is made, also a verdict is put, and of course, the recommendations made relating to the maintenance and the decisions that have been taken. The paper ends with several considerations on the method of on-line partial discharges and especially, on the conditions for valid trending activity in time.

  17. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 interacts with cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase and partially inhibits its activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ping Fang

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is etiologically involved in liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated previously that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 is involved in cell transformation. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment was conducted to identify cellular proteins interacting with HCV NS3 protein. Cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN, dNT-1 was found to interact with HCV NS3 protein. Binding domains of HCV NS3 and cellular cdN proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions between HCV NS3 and cdN proteins were further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis in cultured cells. The cellular cdN activity was partially repressed by NS3 protein in both the transiently-transfected and the stably-transfected systems. Furthermore, HCV partially repressed the cdN activity while had no effect on its protein expression in the systems of HCV sub-genomic replicons and infectious HCV virions. Deoxyribonucleotidases are present in most mammalian cells and involve in the regulation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides pools by substrate cycles. Control of DNA precursor concentration is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. Reduction of cdN activity would result in the imbalance of DNA precursor concentrations. Thus, our results suggested that HCV partially reduced the cdN activity via its NS3 protein and this may in turn cause diseases.

  18. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  19. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of N-chlorotaurine, N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine, and N-monochloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, C; Hammerer-Lercher, A; Zuck, M; Jekle, A; Debabov, D; Anderson, M; Nagl, M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential application of N-chlorotaurine (NCT), N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine (NVC-422), and N-monochloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine (NVC-612) as catheter lock solutions for the prevention of catheter blockage and catheter-related bloodstream infections by testing their anticoagulant and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities in human blood. NCT, NVC-422, NVC-612, and control compounds were serially diluted in fresh human blood to evaluate the effects on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and direct thrombin inhibition. Quantitative killing assays against pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, were performed in the presence of heparin and human blood. NCT and NVC-612 (1.38 mM each) and 1.02 mM NVC-422 prolonged prothrombin time (Quick value, 17 to 30%), activated partial thromboplastin time 3- to 4-fold to 76 to 125 s, and thrombin time 2- to 4-fold to 34 to 68 s. Fibrinogen decreased from 258 to 283 mg/dl (range of controls) to NVC-422 or NVC-612. Heparin did not influence the bactericidal activity of NCT. The microbicidal activities of NCT, NVC-422, and NVC-612 were maintained in diluted human blood. NCT, NVC-612, and NVC-422 have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in blood and anticoagulant activity targeting both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation system. These properties support their application as catheter lock solutions.

  20. Synthesis and biological activity of some partially modified retro-inverso analogues of cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M; Galas, M C; Lignon, M F; Mendre, C; Laur, J; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1989-10-01

    Syntheses of some partially modified retro-inverso analogues of the C-terminal octa- or heptapeptide of cholecystokinin are described. These analogues (in which the C-terminal carboxamide was deleted or not) were obtained by reverting one or several peptide bonds in the parent molecule. All these compounds were able to inhibit binding of labeled CCK-8 to rat pancreatic acini and guinea pig brain membranes and to stimulate amylase release from rat pancreatic acini with various potencies. Some of these derivatives reproduce only part of the biological response of CCK on amylase release.

  1. Active and Purely Dissipative Nambu Systems in General Thermostatistical Settings Described by Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations Involving Generalized Entropy Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Frank

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In physics, several attempts have been made to apply the concepts and tools of physics to the life sciences. In this context, a thermostatistic framework for active Nambu systems is proposed. The so-called free energy Fokker–Planck equation approach is used to describe stochastic aspects of active Nambu systems. Different thermostatistic settings are considered that are characterized by appropriately-defined entropy measures, such as the Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon entropy and the Tsallis entropy. In general, the free energy Fokker–Planck equations associated with these generalized entropy measures correspond to nonlinear partial differential equations. Irrespective of the entropy-related nonlinearities occurring in these nonlinear partial differential equations, it is shown that semi-analytical solutions for the stationary probability densities of the active Nambu systems can be obtained provided that the pumping mechanisms of the active systems assume the so-called canonical-dissipative form and depend explicitly only on Nambu invariants. Applications are presented both for purely-dissipative and for active systems illustrating that the proposed framework includes as a special case stochastic equilibrium systems.

  2. Purification, partial characterization and bioactivity of sulfated polysaccharides from Grateloupia livida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liu; Chen, Yicun; Jiang, Zebin; Zhong, Shuping; Chen, Weizhou; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2017-01-01

    Purification, preliminary characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Grateloupia livida (GL) were investigated. Three water-soluble sulfated polysaccharide fractions (GLP-1, GLP-2 and GLP-3) were isolated and purified from the edible and medicinal red seaweed, Grateloupia livida (Harv.) Yamada by DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and chemical characterization was performed by HPGPC, GC-MS, FT-IR and SEM. In addition, anticoagulant activities were determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) using normal human plasma in vitro. The antioxidant activities against DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals were evaluated and compared. The molecular weights of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GLP-3 were 39.5, 60.4 and 3.36kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that three polysaccharide fractions were homopolysaccharides and comprised of galactose only. Anticoagulant assays indicated that crude GLP, and purified GLP-1 and GLP-2 effectively prolonged APTT and TT, but not PT. All polysaccharide fractions exhibited significant in vitro antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. GLP-2 showed consistently better anticoagulant and antioxidant activities compared with GLP, GLP-1 and GLP-3. These results demonstrate that sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Grateloupia livida can serve as readily available alternative natural sources of anticoagulant and antioxidant agents.

  3. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... chemicals. Also excluded from the scope is activated carbon cloth. Activated carbon cloth is a woven textile... various types where a woven format is required. Any activated carbon meeting the physical description of...'') Yearbook of Labor Statistics. Additionally, because the Department is now using Chapter 6A to...

  4. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) cooperate in partial nitritation/anammox systems to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about granulation so far....... In this study, three suspended-growth oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) reactors with different inoculation and operation (mixing and aeration) conditions, designated reactors A, B, and C, were used. The test objectives were (i) to quantify the AerAOB and AnAOB abundance......AOB-rich aggregates (reactors B and C). The hypothesized granulation pathways include granule replication by division and budding and are driven by growth and/or decay based on species-specific physiology and by hydrodynamic shear and mixing....

  5. Passive and Partially Active Fault Tolerance for Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Li; Zhou, Yongluan

    2017-01-01

    Fault-tolerance techniques for stream processing engines can be categorized into passive and active approaches. A typical passive approach periodically checkpoints a processing task's runtime states and can recover a failed task by restoring its runtime state using its latest checkpoint....... On the other hand, an active approach usually employs backup nodes to run replicated tasks. Upon failure, the active replica can take over the processing of the failed task with minimal latency. However, both approaches have their own inadequacies in Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines (MPSPE......, the passive approach is applied to all tasks while only a selected set of tasks will be actively replicated. The number of actively replicated tasks depends on the available resources. If tasks without active replicas fail, tentative outputs will be generated before the completion of the recovery process. We...

  6. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hetero-chitooligosaccharides prepared from partially different deacetylated chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyo-Jam; Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2003-08-13

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hetero-chitooligosaccharides (hetero-COSs) prepared from partially different deacetylated chitosans was investigated. Partially deacetylated chitosans, 90, 75, and 50% deacetylated chitosan, were prepared from crab chitin by N-deacetylation with 40% sodium hydroxide solution for durations. In addition, nine kinds of hetero-COSs with relatively high molecular masses (5000-10 000 Da; 90-HMWCOSs, 75-HMWCOSs, and 50-HMWCOSs), medium molecular masses (1000-5000 Da; 90-MMWCOSs, 75-MMWCOSs, and 50-MMWCOSs), and low molecular masses (below 1000 Da; 90-LMWCOSs, 75-LMWCOSs, and 50-LMWCOSs) were prepared using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. ACE inhibitory activity of hetero-COSs was dependent on the degree of deacetylation of chitosans. 50-MMWCOSs that are COSs hydrolyzed from 50% deacetylated chitosan, the relatively lowest degree of deacetylation, exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity, and the IC(50) value was 1.22 +/- 0.13 mg/mL. In addition, the ACE inhibition pattern of the 50-MMWCOSs was investigated by Lineweaver-Burk plots, and the inhibition pattern was found to be competitive.

  7. A Partial Collection of Observed Activities Fulfilling Career Education in the Penasco Schools: First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Angelina Romero

    The report contains of collection of career education activities representative of those initiated by teachers of the Penasco and St. Anthony's Schools (Penasco, New Mexico) during the first semester of implementation (second semester, 1974) of an integrated program for grades K-12. Each activity was recorded by the program coordinator following…

  8. A Partial Collection of Observed Activities Fulfilling Career Education in the Penasco Schools: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Angelina Romero

    The report contains a collection of career education activities representative of those initiated by teachers of the Penasco and St. Anthony's Schools (Penasco, New Mexico) during the second year (1974-75) of an integrated program for grades K-12. For each activity, recorded by the program coordinator following classroom visitations, the grade…

  9. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... carbon cloth. Activated carbon cloth is a woven textile fabric made of or containing activated carbon fibers. It is used in masks and filters and clothing of various types where a woven format is required... preliminarily rescinded the review with respect to Lingzhou, the Department now finds that it would be unfair...

  10. Active partial eigenvalue assignment for friction-induced vibration using receptance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Ouyang, H. J.; Yamaura, H.

    2016-09-01

    Generally, a mechanical system always has symmetric system matrices. Nevertheless, when some non-conservative forces are included, such as friction and aerodynamic force, the symmetry of the stiffness matrix or damping matrix or both violated. Moreover, such an asymmetric system is prone to dynamic instability. Distinct from the eigenvalue assignment for symmetric systems to reassign their natural frequencies, the main purpose of eigenvalue assignment for asymmetric systems is to shift the unstable eigenvalues to the stable region. In this research, only the unstable eigenvalues and eigenvalues which are close to the imaginary axis of the complex eigenvalue plane are assigned due to their predominant influence on the response of the system. The remaining eigenvalues remain unchanged. The state-feedback control gains are obtained by solving the constrained linear least-squares problems in which the linear system matrices are deduced based on the receptance method and the constraint is derived from the unobservability condition. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of partially assigning those targeted eigenvalues of the system for stabilisation.

  11. Partial purification of histone H3 proteolytic activity from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-06-01

    The proteolytic clipping of histone tails has recently emerged as a novel form of irreversible post-translational modification (PTM) of histones. Histone clipping has been implicated as a regulatory process leading to the permanent removal of PTMs from histone proteins. However, there is scarcity of literature that describes the identification and characterization of histone-specific proteases. Here, we employed various biochemical methods to report histone H3-specific proteolytic activity from budding yeast. Our results demonstrate that H3 proteolytic activity was associated with sepharose bead matrices and activity was not affected by a variety of stress conditions. We have also identified the existence of an unknown protein that acts as a physiological inhibitor of the H3-clipping activity of yeast H3 protease. Moreover, through protease inhibition assays, we have also characterized yeast H3 protease as a serine protease. Interestingly, unlike glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), yeast H3 proteolytic activity was not inhibited by Stefin B. Together, our findings suggest the existence of a novel H3 protease in yeast that is different from other reported histone H3 proteases. The presence of histone H3 proteolytic activity, along with the physiological inhibitor in yeast, suggests an interesting molecular mechanism that regulates the activity of histone proteases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  13. Purification, partial characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ci-Hai; Yu, Yue; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2015-08-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis, an important Chinese medicine, has a long history of use in China. In this study, three water-soluble polysaccharides fractions (GUPs-1, GUPs-2 and GUPs-3) were isolated and purified from the root of G. uralensis by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the three purified polysaccharides were investigated. The molecular weights of GUPs-1, GUPs-2 and GUPs-3 were 10,160, 11,680 and 13,360 Da, and the ratios of glucose were 23.4%, 14% and 1.13%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the three purified polysaccharides followed the order: GUPs-1>GUPs-2>GUPs-3. GUPs with lower molecular weight and higher ratio of glucose, basically exhibited higher antioxidant activities at the same concentration. This indicated that the molecular weight and the ratio of monosaccharide composition of the GUPs could affect the antioxidant activities.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a monomeric mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase with partially reconstituted enzymic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banci, L; Bertini, I; Chiu, C Y; Mullenbach, G T; Viezzoli, M S

    1995-12-15

    A monomeric analog of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (F50E/G51E SOD), previously characterized and found to have reduced enzymic activity, was here further modified by replacing Glu133 with Gln. This substitution does not dramatically affect the coordination geometry at the active site, but enhances enzymic activity, and also increases the affinity for anions at the active site. This behavior parallels earlier published results in which this point mutation was made in the dimeric wild-type enzyme. The analog described here has afforded for the first time a monomeric superoxide dismutase with substantial activity. This point mutation does not significantly influence the protein structure but interactions with anions, including superoxide, are altered with respect to the monomeric form. The present monomeric Glu133Gln mutant has partially restored enzymic activity. The diminished activity of the monomeric analogs is discussed in the light of possible minor structural changes and some of their characteristics are compared with those of naturally occurring mutants associated with various neurological diseases.

  15. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar; Sukanya Gopalkrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrellapachyspira (S. pachyspira) Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods:They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM) assay model was used for angiogenic/antiangiogenic testing. Results:All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions:AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  16. Partial characterization of a novel amylase activity isolated from Tunisian Ficus carica latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Mosbah, Habib; Louati, Hanen; Said, Khaled; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2011-11-01

    A large number of plants still need to be investigated through screening of amylases suitable for industry. In the present study, and for the first time, we describe the amylolytic activity of Saint Pedro Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) crude latex of Kahli and Bidhi varieties. Effects of temperature, pH, metal ions, and inhibitors and compatibility with some commercial detergents were investigated for amylase activity. Amylase activity was screened in crude latex using the DNS method and potato starch as a substrate. Analyses of amylolytic reaction products by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed. Bidhi and Kahli amylases were active in optimal pH of 6.5 and 7 at 45°C, respectively, displaying a half life of 85 and 60 min, respectively, at 80°C, and they were very stable in a wide range of pH (4-12). Bidhi amylase activity increased to 260% by addition of 10(-3) mM Fe(2+) or 10(-2) mM Cu(2+), and was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+) and EDTA. In the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), Kahli amylase activity was dramatically enhanced by 220 and 260%, respectively. The compatibility of both amylases with certain commercial detergents was also shown to be good as enzymes retained up to 98% of their activities after 30 min of incubation at 80°C. Analysis of amylolytic reaction products by TLC and HPLC suggested that Kahli amylase was an amyloglucosidase and Bidhi amylase was β-fructose, α(1-4) glucose. Bidhi amylase is a good choice for application in starch, food, detergents and medical industries.

  17. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrella pachyspira (S. pachyspira Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods: They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM assay model was used for angiogenic/ antiangiogenic testing. Results: All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions: AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  18. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients.

  19. Solubilization, Activation and Partial Purification of a Sialidase from Horse Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISHNA PURNAWAN CANDRA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Using sialyl-methylumbelliferyl -glycoside as substrate, sialidase in horse liver was detected as a membrane-bound enzyme. A yield of about 50% of sialidase activity was found in supernatant when solubilized in 0.1 M sodium-phosphate buffer pH 5.5, containing 0.15 M NaCl, 0.25 M sucrose, and 0.5% Triton X-100. Sialidase in the solubilisate could be activated by incubating in acidic pH at 37 oC. Incubation of this solubilized enzyme at 37 oC for 1.5 h at pH 5.0 led to 10% increase of activity and to the precipitation of about 50% of contaminating protein. Using cation-exchange chromatography on S-Sepharose FF and affinity chromatography on p-aminophenyl oxamic acid-agarose following solubilization and activation, about 6% of total sialidase activity was recovered with the purification factor of about 500. The pH and temperature optimum were measured at pH 4.3 and between 37-45 oC, respectively. Neu5Ac2en was a strong inhibitor, while p-aminophenyl oxamic acid had only a weak inhibitory effect.

  20. Structural basis for PPAR partial or full activation revealed by a novel ligand binding mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Davide; Cerchia, Carmen; Montanari, Roberta; Loiodice, Fulvio; Tortorella, Paolo; Laghezza, Antonio; Cervoni, Laura; Pochetti, Giorgio; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of the metabolic homeostasis and therefore represent valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases. The development of more balanced drugs interacting with PPARs, devoid of the side-effects showed by the currently marketed PPARγ full agonists, is considered the major challenge for the pharmaceutical companies. Here we present a structure-based virtual screening approach that let us identify a novel PPAR pan-agonist with a very attractive activity profile and its crystal structure in the complex with PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. In PPARα this ligand occupies a new pocket whose filling is allowed by the ligand-induced switching of the F273 side chain from a closed to an open conformation. The comparison between this pocket and the corresponding cavity in PPARγ provides a rationale for the different activation of the ligand towards PPARα and PPARγ, suggesting a novel basis for ligand design.

  1. Purification, partial characterization and antimicrobial activity of Lectin from Chenopodium Quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    POMPEU,Dávia Guimarães; Marcelo Augusto MATTIOLI; Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja; Gonçalves,Daniel Bonoto; MAGALHÃES,Juliana Teixeira de; Marangoni, Sérgio; Silva,José Antônio da; Paulo Afonso GRANJEIRO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel lectin was isolated from the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa. To achieve this end, the crude extract from the quinoa was submitted to two purification steps, Sephadex G50 and Mono Q. The hemagglutinating activity showed that this lectin agglutinates human erythrocytes. Its activity is inhibited by glucose and mannose, and remained stable under a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. The quinoa lectin was found to be a heterodimeric lectin of approximately 60 kDa, consisting o...

  2. Acid Phosphatase Activity May Affect the Tuber Swelling by Partially Regulating Sucrose-mediated Sugar Resorption in Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Yong Lian; De-Wei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    APase activity is involved in regulating many physiological and developmental events by affecting the resorption process.In this study, we investigate the role of APase activity in tuber development in potato. APase activities were mainly localized in cytoplasm, gaps among cells and stroma of amyloplasts of parenchyma cells at the stage of tuber swelling. AP1, encoding a putative APase, was also highly expressed in swelling tubers and a low level of expression was observed in elongated stolons and matured tubers. Inhibition of APase activity by applying Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of APase production and secretion, significantly suppressed the tuber swelling and moderately affected the stolon elongation and the tuberization frequency. During tuber development, sucrose serves as the main soluble sugar for long-distance transportation and resorption. Moreover, Inhibition of APase activity by Brefeldin A markedly reduced the sucrose content in tubers and further decreased the starch accumulation, suggesting that the function of APase in regulating the tuber swelling might be at least artially mediated by the sugar resorption. Exogenous sucrose treatments further indicate the important role of sucrose-mediated sugar resorption in tuber swelling. These results suggest that the APase activity might affect the tuber swelling by partially regulating the sucrose-mediated sugar resorption.

  3. Sucrase Activity and Exopolysaccharide Partial Characterization From Three Weissella confusa Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarila Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs produced by lactic acid bacteria have been well known for their important economic value in food, pharmaceutical and health industries. Large extracellular enzyme sucrases are used by lactic acid bacteria to polymerize EPS, i.e. fructansucrase and glucansucrase. This study aimed to characterize sucrase activity of three Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1, MBF8-2 and MBFCNC-2(1, which were isolated previously from local beverages and their EPS products as well. All strains showed ability to form mucoid and slimy colonies by visual inspection on agar plate using raffinose as substrate suggesting that they possessed fructansucrase activity besides glucansucrase. Obtained EPS products were characterized by HPLC analysis after hydrolysis using 3% TCA at 100C for 1 hour, and by viscosity as well. All strains exhibited similar peak patterns, assuming that all of them possessed fructan EPS product. Supernatant and cell pellet were also analyzed by in situ activity assay performing periodic acid Schiff staining after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; only cell pellet showed sucrase activity. Viscosity observation showed that EPS products from all strains were able to increase the viscosity slightly.

  4. Synthetic Human β-Globin 5'HS2 Constructs Function as Partially Active Locus Control Regions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Ellis (James); D. Talbot; N.O. Dillon (Niall); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTransgenes linked to the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) are transcribed in a copy-dependent manner that is independent of the integration site. It has previously been shown that the LCR 5'HS2 region does not require its NF-E2 dimer binding site for LCR activity. In this paper we

  5. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM and liquid cultured mycelia (TM in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1 in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases.

  6. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel J; Rush, John E; deLaforcade, Armelle M; Shaw, Scott P

    2012-06-01

    To determine reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats. 30 healthy cats without evidence of cardiomyopathy on echocardiographic examination. All cats underwent echocardiographic examination, the findings of which were reviewed by a board-certified cardiologist. Cats that struggled (n = 10) received mild sedation with butorphanol and midazolam IM to permit phlebotomy without interruption in jugular venous blood flow. Blood samples were collected for analysis of thromboelastography variables, PCV, total solids concentration, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin concentration. All 4 thromboelastography variables had Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was a reliable test with unremarkable intra-assay variability in echocardiographically normal cats. Sedation may affect certain thromboelastography variables, but the effect is unlikely to be clinically important. It remains unknown whether subclinical cardiomyopathy has a significant effect on thromboelastography variables in cats.

  7. Linking mutagenic activity to micropollutant concentrations in wastewater samples by partial least square regression and subsequent identification of variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Christine; Sievers, Moritz; Ottermanns, Richard; Hollert, Henner; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We deployed multivariate regression to identify compounds co-varying with the mutagenic activity of complex environmental samples. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents with a large share of industrial input of different sampling dates were evaluated for mutagenic activity by the Ames Fluctuation Test and chemically characterized by a screening for suspected pro-mutagens and non-targeted software-based peak detection in full scan data. Areas of automatically detected peaks were used as predictor matrix for partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) in combination with measured mutagenic activity. Detected peaks were successively reduced by the exclusion of all peaks with lowest variable importance until the best model (high R(2) and Q(2)) was reached. Peaks in the best model co-varying with the observed mutagenicity showed increased chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen abundance compared to original peak set indicating a preferential selection of anthropogenic compounds. The PLS regression revealed four tentatively identified compounds, newly identified 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine, and three known micropollutants present in domestic wastewater as co-varying with the mutagenic activity. Co-variance between compounds stemming from industrial wastewater and mutagenic activity supported the application of "virtual" EDA as a statistical tool to separate toxicologically relevant from less relevant compounds.

  8. Surface structure and catalytic activity of electrodeposited Ni-Fe-Co-Mo alloy electrode by partially leaching Mo and Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bei-ping; GONG Zhu-qing; REN Bi-ye; YANG Yu-fang; CHEN Meng-jun

    2006-01-01

    Ni-Fe-Mo-Co alloy electrode was prepared in a citrate solution by electrodeposition, and then Mo and Fe were partially leached out from the electrode in 30% KOH solution. The unique surface micromorphology of a hive-like structure was obtained with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The electrode has a very large real surface area and a stable structure. The effects of sodium molybdate concentration on the composition, surface morphology, and structure of electrodes were analyzed by EDS, SEM and XRD. The polarization curves of the different electrodes show that the catalytic activity of electrodes is strongly correlated with the mole fraction of alloy elements (Ni, Fe, Mo, Co), and the addition of cobalt element to Ni-Fe-Mo alloy improves the catalytic activity. The Ni35.63Fe24.67Mo23.52Co16.18 electrode has the best activity for hydrogen evolution reaction(HER), with an over-potential of 66.2 mV, in 30% KOH at 80 ℃ and 200 mA/cm2. The alloy maintains its good catalytic activity for HER during continuous or intermittent electrolysis. Its electrochemical activity and catalytic stability are much higher than the other iron-group with Mo alloy electrodes.

  9. The pretranslocation ribosome is targeted by GTP-bound EF-G in partially activated form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Eliseeva, Natalia A.; Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Ehrenberg, Måns; Makarov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Translocation of the tRNA·mRNA complex through the bacterial ribosome is driven by the multidomain guanosine triphosphatase elongation factor G (EF-G). We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding of GDP and GTP to free EF-G at 4°C, 20°C, and 37°C. The binding affinity of EF-G is higher to GDP than to GTP at 4°C, but lower at 37°C. The binding enthalpy and entropy change little with temperature in the case of GDP binding but change greatly in the case of GTP binding. These observations are compatible with a large decrease in the solvent-accessible hydrophobic surface area of EF-G on GTP, but not GDP, binding. The explanation we propose is the locking of the switch 1 and switch 2 peptide loops in the G domain of EF-G to the γ-phosphate of GTP. From these data, in conjunction with previously reported structural data on guanine nucleotide-bound EF-G, we suggest that EF-G enters the pretranslocation ribosome as an “activity chimera,” with the G domain activated by the presence of GTP but the overall factor conformation in the inactive form typical of a GDP-bound multidomain guanosine triphosphatase. We propose that the active overall conformation of EF-G is attained only in complex with the ribosome in its “ratcheted state,” with hybrid tRNA binding sites. PMID:18836081

  10. Neurite-promoting activity from fetal skeletal muscle: partial purification of a high-molecular-weight form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, J G; Hoffman, H

    1986-01-01

    Neurite extension from sensory neuroblasts dissociated from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia can be stimulated by precoating the polylysine culture surface with extracts of skeletal muscle from bovine fetuses. The active factor(s) may be partially purified from cytosolic extracts of muscle by chromatography on Sepharose 6B and affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin or Helix pomatia agglutinin columns. Extract concentrations of 10-50 micrograms protein per 1 ml were active in promoting neurite extension when the neurons were cultured without serum or nerve growth factor (beta NGF). However, levels of 1-10 micrograms/ml produced dramatic neurite extension when 10% (v/v) fetal or newborn calf serum or 0.5 ng/ml beta NGF was added to the medium. The biological activity was not blocked by antiserum that was raised against purified mouse laminin and that abolished the neurite-promoting activity of mouse laminin. The activity of the muscle extract was destroyed by trypsin or heparitinase, in contrast to the biological activity of purified mouse laminin, which was not abolished by heparitinase treatment. The activity could be resolved into two broad peaks on a Sepharose 2B column (apparent Mr between 2 X 10(6) and in 10 X 10(6) in native form). Treatment with dithiothreitol was necessary to dissociate the factor for electrophoresis in 4.25% polyacrylamide-SDS gels, revealing three major polypeptide bands at Mr = 160,000, 195,000 and 200,000. This preliminary characterization indicates that the neurite-promoting activity from bovine skeletal muscle tissue consists of a high-molecular-weight complex, one essential component of which is a heparan sulfate.

  11. Antithrombotic activity of argan oil: an in vivo experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhfi, Hassane; Belmekki, Fatima; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed

    2012-09-01

    Argan oil has been shown to inhibit in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation without extending bleeding time. In this report, we examined in vivo the antithrombotic activity of argan oil in an experimental thrombosis model in mice: acute pulmonary thromboembolism and in vitro its effect in a coagulation assay. Acute pulmonary thromboembolism was induced, after argan oil treatment, by an intravenous injection of a collagen and epinephrine mixture. The paralyzed and dead mice in each group were numbered and the percentage of protection against acute pulmonary thromboembolism was calculated. The histologic study was conducted in lung tissue to estimate the percentage of opened and occluded vessels by platelet thrombi. The coagulation assay was monitored in platelet-poor plasma from normal rats by measuring the clotting parameters (activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time) in the presence and absence of argan oil. Argan oil (1 mL/100 g/day), administered orally, showed an antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis or death (50%) induced by the collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection. This observation was confirmed by the lung histologic examination, in which the density of occluded blood vessels was significantly decreased (62.16 ± 3.95%). However, the argan oil remained inactive for the coagulation parameters of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time at variance with heparin, an anticoagulant reference drug. The antithrombotic activity of argan oil seemed unrelated to the anticoagulant activity. We suggest that argan oil might be an interesting natural dietary source for the nutritional prevention of hemostasis and cardiovascular disorders. Clinical trials would be necessary and relevant to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, M. A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots) were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively) and other long chain fatty acids (until C22). Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively). The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  14. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  15. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  16. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  17. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  18. Tissue localization and partial characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide in Achaea janata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Ajitha; D Muraleedharan

    2005-03-01

    Female sex pheromone production in certain moth species have been shown to be regulated by a cephalic endocrine peptidic factor: pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), having 33 amino acid residues. Antisera against synthetic Heliothis zea-PBAN were developed. Using these polyclonals, immunoreactivity was mapped in the nervous system of Achaea janata. Three distinct groups of immunopositive secretory neurons were identified in the suboesophageal ganglion; and immunoreactivity was observed in the corpora cardiaca, thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia. From about 6000 brain sub-oesophageal ganglion complexes, the neuropeptide was isolated; and purified sequentially by Sep-pak and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic methods. Identity of purified PBAN fraction was confirmed with polyclonal antibody by immunoblotting. Molecular mass of the isolated peptide was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and was found to be 3900 Da, same as that of known H. zea-PBAN. Radiochemical bioassay confirmed the pheromonotropic effect of the isolated neuropeptide in this insect.

  19. Partial priapism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerup, Peter; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    Partial priapism, also called partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum, is a rare urological condition. Factors such as bicycle riding, drug usage, penile trauma and haematological diseases have been associated with the condition. Medical treatment with low molecular weight heparin (...... (LMWH) or acetylsalicylic acid is first choice treatment, and surgery is preserved for patients unresponsive to analgesics. In this report we describe the case of a 70-year-old man with partial priapism after blood transfusions treated successfully with LMWH....

  20. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  1. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolini, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively and other long chain fatty acids (until C22. Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively. The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.La composición química de los ácidos grasos y la fracción insaponificable de raíces, hojas, y tallos de Daucus crinitus Desf. fueron establecidas utilizando cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. La fracción de ácidos grasos de los diferentes órganos (hojas, tallos y raíces se caracterizó por el ácido láurico (17.9, 17.5 y 18.1% respectivamente y otros ácidos grasos de cadena larga (hasta C22. Diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas se registraron entre las fracciones insaponificable de los diferentes órganos de D. crinitus. De hecho, las fracciones insaponificable de la raíz, de la hoja y del tallo mostraron cantidades altas de componentes alifáticos (83.4%, 87.2% y 91.4%, respectivamente. Los componentes monoterpénicos, diterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos solo estuvieron presentes en un pequeño porcentaje. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de D. critinus fueron ensayadas en cuatro

  2. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of

  3. Partially Deglycosylated Equine LH Preferentially Activates β-Arrestin-Dependent Signaling at the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y.; Bousfield, George R.; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Gαs coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHβ (Δ121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHα (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nm, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to β-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nm. The depletion of endogenous β-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in β-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors. PMID:20107152

  4. Partially deglycosylated equine LH preferentially activates beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y; Bousfield, George R; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Galphas coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHbeta (Delta121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHalpha (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nM, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to beta-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nM. The depletion of endogenous beta-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in beta-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors.

  5. Partial Sleep Restriction Activates Immune Response-Related Gene Expression Pathways: Experimental and Epidemiological Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Ville; Kronholm, Erkki; Surakka, Ida; van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Lehto, Maili; Matikainen, Sampsa; Ripatti, Samuli; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Salomaa, Veikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Alenius, Harri; Paunio, Tiina; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:24194869

  6. Partial sleep restriction activates immune response-related gene expression pathways: experimental and epidemiological studies in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Aho

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9 was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4 spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472. Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005. Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases.

  7. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Ogawa, Hisao [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei, E-mail: kimmitsu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of

  8. Vibration reduction in helicopter rotors using an actively controlled partial span trailing edge flap located on the blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millott, T. A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analytical study of vibration reduction in a four-bladed helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap located on the blade. The vibration reduction produced by the actively controlled flap (ACF) is compared with that obtained using individual blade control (IBC), in which the entire blade is oscillated in pitch. For both cases a deterministic feedback controller is implemented to reduce the 4/rev hub loads. For all cases considered, the ACF produced vibration reduction comparable with that obtained using IBC, but consumed only 10-30% of the power required to implement IBC. A careful parametric study is conducted to determine the influence of blade torsional stiffness, spanwise location of the control flap, and hinge moment correction on the vibration reduction characteristics of the ACF. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach to vibration reduction. It should be emphasized than the ACF, used together with a conventional swashplate, is completely decoupled from the primary flight control system and thus it has no influence on the airworthiness of the helicopter. This attribute is potentially a significant advantage when compared to IBC.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Partially Oxidized Ag/Au Nanoparticles against the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W83

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S. Holden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology provide opportunities for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. While physicochemical properties of Ag containing nanoparticles (NPs are known to influence the magnitude of their toxicity, it is thought that nanosilver can be made less toxic to eukaryotes by passivation of the NPs with a benign metal. Moreover, the addition of other noble metals to silver nanoparticles, in the alloy formulation, is known to alter the silver dissolution behavior. Thus, we synthesized glutathione capped Ag/Au alloy bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs via the galvanic replacement reaction between maltose coated Ag NPs and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 in 5% aqueous triblock F127 copolymer solution. We then compared the antibacterial activity of the Ag/Au NPs to pure Ag NPs on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, a key pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Only partially oxidized glutathione capped Ag and Ag/Au (Au : Ag ≈ 0.2 NPs inhibited the planktonic growth of P. gingivalis W83. This effect was enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which simulates the oxidative stress environment in the periodontal pocket during chronic inflammation.

  10. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  11. Modulatory effects of nitric oxide-active drugs on the anticonvulsant activity of lamotrigine in an experimental model of partial complex epilepsy in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Giuseppe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects induced by administering the anticonvulsant lamotrigine, the preferential inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase 7-nitroindazole and the precursor of NO synthesis L-arginine, alone or in combination, on an experimental model of partial complex seizures (maximal dentate gyrus activation were studied in urethane anaesthetized rats. The epileptic activity of the dentate gyrus was obtained through the repetitive stimulation of the angular bundle and maximal dentate gyrus activation latency, duration and post-stimulus afterdischarge duration were evaluated. Results Either Lamotrigine (10 mg kg-1 or 7-nitroindazole (75 mg kg-1 i.p. administration had an anticonvulsant effect, significantly reducing the number of animals responding to angular bundle stimulation. On the contrary, i.p. injection of L-arginine (1 g kg-1 induced an aggravation of the epileptiform phenomena, demonstrated by the significant augmentation of the duration of both maximal dentate activation and afterdischarge. Furthermore, the injection of lamotrigine and 7-nitroindazole in combination significantly increased the anticonvulsant effects induced by the same drugs separately, either reducing the number of responding animals or decreasing both maximal dentate gyrus activation and afterdischarge durations. On the contrary, the combined treatment with L-arginine and lamotrigine did not modify the maximal dentate gyrus activation parameters suggesting an adversative effect of L-arginine-increased nitric oxide levels on the lamotrigine-induced anticonvulsant action. Conclusion The present results indicate that the nitrergic neurotransmission exerts a significant modulatory role in the control of the development of paroxystic phenomena in the maximal dentate gyrus activation model of epilepsy. Finally, our data suggest a functional relationship between the nitric oxide system and the anticonvulsant effect of lamotrigine which could be enhanced by

  12. INCREASE IN ACTIVATED PROTEIN C MEDIATES ACUTE TRAUMATIC COAGULOPATHY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, Brian B.; Rahn, Pamela; Carles, Michel; Esmon, Charles T.; Xu, Jun; Brohi, Karim; Frith, Daniel; Pittet, Jean-François; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    In severely injured and hypoperfused trauma patients, endogenous acute coagulopathy (EAC) is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Recent human data correlate this coagulopathy with activation of the protein C pathway. To examine the mechanistic role of protein C in the development of EAC, we used a mouse model of trauma and hemorrhagic shock, characterized by the combination of tissue injury and severe metabolic acidosis. Mice were subjected to one of four treatment groups: 1) C, control; 2) T, trauma (laparotomy); 3) H, hemorrhage (MAP, 35 mmHg × 60 min); 4) TH, trauma + hemorrhage. After 60 min, blood was drawn for analysis. Compared with C mice, the TH mice had a significantly elevated activated partial thromboplastin time (23.3 vs. 34.5 s) and significantly increased levels of activated protein C (aPC; 2.30 vs. 13.58 ng/mL). In contrast, T and H mice did not develop an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time or increased aPC. Selective inhibition of the anticoagulant property of aPC prevented the coagulopathy seen in response to trauma/hemorrhage (23.5 vs. 38.6 s [inhibitory vs. control monoclonal antibody]) with no impact on survival during the shock period. However, complete blockade of both the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of aPC caused 100% mortality within 45 min of shock, with histopathology evidence of pulmonary thrombosis and perivascular hemorrhage. These results indicate that our unique mouse model of T/H shock mimics our previous observations in trauma patients and demonstrates that EAC is mediated by the activation of the protein C pathway. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of protein C activation seems to be necessary for survival of the initial shock injury. PMID:19333141

  13. Comparison of coagulation activity tests in vitro for selected biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeveren, W; Haan, J; Lagerman, P; Schoen, T

    2002-01-01

    Testing of coagulation induced by external communicating medical devices is an International Standardisation Organization (ISO) requirement for products exposed to human blood. Four categories of tests are indicated by ISO 10993/4: a clotting test (partial thromboplastin time; PTT), thrombin generat

  14. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  15. Anticoagulant activities of persicarin and isorhamnetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Tae Hoon; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2013-04-01

    Persicarin and isorhamnetin were isolated from Oenanthe javanica and their anticoagulant activities were examined by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and the activities of cell-based thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). In addition, the effects of persicarin and isorhamnetin on the expressions of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were tested in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The data obtained showed that persicarin and isorhamnetin both prolonged aPTT and PT significantly and inhibited the activities of thrombin and FXa. In addition, they both inhibited the generations of thrombin and FXa in HUVECs. In accordance with these anticoagulant activities, persicarin and isorhamnetin prolonged in vivo bleeding time and inhibited TNF-α induced PAI-1 production. Furthermore, PAI-1/t-PA ratio was significantly decreased by persicarin. Interestingly, the anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects of persicarin were greater than those of isorhamnetin, which suggest that the sulfonate group of persicarin positively regulates its anticoagulatory function. Accordingly, our results suggest that persicarin and isorhamnetin possess antithrombotic activities and that they could provide bases for the development of new anticoagulant agents.

  16. Earthworm extracts utilized in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles capable of reinforcing the anticoagulant activities of heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyeong; Choi, Myung-Jin; Cha, Song-Hyun; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Jun, Sang Hui; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles were obtained using a green synthesis approach with aqueous earthworm extracts without any additional reducing or capping agents. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The anticoagulant activity of the gold nanoparticles was assessed using the activated partial thromboplastin time and was mildly enhanced by combining the gold nanoparticles with heparin. In addition to the generation of spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 6.13 ± 2.13 nm, cubic and block-shaped nanoparticles with an average aspect ratio, defined as the length divided by width, of 1.47 were also observed.

  17. [A new SVRDF 3D-descriptor of amino acids and its application to peptide quantitative structure activity relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Sheng-Wan; Cheng, Su-Li; Li, Gai-Xian

    2007-01-01

    To establish a new amino acid structure descriptor that can be applied to polypeptide quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies, a new descriptor, SVRDF, was derived from a principal components analysis of a matrix of 150 radial distribution function index of amino acids. The scale was then applied in three panels of peptide QSAR that were molded by partial least squares regression. The obtained models with the correlation coefficients (R2(cum)), cross-validation correlation coefficients (Q2(cum)) were 0.766 and 0.724 for 48 bitter tasting dipeptides; 0.941 and 0.811 for 21 oxytocin analogues; 0.996 and 0.919 for 20 thromboplastin inhibitors. Satisfactory results showed that information related to biological activity can be systemically expressed by SVRDF scales, which may be an useful structural expression methodology for the study of peptides QSAR.

  18. Effect of free ammonium and free nitrous acid on the activity, aggregate morphology and extracellular polymeric substance distribution of ammonium oxidizing bacteria in partial nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qian; Peng, Dangcong; Wang, Bo; Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Jiaqi; Zhao, Qiaodi; Wang, Binbin

    2017-09-01

    Successful partial nitrification not only guarantees the inhibition of nitrite oxidation, but also does not excessively retard the ammonia oxidation rate. Therefore, the performance of ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) during partial nitrification is fundamental to this process. In this study, two lab-scale partial nitrification bioreactors containing different inhibition conditions-one with free ammonium (FA) inhibition, the other with free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition-were used to compare the differences between activity, quantity, aggregation morphology and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) distribution of AOB. The results showed that although stable, long-term, partial nitrification was achieved in both reactors, there were differences in AOB activity, microbial spatial distribution and EPS characteristic. In the FA bioreactor, FA concentration was conducted at more than 40 mg/L, which had a strong impact on the metabolism of AOB. The activity and quantity decreased by 50%. Higher EPS (42.44 ± 2.31 mg g(-1) mixed liquor volatile suspended solids [MLVSS]) and protein were introduced into the EPS matrix. However, in the FNA bioreactor, the FNA concentration was about 0.23 mg/L. It did not reach a level to affect AOB metabolism. The AOB activity and quantity were maintained at high levels and the total EPS content was 28.29 ± 2.04 mg g(-1) MLVSS. Additionally, the microscopic results showed that in the FA bioreactor, AOB cells aggregated in microcolonies, while they appeared to be self-flocculating with no specific conformation in the other reactor. β-polysaccharides located inside sludge flocs in the FA bioreactor but only accumulated around the outer layer of activated sludge flocs in the FNA condition. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Cloned Grateloupia filicina and Their Anticoagulant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (GSP were isolated from the cloned Grateloupia filicina which was cultured in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The yield of GSP was 15.75%. The total sugar and sulfate were 40.90 and 19.89%, respectively. And the average molecular weight was 11.7 KDa. The results of neutral sugar analysis showed that GSP was mainly sulfated polysaccharides of galactose. The experiments for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, and thrombin time (TT anticoagulant assays in vitro indicated that GSP was a good potential anticoagulant. Therefore, this study supplied new thought for the cloned Grateloupia filicina exploitation of high-value products.

  20. Study on extraction of agaropectin from Gelidium amansii and its anticoagulant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huimin; Li, Daxin; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Li; Zhang, Quanbin

    2008-05-01

    Gelidium amansii agar was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose and four fractions were obtained sequentially. The yields of 1.0 mol/L NaCl fraction and 2.5 mol/L NaCl fraction were 2.80% and 2.03%. They are highly sulfated agar, and named as agaropectin with sulfate content being 22.8% and 32.5%, respectively. The anticoagulant experiment results show that agaropectin could effectively prolong the coagulation time in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Agaropection could be absorbed and effectively prolong the plasma coagulation time in vivo. After intragastric administration at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg·d in rats for 15 days, TT (thrombin time), CT (coagulation time), PT (prothrombin time), and APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) could be effectively prolonged and the plasma Fib level could be significantly lowered.

  1. Study on extraction of agaropectin from Gelidium amansii and its anticoagulant activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Huimin; LI Daxin; ZHANG Jingjing; LIU Li; ZHANG Quanbin

    2008-01-01

    Gelidium amansii agar was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose and four fractions were obtained sequentially.The yields of 1.0mol/L NaCl fraction and 2.5mol/L NaCl fraction were 2.80% and 2.03%.They are highly sulfated agar,and named as agaropectin with sulfate content being 22.8% and 32.5%,respectively.The anticoagulant experiment results show that agaropectin could effectively prolong the coagulation time in a dose-dependent manner in vitro.Agaropection could be absorbed and effectively prolong the plasma coagulation time in vivo.After intragastric administration at the doses of 100,200,and 400mg/kg·d in rats for 15 days,TT (thrombin time),CT (coagulation time),PT (prothrombin time),and APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) could be effectively prolonged and the plasma Fib level could be significantly lowered.

  2. A descriptor of amino acids: SVRG and its application to peptide quantitative structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J; Che, T; Li, Y; Wang, P; Xu, X; Chen, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a descriptor, SVRG (principal component scores vector of radial distribution function descriptors and geometrical descriptors), was derived from principal component analysis (PCA) of a matrix of two structural variables of coded amino acids, including radial distribution function index (RDF) and geometrical index. SVRG scales were then applied in three panels of peptide quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) which were modelled by partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained models with the correlation coefficient (R²(cum)), cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(LOO)) were 0.910 and 0.863 for 48 bitter-tasting dipeptides; 0.968 and 0.931 for 21 oxytocin analogues; and 0.992 and 0.954 for 20 thromboplastin inhibitors. Satisfactory results showed that SVRG contained much chemical information relating to bioactivities. The approach may be a useful structural expression methodology for studies on peptide QSAR.

  3. Partial Oxidation of Methane with Sol-Gel Fe/Hf/YSZ Catalyst in Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Catalyst Activation by Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A 1% Fe-30% Hf over yttria-stabilized zirconia catalyst in combination with novel plasma-assisted activation techniques for a direct partial oxidation of methane to methanol was tested using dielectric barrier discharge plasma at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. However, instead of methanol, the reaction products were dominated by H2,CO, CO2, C2, and H2O. A catalytically activated plasma process increased the production of methanol compared with a noncatalytic plasma process. The maximum selectivity of methanol production was achieved using a catalyst that was treated at higher applied power.

  4. The impact of total and partial inclusion or exclusion of active and inactive time invariant covariates in growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Thierno M O; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lu, HuiZhong

    2017-03-01

    This article evaluates the impact of partial or total covariate inclusion or exclusion on the class enumeration performance of growth mixture models (GMMs). Study 1 examines the effect of including an inactive covariate when the population model is specified without covariates. Study 2 examines the case in which the population model is specified with 2 covariates influencing only the class membership. Study 3 examines a population model including 2 covariates influencing the class membership and the growth factors. In all studies, we contrast the accuracy of various indicators to correctly identify the number of latent classes as a function of different design conditions (sample size, mixing ratio, invariance or noninvariance of the variance-covariance matrix, class separation, and correlations between the covariates in Studies 2 and 3) and covariate specification (exclusion, partial or total inclusion as influencing class membership, partial or total inclusion as influencing class membership, and the growth factors in a class-invariant or class-varying manner). The accuracy of the indicators shows important variation across studies, indicators, design conditions, and specification of the covariates effects. However, the results suggest that the GMM class enumeration process should be conducted without covariates, and should rely mostly on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and consistent Akaike information criterion (CAIC) as the most reliable indicators under conditions of high class separation (as indicated by higher entropy), versus the sample size adjusted BIC or CAIC (SBIC, SCAIC) and bootstrapped likelihood ratio test (BLRT) under conditions of low class separation (indicated by lower entropy). (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. A Novel Partial Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ with Excellent Effect on Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-juan; Zhang, Cheng-yu; Song, Fei; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Liang, Cai-li; Li, Shan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yan-rong; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Hong-gang

    2015-06-01

    Partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) reportedly reverse insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this work, a novel non-thiazolidinedione-partial PPARγ ligand, MDCCCL1636 [N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanamide], was investigated. The compound displayed partial agonist activity in biochemical and cell-based transactivation assays and reversed insulin resistance. MDCCCL1636 showed a potential antidiabetic effect on an insulin-resistance model of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). High-fat diet-fed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with MDCCCL1636 for 56 days displayed reduced fasting serum glucose and reversed dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage without significant weight gain. Furthermore, MDCCCL1636 had lower toxicity in vivo and in vitro than pioglitazone. MDCCCL1636 also potentiated glucose consumption and inhibited the impairment in insulin signaling targets, such as AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and glycogen synthase, in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Overall, our results suggest that MDCCCL1636 is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. The infectivity of prM-containing partially mature West Nile virus does not require the activity of cellular furin-like proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Swati; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Dowd, Kimberly A; Manhart, Carolyn J; Pierson, Theodore C

    2011-11-01

    Cleavage of the flavivirus prM protein by a cellular furin-like protease is a hallmark of virion maturation. While this cleavage is a required step in the viral life cycle, it can be inefficient. Virions that retain uncleaved prM may be infectious. We investigated whether cleavage by furin of prM on partially mature West Nile virus (WNV) during virus entry contributes to infectivity. Using quantitative assays of WNV infection, we found that virions incorporating considerable amounts of uncleaved prM protein were insensitive to treatment of cells with a potent inhibitor of furin activity. Thus, partially mature WNV does not require furin-like proteases for infectivity.

  7. 76 FR 58246 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Future Activated Carbon Plant; Tonghua Xinpeng Activated Carbon Factory; Triple Eagle Container Line... rescinded, as of the publication date of this notice, of their responsibility under 19 CFR 351.402(f)(2) to...

  8. 78 FR 77419 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2012-2013; Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2012-2013... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of... activated carbon from the PRC (``the Order'').\\1\\ Based upon these requests, on June 3, 2013, the...

  9. 77 FR 72824 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2011-2012; Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2011-2012... order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') based on multiple timely... order on certain activated carbon from the PRC (``the Order''). Based upon these requests, on May...

  10. 76 FR 39851 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the... (Tianjin) Co., Ltd. (``CCT'') and Ningxia Huahui Activated Carbon Co., Ltd. (``Huahui''). On June 10,...

  11. Partial nitritation of stored source-separated urine by granular activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Tian, Xiujun; Yao, Song; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Yao, Qian; Peng, Dangcong

    2017-12-01

    The combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been proposed as an ideal process for nitrogen removal from source-separated urine, while the high organic matters in urine cause instability of single-stage PN-anammox process. This study aims to remove the organic matters and partially nitrify the nitrogen in urine, producing an ammonium/nitrite solution suitable for anammox. The organic matters in stored urine were used as the electron donors to achieve 40% total nitrogen removal in nitritation-denitrification process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Granular aggregates were observed and high mixed liquor suspended solids (9.5 g/L) were maintained in the SBR. Around 70-75% ammonium was oxidized to nitrite under the volumetric loading rates of 3.23 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m(3) d) and 1.86 kg N/(m(3) d), respectively. The SBR produced an ammonium/nitrite solution free of biodegradable organic matters, with a NO2(-)-N:NH4(+)-N of 1.24 ± 0.13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization images showed that Nitrosomonas-like ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, accounting for 7.2% of total bacteria, located in the outer layer (25 μm), while heterotrophs distributed homogeneously throughout the granular aggregates. High concentrations of free ammonia and nitrous acids in the reactor severely inhibited the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, resulting in their absence in the granular sludge. The microbial diversity analysis indicated Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, in which Pseudomonas was the most abundant genus.

  12. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomira eNovakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance towards infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins developed 6-7 days post inoculation (dpi in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  13. Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E; Cole, Steven W; Seeman, Teresa E; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Irwin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Age-related disease risk has been linked to short sleep duration and sleep disturbances; however, the specific molecular pathways linking sleep loss with diseases of aging are poorly defined. Key cellular events seen with aging, which are thought to contribute to disease, may be particularly sensitive to sleep loss. We tested whether one night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would increase leukocyte gene expression indicative of DNA damage responses (DDR), the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and senescence indicator p16(INK4a) in older adult humans, who are at increased risk for cellular senescence. Community-dwelling older adults aged 61-86years (n=29; 48% male) underwent an experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol over 4 nights, including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, partial sleep deprivation (sleep restricted 3-7AM), and a subsequent full night of sleep. Blood samples were obtained each morning to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Analyses of microarray results revealed that SASP (psleep deprivation activates PBMC gene expression patterns consistent with biological aging in this older adult sample. PSD enhanced the SASP and increased the accumulation of damage that initiates cell cycle arrest and promotes cellular senescence. These findings causally link sleep deprivation to the molecular processes associated with biological aging.

  14. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative.

  16. Evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity of partially purified serine protease isolate from the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Verma

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: Exact molecular mechanism of the cytotoxic and antitumor activities is yet to be explored and currently we are working on ultra-purification and biophysical characterization of this fraction. Further investigation into the mechanism(s of cytotoxic and antitumor activities at molecular level would be useful in treatment of various classes of cancer and viral infections in future.

  17. Differential partial activation phenotype and production of tumour necrosis factor-α by conventional dendritic cells in response to lipopolysaccharide in HIV+ viraemic subjects and HIV+ controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Sandoval, R; Del Río Estrada, P M; Rivero-Arrieta, A; Reyes-Terán, G; Bonifaz, L C

    2014-12-01

    HIV(+) subjects are reported to have increased soluble CD14 (sCD14) in plasma, an indicator of microbial translocation. We evaluated if microbial translocation has a differential impact on the activation and function of conventional dendritic cells (cDC) from viraemic HIV(+) subjects and HIV(+) controllers (CTs). The HIV(+) subjects were classified into two groups according to their plasma viral load (pVL): CT and viraemic. Subjects without HIV were included as controls (HIV(-) ). The frequencies and phenotypes of cDC from these subjects were evaluated by multi-parameter flow cytometry. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or single-stranded RNA40 (ssRNA40), the phenotype of the cDC and the intracellular production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the cDC were evaluated by flow cytometry. We observed a partial activation phenotype for the cDC in the viraemic subjects and CTs ex vivo and after LPS activation, which showed differences in the expression of CD40 and CD86. Furthermore, in response to LPS the cDC from the viraemic subjects produced more TNF-α compared to the cDC from CTs. Interestingly, the percentage of TNF-α(+) cDC was found to be correlated positively with the pVL. The partial activation of cDC and the over-production of TNF-α in response to LPS in viraemic HIV(+) subjects might be related to the increased chronic activation observed in these subjects. In contrast, cDC from CTs seem to have a regulated response to LPS, indicating that they respond differently to chronic immune activation. These results may have implications in the development of HIV therapies and vaccines using DC.

  18. Differential partial activation phenotype and production of tumour necrosis factor-α by conventional dendritic cells in response to lipopolysaccharide in HIV+ viraemic subjects and HIV+ controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Sandoval, R; Del Río Estrada, P M; Rivero-Arrieta, A; Reyes-Terán, G; Bonifaz, L C

    2014-01-01

    HIV+ subjects are reported to have increased soluble CD14 (sCD14) in plasma, an indicator of microbial translocation. We evaluated if microbial translocation has a differential impact on the activation and function of conventional dendritic cells (cDC) from viraemic HIV+ subjects and HIV+ controllers (CTs). The HIV+ subjects were classified into two groups according to their plasma viral load (pVL): CT and viraemic. Subjects without HIV were included as controls (HIV–). The frequencies and phenotypes of cDC from these subjects were evaluated by multi-parameter flow cytometry. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or single-stranded RNA40 (ssRNA40), the phenotype of the cDC and the intracellular production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the cDC were evaluated by flow cytometry. We observed a partial activation phenotype for the cDC in the viraemic subjects and CTs ex vivo and after LPS activation, which showed differences in the expression of CD40 and CD86. Furthermore, in response to LPS the cDC from the viraemic subjects produced more TNF-α compared to the cDC from CTs. Interestingly, the percentage of TNF-α+ cDC was found to be correlated positively with the pVL. The partial activation of cDC and the over-production of TNF-α in response to LPS in viraemic HIV+ subjects might be related to the increased chronic activation observed in these subjects. In contrast, cDC from CTs seem to have a regulated response to LPS, indicating that they respond differently to chronic immune activation. These results may have implications in the development of HIV therapies and vaccines using DC. PMID:25130456

  19. Early L-dopa, but not pramipexole, restores basal ganglia activity in partially 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Giralt, A; Obeso, J A; Schapira, A H

    2014-04-01

    The most appropriate time for the initiation of dopaminergic symptomatic therapy in Parkinson's disease remains debatable. It has been suggested that early correction of basal ganglia pathophysiological abnormalities may have long-term beneficial effects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early and delayed actions of L-dopa and pramipexole, using a delayed-start protocol of treatment. The effects of early and delayed administration of these drugs on motor response, development of dyskinesias, neurogenesis and molecular markers in basal ganglia were studied in rats with a unilateral and partial 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Ten days after lesioning, rats received treatment with: a) L-dopa methyl ester (25mg/kg with 6.25mg/kg of benserazide, i.p., twice a day); b) pramipexole (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day) or c) saline for 4weeks. Four weeks after treatment initiation, rats from the saline group were distributed in three groups that then received the following treatments: d) L-dopa, e) pramipexole or f) saline, for 4weeks more. Three animals in each treatment arm received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections (200mg/kg) 3days before starting treatment. When compared with delayed-start L-dopa, early-start L-dopa treatment induced a lower rotational response (ppramipexole, early-start pramipexole induced a higher rotational response (ppramipexole treatments. Our data support a possible restoration of basal ganglia physiological mechanisms by early-start L-dopa therapy.

  20. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Huapeng Environment Protection Materials; Benbu Jiutong Trade Co., Ltd.; Changji Hongke Activated Carbon... Carbon Co., Ltd.; Huaibei Environment Protection Material Plant; Huairen Huanyu Purification Material Co... Equipment; Shanxi Xinshidai Imp. Exp. Co., Ltd.; Shanxi Zuoyun Yunpeng Coal Chemistry; Shenzhen...

  1. Partial purification and characterization of a peptide with growth hormone-releasing activity from extrapituitary tumors in patients with acromegaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Frohman, L A; Szabo, M; Berelowitz, M.; Stachura, M E

    1980-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity has been detected in extracts of carcinoid and pancreatic islet tumors from three patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumors and acromegaly. Bioactivity was demonstrated in 2 N acetic acid extracts of the tumors using dispersed rat adenohypophyseal cells in primary monolayer culture and a rat anterior pituitary perifusion system. The GH-releasing effect was dose responsive and the greatest activity was present in the pancreatic islet tumor. Small amount...

  2. Multiple forms of phosphatase from human brain: isolation and partial characterization of affi-gel blue nonbinding phosphatase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L Y; Wang, J Z; Gong, C X; Pei, J J; Zaidi, T; Grundke-Iqbal, I; Iqbal, K

    2001-04-01

    Phosphatases extracted from a human brain were resolved into two main groups, namely affi-gel blue-binding phosphatases and affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases. Affi-gel blue binding phosphatases were further separated into four different phosphatase activities, designated P1-P4, and described previously. In the present study we describe the affi-gel blue-nonbinding phosphatases which were separated into seven different phosphatase activities, designated P5-P11 by poly-(L-lysine)-agarose and aminohexyl Sepharose 4B chromatographies. These seven phosphatase activities were active toward nonprotein phosphoester. P7-P11 and to some extent P5 could also dephosphorylate a phosphoprotein. They displayed different enzyme kinetics. On the basis of activity peak, the apparent molecular mass as estimated by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography for P5 was 49 kDa; P6, 32 kDa; P7, 150 kDa; P8, 250 kDa; P9, 165 kDa; P10, 90 kDa and P11, 165 kDa. Immunoblot analysis indicated that P8-P11 may belong to PP2B family, whereas P7 may associate with PP2A. The phosphatases P7-P11 were found to be effective in the dephosphorylation of Alzheimer's disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. The resulting dephosphorylated tau regained its activity in promoting the microtubule assembly, suggesting that P7-P11 might regulate the phosphorylation of tau protein in the brain.

  3. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Aromatic Amines Exert Contrasting Effects on the Anticoagulant Effect of Acetaldehyde upon APTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La'Teese Hall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological effects of amphetamine, procaine, procainamide, DOPA, isoproterenol, and atenolol upon activated partial thromboplastin time in the absence and presence of acetaldehyde have been investigated. In the absence of acetaldehyde, amphetamine and isoproterenol exhibit a procoagulant effect upon activated partial thromboplastin time, whereas atenolol and procaine display anticoagulant effects upon activated partial thromboplastin time. DOPA and procainamide do not alter activated partial thromboplastin time. Premixtures of procaine with acetaldehyde produce an additive anticoagulant effect on activated partial thromboplastin time, suggesting independent action of these compounds upon clotting factors. Premixtures of amphetamine with acetaldehyde, as well as atenolol with acetaldehyde, generate a detoxication of the anticoagulant effect of acetaldehyde upon activated partial thromboplastin time. A similar statistically significant decrease in activated partial thromboplastin time is seen when procainamide is premixed with acetaldehyde for 20 minutes at room temperature. Premixtures of DOPA and isoproterenol with acetaldehyde do not affect an alteration in activated partial thromboplastin time relative to acetaldehyde alone. Hence, a selective interaction of atenolol, procaine, and amphetamine with acetaldehyde to produce detoxication of the acetaldehyde is suggested, undoubtedly due to the presence of amino, hydroxyl, or amide groups in these drugs.

  5. STRUCTURE OF PARTIALLY-ACTIVATED ESCHERICHIA-COLI HEAT-LABILE ENTEROTOXIN (LT) AT 2.6-ANGSTROM RESOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERRITT, EA; PRONK, SE; SIXMA, TK; KALK, KH; VANZANTEN, BAM; HOL, WGJ

    1994-01-01

    Biological toxicity of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin and the closely related cholera toxin requires that the assembled toxin be activated by proteolytic cleavage of the A subunit and reduction of a disulfide bond internal to the A subunit. The structural role served by this reduction and cleavage

  6. A membrane cytoskeleton from Dictyostelium discoideum. I. Identification and partial characterization of an actin-binding activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, E.J.; Fowler, V.M.; Swanson, J.; Branton, D.; Taylor, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes isolated by each of three procedures bind F-actin. The interactions between these membranes and actin are examined by a novel application of falling ball viscometry. Treating the membranes as multivalent actin-binding particles analogous to divalent actin-gelatin factors, large increases in viscosity (actin-cross-linking) were observed when membranes depleted of actin and myosin are incubated with rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Pre-extraction of peripheral membrane proteins with chaotropes or the inclusion of Triton X-100 during the assay does not appreciably diminish this actin cross-linking activity. Lipid vesicles, heat-denatured membranes, proteolyzed membranes, or membranes containing endogenous actin show minimal actin cross-linking activity. Heat-denatured, but not proteolyzed, membranes regain activity when assayed in the presence of Triton X-100. Thus, integral membrane proteins appear to be responsible for some or all of the actin cross-linking activity of D. discoideum membranes. In the absence of MgATP, Triton X-100 extraction of isolated D. discoideum membranes results in a Triton-insoluble residue composed of actin, myosin, and associated membrane proteins. The inclusion of MgATP before and during Triton extraction greatly diminishes the amount of protein in the Triton-insoluble residue without appreciably altering its composition. Our results suggest the existence of a protein complex stabilized by actin and/or myosin (membrane cytoskeleton) associated with the D. discoideum plasma membrane.

  7. STRUCTURE OF PARTIALLY-ACTIVATED ESCHERICHIA-COLI HEAT-LABILE ENTEROTOXIN (LT) AT 2.6-ANGSTROM RESOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERRITT, EA; PRONK, SE; SIXMA, TK; KALK, KH; VANZANTEN, BAM; HOL, WGJ

    1994-01-01

    Biological toxicity of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin and the closely related cholera toxin requires that the assembled toxin be activated by proteolytic cleavage of the A subunit and reduction of a disulfide bond internal to the A subunit. The structural role served by this reduction and cleavage

  8. Antitumor effect of seaweeds. II. Fractionation and partial characterization of the polysaccharide with antitumor activity from Sargassum fulvellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, I; Nagumo, T; Fujihara, M; Takahashi, M; Ando, Y

    1977-06-01

    An almost purified antitumor polysaccharide fraction (SFPP) was obtained by fractional precipitation with ethanol from hot-water extract of Sargassum fulvellum. The fraction showed remarkable tumor-inhibiting effect against sarcoma-180 implanted subcutaneously in mice. The results of chemical and physical analyses suggested that the active substance may be either a sulphated peptidoglycuronoglycan or a sulphated glycuronoglycan.

  9. PARTIAL OPTIMIZATION AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE (PPO AND PEROXIDASE (POD EXTRACTED FROM CHILLY PEPPER PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase(PPO (E.C. number 1.10.3.1 has ubiquitous distribution in almost all living organism. Whereas, peroxidase(POD (E.C. number 1.11.1 act as hormone regulation and defense mechanism in plants. Keeping in pace with their present-day industrial application, efforts have been made to evaluate the activity of these two enzymes (PPO and POD using pepper pericarp (Capsicum annuum L. as an experimental material using catechol and guaiacol as a substrate, respectively. The effects of enzyme extract, substrate, hydrogen peroxide concentration (only for POD, pH and temperature and antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains were investigated.

  10. Mainstream wastewater treatment in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor by partial nitritation/anammox process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-12-01

    In this study the system based on the combination of biofilm and activated sludge (IFAS - integrated fixed film activated sludge) was tested and compared with a system that relies only on biofilm (MBBR - moving bed biofilm reactor) for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater by deammonification process. By introduction of suspended biomass into MBBR the nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 36 ± 3% to 70 ± 4% with simultaneous 3-fold increase of nitrogen removal rate. Results of batch tests and continuous reactor operation showed that organotrophic nitrate reduction to nitrite, followed by anammox reaction contributed to this high removal efficiency. After sCOD/NH4-N ratio decreased from 1.8 ± 0.2 to 1.3 ± 0.1 removal efficiency decreased to 52 ± 4%, while still maintaining 150% higher removal rate, comparing to MBBR. Activity tests revealed that affinity of NOB to oxygen is higher than affinity of AOB with half-saturation constants of 0.05 and 0.41 mg/L, respectively.

  11. Isolation And Partial Characterization Of Bacteria Activity Associated With Gorgonian Euplexaura sp. Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, R.; Ayuningrum, D.; Asagabaldan, M. A.; Nuryadi, H.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in around the world and has been resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin. The aims of this study were to isolate, to investigate and to characterize bacterial symbionts gorgonian having activity against MRSA. Euplexaura sp. was collected from Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia by snorkling 2-5 m in depth. Bacterias were isolated by using spesific media with dilution method. Bacterias were conducted by using the streak method. Antibacterial activity was investigated by overlay method. The potent bacteria was identified by using molecular identification (DNA extraction, electrophoresis, PCR and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA genes with actinobacteria-spesific primers) and bio-chemical test (among 5 isolated bacteria from gorgonian showed activity against MRSA). The strain PG-344 was the best candidat that has an inhibition zone against MRSA. The result of sequencing bacteria is 100% closely related with Virgibacillus salarius. This becomes a potential new bioactive compounds to against MRSA that can be a new drug discovery.

  12. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  13. Isolation, Identification and Partial Characterization of a Lactobacillus casei Strain with Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity from Pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vázquez, R; Azaola-Espinosa, A; Mayorga-Reyes, L; Reyes-Nava, L A; Shah, N P; Rivera-Espinoza, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, from pulque, Lactobacillus spp. capable of survival in simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions. Nine Gram-positive rods were isolated; however, only one strain (J57) shared identity with Lactobacillus and was registered as Lactobacillus casei J57 (GenBank accession: JN182264). The other strains were identified as Bacillus spp. The most significant observation during the test of tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions (acidity, gastric juice and bile salts) was that L. casei J57 showed a rapid decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the viable population at 0 h. Bile salts were the stress condition that most affected its survival, from which deoxycholic acid and the mix of bile salts (oxgall) were the most toxic. L. casei J57 showed bile salt hydrolase activity over primary and secondary bile salts as follows: 44.91, 671.72, 45.27 and 61.57 U/mg to glycocholate, taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, the control strain (L. casei Shirota) only showed activity over tauroconjugates. These results suggest that L. casei J57 shows potential for probiotic applications.

  14. The kinetics of the partial dehydration of gibbsite to activated alumina in a reactor for pneumatic transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZDA JOVANOVIC

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The dehidration kinetics of gibbsite to activated alumina was investigated at four different temperatures between 883 K and 943 K in a reactor for pneumatic transport in the dilute two phase flow regime. The first order kinetic behavior of this reactionwith respect to the water content of the solid material was proved and an activation energy of 66.5 kJ/mol was calculated. The effect of residence time on the water content is given and compared with theoretical calculations. The water content and other characteristics of the products depend on two main parameters, one is the short residence time and the other is the temperature of the dehydration of gibbsite. The short residence time of the gibbsite particles in a reactor for pneumatic transport prevents crystallization into new phases, as established from XRD analysis data. Reactive amorphous alumina powder, with a specific surface area of 250 m2/g, suitable as a precursor for catalyst supports is obtained.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Monascus Fermented Product in the Absence of Monacolins with Partial Purification for Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ajdari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42% and decreased the TC (53.3%, LDL-C (47%, and TG (50.7% levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1% in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic activity of monascus fermented product in the absence of monacolins with partial purification for functional food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Bayat, Saadi; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ajdari, Daniel; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.

  17. Activity and Activity Coefficient of Iron Oxides in the Liquid FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 Slag Systems at Intermediate Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Hector M.; Itagaki, Kimio

    2007-10-01

    At present, there is a scarcity of data on the activities of iron oxides in the FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 slag system at intermediate oxygen partial pressures and temperatures relevant to sulfide smelting and nonferrous metallurgy. The present study provides relevant data at temperatures between 1573 and 1673 K and partial pressures of oxygen between 10-9 and 10-4 atm. The experiments were carried out by equilibrating the slag in a CO-CO2 gas mixture in a platinum crucible, after which the phases of all the experimental samples, including the platinum foil, were analyzed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Where only liquid phase or liquid phase and tridymite (SiO2) were observed, wet chemical analysis was used to determine the ratio of (mass pct Fe2+)/(mass pct Fe3+). Activity and activity coefficients for FeO (liquid) and FeO1.33 (solid) were calculated. Tendencies of the effect of the (CaO/SiO2) ratio, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure on these thermochemical quantities are discussed in this article.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-induced serotonin transporter up-regulation involves PKG-I and p38MAPK activation partially through A3 adenosine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Wang, Shoubao; Huang, Zhonglin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiuying; Bai, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Dan; Qin, Zhizhen; Du, Guanhua

    2015-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a critical determinant of synaptic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) inactivation which plays a critical role in the pathology of depression and other mood disorders. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent activator of the inflammatory system, has been reported to cause depression symptoms by the modulation of SERT in vivo and in vitro. This study is aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LPS-induced SERT modulation. The 4-(4-(dimethylamino) styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP) assay was used to detect dynamic 5-HT uptake as read out of SERT activities in RBL-2H3 cells, and cytosol Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and nitric oxide (NO) were examined. Using specific cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG-I), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) and A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) inhibitors, SERT expression was evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Results showed that 24 h treatment with LPS stimulated 5-HT transport and up-regulate plasma membrane distribution of SERT in RBL-2H3 cells. LPS treatment increased NO and [Ca(2+)]i, and led to significant increases in levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMK-II), inducible NOS (iNOS) and PKG-I as well as active p38 MAPK. Moreover, PKG-I inhibitor KT5823 or p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 respectively impaired SERT activation and transposition to plasma membrane by LPS. Notably, A3 adenosine receptor inhibitor MRS1191 also hindered SERT stimulation by LPS. In conclusion, LPS-induced 5-HT uptake and transposition to plasma membrane of SERT in RBL-2H3 cells involves CaMK-II/iNOS/PKG-I and p38 MAPK activation, which may be partially mediated by A3 adenosine receptor activation. This finding provides a novel insight into the interrelationship between LPS and depression.

  19. Point-of-care monitoring of oral anticoagulation therapy in children. Comparison of the CoaguChek XS system with venous INR and venous INR using an International Reference Thromboplastin preparation (rTF/95).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Anthea; Ignjatovic, Vera; Summerhayes, Robyn; Newall, Fiona; Burgess, Janet; DeRosa, Lydia; Monagle, Paul

    2009-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) monitoring of oral anticoagulation has been widely adopted in both paediatric and adult patients. A new POC system, the CoaguChek XS has recently been developed to measure the international normalised ratio (INR) and may offer significant advantages. The CoaguChek XS utilises a new method of electrochemical clot detection based on thrombin generation. This system has not been previously evaluated in children with reference to the laboratory gold standard, the prothrombin time using reference thromboplastin. It was the objective to compare values obtained by the CoaguChek XS system with both the venous INR and the gold standard for anticoagulant monitoring, prothrombin time with reference thromboplastin (rTF/95). To evaluate the impact of testing using the CoaguChek XS on clinical anticoagulant dosing decisions. Fifty paired venous INR and capillary CoaguChek XS results were obtained from 31 children (aged up to 16 years). The laboratory gold standard, a manual prothrombin time with reference thromboplastin (rTF/95) was additionally performed on 26 samples. Correlation between the CoaguChek XS result and the venous INR was r = 0.810. Agreement between the CoaguChek XS result and the reference INR was shown to be higher (r=0.95), in the subset analysed by this method. Correlation between the venous INR and reference INR was r=0.90. Despite changes to the methodology of testing with the CoaguChek XS POC monitoring system, the accuracy of this method when compared with both the venous INR and gold standard reference INR was satisfactory. This resulted in infrequent changes to clinical decision making regarding anticoagulation.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted polyol method for the preparation of SBA-15-supported ruthenium nanoparticles and the study of their catalytic activity on the partial oxidation of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Wang, Renzhang; Hong, Qi; Chen, Luwei; Zhong, Ziyi; Koltypin, Yuri; Calderon-Moreno, J; Gedanken, Aharon

    2004-09-14

    Metallic Ru nanoparticles have been successfully produced and incorporated into the pores of SBA-15 in situ employing a simple ultrasound-assisted polyol method. The product has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, where ultrasound provides both the energy for the reduction of the Ru(III) ion and the driving force for the loading of the Ru(0) nanoparticles into the SBA-15 pores. An ultrasound-assisted insertion mechanism has been proposed based on the microjets and shake-wave effect of the collapsed bubbles. The catalytic properties of the SBA-15-supported Ru nanoparticles have been tested by the partial oxidization of methane and show very high activity and high CO selectivity.

  1. Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces the Efficacy of Orexin-A to Stimulate Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorter, Danielle P; Coborn, Jamie E; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, distance traveled, and EE were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats following orexin-A injections into VLPO both before and after acute (12-h) and chronic (8 h/d, 9 d) sleep deprivation by noise exposure. Orexin-A in the VLPO significantly increased arousal, PA, total EE, and PA-related EE and reduced sleep and respiratory quotient before sleep deprivation. In contrast to after acute sleep deprivation in which orexin-A failed to stimulate EE during PA only, orexin-A failed to significantly increase arousal, PA, fat oxidation, total EE, and PA-related EE after chronic sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may reduce sensitivity to endogenous stimuli that enhance EE due to PA and thus stimulate weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  3. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  4. Akbu-LAAO exhibits potent anti-tumor activity to HepG2 cells partially through produced H2O2 via TGF-β signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunmei; Liu, Shuqing; Dong, Panpan; Zhao, Dongting; Wang, Chengyi; Tao, Zhiwei; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2015-12-14

    Previously, we characterized the biological properties of Akbu-LAAO, a novel L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom (SV). Current work investigated its in vitro anti-tumor activity and underlying mechanism on HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO inhibited HepG2 growth time and dose-dependently with an IC50 of ~38.82 μg/mL. It could induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO exhibited cytotoxicity by inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 as it showed no effect on its cell cycle. The inhibition of Akbu-LAAO to HepG2 growth partially relied on enzymatic-released H2O2 as catalase only partially antagonized this effect. cDNA microarray results indicated TGF-β signaling pathway was linked to the cytotoxicity of Akbu-LAAO on HepG2. TGF-β pathway related molecules CYR61, p53, GDF15, TOB1, BTG2, BMP2, BMP6, SMAD9, JUN, JUNB, LOX, CCND1, CDK6, GADD45A, CDKN1A were deregulated in HepG2 following Akbu-LAAO stimulation. The presence of catalase only slightly restored the mRNA changes induced by Akbu-LAAO for differentially expressed genes. Meanwhile, LDN-193189, a TGF-β pathway inhibitor reduced Akbu-LAAO cytotoxicity on HepG2. Collectively, we reported, for the first time, SV-LAAO showed anti-tumor cell activity via TGF-β pathway. It provides new insight of SV-LAAO exhibiting anti-tumor effect via a novel signaling pathway.

  5. Saline obtaining and time standardization of prothrombin using thromboplastin of human placenta. Obtención salina y estandarización del tiempo de protrombina utilizando tromboplastina de placenta humana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi González Sarría

    Full Text Available Background: Determining prothombine ‘s time is an important lab test in the study of coagulation disorders. To develop this essay the main reactive was thromboplastin , a substance that is presented in tissue and that has been obtained habitually from the human brain or certain animals but its extraction in labs or its commercial acquisition is difficult at present. Objective: To obtain Thromboplastin throughout the extraction of human placenta and to standardise the determination of pro-time into the obtained reactive Method: Placenta from normal delivery was used from which thromboplastin was obtained using a saline extraction. The reactive was compared with thromboplastin from human brain from ¨Dr. Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ Hospital in Havana City in a group of patients with and without anticoagulant treatment . With the extracted thromplastin similar or compatible results were obtained than with the habitual reactives by using easier and cheaper process.
    Fundamento: La determinación del tiempo de protrombina es un importante examen complementario en el estudio de los trastornos de la coagulación de la sangre. Para la realización del ensayo, se utiliza como reactivo principal tromboplastina, sustancia que se encuentra en varios tejidos y que habitualmente se ha obtenido de cerebro humano o de ciertos animales, pero su extracción en el laboratorio o su adquisición comercial en estos momentos se dificulta. Objetivos: Obtener tromboplastina a través de la extracción salina de placenta humana y estandarizar la determinación del tiempo de protrombina con el reactivo obtenido. Métodos : Se utilizó placenta de partos normales de la cual se obtuvo la tromboplastina utilizando extracción salina. Se comparó el reactivo con una tromboplastina de cerebro humano del Hospital ¨Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ de Ciudad de La Habana

  6. Partial degradation of levofloxacin for biodegradability improvement by electro-Fenton process using an activated carbon fiber felt cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuexiang; Li, Jiuyi; Zhang, Yanyu; Zhang, Meng; Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Aimin

    2016-03-05

    Solutions of 500 mL 200 mg L(-1) fluoroquinolone antibiotic levofloxacin (LEVO) have been degraded by anodic oxidation (AO), AO with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2) and electro-Fenton (EF) processes using an activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt cathode from the point view of not only LEVO disappearance and mineralization, but also biodegradability enhancement. The LEVO decay by EF process followed a pseudo-first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 2.37×10(-2)min(-1), which is much higher than that of AO or AO-H2O2 processes. The LEVO mineralization also evidences the order EF>AO-H2O2>AO. The biodegradability (BOD5/COD) increased from 0 initially to 0.24, 0.09, and 0.03 for EF, AO-H2O2 and AO processes after 360 min treatment, respectively. Effects of several parameters such as current density, initial pH and Fe(2+) concentration on the EF degradation have also been examined. Three carboxylic acids including oxalic, formic and acetic acid were detected, as well as the released inorganic ions NH4(+), NO3(-) and F(-). At last, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify about eight aromatic intermediates formed in 60 min of EF treatment, and a plausible mineralization pathway for LEVO by EF treatment was proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant human neuritin from Pichia pastoris and a partial analysis of its neurobiological activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Zhang, Shujun; Xian, Lingling; Tang, Juan; Zhu, Jingling; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Shanman; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Neuritin (also known as candidate plasticity gene 15 (cpg15)) is a neurotrophic factor that was recently discovered in a screen aimed at identifying genes involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Neuritin plays multiple roles in both neural development (Chen et al. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 46:978-983 2010; Corriveau et al. J Neurosci 19:7999-8008 1999; Lee and Nedivi J Neurosci 22:1807-1815 2002) and synaptic plasticity (Fujino et al. Gene Dev 25:2674-2685 2011; Leslie and Nedivi Prog 14 Neurobiol 94:223-237 2011; Loebrich and Nedivi Physiol Rev 89:1079 2009). In this study, to produce bioactive, soluble recombinant human neuritin protein, a portion of NRN1 was cloned into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPIC9K. The recombinant vector was then transformed into the methylotrophic yeast strain P. pastoris GS115, and a shaking flask method and His-tag purification strategy were utilized to express and purify neuritin protein. The resulting protein had a molecular mass of approximately 11 kDa, and subsequent functional analyses indicated that the purified neuritin promoted neurite outgrowth from embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglions, while also prolonging the survival of these ganglions, and from PC12 cells. These findings suggest that neuritin was expressed effectively in vitro and that this protein may play a role in stimulating neurite outgrowth of both dorsal root ganglions and PC12 cells. This study provides a novel strategy for the large-scale production of bioactive neuritin, which will enable further study of the biological function of this protein.

  8. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  9. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; ZHANG Quanbin; ZHANG Zhongshan; HOU Yun; ZHANG Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminariajaponica,an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT).The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content,sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  10. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  11. Activation of endothelium by immunotherapy with interleukin-2 in patients with malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, G J; Kapiotis, S; Veitl, M; Mader, R M; Stoiser, B; Kofler, J; Sieder, A E; Rainer, H; Steger, G G; Mannhalter, C; Wagner, O F

    1999-06-01

    Treatment with intravenous recombinant human interleukin-2 (rh IL-2) is frequently accompanied by the capillary leak syndrome and disturbances of the coagulation system. Although the exact mechanisms are still not fully understood, the involvement of the endothelium is proven. This investigation aimed to elucidate more precisely the role of the endothelium in the generation of IL-2-based side-effects. In nine tumour patients receiving intravenous rh IL-2, parameters characterizing endothelial cell activation as well as activation of the coagulation system were evaluated. A significant increase of the circulating endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (cELAM-1) and the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) was observed (P<0.05), indicating activation of endothelial cells. The simultaneous increase of tissue-plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 during therapy (P<0.05) corroborated this observation. A decrease in platelet count parallelled by an increase of fibrin degradation products, the prolongation of partial thromboplastin time, and the decrease of fibrinogen (P<0.05) suggested the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), induced by activated endothelium and intensified by transient hepatic failure. We concluded that activation of the endothelium mediated by IL-2 was accompanied by a loss of endothelial integrity and capillary leak. The activated endothelium can trigger DIC via activation of the coagulation cascade. The increased ET-1 might act as an endogenous counter-regulator of the disadvantageous haemodynamic side-effects induced by IL-2.

  12. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  13. A fibrinolytic protease AfeE from Streptomyces sp. CC5, with potent thrombolytic activity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Pingping; Cheng, Guangyan; Zhang, Biying; Dong, Weiliang; Su, Xingli; Huang, Yan; Cui, Zhongli; Kong, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Fibrinolytic proteases have potential applications in cardiovascular disease therapy. A novel fibrinolytic protease, AfeE, with strong thrombolytic activity was purified from Streptomyces sp. CC5. AfeE displayed maximum activity at 40°C in the pH range of 7.0-12.0. It was strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride, soybean trypsin inhibitor, tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone and tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone. The activity of the enzyme was partially inhibited by Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+). AfeE exhibited higher substrate specificity for fibrin than fibrinogen, which has rarely been reported in fibrinolytic enzymes. AfeE also showed high thrombolytic activity in a carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis model. AfeE prolonged prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time in rat blood. A bleeding time assay revealed that AfeE did not prolong bleeding time in mice at a dose of 1mg/kg. No acute cytotoxicity was observed for AfeE at 320μg/well in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The afeE gene was cloned from the genome of Streptomyces sp. CC5. Full-length AFE-CC5E contained 434 amino acids and was processed into a mature form consisting 284 amino acids by posttranslational modification, as revealed by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicate that AfeE is a prospective candidate for antithrombotic drug development.

  14. The snakehead Channa asiatica accumulates alanine during aerial exposure, but is incapable of sustaining locomotory activities on land through partial amino acid catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Shit F; Wong, Mei Y; Tam, Wai L; Ip, Yuen K

    2003-02-01

    The freshwater snakehead Channa asiatica is an obligatory air-breather that resides in slow-flowing streams and in crevices near riverbanks in Southern China. In its natural habitat, it may encounter bouts of aerial exposure during the dry seasons. In the laboratory, the ammonia excretion rate of C. asiatica exposed to terrestrial conditions in a 12 h:12 h dark:light regime was one quarter that of the submerged control. Consequently, the ammonia contents in the muscle, liver and plasma increased significantly, and C. asiatica was able to tolerate quite high levels of ammonia in its tissues. Urea was not the major product of ammonia detoxification in C. asiatica, which apparently did not possess a functioning ornithine urea cycle. Rather, alanine increased fourfold to 12.6 micromol g(-1) in the muscle after 48 h of aerial exposure. This is the highest level known in adult teleosts exposed to air or an ammonia-loading situation. The accumulated alanine could account for 70% of the deficit in ammonia excretion during this period, indicating that partial amino acid catabolism had occurred. This would allow the utilization of certain amino acids as energy sources and, at the same time, maintain the new steady state levels of ammonia in various tissues, preventing them from rising further. There was a reduction in the aminating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase from the muscle and liver of specimens exposed to terrestrial conditions. Such a phenomenon has not been reported before and could, presumably, facilitate the entry of alpha-ketoglutarate into the Krebs cycle instead of its amination to glutamate, as has been suggested elsewhere. However, in contrast to mudskippers, C. asiatica was apparently unable to reduce the rates of proteolysis and amino acid catabolism, because the reduction in nitrogenous excretion during 48 h of aerial exposure was completely balanced by nitrogenous accumulation in the body. Alanine accumulation also occurred in specimens exposed to

  15. Antagonist activity of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine and partial agonist activity of 8-OH-DPAT at the 5-HT(7) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M; Chaubey, M; Atkinson, P; Thomas, D R

    2000-05-12

    This study compared the use of adapter G-proteins to link G(s) coupled G-protein receptors to a Ca(2+) signal, enabling high throughput functional studies using a fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIPR, Molecular Devices). The pharmacological profile of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(7)) receptor was studied using the adapter G-proteins G(alpha16) and G(qs5) and compared to previously published adenylyl cyclase and receptor binding data. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably expressing the human 5-HT(7(a)) receptor were transiently transfected with the adapter G-proteins. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) were monitored using the fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator Fluo-4.5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) induced an increase in fluorescence in transfected cells only, which was attenuated by N-ethylmalaeimide and abolished by thapsigargin, consistent with a G-protein mediated mobilisation of intracellular Ca(2+). The pharmacological profile of agonists at the 5-HT(7) receptor was similar using either adapter G-protein. Agonist potency estimates were similar to that reported in binding studies but were greater than that seen in adenylyl cyclase studies. 8-Hydroxy-N, N-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and tryptamine acted as partial agonists using the adapter G-proteins, but were full agonists in recombinant systems using adenylyl cyclase. meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and trifluoro-methylphenyl piperazine (TFMPP) were antagonists on intracellular Ca(2+). Antagonist pharmacological profiles were similar between adapter G-proteins, receptor binding, and adenylyl cyclase studies. These results show that adapter G-proteins can be used to study G(s)-linked receptors using the high throughput FLIPR system measuring changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and provide novel information on mCPP and 8-OH-DPAT.

  16. Evolution of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing activity: therapy-associated decline, positive association with detectable viremia, and partial restoration of B-cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina B; Merino-Mansilla, Alberto; Llano, Anuska; Pérez, Ignacio; Crespo, Isabel; Llinas, Laia; Garcia, Felipe; Gatell, Jose M; Yuste, Eloisa; Sanchez-Merino, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the stability of HIV-1 cross-neutralizing responses. Taking into account the fact that neutralization breadth has been positively associated with plasma viral load, there is no explanation for the presence of broadly neutralizing responses in a group of patients on treatment with undetectable viremia. In addition, the B-cell profile responsible for broadly cross-neutralizing responses is unknown. Here we studied the evolution of neutralizing responses and the B-cell subpopulation distribution in a group of patients with broadly cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing activity. We studied neutralization breadth evolution in a group of six previously identified broadly cross-neutralizing patients and six control patients during a 6-year period with a previously described minipanel of recombinant viruses from five different subtypes. B-cell subpopulation distribution during the study was also determined by multiparametric flow cytometry. Broadly cross-neutralizing activity was transient in four broad cross-neutralizers and stable, up to 4.6 years, in the other two. In four out of five broad cross-neutralizers who initiated treatment, a neutralization breadth loss occurred after viremia had been suppressed for as much as 20 months. B-cell subpopulation analyses revealed a significant increase in the frequency of naive B cells in broadly cross-reactive samples, compared with samples with less neutralization breadth (increased from 44% to 62%). We also observed a significant decrease in tissue-like and activated memory B cells (decreased from 19% to 12% and from 17% to 9%, respectively). Our data suggest that HIV-1 broadly cross-neutralizing activity is variable over time and associated with detectable viremia and partial B-cell restoration.

  17. Structure-activity relationship of the pro- and anticoagulant effects of Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Till, S; Jiang, C; Knappe, S; Reutterer, S; Scheiflinger, F; Szabo, C M; Dockal, M

    2014-03-03

    Fucoidan is a highly complex sulfated polysaccharide commonly extracted from brown seaweed. In addition to their many biological activities, fucoidans have recently been demonstrated to inhibit or increase coagulation at different concentration ranges. Their structural features, i.e. molecular weight (Mw), Mw distribution, degree of sulfation, monosaccharide composition, and different linkages, are known to affect these activities. Therefore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of fucoidan is crucial for its potential use as a procoagulant. In this study, Fucus vesiculosus (F.v.) fucoidan was fractionated by charge and size as well as over- and desulfated to different degrees to yield preparations with various structural properties. The fractions' pro- and anticoagulant activities were assessed by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) and activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) assays. Binding to and inhibition of the anticoagulant protein tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and the ability to activate coagulation via the contact pathway were also investigated. This paper discusses the impact of charge density, size, and sugar composition on fucoidan's pro- and anticoagulant activities. Fucoidan requires a minimal charge density of 0.5 sulfates per sugar unit and a size of 70 sugar units to demonstrate desired procoagulant activities for improvement of haemostasis in factor VIII/factor IX-deficient plasma.

  18. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-06-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the K i values of 1.02 ± 0.06 and 5.05 ± 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.74 ± 0.41 nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.0 ± 6.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10 mg kg(-1), dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10 mg kg(-1)) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2 weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression.

  19. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR, a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained

  20. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    interpret the concentration of OH- to be influenced by water activity within the rocks, and temperature. Our results confirm that oxy-biotite is a non-negligible component, but in the case of prograde metamorphism we do not interpret this as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange only, but also as the consequence of a decrease in water activity due to partial melting. Bauer, K. K., & Vennemann, T. W. (2014). Analytical methods for the measurement of hydrogen isotope composition and water content in clay minerals by TC/EA. Chemical Geology, 363(C), 229-240. Cesare, B., Satish-Kumar, M., Cruciani, G., Pocker, S., & Nodari, L. (2008). Mineral chemistry of Ti-rich biotite from pegmatite and metapelitic granulites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt (southeast India): Petrology and further insight into titanium substitutions. American Mineralogist, 93(2-3), 327-338. Floess, D., & Baumgartner, L. (2013). Formation of garnet clusters during polyphase metamorphism. Terra Nova, 25(2), 144-150. Munoz, J. L. (1984). F-OH and Cl-OH Exchange in Micas with Applications to Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 13, 469-493.

  1. Partial agonist properties of the antipsychotics SSR181507, aripiprazole and bifeprunox at dopamine D2 receptors: G protein activation and prolactin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosi, Cristina; Carilla-Durand, Elisabeth; Assié, Marie Bernadette; Ormiere, Anne Marie; Maraval, Mireille; Leduc, Nathalie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-03-27

    Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists induce hyperprolactinemia depending on the extent of D2 receptor blockade. We compared the effects of the new antipsychotic agents SSR181507 ((3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2 s)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine monohydrochloride), bifeprunox (DU127090: 1-(2-Oxo-benzoxazolin-7-yl)-4-(3-biphenyl)methylpiperazinemesylate) and SLV313 (1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine) with those of aripiprazole (7-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-butyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2(1 H)-quinolinone), clozapine and haloperidol, on functional measures of dopamine D2 receptor activity in vitro and in vivo: [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membranes from Sf9 insect cells expressing human dopamine D2 Long (hD2 L) receptors, and serum prolactin levels in the rat. All compounds antagonized apomorphine-induced G protein activation at dopamine hD2 L receptors. Antagonist potencies of aripiprazole, bifeprunox and SLV313 were similar to haloperidol (pK(b) = 9.12), whereas SSR181507 (8.16) and clozapine (7.35) were less potent. Haloperidol, SLV313 and clozapine were silent antagonists but SSR181507, bifeprunox and aripiprazole stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding by 17.5%, 26.3% and 25.6%, respectively, relative to 100 microM apomorphine (Emax = 100%). pEC50s were: SSR181507, 8.08; bifeprunox, 8.97; aripiprazole, 8.56. These effects were antagonized by raclopride. Following oral administration in vivo, the drugs increased prolactin release to different extents. SLV313 and haloperidol potently (ED50 0.12 and 0.22 mg/kg p.o., respectively) stimulated prolactin release up to 86 and 83 ng/ml. Aripiprazole potently (ED50 0.66 mg/kg p.o.) but partially (32 ng/ml) induced prolactin release. SSR181507 (ED50 4.9 mg/kg p.o.) also partially (23 ng/ml) enhanced prolactin release. Bifeprunox only weakly increased prolactin at high doses (13 ng/ml at 40 mg/kg) and clozapine only

  2. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  3. Reversing Antisense Oligonucleotide Activity with a Sense Oligonucleotide Antidote: Proof of Concept Targeting Prothrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jeff R; Zhao, Chenguang; Zhang, Hong; MacLeod, A Robert; Guo, Shuling; Monia, Brett P

    2015-12-01

    The tissue half-life of second-generation antisense oligonucleotide drugs (ASOs) is generally longer than traditional small molecule therapeutics. Thus, a strategy to reverse the activity of antisense drugs is warranted in certain settings. In this study, we describe a strategy employing the administration of a complementary sense oligonucleotide antidote (SOA). As a model system we have chosen to target the coagulation factor and antithrombotic drug target, prothrombin, to assess the feasibility of this approach. ASO targeting mouse prothrombin specifically suppressed >90% hepatic prothrombin mRNA levels and circulating prothrombin protein in mice. These effects were dose- and time-dependent, and as expected produced predictable increases in anticoagulation activity [prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time (PT/aPTT)]. Treatment with prothrombin SOAs resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of ASO activity, as measured by a return in prothrombin mRNA levels and thrombin activity, and normalization of aPTT and PT. The antithrombotic activity of prothrombin ASOs was demonstrated in a FeCl3-induced thrombosis mouse model, and as predicted for this target, the doses required for antithrombotic activity were also associated with increased bleeding. Treatment with SOA was able to prevent prothrombin ASO-induced bleeding in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate for the first time the utility of SOAs to selectively and specifically reverse the intracellular effects of an antisense therapy.

  4. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  5. Early Activation of MAPK p44/42 Is Partially Involved in DON-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier Function and Tight Junction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springler, Alexandra; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the plant pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, is one of the most common mycotoxins, contaminating cereal and cereal-derived products. Although worldwide contamination of food and feed poses health threats to humans and animals, pigs are particularly susceptible to this mycotoxin. DON derivatives, such as deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), are produced by bacterial transformation of certain intestinal bacteria, which are naturally occurring or applied as feed additives. Intestinal epithelial cells are the initial barrier against these food- and feed-borne toxins. The present study confirms DON-induced activation of MAPK p44/42 and inhibition of p44/42 by MAPK-inhibitor U0126 monoethanolate. Influence of DON and DOM-1 on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), viability and expression of seven tight junction proteins (TJ), as well as the potential of U0126 to counteract DON-induced effects, was assessed. While DOM-1 showed no effect, DON significantly reduced TEER of differentiated IPEC-J2 and decreased expression of claudin-1 and -3, while leaving claudin-4; ZO-1, -2, and -3 and occludin unaffected. Inhibition of p44/42 counteracted DON-induced TEER decrease and restored claudin-3, but not claudin-1 expression. Therefore, effects of DON on TEER and claudin-3 are at least partially p44/42 mediated, while effects on viability and claudin-1 are likely mediated via alternative pathways. PMID:27618100

  6. Effect of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderer, P; Saletu, B; Pascual-Marqui, R D

    2000-12-04

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of 20 mg buspirone - a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist - on regional electrical generators within the human brain were investigated utilizing three-dimensional EEG tomography. Nineteen-channel vigilance-controlled EEG recordings were carried out in 20 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after drug intake. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA; Key Institute for Brain-Mind Research, software: http://www.keyinst.unizh.ch) was computed from spectrally analyzed EEG data, and differences between drug- and placebo-induced changes were displayed as statistical parametric maps. Data were registered to the Talairach-Tournoux human brain atlas available as a digitized MRI (McConnell Brain Imaging Centre: http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca). At the pharmacodynamic peak (1st hour), buspirone increased theta and decreased fast alpha and beta sources. Areas of theta increase were mainly the left temporo-occipito-parietal and left prefrontal cortices, which is consistent with PET studies on buspirone-induced decreases in regional cerebral blood flow and fenfluramine-induced serotonin activation demonstrated by changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism. In later hours (8th hour) with lower buspirone plasma levels, delta, theta, slow alpha and fast beta decreased, predominantly in the prefrontal and anterior limbic lobe. Whereas the results of the 1st hour speak for a slight CNS sedation (more in the sense of relaxation), those obtained in the 8th hour indicate activation. Thus, LORETA may provide useful and direct information on drug-induced changes in central nervous system function in man.

  7. Improvements of anticoagulant activities of silk fibroin films with fucoidan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fucoidan (FC),an effective anticoagulant constituent extracted from brown algae,was introduced into silk fibroin (SF) for improving its blood compatibility.The SF and SF/FC blend films were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic contact angle determinator (CA).The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the films were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) measurements.The endothelial cell attachment and proliferation viability on the film were assessed by micropipette aspiration technique and MTT assay,respectively.The testing results indicated that the introduction of FC increased the roughness,hydrophilicity and sulfate component of the film surface without impeding the formation of β-sheet conformation in SF.More important,FC brought excellent anticoagulant activity and better endothelial cell affinity to SF.The SF/FC blend film was hopeful to be used as blood-contacting biomaterials.

  8. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  9. Protamine sulfate down-regulates thrombin generation by inhibiting factor V activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Ainle, Fionnuala

    2009-08-20

    Protamine sulfate is a positively charged polypeptide widely used to reverse heparin-induced anticoagulation. Paradoxically, prospective randomized trials have shown that protamine administration for heparin neutralization is associated with increased bleeding, particularly after cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The molecular mechanism(s) through which protamine mediates this anticoagulant effect has not been defined. In vivo administration of pharmacologic doses of protamine to BALB\\/c mice significantly reduced plasma thrombin generation and prolonged tail-bleeding time (from 120 to 199 seconds). Similarly, in pooled normal human plasma, protamine caused significant dose-dependent prolongations of both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Protamine also markedly attenuated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation in human plasma, causing a significant decrease in endogenous thrombin potential (41% +\\/- 7%). As expected, low-dose protamine effectively reversed the anticoagulant activity of unfractionated heparin in plasma. However, elevated protamine concentrations were associated with progressive dose-dependent reduction in thrombin generation. To assess the mechanism by which protamine mediates down-regulation of thrombin generation, the effect of protamine on factor V activation was assessed. Protamine was found to significantly reduce the rate of factor V activation by both thrombin and factor Xa. Protamine mediates its anticoagulant activity in plasma by down-regulation of thrombin generation via a novel mechanism, specifically inhibition of factor V activation.

  10. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  11. Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Özden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with renal tumors <7 cm and those at risk for a significant loss of renal function should be managed with a partial nephrectomy if it is technically feasible. Partial nephrectomy (PN results in similar oncologic outcomes with radical nephrectomy. With advent of the technology and increase utilization of laparoscopic surgery, laparoscopic approach is considered as one of the option for partial nephrectomy. However laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is technically very difficult procedure and should be performed only by physicians with extensive experience using this approach. In this section, we aimed to present the technical steps of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

  12. Anticoagulant Activity of Polyphenolic-Polysaccharides Isolated from Melastoma malabathricum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Teng Khoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a perennial traditional medicine plants that grows abundantly throughout Asian countries. In this study, M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract with anticoagulant activity was purified through solid phase extraction cartridge and examined for the bioactive chemical constituents on blood coagulation reaction. The SPE purified fractions were, respectively, designated as F1, F2, F3, and F4, and each was subjected to the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT anticoagulant assay. Active anticoagulant fractions (F1, F2, and F3 were subjected to chemical characterisation evaluation. Besides, neutral sugar for carbohydrate part was also examined. F1, F2, and F3 were found to significantly prolong the anticoagulant activities in the following order, F1>F2>F3, in a dose dependent manner. In addition, carbohydrate, hexuronic acid, and polyphenolic moiety were measured for the active anticoagulant fractions (F1, F2, and F3. The characterisation of chemical constituents revealed that all these three fractions contained acidic polysaccharides (rhamnogalacturonan, homogalacturonan, and rhamnose hexose-pectic type polysaccharide and polyphenolics. Hence, it was concluded that the presence of high hexuronic acids and polysaccharides, as well as polyphenolics in traditional medicinal plant, M. malabathricum, played a role in prolonging blood clotting in the intrinsic pathway.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activities and chemical analysis of sulfated chitosan from Sepia prashadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-06-01

    The chitin and chitosan of S. prashadi was prepared through demineralization, deproteinzation, deacetylation process and sulfation were carried by chlorosulfonic acid in N,N-dimethylformamide. The sulfate content in chitosan was found to be 18.9%. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen composition of the sulfated chitosan were recorded 39.09%, 6.95% and 6.58% respectively. The structural analysis was done by using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy technique. The DSC curves of sulfated chitosan showed a large endothermic peak resolved with To value of 54.57°C and TP value of 97.46°C. The morphology of sulfated chitin and sulfated chitosan were studied by SEM. The Further in vitro antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan was screened by scavenging activity of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, metal-ion chelating effect and reducing power. Its anticoagulant activity was tested for human plasma with respect to Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT). Results prove that sulfated chitosan has potent antioxidant and anticoagulant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Ameliorates Bladder Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction by Inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 is known to play a pivotal role in a diverse range of biological systems including modulation of fibrosis in several organs. The precise role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in the progression of bladder fibrosis secondary to partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO is yet to be conclusively. Using a rat PBOO model, we investigated TGF-β1 expression and exaimined whether sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS could inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation and ameliorate bladder fibrosis. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 16, PBOO operation without STS treatment group (n = 16 and PBOO operation with STS treatment group (n = 16. Thirty-two rats underwent the operative procedure to create PBOO and subsequently received intraperitoneal injections of STS (10 mg/kg/d; n = 16 or vehicle (n = 16 two days after the surgery. Sham surgery was conducted on 16 rats, which received intraperitoneal vehicle injection two days later. In each of the three groups, an equal number of rats were sacrificed at weeks 4 and 8 after the PBOO or sham operation. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was analyzed using western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to draw statistical inferences. At 4 and 8 weeks, the expression of TGF-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 in STS-treated PBOO rats was significantly lower than in the PBOO rats not treated with STS. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression at 4 and 8 weeks post PBOO was lower in STS-treated PBOO rats when compared to that in PBOO rats not treated with STS. Our findings indicate that STS ameliorates bladder fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation, and may prove to be a potential therapeutic measure for preventing bladder fibrosis secondary to PBOO

  15. Biological and Biochemical Potential of Sea Snake Venom and Characterization of Phospholipase A2 and Anticoagulation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotharan, Palani; Veeruraj, Anguchamy; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2016-03-01

    This study is designed to isolate and purify a novel anti-clotting protein component from the venom of Enhydrina schistosa, and explore its biochemical and biological activities. The active protein was purified from the venom of E. schistosa by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. The venom protein was tested by various parameters such as, proteolytic, haemolytic, phospholipase and anti-coagulant activities. 80 % purity was obtained in the final stage of purification and the purity level of venom was revealed as a single protein band of about 44 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The results showed that the Potent hemolytic activity was observed against cow, goat, chicken and human (A, B and O positive) erythrocytes. Furthermore, the clotting assays showed that the venom of E. schistosa significantly prolonged in activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and prothrombin time. Venomous enzymes which hydrolyzed casein and gelatin substrate were found in this venom protein. Gelatinolytic activity was optimal at pH 5-9 and (1)H NMR analysis of purified venom was the base line information for the structural determination. These results suggested that the E. schistosa venom holds good promise for the development of novel lead compounds for pharmacological applications in near future.

  16. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  17. Green synthesis and nanotopography of heparin-reduced gold nanoparticles with enhanced anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jun, Sang Hui; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the green synthesis of heparin-reduced gold nanoparticles and their nanotopography as studied with atomic force microscopy. The study also evaluated the anticoagulant activity of the newly prepared gold nanoparticles. The heparin-reduced gold nanoparticles were homogeneous, showing characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands of approximately 523-527 nm, and their shapes were mostly spherical and amorphous. The average diameter of the nanoparticles measured from atomic force microscopic images was either 20.26 +/- 3.35 nm or 40.85 +/- 8.95 nm depending on the different precursor salts and heparin concentrations. Atomic force microscopic images revealed that the topography of the heparin polymer aggregated when deposited onto mica, resembling a chain of mountains. This characteristic nanotopography of the heparin disappeared after the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was performed. Interestingly, prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time were observed in the heparin-reduced gold nanoparticles when compared to a control heparin, suggesting the enhancement of anticoagulant activity in heparin-reduced gold nanoparticles. Hence, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles with heparin using a simple reaction step could be a viable procedure for enhancing heparin's anticoagulant activity.

  18. Effects of fused hirudin on activity of thrombin and function of platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Li; CHEN Shao-ping; CAI Zai-long; YANG Sheng-sheng; QIN Yong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether fused hirudin peptide has both antithrombin and antiplatelet functions. Methods: The core region of fused hirudin was the C-terminal tail of hirudin(hirudin53-64),which could bind to the anion binding exosite (ABE) of thrombin.Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe(RPPGF) amino acid sequence,a metabolite of bradykinin,was added to the N-terminus of hirudin53-64.It bound to the active site of thrombin.Additionally,Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)amino acid sequence,an inibitor of glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa( GP Ⅱb/Ⅲa) receptor,was linked to C-terminus of hirudin53-64.This 26-animo acid-fused hirudin peptide was artificially synthesized,purified and analysed. Results: Fused hirudin peptide significantly lengthened the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT),thrombin time(TT)and prothrombin time(PT) and inhibited the amidolytic activity of thrombin.The ADP-induced platelet aggregation was markedly inhibited by fused hirudin peptide. Conclusion: Fused hirudin peptide has activity of antithrombin as well as antiplatelet.Therefore bifunctional anticoagulation peptide has capacity to target various components of haemostatic process and may become more powerful antithrombosis agent.

  19. Partial least square and k-nearest neighbor algorithms for improved 3D quantitative spectral data-activity relationship consensus modeling of acute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova-Slavova, Iva B; Slavov, Svetoslav H; Pearce, Bruce; Buzatu, Dan A; Beger, Richard D; Wilkes, Jon G

    2014-06-01

    A diverse set of 154 chemicals that included US Food and Drug Administration-regulated compounds tested for their aquatic toxicity in Daphnia magna were modeled by a 3-dimensional quantitative spectral data-activity relationship (3D-QSDAR). Two distinct algorithms, partial least squares (PLS) and Tanimoto similarity-based k-nearest neighbors (KNN), were used to process bin occupancy descriptor matrices obtained after tessellation of the 3D-QSDAR space into regularly sized bins. The performance of models utilizing bins ranging in size from 2 ppm × 2 ppm × 0.5 Å to 20 ppm × 20 ppm × 2.5 Å was explored. Rigorous quality-control criteria were imposed: 1) 100 randomized 20% hold-out test sets were generated and the average R(2) test of the respective models was used as a measure of their performance, and 2) a Y-scrambling procedure was used to identify chance correlations. A consensus between the best-performing composite PLS model using 0.5 Å × 14 ppm × 14 ppm bins and 10 latent variables (average R(2) test  = 0.770) and the best composite KNN model using 0.5 Å × 8 ppm × 8 ppm and 2 neighbors (average R(2) test  = 0.801) offered an improvement of about 7.5% (R(2) test consensus  = 0.845). Projection of the most frequently occurring bins on the standard coordinate space indicated that the presence of a primary or secondary amino group-substituted aromatic systems-would result in an increased toxic effect in Daphnia. The presence of a second aromatic ring with highly electronegative substituents 5 Å to 7 Å apart from the first ring would lead to a further increase in toxicity. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Impact of partial versus whole breast radiation therapy on fatigue, perceived stress, quality of life and natural killer cell activity in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This pilot study used a prospective longitudinal design to compare the effect of adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT versus partial breast radiation therapy (PBRT on fatigue, perceived stress, quality of life and natural killer cell activity (NKCA in women receiving radiation after breast cancer surgery. Methods Women (N = 30 with early-stage breast cancer received either PBRT, Mammosite brachytherapy at dose of 34 Gy 10 fractions/5 days, (N = 15 or WBRT, 3-D conformal techniques at dose of 50 Gy +10 Gy Boost/30 fractions, (N = 15. Treatment was determined by the attending oncologist after discussion with the patient and the choice was based on tumor stage and clinical need. Women were assessed prior to initiation of radiation therapy and twice after completion of radiation therapy. At each assessment, blood was obtained for determination of NKCA and the following instruments were administered: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM was used to evaluate group differences in initial outcomes and change in outcomes over time. Results Fatigue (FACT-F levels, which were similar prior to radiation therapy, demonstrated a significant difference in trajectory. Women who received PBRT reported progressively lower fatigue; conversely fatigue worsened over time for women who received WBRT. No difference in perceived stress was observed between women who received PBRT or WBRT. Both groups of women reported similar levels of quality of life (FACT-G prior to initiation of radiation therapy. However, HLM analysis revealed significant group differences in the trajectory of quality of life, such that women receiving PBRT exhibited a linear increase in quality of life over time after completion of radiation therapy; whereas women receiving WBRT showed a decreasing

  1. Activation of O2 and CH4 on yttrium-stabilized zircoma for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Ommen, van Jan G.; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.; Lefferts, Leon

    2005-01-01

    The isotopic exchange reaction on ZrO2 and yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) during catalytic partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (CPOM) was studied with transient pulse experiments. The results reveal, surprisingly, that CPOM over both oxides proceeds via a Mars¿van Krevelen mechanism. Despit

  2. Heterofucans from Dictyota menstrualis have anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, I R L; Queiroz, K C S; Alves, L G; Santos, E A; Leite, E L; Rocha, H A O

    2004-02-01

    Fucan is a term used to denote a family of sulfated L-fucose-rich polysaccharides which are present in the extracellular matrix of brown seaweed and in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. Plant fucans have several biological activities, including anticoagulant and antithrombotic, related to the structural and chemical composition of polysaccharides. We have extracted sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyota menstrualis by proteolytic digestion, followed by separation into 5 fractions by sequential acetone precipitation. Gel electrophoresis using 0.05 M 1,3-diaminopropane-acetate buffer, pH 9.0, stained with 0.1% toluidine blue, showed the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in all fractions. The chemical analyses demonstrated that all fractions are composed mainly of fucose, xylose, galactose, uronic acid, and sulfate. The anticoagulant activity of these heterofucans was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using citrate normal human plasma. Only the fucans F1.0v and F1.5v showed anticoagulant activity. To prolong the coagulation time to double the baseline value in the APTT, the required concentration of fucan F1.0v (20 g/ml) was only 4.88-fold higher than that of the low molecular weight heparin Clexane (4.1 g/ml), whereas 80 g/ml fucan 1.5 was needed to obtain the same effect. For both fucans this effect was abolished by desulfation. These polymers are composed of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate at molar ratios of 1.0:0.8:0.7:0.8:0.4 and 1.0:0.3:0.4:1.5:1.3, respectively. This is the fist report indicating the presence of a heterofucan with higher anticoagulant activity from brown seaweed.

  3. Heterofucans from Dictyota menstrualis have anticoagulant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R.L. Albuquerque

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term used to denote a family of sulfated L-fucose-rich polysaccharides which are present in the extracellular matrix of brown seaweed and in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. Plant fucans have several biological activities, including anticoagulant and antithrombotic, related to the structural and chemical composition of polysaccharides. We have extracted sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyota menstrualis by proteolytic digestion, followed by separation into 5 fractions by sequential acetone precipitation. Gel electrophoresis using 0.05 M 1,3-diaminopropane-acetate buffer, pH 9.0, stained with 0.1% toluidine blue, showed the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in all fractions. The chemical analyses demonstrated that all fractions are composed mainly of fucose, xylose, galactose, uronic acid, and sulfate. The anticoagulant activity of these heterofucans was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using citrate normal human plasma. Only the fucans F1.0v and F1.5v showed anticoagulant activity. To prolong the coagulation time to double the baseline value in the APTT, the required concentration of fucan F1.0v (20 µg/ml was only 4.88-fold higher than that of the low molecular weight heparin Clexane® (4.1 µg/ml, whereas 80 µg/ml fucan 1.5 was needed to obtain the same effect. For both fucans this effect was abolished by desulfation. These polymers are composed of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate at molar ratios of 1.0:0.8:0.7:0.8:0.4 and 1.0:0.3:0.4:1.5:1.3, respectively. This is the fist report indicating the presence of a heterofucan with higher anticoagulant activity from brown seaweed.

  4. VaSP1, catalytically active serine proteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom with unconventional active site triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtović, Tihana; Brgles, Marija; Leonardi, Adrijana; Lang Balija, Maja; Sajevic, Tamara; Križaj, Igor; Allmaier, Günter; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Halassy, Beata

    2014-01-01

    VaSP1, a serine proteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom, is a glycosylated monomer of 31.5 kDa, as determined by MALDI mass spectrometry, showing multiple isoelectric points between pH 6.5 and pH 8.5. Partial amino acid sequencing of VaSP1 by Edman degradation and MS/MS analysis identified sequences which allowed its classification among the so-called snake venom serine proteinase homologues, members of the peptidase S1 family, however being devoid of the canonical catalytic triad. Only few representatives of this group have been identified so far with just two of them characterised in detail at the protein level. Despite substitution of His57 with Arg, VaSP1 possesses proteolytic activity which can be inhibited by Pefabloc, benzamidine, Zn²⁺ ions, DTT and trypsin inhibitor II, a Kunitz/BPTI group member. It hydrolyses N(α)-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-NA, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten behaviour with K(m) = 48.2 μM and V(m) = 0.019 nM s⁻¹. The pH for optimal activity on tested substrate is around 9.0. VaSP1 also cleaves insulin B-chain, digesting it at positions His¹⁰-Leu¹¹, Ala¹⁴-Leu¹⁵ and Tyr¹⁶-Leu¹⁷. Furthermore, the novel serine proteinase is active towards wide array of proteins involved in haemostasis where its degradation of fibrinogen, fibrin, prothrombin, factor X and plasminogen in vivo probably results in depletion of coagulation factors in blood circulation. The possibility that VaSP1 possesses anticoagulant properties has been further indicated by its ability to prolong prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depolymerization of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate with a Modified Fenton-System and Anticoagulant Activity of the Resulting Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-hui; Li, Shan; Zhi, Zi-jian; Yan, Lu-feng; Ye, Xing-qian; Ding, Tian; Yan, Lei; Linhardt, Robert John; Chen, Shi-guo

    2016-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) with a chondroitin sulfate type E (CSE) backbone and 2,4-O-sulfo fucose branches has shown excellent anticoagulant activity although has also show severe adverse effects. Depolymerization represents an effective method to diminish this polysaccharide’s side effects. The present study reports a modified controlled Fenton system for degradation of fCS-Ib and the anticoagulant activity of the resulting fragments. Monosaccharides and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the resulting fragments indicate that no significant chemical changes in the backbone of fCS-Ib and no loss of sulfate groups take place during depolymerization. A reduction in the molecular weight of fCS-Ib should result in a dramatic decrease in prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. A decrease in the inhibition of thrombin (FIIa) by antithromin III (AT III) and heparin cofactor II (HCII), and the slight decrease of the inhibition of factor X activity, results in a significant increase of anti-factor Xa (FXa)/anti-FIIa activity ratio. The modified free-radical depolymerization method enables preparation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides suitable for investigation of clinical anticoagulant application. PMID:27657094

  6. The Partial Fuzzy Set

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Pranita Goswami

    2011-01-01

    The Partial Fuzzy Set is a portion of the Fuzzy Set which is again a Fuzzy Set. In the Partial Fuzzy Set the baseline is shifted from 0 to 1 to any of its α cuts . In this paper we have fuzzified a portion of the Fuzzy Set by transformation

  7. A Pepducin Derived from the Third Intracellular Loop of FPR2 Is a Partial Agonist for Direct Activation of This Receptor in Neutrophils But a Full Agonist for Cross-Talk Triggered Reactivation of FPR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H...... desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve...... cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy), meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells...

  8. The effect of dabigatran on the kaolin-activated whole blood thromboelastogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Aho, A; Byrne, K

    2016-11-01

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor, which is increasingly likely to be encountered in patients presenting for surgery. This study examines whether there is a consistent effect of dabigatran on the thromboelastogram (TEG) and whether this correlates with the effects of dabigatran on traditional coagulation parameters. Twenty patients taking dabigatran had blood sampled for kaolin-activated whole blood TEG analysis and routine coagulation testing. There was a statistically significant correlation between thrombin clotting time (TCT) and R-time (R=0.77, P=0.0001) and between activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and R-time (R=0.68, P=0.0013), but not between TCT and alpha-angle (R= -0.4232, P=0.071). Despite the moderate to high correlation between the TEG R-time and the TCT and APTT, there appeared to be no consistent effect of dabigatran on the TEG. These findings suggest that use of kaolin-activated whole blood TEG does not add additional benefit to traditional coagulation tests when monitoring the effect of dabigatran.

  9. Structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from the green alga Codium divaricatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Mao, Wenjun; Yan, Mengxia; Liu, Xue; Xia, Zheng; Wang, Shuyao; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Chenglong; Zhang, Lifang; Cao, Sujian

    2015-05-05

    A sulfated polysaccharide, designated CP2-1, was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum by water extraction and purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. CP2-1 is a galactan which is highly sulfated and substituted with pyruvic acid ketals. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, the backbone of CP2-1 was mainly composed of (1→3)-β-d-galactopyranose residues, branched by single (1→)-β-d-galactopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was estimated to be about 12.2%. Sulfate groups were at C-4 of (1→3)-β-d-galactopyranose and C-6 of non-reducing terminal galactose residues. In addition, the ketals of pyruvic acid were found at 3,4- of non-reducing terminal galactose residues forming a five-membered ring. CP2-1 possessed a high anticoagulant activity as assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays. The investigation demonstrated that CP2-1 was an anticoagulant-active sulfated polysaccharide distinguishing from other sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae.

  10. Purification, characterization and in vitro anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weirong; Xu, Huiling; Xie, Liangliang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Taotao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Qinbao

    2016-04-20

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3) were obtained from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical characterizations were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Moreover, their in vitro anticoagulant activities were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. GSP-1 and GSP-2 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid, while GSP-3 consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8×10(4)Da. In comparison with the control group (saline), GSP, GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3 could prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. Overall, GSP-3 exhibited potent anticoagulant activity and would be expected to be a potential source of anticoagulant.

  11. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions.

  12. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  13. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  14. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  15. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  16. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  17. Developmental Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Duteil, Nastassia Pouradier; Rossi, Francesco; Boscain, Ugo; Piccoli, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of Developmental Partial Differential Equation (DPDE), which consists of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) on a time-varying manifold with complete coupling between the PDE and the manifold's evolution. In other words, the manifold's evolution depends on the solution to the PDE, and vice versa the differential operator of the PDE depends on the manifold's geometry. DPDE is used to study a diffusion equation with source on a growing surface whose gro...

  18. Absence of in vitro Procoagulant Activity in Immunoglobulin Preparations due to Activated Coagulation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Adriana E.; Bernardi, María E.; Guglielmone, Hugo A.; Vitali, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Immunoglobulin (IG) products, including intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulins are considered safe and effective for medical therapy; however, a sudden and unexpected increase in thromboembolic events (TE) after administration of certain batches of IVIG products has been attributed to the presence of activated coagulation factors, mainly factor XIa. Our aims were to examine the presence of enduring procoagulant activity during the manufacturing process of IGs, with special focus on monitoring factor XIa, and to evaluate the presence of in vitro procoagulant activity attributed to coagulation factors in different lots of IVIG and SCIG. Methods Samples of different steps of IG purification, 19 lots of IVIG and 9 of SCIG were analyzed and compared with 1 commercial preparation of IVIG and 2 of SCIG, respectively. Factors II, VII, IX, XI and XIa and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) were assayed. Results The levels of factors II, VII, IX, X and XI were non-quantifiable once fraction II had been re-dissolved and in all analyzed lots of IVIG and SCIG. The level of factor XIa at that point was under the detection limits of the assay, and NAPTT yielded values greater than the control during the purification process. In SCIG, we detected higher concentrations of factor XIa in the commercial products, which reached values up to 5 times higher than the average amounts found in the 9 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Factor XIa in commercial IVIG reached levels slightly higher than those of the 19 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Conclusion IVIG and SCIG manufactured by UNC-Hemoderivados showed a lack of thrombogenic potential, as demonstrated not only by the laboratory data obtained in this study but also by the absence of any reports of TE registered by the post marketing pharmacovigilance department. PMID:26733772

  19. Heterofucans from the brown seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with anticoagulant and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Fidelis, Gabriel Pereira; Nobre, Leonardo Thiago Duarte Barreto; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santana Santos Pereira; Alves, Luciana Guimaraes; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2011-01-24

    Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated l-fucose. We extracted six fucans from Canistrocarpus cervicornis by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. No polysaccharide was capable of prolonging prothrombin time (PT) at the concentration assayed. However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0) doubled aPTT with only 0.1 mg/mL of plasma, only 1.25-fold less than Clexane, a commercial low molecular weight heparin. Heterofucans exhibited total antioxidant capacity, low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, good superoxide radical scavenging efficiency (except CC-1.0), and excellent ferrous chelating ability (except CC-0.3). These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of C. cervicornis polysaccharides as anticoagulants and antioxidants. Further purification steps and additional studies on structural features as well as in vivo experiments are needed to test the viability of their use as therapeutic agents.

  20. Heterofucans from the Brown Seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. We extracted six fucans from Canistrocarpus cervicornis by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. No polysaccharide was capable of prolonging prothrombin time (PT at the concentration assayed. However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT. Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0 doubled aPTT with only 0.1 mg/mL of plasma, only 1.25-fold less than Clexane®, a commercial low molecular weight heparin. Heterofucans exhibited total antioxidant capacity, low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, good superoxide radical scavenging efficiency (except CC-1.0, and excellent ferrous chelating ability (except CC-0.3. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of C. cervicornis polysaccharides as anticoagulants and antioxidants. Further purification steps and additional studies on structural features as well as in vivo experiments are needed to test the viability of their use as therapeutic agents.

  1. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate certain molecular characteristics of a sulfated polysaccharide (SPs with anticoagulant properties, isolated from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyta. Crude SPs were extracted by proteolytic digestion (papain, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column. The fractions obtained were analyzed for molecular mass, 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and chemical composition. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test was applied using normal human plasma and standard heparin (HEP (193 IU mg-1. The yield was ~ 3%, and the chromatography procedure separated the material into three different SP fractions (F I, F II and F III, eluted at the concentrations of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively. Only fraction F II was active (24.62 IU mg-1, with high sulfate content (23.79% and number of molecular mass peaks. Therefore, the APTT of a fraction isolated from C. cupressoides was less potent than HEP.

  2. Sulfation modification and anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharides obtained from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyun; Mo, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Yali

    2012-12-01

    The optimal conditions for sulfation of polysaccharides from persimmon fruits (PFP) with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method were determined by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time) on the degree of substitution (DS), molecular weight (MW) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of sulfated polysaccharides (PFP-S). The APTT activity of PFP-S could be improved by application of various volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time, which was possible due to the degradation of polysaccharides to different extent and increasing of DS. The optimal conditions to obtain the strongest APTT of PFP-S were the volume ratio of CSA to Pyr of 1:8, the volume ratio of SO(3)Pyr to PFP of 1:3.6 and the reaction time of 3 h, respectively.

  3. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu

    2015-04-01

    Barite (BaSO4) is well-known from deep-sea sedimentary environments but has received less attention to its presence in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Recently, barite in ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite has drawn increasing attention from geologists, especially in the Dabie-Sulu orogen, since it is an important indicator for high-salinity fluid events, thus aiding in further understanding HP-UHP fluid / melt evolution. However, its formation time and mechanism in UHP eclogite are still controversial, with three representative viewpoints: (1) Liu et al. (2000) found barite-anhydrite-coesite inclusions in zircon and interpreted them to have formed by UHP metamorphic fluids; (2) Zeng et al. (2007) recognized isolated barite within K-feldspar (Kfs) and Quartz (Qz) surrounded by radial cracks in omphacite, and interpreted Kfs+Qz to be reaction products of potassium-rich fluid/melt and coesite, with the barite formed by prograde metamorphic fluids; (3) Gao et al. (2012) and Chen et al. (2014) found barite-bearing Multiphase Solid (MS) inclusions within garnet and omphacite and assumed that the barite formed by phengite breakdown possibly caused by eclogite partial melting during exhumation, though no direct evidence were proposed. The controversy above is mainly due to the lack of direct formation evidence and absence of a clear link with the metamorphic evolution of UHP eclogite along the subduction-exhumation path. We report detailed petrological and micro-structural analyses revealing four types of barites clearly linked with (1) the prograde, (2) earlier stage of partial melting and (3) later stage of crystallization differentiation, as well as (4) high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression of a deeply subducted and partially melted intergranular coesite-bearing eclogite from Yangkou Bay, Sulu Orogen. Round barite inclusions (type-I) within UHP-stage garnet and omphacite are formed by internally buffered fluids from mineral dehydration during prograde metamorphism

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  5. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  6. Isolation, purification, and characterization of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome and their blood-anticoagulant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Yokoyama, G; Dobashi, K; Fujihara, M; Nagumo, T

    1989-02-15

    A sulfated polysaccharide fraction, obtained from the hot-water extract of the brown seaweed, Ecklonia kurome by removing laminaran and the major part of alginic acid, gave sulfated polysaccharides (B-I, B-II, C-I, and C-II) by both anion-exchange chromatography on a column of Ecteola-cellulose and by fractional precipitation with ethanol containing 0.3% calcium acetate, and then by gel-filtration chromatography on a Sepharose 4B column. B-I and B-II are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, glucuronic acid, and ester sulfate in the approximate molar ratios of 1.00:0.36:0.48:1.08:1.85:2.35 and 1.00:0.81:0.18:0.45:0.61:2.00, respectively. C-I and C-II are composed of fucose, galactose, glucuronic acid, and ester sulfate in approximate molar ratios of 1.00:0.03:0.03:1.61 and 1.00:0.19:0.07:1.48, respectively. Blood-anticoagulant activities with respect to activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were approximately 24, 19, 81, and 85% of that of heparin for B-I, B-II, C-I, and C-II, respectively. All the polysaccharides showed slight antithrombin activity. No antifactor Xa activity was observed for any of the polysaccharides.

  7. Partial characterization and response under hyperregulating conditions of Na+-K+ ATPase and levamisole-sensitive alkaline phosphatase activities in chela muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Andrea Pinoni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, characteristics and response to changes in environmental salinity of Na+-K+ ATPase and levamisole-sensitive alkaline phosphatase (AP activities were studied in chela muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus. Chela muscle exhibited an Na+-K+ ATPase activity which was strongly dependent on ATP concentration, pH and temperature of the reaction mixture. Maximal activity was found at 1 mM ATP, 30-37°C and pH 7.4. Levamisole-sensitive AP activity was characterised at physiological pH 7.4 and at pH 8.0. I50 for levamisole-sensitive AP activity was 8.8 mM and 8.0 mM at pH 7.4 and 8.0, respectively. At both pH levels, levamisole-sensitive AP activity exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km=3.451 mM and 6.906 mM at pH 7.4 and 8.0, respectively. Levamisole-sensitive AP activities were strongly affected by temperature, exhibiting a peak at 37ºC. In crabs acclimated to low salinity (10; hyperegulating conditions, Na+-K+ ATPase activity and levamisole-sensitive AP activity at the physiological pH were higher than in 35 psu (osmoconforming conditions. The response to low salinity suggests that both activities could be components of muscle regulatory mechanisms at the biochemical level secondary to hyperegulation of C. angulatus. The study of these activities under hyperegulating conditions contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of biochemical mechanisms underlying the adaptive process of euryhaline crabs.

  8. Partially decomposed PVP as a surface modification of ZnO, CdO, ZnS and CdS nanostructures for enhanced stability and catalytic activity towards sulphamethoxazole degradation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAHER DARWISH; ALI MOHAMMADI; NAVID ASSI

    2017-06-01

    In order to prepare stable and efficient photocatalysts, a microwave-furnace-assisted method using ethylene glycol (EG) as a solvent has been employed to obtain metal oxides and metal sulphides nanocatalysts with partial decompositionof the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) cap (P-ZnO, P-CdO, P-ZnS and P-CdS); this associates the protective functionality of PVP with enhanced catalytic activity due to effective carriers transfer. The as-produced catalysts characterization revealed an extended growth of metal oxides compared with metal sulphides, which is attributed to the competition of EG as the source of oxygen with PVP to capsulate metal oxides during the synthesis. Infrared spectra confirmed the PVP–metal complexation and partial decomposition of the polymer. Metal sulphides exhibited a better catalytic activity compared with metal oxides for sulphamethoxazole degradation in UVC light owing to their size and morphology impact; further, P-CdS induced 71% antibiotic degradation after 10 h of illumination with visible light compared with only 48% for P-ZnS, 29% for P-ZdO and 20% for P-CdO due to improved light absorption. Interestingly, around 86% degradation was induced by mixing P-CdS with P-ZnS in 80:20% ratio, indicating an enhanced visible light activity due to improved electron–hole pair separation and high redox potential of P-ZnS.

  9. Intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch with partial coverage of the toroidal surface by a discrete active coil array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    An active feedback system is required for long pulse operation of the reversed field pinch (RFP) device to suppress resistive wall modes (RWMs). A general feature of a feedback system using a discrete active coil array is a coupling effect which arises when a set of side band modes determined by the number of active coils is produced. Recent results obtained on the EXTRAP T2R RFP demonstrated the suppression of independent m = 1 RWMs using an active feedback system with a two-dimensional array of discrete active coils in the poloidal and toroidal directions. One of the feedback algorithms used is the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Active feedback systems having different number of active coils in the poloidal (Mc) and toroidal (Nc) directions (Mc × Nc = 2 × 32 and Mc × Nc = 4 × 16) are studied. Different side band effects are seen for these configurations. A significant prolongation of the plasma discharge is achieved for the intelligent shell feedback scheme using the 2 × 32 active coil configuration. This is attributed to the side band sets including only one of the dominant unstable RWMs and avoiding coupling to resonant modes. Analog proportional-integral-derivative controllers are used in the feedback system. Regimes with different values of the proportional gain are studied. The requirement of the proportional-integral control for low proportional gain and proportional-derivative control for high proportional gain is seen in the experiments.

  10. Improved Prefrontal Activity and Chewing Performance as Function of Wearing Denture in Partially Edentulous Elderly Individuals: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of wearing a denture on prefrontal activity during chewing performance. We specifically examined that activity in 12 elderly edentulous subjects [63.1±6.1 years old (mean ± SD)] and 12 young healthy controls (22.1±2.3 years old) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in order to evaluate the quality of prefrontal functionality during chewing performance under the conditions of wearing a denture and tooth loss, and then compared the findings with those of young healthy controls. fNIRS and electromyography were used simultaneously to detect prefrontal and masticatory muscle activities during chewing, while occlusal force and masticatory score were also examined by use of a food intake questionnaire. A significant increase in prefrontal activity was observed during chewing while wearing a denture, which was accompanied by increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the tooth loss condition. Prefrontal activation during chewing while wearing a denture in the elderly subjects was not much different from that in the young controls. In contrast, tooth loss in the elderly group resulted in marked prefrontal deactivation, accompanied by decreased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the young controls. We concluded that intrinsic prefrontal activation during chewing with a denture may prevent prefrontal depression induced by tooth loss in elderly edentulous patients. PMID:27362255

  11. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  12. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  13. Partial Ileal Bypass Undone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Schouten, J.A.; Hoitsma, H.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Partial ileal bypass (PIB) for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia was introduced 20 years ago. About 110 cases have been described. We know of only 1 case of restoration of intestinal continuity; no details were given. We report here the second case of PIB in the Netherlands; the operation was r

  14. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  15. Analysis of two drying methods on the yield and activity of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Halymenia sp. (Rhodophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.6961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have attracted growing interest for various biotechnological applications. We evaluated the efficiency of two methods of drying SPs (M I and II extracted from Halymenia sp Rhodophyceae in order to compare the yield, purification and anticoagulant activity. The total SPs (TSPs were first extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing cysteine and EDTA (5 mM. The TSPs obtained were dried in an oven (M I or lyophilized (M II and then examined by ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose using the NaCl gradient technique. The fractions were analyzed by 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and the in vitro anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time test using normal human plasma and compared to heparin (HEP (193.00 IU mg-1. There was a difference in TSP yield of 19.05% and similar chromatographic SP profiles. Electrophoresis revealed fractions with distinct resolutions. The fractions eluted with 0.75 M of salt (M I and II were the most active, measuring 27.40 and 72.66 IU mg-1, respectively, when compared to HEP. Therefore, obtaining SP with anticoagulant activity from Halymenia sp. is more efficient by freeze-drying. 

  16. Short-term and long-term effects of Zn (II) on the microbial activity and sludge property of partial nitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Nan; Zheng, Kaiwei; Wang, Lina; Han, Guanglu; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2017-03-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal was an innovative and economical nitrogen removal technology with less oxygen and no organics consumption, in which partial nitrification (PN) is the key component. It is necessary to clear the impact of metal ions on PN since the development of industry increased their opportunity for entering into wastewater. In this study, PN process was successfully started-up in an SBR, the short-term and long-term effects of Zn (II) on microbial bioactivity and the sludge adsorption ability for Zn (II) were investigated. Results suggested that low Zn (II) were favorable for AOB bioactivity, while the long-term effect also induced NOB bioactivity. The suppression threshold of Zn (II) on AOB in short-term effect was 10mgL(-1), which rose to 50mgL(-1) in the long-term effect due to the self-adaption. The PN sludge presented prominent absorbability for zinc and performed a quadratic relation with the Zn (II) concentration.

  17. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek [Math Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A{sub 5} sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E{sub 8}.

  18. Impact of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on primary nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuezhong; Wang, Chao; Tu, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four guanosines (4G)/five guanosines (5G) polymorphism in the gene coding for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) affects the clinical features of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). A cohort of 200 biopsy-diagnosed PNS patients was studied, with 40 healthy subjects as controls. The PAI-1 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Associations between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and clinical features and pathological types of PNS were analyzed. The results indicated that the PAI-1 genotype distribution is significantly different between patients with PNS and healthy controls, with significantly higher numbers of the 4G/4G genotype and lower numbers of the 5G5G genotype detected in PNS patients compared to controls (both P5G genotypes, as well as of the 4G allele. The increased 4G frequency was also detected in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). Significantly increased international normalized ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were observed in 4G/4G compared to 5G/5G PNS subjects. The response to steroids was not significantly different among the three genotypes. In conclusion, the 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene appears to be associated with PNS, especially in MN and IgAN patients. These findings suggest that specific targeting may be required for the treatment of PNS patients with the 4G/4G genotype.

  19. A New Route of Fucoidan Immobilization on Low Density Polyethylene and Its Blood Compatibility and Anticoagulation Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ozaltin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside biomaterials’ bulk properties, their surface properties are equally important to control interfacial biocompatibility. However, due to the inadequate interaction with tissue, they may cause foreign body reaction. Moreover, surface induced thrombosis can occur when biomaterials are used for blood containing applications. Surface modification of the biomaterials can bring enhanced surface properties in biomedical applications. Sulfated polysaccharide coatings can be used to avoid surface induced thrombosis which may cause vascular occlusion (blocking the blood flow by blood clot, which results in serious health problems. Naturally occurring heparin is one of the sulfated polysaccharides most commonly used as an anticoagulant, but its long term usage causes hemorrhage. Marine sourced sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan is an alternative anticoagulant without the hemorrhage drawback. Heparin and fucoidan immobilization onto a low density polyethylene surface after functionalization by plasma has been studied. Surface energy was demonstrated by water contact angle test and chemical characterizations were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface morphology was monitored by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Finally, their anticoagulation activity was examined for prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thrombin time (TT.

  20. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Yun; Wu, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine ( L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  1. Evaluation of 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 as Prognostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gondek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In carcinoma of prostate, a causative role of platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 for tumor progression has been firmly established in tumor and/or adjacent tissue. Our goal was to investigate if 12-LOX and/or PAI-1 in patient’s plasma could be used to predict outcome of the disease. The study comprised 149 patients (age 70±9 divided into two groups: a study group with carcinoma confirmed by positive biopsy of prostate (n=116 and a reference group (n=33 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The following parameters were determined by the laboratory test in plasma or platelet-rich plasma: protein level of 12-LOX, PAI-1, thromboglobulin (TGB, prostate specific antigen (PSA, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT, as well as red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, number of platelets (PLT, international normalized ratio of blood clotting (INR, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The only difference of significance was noticed in the concentration of 12-LOX in platelet rich plasma, which was lower in cancer than in BPH group. Standardization to TGB and platelet count increases the sensitivity of the test that might be used as a biomarker to assess risk for prostate cancer in periodically monitored patients.

  2. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yun, E-mail: liuy@tgrc.org [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang Yun [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu Feng [Research Centre of Blood, College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  3. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  4. A New Route of Fucoidan Immobilization on Low Density Polyethylene and Its Blood Compatibility and Anticoagulation Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaltin, Kadir; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolíček, Petr; Pelková, Jana; Sáha, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Beside biomaterials’ bulk properties, their surface properties are equally important to control interfacial biocompatibility. However, due to the inadequate interaction with tissue, they may cause foreign body reaction. Moreover, surface induced thrombosis can occur when biomaterials are used for blood containing applications. Surface modification of the biomaterials can bring enhanced surface properties in biomedical applications. Sulfated polysaccharide coatings can be used to avoid surface induced thrombosis which may cause vascular occlusion (blocking the blood flow by blood clot), which results in serious health problems. Naturally occurring heparin is one of the sulfated polysaccharides most commonly used as an anticoagulant, but its long term usage causes hemorrhage. Marine sourced sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan is an alternative anticoagulant without the hemorrhage drawback. Heparin and fucoidan immobilization onto a low density polyethylene surface after functionalization by plasma has been studied. Surface energy was demonstrated by water contact angle test and chemical characterizations were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface morphology was monitored by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Finally, their anticoagulation activity was examined for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin time (TT). PMID:27294915

  5. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  6. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia Rashid; Malik Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.

  7. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0: 1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC 50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  8. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-07-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0:1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  9. Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Rashid; Malik; Irshadullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms,Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus,and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.Methods:The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.Results:The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites.The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden.Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity(P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products.The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack.SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential.One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could

  10. N-acetylcysteine inhibits activation of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 gene expression in the liver and lung after partial hepatic ischemia-reper fusion injur y in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Jin; Lin Wang; He-Shui Wu; Lei Zhang; Chun-You Wang; Yuan Tian; Jing-Hui Zhang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2/4) may play important roles in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can prevent the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by I/R injury. This study aimed to investigate the changes in TLR2/4 gene expression in the liver and lung after I/R injury with or without NAC pretreatment. METHODS:BALB/c mice were used in a model of partial hepatic I/R injury and randomly assigned to a sham-operated control group (SH), a hepatic ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R) or a NAC pretreated, hepatic I/R group (I/R-NAC). The levels of TNF-α in the portal vein and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured at 1 and 3 hours after reperfusion. The lung wet-to-dry ratio was measured, and the expression of TLR2/4 mRNA and protein in the liver and lung were assessed with RT-PCR and Western blotting at the same time points. RESULTS: Compared with the I/R group, the expression of TLR2/4 mRNA and protein in the liver and lung in the I/R-NAC group was decreased at the same time point (P CONCLUSIONS:TLR2/4 was activated in the liver and lung in the process of partial hepatic I/R injury. NAC inhibited the activation of TLR2/4 and the induction of TNF-αresulting from I/R injury via modulating the redox state, thus it may mitigate liver and lung injury following partial hepatic I/R in mice.

  11. Purification and Partial Characterization of Trypsin-Specific Proteinase Inhibitors from Pigeonpea Wild Relative Cajanus platycarpus L.(Fabaceae active against Gut Proteases of Lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marri Swathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProteinase inhibitors (PIs are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63 were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63 and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6-58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs. The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6 of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs. Further, modification of lysine residue(s lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus.

  12. Evaluation of the partial volume effect in the activity quantification in PET/CT images; Avaliacao do efeito de volume parcial na quantificacao de atividade em imagens de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempser, Alexandre R., E-mail: krempser@peb.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Sergio A. de [Hospital Samaritano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Imagens PET/CT

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of partial volume effect (PVE) in the quantification of activity in images of a PET-CT scanner and its ability to identify lesions. Recovery coefficients were calculated using a phantom containing 12 cylinders with diameters between 4 and 30 mm and a National Electrical Manufactures Association scattering phantom, both fillable with known concentrations of {sup 18}F. The images were acquired for acquisition time of 3 and 5 minutes, and cylinder to background ratio of n=8:1 and n=4:1. The recovery coefficients were calculated between 0.01 and 0.91 depending on the diameter. Significant variations were not found in function of image acquisition parameters. Errors in the activity quantification above 70% were found for cylinders with diameters smaller than 10 mm. The cylinders with diameters smaller than 8 mm were not identified in the images. The phantoms were adequate for PVE evaluation in the PET/CT images. The PVE had the greatest impact on the cylinders with diameters of 6 and 4 mm. It's necessary to use partial volume correction techniques in the images in order to increase the quantitative accuracy of the studied equipment. (author)

  13. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  14. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Couprie, M-E

    2015-03-06

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  15. Partially predictable chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Wernecke, Hendrik; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    For a chaotic system pairs of initially close-by trajectories become eventually fully uncorrelated on the attracting set. This process of decorrelation is split into an initial decrease characterized by the maximal Lyapunov exponent and a subsequent diffusive process on the chaotic attractor causing the final loss of predictability. The time scales of both processes can be either of the same or of very different orders of magnitude. In the latter case the two trajectories linger within a finite but small distance (with respect to the overall size of the attractor) for exceedingly long times and therefore remain partially predictable. We introduce a 0-1 indicator for chaos capable of describing this scenario, arguing, in addition, that the chaotic closed braids found close to a period-doubling transition are generically partially predictable.

  16. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of IDAA1c and age on partial C-peptide remission (stimulated C-peptide, SCP > 300 pmol/L). RESULTS: PR (IDAA1c ≤ 9) in the Danish and Hvidoere cohorts occurred in 62 vs. 61% (3 months......OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  17. Chemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Two Sulfated Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha linza(Chlorophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaohui; MAO Wenjun; CHEN Yin; CHEN Yanli; ZHAO Chunqi; LI Na; WANG Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    Two sulfated polysaccharides,designated MP and SP,were extracted from the marine green alga Enteromorpha linza using hot water and then purified using ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography.The anticoagulant activities of MP and SP were examined by determination of their activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) using human plasma.Results showed that MP and SP were composed of abundant rhamnose with small amounts of xylose and glucuronic acid,whereas SP also contained a small amount of galactose.Approximate molecular weights of MP and SP were 535 and 502kDa,respectively.As compared with SP,MP had higher contents of sulfate ester (19.0%) and uronic acid (14.9%).The MP mainly consisted of (1→4)-linked rhamnose residues with partially sulfated groups at the C-3 position,and small amounts of (1→3,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→2,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→4)-linked glucuronic acid and (1→4)-linked xylose residues.The SP contained abundant (1→4)-linked rhamnose with minor amounts of (1→3)-linked rhamnose,(1→3,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→2,4)-linked rhamnose,(1→4)-linked glucuronic acid,(1→4)-linked xylose,and (1→3)-linked galactose residues.The sulfate groups were mainly located at C-3 of (1→4)-linked rhamnose residues.Both MP and SP,in particular the former,effectively prolonged APTT and TT.This work demonstrates that MP and SP have unique structural characteristics distinct from those of other sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha.The MP is a potential source of anticoagulant,and the difference in anticoagulant activities of the two sulfated polysaccharides is directly linked to the discrepancy of their chemical features.

  18. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rambir Singh; Shariq Hussain; Rajesh Verma; Poonam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urticadioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Results: Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μg/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacteriumsemegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. Conclusions: C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.

  19. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Roethlisberger, David; Denker, Marcus; Tanter, Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, called unanticipated partial behavioral reflection, which is particularly well-suited for unanticipated adaptation of real-world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated reflection, i.e., ...

  20. Renormalizing Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Bricmont, J.; Kupiainen, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this review paper, we explain how to apply Renormalization Group ideas to the analysis of the long-time asymptotics of solutions of partial differential equations. We illustrate the method on several examples of nonlinear parabolic equations. We discuss many applications, including the stability of profiles and fronts in the Ginzburg-Landau equation, anomalous scaling laws in reaction-diffusion equations, and the shape of a solution near a blow-up point.

  1. Arithmetic partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Buium, Alexandru; Simanca, Santiago R.

    2006-01-01

    We develop an arithmetic analogue of linear partial differential equations in two independent ``space-time'' variables. The spatial derivative is a Fermat quotient operator, while the time derivative is the usual derivation. This allows us to ``flow'' integers or, more generally, points on algebraic groups with coordinates in rings with arithmetic flavor. In particular, we show that elliptic curves have certain canonical ``flows'' on them that are the arithmetic analogues of the heat and wave...

  2. Purification, amino-acid sequence and partial characterization of two toxins with anti-insect activity from the venom of the South American scorpion Tityus bahiensis (Buthidae).

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    We report here the isolation by a two-step chromatographic procedure of two new toxins from the South American scorpion Tityus bahiensis. Their amino-acid sequences and some of their biological features were established. The two toxins have different biological properties. Toxin TbIT-I had almost no activity or pharmacological effects in vertebrate tissues whereas it was lethal to house ¯ies (LD50 80.0 ng/house ¯y). In contrast, Tb2-II was active against both mammals (intracerebroventricular ...

  3. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity; Substituicao parcial do cimento Portland por residuo de ceramica vermelha em argamassas: estudo da atividade pozolonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l., E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  4. Anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides fractions from an aqueous extract obtained from the red seaweed Halymenia floresia (Clemente C. Agardh - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.9143

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparin (HEP is known due to their side effects and the red seaweed Halymenia floresia (Hf sulfated polysaccharides (SP are heparinoids. In this study we purified the Hf-SP obtained from an aqueous extract and evaluated their anticoagulant activities. Hf-SP1 (25°C, Hf-SP2 (80°C and Hf-SP3 (80°C were sequentially isolated. Hf-SP3 had the highest sulfate content (37.45%. Hf-SP3 was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. Fractions were lyophilized and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time using rabbits plasma and expressed in international units per mg of SP using standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic procedure separated into four different SP fractions (F I, F II, F III and F IV eluted at concentrations of 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 M of NaCl, respectively, reveling among them different marked on charge density, when compared by electrophoresis. F III had the highest anticoagulant activity (10.72 IU mg-1, suggesting that the sulfate is important in this process. In conclusion, our results suggest that sequential extractions of Hf-SP are an important biotechnological tool for identification of novel anticoagulants and studies of structural characterization are already in progress.

  5. A Maximum Likelihood Estimator of a Markov Model for Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis for Annually Aggregated Partial Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Persson, U.; Jess, T.;

    2010-01-01

    Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, during 1991 to 1993. The data were aggregated over calendar years; for each year, the number of relapses and the number of surgical operations were recorded. Our aim was to estimate Markov models for disease activity in CD and UC, in terms of relapse and remission...

  6. Enhanced catalytic performance of zeolite ZSM-5 for conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether by combining alkaline treatment and partial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Ying; de Jongh, Petra E.; Bonati, Matteo L. M.; Law, David J.; Sunley, Glenn J.; de Jong, Krijn P.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite ZSM-5 (MFI) due to its excellent hydrothermal stability and high catalytic activity for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (MID) has been considered for use in combination with a methanol synthesis catalyst, such as Cu/ZnO/Al2O3, in the conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether. However, th

  7. Enhanced catalytic performance of zeolite ZSM-5 for conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether by combining alkaline treatment and partial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Ying; de Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; Bonati, Matteo L. M.; Law, David J.; Sunley, Glenn J.; de Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite ZSM-5 (MFI) due to its excellent hydrothermal stability and high catalytic activity for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (MID) has been considered for use in combination with a methanol synthesis catalyst, such as Cu/ZnO/Al2O3, in the conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether. However,

  8. Dexamethasone partially rescues ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia by promoting a shortened protein variant retaining kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotta, Michele; Biagiotti, Sara; Bianchi, Marzia; Chessa, Luciana; Magnani, Mauro

    2012-11-30

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare genetic disease, still incurable, resulting from biallelic mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene. Recently, short term treatment with glucocorticoid analogues improved neurological symptoms characteristic of this syndrome. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism involved in glucocorticoid action in AT patients is not yet known. Here we describe, for the first time in mammalian cells, a short direct repeat-mediated noncanonical splicing event induced by dexamethasone, which leads to the skipping of mutations upstream of nucleotide residue 8450 of ATM coding sequence. The resulting transcript provides an alternative ORF translated in a new ATM variant with the complete kinase domain. This miniATM variant was also highlighted in lymphoblastoid cell lines from AT patients and was shown to be likely active. In conclusion, dexamethasone treatment may partly restore ATM activity in ataxia telangiectasia cells by a new molecular mechanism that overcomes most of the mutations so far described within this gene.

  9. Purification, amino-acid sequence and partial characterization of two toxins with anti-insect activity from the venom of the South American scorpion Tityus bahiensis (Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, A M; Martin-Eauclaire, M; Rochat, H; Figueiredo, S G; Kalapothakis, E; Afonso, L C; De Lima, M E

    2001-07-01

    We report here the isolation by a two-step chromatographic procedure of two new toxins from the South American scorpion Tityus bahiensis. Their amino-acid sequences and some of their biological features were established. The two toxins have different biological properties. Toxin TbIT-I had almost no activity or pharmacological effects in vertebrate tissues whereas it was lethal to house flies (LD50 80.0 ng/house fly). In contrast, Tb2-II was active against both mammals (intracerebroventricular injection of 100 ng/mouse was lethal) and insects (LD50 40.0 ng/house fly). The amino-acid sequences of these toxins were established and found to be similar (60-95%) to previously described beta-toxins from the Tityus genus. Based on the available comparative information, this study attempts identify possible structure-function relationships that may be responsible for the differences in bioactivity displayed by these toxins.

  10. A Maximum Likelihood Estimator of a Markov Model for Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis for Annually Aggregated Partial Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Persson, U.; Jess, T.;

    2010-01-01

    Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, during 1991 to 1993. The data were aggregated over calendar years; for each year, the number of relapses and the number of surgical operations were recorded. Our aim was to estimate Markov models for disease activity in CD and UC, in terms of relapse and remission...... data and has good face validity. The disease activity model is less suitable for UC due to its transient nature through the presence of curative surgery......, with a cycle length of 1 month. The purpose of these models was to enable evaluation of interventions that would shorten relapses or postpone future relapses. An exact maximum likelihood estimator was developed that disaggregates the yearly observations into monthly transition probabilities between remission...

  11. A Maximum Likelihood Estimator of a Markov Model for Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis for Annually Aggregated Partial Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Persson, U.; Jess, T.

    2010-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases that have a remitting, relapsing nature. During relapse, they are treated with drugs and surgery. The present study was based on individual data from patients diagnosed with CD or UC at Herlev University Hosp...... data and has good face validity. The disease activity model is less suitable for UC due to its transient nature through the presence of curative surgery...

  12. Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Glowinski, Roland

    2008-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...

  13. Sulforaphane Ameliorates Bladder Dysfunction through Activation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway in a Rat Model of Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We evaluated the effect of sulforaphane (SFN treatment on the function and changes of expression of Nrf2-ARE pathway in the bladder of rats with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. Materials and Methods. A total of 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats at age of 8 weeks were divided into 3 groups (6 of each: the sham operated group, the BOO group, and the BOO+SFN group. We examined histological alterations and the changes of oxidative stress markers and the protein expression of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Results. We found that SFN treatment could prolong micturition interval and increase bladder capacity and bladder compliance. However, the peak voiding pressure was lower than BOO group. SFN treatment can ameliorate the increase of collagen fibers induced by obstruction. SFN treatment also increased the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT compared to the other groups. The level of bladder cell apoptosis was decreased in BOO rats with SFN treatment. Moreover, SFN could reduce the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, SFN could activate the Nrf2 expression with elevation of its target antioxidant proteins. Conclusions. The sulforaphane-mediated decrease of oxidative stress and activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway may ameliorate bladder dysfunction caused by bladder outlet obstruction.

  14. Progressive decline in tacrolimus clearance after renal transplantation is partially explained by decreasing CYP3A4 activity and increasing haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Hylke; Vanhove, Thomas; de Loor, Henriëtte; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2015-09-01

    The long-term disposition of tacrolimus following kidney transplantation is characterized by a gradual decrease in dose requirements and increase in dose-corrected exposure. This phenomenon has been attributed to a progressive decline in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity, although this has never been demonstrated in vivo. Sixty-five tacrolimus- and 10 cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients underwent pharmacokinetic testing at day 7 and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 after transplantation, including 8-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tacrolimus or cyclosporine and assessment of CYP3A4 activity using oral and intravenous midazolam (MDZ) drug probes. Tacrolimus clearance decreased gradually throughout the entire first year but only in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous recipients (25.6 ± 11.1 l h(-1) at day 7; 17 ± 9.1 l h(-1) at month 12; P Cyclosporine clearance did not change over time. The maturation of tacrolimus disposition in the first year after renal transplantation observed in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous patients can partly be explained by a (steroid tapering-related) decline in CYP3A4 activity and a progressive increase in haematocrit. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. The occurrence of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a 200,000 m(3)/day partial nitration and Anammox activated sludge process at the Changi water reclamation plant, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yeshi; Kwok, Bee Hong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Png, Hui Yi; Long, Wah Yuen; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya A B D

    2017-02-01

    Mainstream partial nitritation and Anammox (PN/A) has been observed and studied in the step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi water reclamation plant (WRP), which is the largest WRP (800,000 m(3)/d) in Singapore. This paper presents the study results for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) co-existing with PN/A in the activated sludge process. Both the in-situ EBPR efficiency and ex-situ activities of phosphorus release and uptake were high. The phosphorus accumulating organisms were dominant, with little presence of glycogen accumulating organisms in the activated sludge. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance illustrated that the carbon usage for EBPR was the same as that for heterotrophic denitrification, owing to autotrophic PN/A conversions. This much lower carbon demand for nitrogen removal, compared to conventional biological nitrogen removal, made effective EBPR possible. This paper demonstrated for the first time the effective EBPR co-existence with PN/A in the mainstream in a large full-scale activated sludge process, and the feasibility to accommodate EBPR into the mainstream PN/A process. It also shows EBPR can work under warm climates.

  16. Partial Splenic Artery Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Shadmani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Hypersplenism often accompanies chronic liver disease and splenomegaly is one of the four cardinal signs of hypersplenism, the other three being cytopenia, normal or hyperplastic bone marrow and response splenectomy. Surgical splenectomy is the traditional treatment."nIn the recent years, partial splenic embolization has been widely used in patients with hypersplenism and cirrhosis.This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of partial splenic embolization using PVA (poly vinyl alcohol and steel coil in the management of hypersplenism."nPatients and Methods: Between Aban 1387 and Aban 1388, ten patients with hypersplenism related hematologic abnormalities (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, variceal hemorrhage or other sequels underwent partial splenic embolization with PVA and coil. A comparison between pre-procedure and post-procedure lab data, endoscopy and splenic volumetery was done."nResults: All patients showed dramatic improvement in platelet and leukocyte counts. Platelet and leukocyte counts remained at an appropriate level during the follow up period. In one patient after one year progressive decline in the platelet count was noted, however the values remained significantly higher than before PSE (70000 vs 15000."nAlmost all patients had problems related to post embolization syndrome. In one patient severe pain was noted that lasted nearly ten days, in the other patients, pain was less severe. No significant complication (splenic abscess, pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis developed in this study."nConclusion: The efficacy of PSE observed in our study confirms the results of previous studies in pa-tients with hypersplenism. This safe, fast method can be used bridging therapy for cirrhotic patients waiting for liver transplantation. Hematological response is related to the extension of embolization.

  17. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  18. Partial Dynamical Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2010-01-01

    This overview focuses on the notion of partial dynamical symmetry (PDS), for which a prescribed symmetry is obeyed by a subset of solvable eigenstates, but is not shared by the Hamiltonian. General algorithms are presented to identify interactions, of a given order, with such intermediate-symmetry structure. Explicit bosonic and fermionic Hamiltonians with PDS are constructed in the framework of models based on spectrum generating algebras. PDSs of various types are shown to be relevant to nuclear spectroscopy, quantum phase transitions and systems with mixed chaotic and regular dynamics.

  19. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This three-part treatment of partial differential equations focuses on elliptic and evolution equations. Largely self-contained, it concludes with a series of independent topics directly related to the methods and results of the preceding sections that helps introduce readers to advanced topics for further study. Geared toward graduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for mathematicians and mathematical theorists.Starting with the theory of elliptic equations and the solution of the Dirichlet problem, the text develops the theory of we

  20. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  1. Paschen is Partially Back

    CERN Document Server

    Stift, M J

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  2. Paschen is Partially Back

    OpenAIRE

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB reg...

  3. Paschen is partially Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-04-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden "ghost lines" appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeI λ6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  4. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  5. Neurotoxicity, anticoagulant activity and evidence of rhabdomyolysis in patients bitten by death adders (Acanthophis sp.) in southern Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, D G; Trevett, A J; Black, J; Mapao, J; Saweri, A; Naraqi, S; Owens, D; Kamiguti, A S; Hutton, R A; Theakston, R D; Warrell, D A

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with enzyme-immunoassay-proven death adder (Acanthophis sp.) bites were studied in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Eighteen were envenomed; local signs were rare and none had incoagulable blood, but all except one had signs of neurotoxicity. Five (27.7%) envenomed patients required intubation and ventilation. One patient developed renal failure, previously undescribed following death adder bites. Laboratory investigations showed mild prolongation of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times in some patients. In vitro studies showed that the venom contains anticoagulant activity, but does not cause fibrinogenolysis. In contrast to taipan envenoming, neurotoxicity did not progress after antivenom administration, and there was reversal of neurotoxicity, evident within 6 h, in three severely envenomed patients treated less than 12 h after the bite. One patient treated with antivenom and anticholinesterases had the most dramatic response to treatment; the optimum management of bites by this species may include prompt treatment with both antivenom and anticholinesterases in addition to effective first aid.

  6. Expression, purification, and partial in vitro characterization of biologically active human coagulation factor VIII light chain (A3-C1-C2) in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A R, Sudheer Reddy; Satheeshkumar, Padikara Kutty; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2013-09-01

    Recombinant coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) expressed in mammalian expression systems is used extensively in the treatment of hemophilia A. It is reported that the heavy (A1-A2) and light chains (A3-C1-C2) of factor VIII purified from plasma regained the coagulation activity by dimerization in vitro. In this work, cDNA coding for the light chain of human coagulation factor VIII (FVIII-LC) was cloned into pPICZα-A expression vector downstream of alcohol oxidase promoter and α-mating signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to express the protein with a native N-terminus. The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris X-33, was transformed with this cassette, and transformants were selected for production of human factor VIII light chain into culture media. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of factor VIII light chain protein. The expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity using histidine ligand affinity chromatography (2.342 mg/L). The biological activity of FVIII-LC was confirmed by analyzing the interaction between FVIII-LC and phospholipid vesicles. The data presented here indicate the possibilities of exploring cost-effective systems to express complex proteins of therapeutic value.

  7. Treatment of Scrapie Pathogen 263K With Tetracycline Partially Abolishes Protease-resistant Activity in vitro and Reduces Infectivity in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-JUN GUO; DE-XIN WANG; XIAO-PING DONG; JUN HAN; HAI-LAN YAO; BAO-YUN ZHANG; JIAN-MEI GAO; JIN ZHANG; XIN-LI XIAO; XIAO-FAN WANG; WEI-QIN ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the possible effect of tetracycline on protease-resistant activity in vitro and infectivity in vivo of a scrapie strain 263K.Methods Scrapie pathogens were incubated with tetracycline at different concentrations for various periods of time and protease-resistant PrP signals were evaluated with proteinase K-treatment and Western blots.The preparations treated with tetracycline were intracerebrally inoculated into golden hamsters and typical TSE manifestations were noted.PrPSc in brain tissues of the infected animals was detected by PrP specific Western blot assays. Results Protease-resistant PrP was significantly reduced in or removed from the preparations treated with tetracycline in a dose-dependant manner.Compared with the control group after incubated for 53.75±0.50 days,the preparations treated with 5 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L tetracycline prolonged the incubation time of 61.5±1.73 and 59.5±0.58 days (P<0.05). Conclusion Treatment of scrapie pathogen 263K with tetracycline reduces or removes its protease-resistant activity in vitro.

  8. In silico validation and structure activity relationship study of a series of pyridine-3-carbohydrazide derivatives as potential anticonvulsants in generalized and partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Reema; Sara, Udai Vir Singh; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Stables, James; Jain, Jainendra

    2013-06-01

    A series of twelve compounds (Compounds RNH1-RNH12) of acid hydrazones of pyridine-3-carbohydrazide or nicotinic acid hydrazide was synthesized and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity by MES, scPTZ, minimal clonic seizure and corneal kindling seizure test. Neurotoxicity was also determined for these compounds by rotarod test. Results showed that halogen substitution at meta and para position of phenyl ring exhibited better protection than ortho substitution. Compounds RNH4 and RNH12, were found to be the active analogs displaying 6Hz ED50 of 75.4 and 14.77 mg/kg while the corresponding MES ED50 values were 113.4 and 29.3 mg/kg respectively. In addition, compound RNH12 also showed scPTZ ED50 of 54.2 mg/kg. In the series, compound RNH12 with trifluoromethoxy substituted phenyl ring was the most potent analog exhibiting protection in all four animal models of epilepsy. Molecular docking study has also shown significant binding interactions of these two compounds with 1OHV, 2A1H and 1PBQ receptors. Thus, N-[(meta or para halogen substituted) benzylidene] pyridine-3-carbohydrazides could be used as lead compounds in anticonvulsant drug design and discovery.

  9. Box-Behnken design for extraction optimization of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian Phormidium versicolor cyanobacteria (NCC 466): Partial characterization, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Frikha, Donyez; Athmouni, Khaled; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Kallel, Monem; Maalej, Sami; Zhou, John; Ayadi, Habib

    2017-06-09

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the aqueous extraction of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian cyanobacteria Phormidium versicolor (NCC 466). The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.56±0.92% were as follows: extraction temperature at 81.05°C, extraction time of 3.99h, and water to raw material ratio of 21.52mLg(-1). Crude Phormidium versicolor polysaccharides (CPv-PS) are found to be a hetero-sulfated-anionic polysaccharides that contained carbohydrate (79.37±1.58%), protein (0.45±0.11%), uronic acids (4.37±0.19%) and sulfate (6.83±0.28%). The carbohydrate fraction was composed of arabinose, xylose, ribose, rhamnose, N-acetyl glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid and saccharose with corresponding mole percentages of 2.41, 14.58, 2.18, 6.23, 7.04, 28.21, 26.04, 3.02, 0.86 and 5.07, respectively. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CPv-PS strongly scavenged radicals, prevented bleaching of β-carotene and reduced activity. Furthermore, the CPv-PS exhibited effective antimicrobial properties. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  11. Epidermal growth factor upregulates motility of Mat-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells partially via voltage-gated Na+ channel activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanning; Brackenbury, William J.; Onganer, Pinar U.; Montano, Ximena; Porter, Louise M.; Bates, Lucy F.; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether a functional relationship existed between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) upregulation, both associated with strongly metastatic prostate cancer cells. Incubation with EGF for 24 h more than doubled VGSC current density. Similar treatment with EGF significantly and dose-dependently enhanced the cells’ migration through Transwell filters. Both the patch clamp recordings and the migration assay suggested that endogenous EGF played a similar role. Importantly, co-application of EGF and tetrodotoxin, a highly selective VGSC blocker, abolished 65% of the potentiating effect of EGF. It is suggested that a significant portion of the EGF-induced enhancement of migration occurred via VGSC activity. PMID:17960590

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-aryl-piperidine derivatives as potent (partial) agonists for human histamine H3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Miki; Yokoyama, Fumikazu; Kakui, Nobukazu; Sato, Yasuo

    2010-07-15

    4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-1-aryl-piperazine and piperidine derivatives were designed and synthesized as candidate human histamine type 3 agonists. The piperazine derivatives were found to have low (or no) affinity for human histamine H3 receptor, whereas the piperidine derivatives showed moderate to high affinity, and their agonistic activity was greatly influenced by substituents on the aromatic ring. Among the piperidine-containing compounds, 17d and 17h were potent human histamine H3 receptor agonists with high selectivity over the closely related human H4 receptor. Our results indicate that appropriate conformational restriction, that is, by the piperidine spacer moiety, favors specific binding to the human histamine H3 receptor.

  13. Isolation and partial characterization of a pectic polysaccharide from the fruit pulp of Spondias cytherea and its effect on peritoneal macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomini, Marcello; Serrato, Rodrigo V; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Lopes, Luciana; Buchi, Dorly F; Gorin, Phillip A J

    2005-12-01

    The total carbohydrate content of the intact pulp of Spondias cytherea was 41%. Polysaccharides were obtained via hot aqueous extraction after defatting with organic solvents. The aqueous extract was treated with excess ethanol to form a precipitate, which was then solubilized in water. The material precipitated upon acidification when HCl was removed. The resulting supernatant fraction was submitted to freeze-thawing treatment yielding a soluble fraction (sFTS). This fraction had Ara, Rha, Gal and GalA in its structure as determined by GC-MS. 13C NMR analysis showed signals assigned to alpha-L-Araf, beta-D-Galp, alpha-D-GalpA and alpha-L-Rhap units, in addition to galacturonic acid units, which were present also as methyl ester. These results suggest a type I rhamnogalacturonan with arabinogalactan branches. Cell eliciting activity in a dose-depending pattern was observed in vitro on peritoneal macrophages treated with sFTS.

  14. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  15. Abnormalities in Dynamic Brain Activity Caused by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Are Partially Rescued by the Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptor Inverse Agonist SMM-189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; McAfee, Samuel S; Guley, Natalie M; Del Mar, Nobel; Bu, Wei; Heldt, Scott A; Honig, Marcia G; Moore, Bob M; Reiner, Anton; Heck, Detlef H

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model. We evaluated mPFC, hippocampus CA1, and primary somatosensory/visual cortical areas (S1/V1). Although mTBI did not alter the power of oscillations, it did cause increased coherence of θ (4-10 Hz) and β (10-30 Hz) oscillations within mPFC and S1/V1, reduced CA1 sharp-wave ripple (SWR)-evoked LFP activity in mPFC, downshifted SWR frequencies in CA1, and enhanced θ-γ phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) within mPFC. These abnormalities might be linked to the impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear seen after mTBI. Treatment with the cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 has been shown to mitigate functional deficits and neuronal injury after mTBI in mice. We found that SMM-189 also reversed most of the observed neurophysiological abnormalities. This neurophysiological rescue is likely to stem from the previously reported reduction in neuron loss and/or the preservation of neuronal function and connectivity resulting from SMM-189 treatment, which appears to stem from the biasing of microglia from the proinflammatory M1 state to the prohealing M2 state by SMM-189.

  16. Is Titan Partially Differentiated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent measurement of the gravity coefficients from the Radio Doppler data of the Cassini spacecraft has improved our knowledge of the interior structure of Titan (Rappaport et al. 2008 AGU, P21A-1343). The measured gravity field of Titan is dominated by near hydrostatic quadrupole components. We have used the measured gravitational coefficients, thermal models and the hydrostatic equilibrium theory to derive Titan's interior structure. The axial moment of inertia gives us an indication of the degree of the interior differentiation. The inferred axial moment of inertia, calculated using the quadrupole gravitational coefficients and the Radau-Darwin approximation, indicates that Titan is partially differentiated. If Titan is partially differentiated then the interior must avoid melting of the ice during its evolution. This suggests a relatively late formation of Titan to avoid the presence of short-lived radioisotopes (Al-26). This also suggests the onset of convection after accretion to efficiently remove the heat from the interior. The outer layer is likely composed mainly of water in solid phase. Thermal modeling indicates that water could be present also in liquid phase forming a subsurface ocean between an outer ice I shell and a high pressure ice layer. Acknowledgments: This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  18. Isolating Age-Group Differences in Working Memory Load-Related Neural Activity: Assessing the Contribution of Working Memory Capacity Using a Partial-Trial fMRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Rivera, Hannah G.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity have yielded mixed results. When present, age-group differences in working memory capacity are frequently proposed to underlie these neural effects. However, direct relationships between working memory capacity and working memory load-related activity have only been observed in younger adults. These relationships remain untested in healthy aging. Therefore, the present study examined patterns of working memory load-related activity in 22 younger and 20 older adults and assessed the contribution of working memory capacity to these load-related effects. Participants performed a partial-trial delayed response item recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, participants encoded either 2 or 6 letters, maintained them during a delay, and then indicated whether a probe was present in the memory set. Behavioral results revealed faster and more accurate responses to load 2 versus 6, with age-group differences in this load condition effect for the accuracy measure. Neuroimaging results revealed one region (medial superior frontal gyrus) that showed age-group differences in load-related activity during the retrieval period, with less (greater) neural activity for the low versus high load condition in younger (older) adults. Furthermore, for older adults, load-related activity did not vary as a function of working memory capacity. Thus, working memory-related activity varies with healthy aging, but these patterns are not due solely to working memory capacity. Neurocognitive aging theories that feature capacity will need to account for these results. PMID:23357076

  19. Intranasal exposure to amorphous nanosilica particles could activate intrinsic coagulation cascade and platelets in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials with particle sizes coagulation system. Methods We used nanosilica particles with diameters of 30, 70, or 100 nm (nSP30, nSP70, or nSP100 respectively), and conventional microscale silica particles with diameters of 300 or 1000 nm (mSP300 or mSP1000, respectively). BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to nSP30, nSP70, nSP100, mSP300, or mSP1000 at concentrations of 500 μg/mouse for 7 days. After 24 hours of last administration, we performed the in vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis, hematological examination and coagulation tests. Results In vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanosilica particles with a diameter coagulation tests showed that platelet counts decreased and that the activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged in nSP30 or nSP70-treated groups of mice, indicating that nanosilica particles might have activated a coagulation cascade. In addition, in in vitro activation tests of human plasma, nanosilica particles had greater potential than did conventional microscale silica particles to activate coagulation factor XII. In nanosilica-particle-treated groups, the levels of soluble CD40 ligand, and von Willebrand factor which are involved in stimulating platelets tended to slightly increase with decreasing particle size. Conclusions These results suggest that intranasally administered nanosilica particles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm could induce abnormal activation of the coagulation system through the activation of an intrinsic coagulation cascade. This study provides information to advance the development of safe and effective nanosilica particles. PMID:23958113

  20. A comparison of the biological activity of 2 formulations of enoxaparin in 12 healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vineeta; Madhu, Sirisha; Natarajan, Parthiban; Muniyandi, Ganesan; Jaiswal, Vijaya; Saxena, Renu

    2010-08-01

    India is one of the few countries where biosimilar enoxaparin is available for clinical use. Despite availability since past 4 to 5 years, there is a paucity of published literature regarding their biological activity. The aim of the current study is to compare the biological activity of an endogenously developed formulation of enoxaparin with the branded formulation. Twelve healthy male volunteers received 1 subcutaneous injection of 2 different formulations of enoxaparin in a randomized, open-label, balanced, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence, cross-over study. The test formulation was Injection Troynoxa (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/0.4 mL, Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India) and reference formulation was Injection Clexane (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/ 0.4 mL, Sanofi-Aventis, UK). The plasma anti-Xa activity and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were estimated on fully automated coagulometer predose and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours following dosing with 40 mg/0.4 mL of enoxaparin. The results of mixed model analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for estimating difference between least square means of test and reference formulations, at all time points, showed no significant differences in anti-Xa activity and plasma aPTT levels. Both formulations were well tolerated and there were no bleeding episodes. After a single-dose injection in healthy participants, anti-Xa activities of 2 formulations of LMWH enoxaparin were comparable. No significant difference was observed in the mean plasma aPTT. It remains to be seen whether the 2 formulations would show comparable clinical efficacy.

  1. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  2. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, William R; 10.4204/EPTCS.66.8

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  3. Double-diffusive natural convection of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-water nanofluid in an enclosure with partially active side walls using variable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arani, A. A. Abbasian; Kakoli, E.; Hajialigol, N. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Natural convection heat and mass transfer characteristics in a square enclosure using variable thermal conductivity and variable viscosity are numerically studied. The fluid in the enclosure is a water-based nanofluid containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The top and bottom horizontal walls are insulated, while a source (T{sub h}, C{sub h}) and a sink (T{sub c}, C{sub c}) are located at the vertical left and right walls as active parts, respectively, with T{sub h}>T{sub c} and C{sub h}>C{sub c}. The governing equations in the two-dimensional space are discretized using the control volume method. A proper upwinding scheme is employed to obtain stabilized solutions. The study has been carried out for the Rayleigh numbers of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6}, the buoyancy ratios of -5 ∼ 5, and different configurations of the source and sink. Results are presented in the form of the streamlines, isotherms and iso-concentraions as well as the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is observed that average Nusselt number is increased by adding the nanoparticles, while average Sherwood number is reduced. Moreover, both Nusselt and Sherwood number are increased as absolute value of the buoyancy ratio or Rayleigh number is increased.

  4. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F

    2016-07-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism.

  5. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  6. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  7. Phosphodiesterase 5a Inhibition with Adenoviral Short Hairpin RNA Benefits Infarcted Heart Partially through Activation of Akt Signaling Pathway and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhu Li

    Full Text Available Treatment with short hairpin RNA (shRNA interference therapy targeting phosphodiesterase 5a after myocardial infarction (MI has been shown to mitigate post-MI heart failure. We investigated the mechanisms that underpin the beneficial effects of PDE5a inhibition through shRNA on post-MI heart failure.An adenoviral vector with an shRNA sequence inserted was adopted for the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5a (Ad-shPDE5a in vivo and in vitro. Myocardial infarction (MI was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by left coronary artery ligation, and immediately after that, the Ad-shPDE5a was injected intramyocardially around the MI region and border areas.Four weeks post-MI, the Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice showed significant mitigation of the left ventricular (LV dilatation and dysfunction compared to control mice. Infarction size and fibrosis were also significantly reduced in Ad-shPDE5a-treated mice. Additionally, Ad-shPDE5a treatment decreased the MI-induced inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β1, which was confirmed in vitro in Ad-shPDE5a transfected myofibroblasts cultured under oxygen glucose deprivation. Finally, Ad-shPDE5a treatment was found to activate the myocardial Akt signaling pathway in both in vivo and in vitro experiments.These findings indicate that PDE5a inhibition by Ad-shPDE5a via the Akt signal pathway could be of significant value in the design of future therapeutics for post-MI heart failure.

  8. A pepducin derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2 is a partial agonist for direct activation of this receptor in neutrophils but a full agonist for cross-talk triggered reactivation of FPR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gabl

    Full Text Available We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1 from a desensitized (non-signaling state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323∶209, 2014. In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy, meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus.

  9. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  11. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  12. Partial model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1995-01-01

    A major obstacle in applying finite-state model checking to the verification of large systems is the combinatorial explosion of the state space arising when many loosely coupled parallel processes are considered. The problem also known as the state-explosion problem has been attacked from various...... sides. This paper presents a new approach based on partial model checking where parts of the concurrent system are gradually removed while transforming the specification accordingly. When the intermediate specifications constructed in this manner can be kept small, the state-explosion problem is avoided....... Experimental results with a prototype implemented in Standard ML, shows that for Milner's Scheduler-an often used benchmark-this approach improves on the published results on binary decision diagrams and is comparable to results obtained using generalized decision diagrams. Specifications are expressed...

  13. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  14. Propofol induces proliferation partially via downregulation of p53 protein and promotes migration via activation of the Nrf2 pathway in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Song, Linlin; Wang, Juan; Li, Di; Liu, Yanhong; Cui, Xiaoguang

    2017-02-01

    Antioxidants induce the proliferation of cancers by decreasing the expression of p53. Propofol, one of the most extensively used intravenous anesthetics, provides its antioxidative activity via activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway, but the mechanisms involved in the effects remain unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the function of p53 and Nrf2 in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 following treatment with propofol. The cells were treated with propofol (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) for 1, 4 and 12 h, and MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation, and a wound healing assay was used to evaluate cell migration. Cell apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and western blot analysis for p53 and Nrf2 protein were also assessed. Finally, PIK-75, a potent Nrf2 inhibitor, was used to confirm the effects of Nrf2 after treatment with propofol. Treatment of MDA-MB‑231 cells with propofol resulted in increased proliferation and migration in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment with propofol for 12 h, the Nrf2 protein expression was increased, while the percentage of apoptotic cells, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53 were significantly decreased. Additionally, treatment with the Nrf2 inhibitor increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, inhibited the migration almost completely, and decreased the degree of proliferation, while the expression of p53 was not affected. In conclusion, propofol increased the proliferation of human breast cancer MDA-MB‑231 cells, which was at least partially associated with the inhibition of the expression of p53, and induced cell migration, which was involved in the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  15. Monohydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-073 retain intermediate to high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and exhibit neutral antagonist to partial agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K; Gallus-Zawada, Anna; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Vasiljevik, Tamara; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Fantegrossi, William E; Moran, Jeffery H; Prather, Paul L

    2012-04-01

    K2 and several similar purported "incense products" spiked with synthetic cannabinoids are abused as cannabis substitutes. We hypothesized that metabolism of JWH-073, a prevalent cannabinoid found in K2, contributes to toxicity associated with K2 use. Competition receptor binding studies and G-protein activation assays, both performed by employing mouse brain homogenates, were used to determine the affinity and intrinsic activity, respectively, of potential monohydroxylated (M1, M3-M5) and monocarboxylated (M6) metabolites at cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs). Surprisingly, M1, M4 and M5 retain nanomolar affinity for CB1Rs, while M3 displays micromolar affinity and M6 does not bind to CB1Rs. JWH-073 displays equivalent efficacy to that of the CB1R full agonist CP-55,940, while M1, M3, and M5 act as CB1R partial agonists, and M4 shows little or no intrinsic activity. Further in vitro investigation by Schild analysis revealed that M4 acts as a competitive neutral CB1R antagonist (K(b)∼40nM). In agreement with in vitro studies, M4 also demonstrates CB1R antagonism in vivo by blunting cannabinoid-induced hypothermia in mice. Interestingly, M4 does not block agonist-mediated responses of other measures in the cannabinoid tetrad (e.g., locomotor suppression, catalepsy or analgesia). Finally, also as predicted by in vitro results, M1 exhibits agonist activity in vivo by inducing significant hypothermia and suppression of locomotor activity in mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that further work examining the physiological effects of synthetic cannabinoid metabolism is warranted. Such a complex mix of metabolically produced CB1R ligands may contribute to the adverse effect profile of JWH-073-containing products.

  16. Brain activation in complex partial seizures during switching from a the goal-directed task to a resting state: comparison of fMRI maps to the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmonik, Christof; Dulay, Mario; Verma, Amit; Yen, Christopher; Grossman, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been previously identified as a set of brain regions activated during internally directed cognition. The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of brain activation during switching between a goal-directed task and a rest period obtained from clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms in complex partial seizures (CPS) and age-matched controls. As part of pre-surgical evaluation with fMRI, a visually presented block-design language task was performed by eight subjects (4 CPS, 4 age-matched controls). Single subject fMRI maps were calculated and transferred into Talairach space for an atlas-based analysis. For the rest state, total volumes of activation, brain regions with largest volume of activation and regions commonly activated in the CPS and the control group were identified. A voxel-by-voxel comparison was conducted to reveal inter-group statistically significant differences. Average volume of activation in the CPS group was significantly higher (32,080 mm(3)) than in the control group (7,915 mm(3), p-value 〈 0.03). In both groups, most of the common activation volume (81% in the CPS group and 98 % in the control group) was located in cognitive regions of the frontal lobe and temporal lobes as well as anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and cuneus. The remaining 19% in the CPS group included regions in the precentral gyrus, the superior and medial occipital gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule and the angular gyrus. The voxel-by-voxel comparison showed larger areas of activation mostly in the frontal and temporal lobes in the CPS group (as well as in the cuneus and precuneus), while regions with larger activation in the control group were found mostly in the parietal lobe. Our findings implicate that switching from goal-directed behavior to the default mode in CPS patients is impaired. Information contained in clinical fMRI block-design image data can be used to

  17. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  18. Partial oxidation of 2-propanol on perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, R.; Viswanathan, B.; Varadarajan, T.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Partial oxidation of 2-propanol was carried out on AB{sub 1-x}B`{sub x}O{sub 3} (A=Ba, B=Pb, Ce, Ti; B`=Bi, Sb and Cu) type perovskite oxides. Acetone was the major product observed on all the catalysts. All the catalysts underwent partial reduction during the reaction depending on the composition of the reactant, nature of the B site cation and the extent of substitution at B site. The catalytic activity has been correlated with the reducibility of the perovskite oxides determined from Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) studies. (orig.)

  19. Removable partial denture occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, John R; Plummer, Kevin D

    2004-07-01

    No single occlusal morphology, scheme, or material will successfully treat all patients. Many patients have been treated, both successfully and unsuccessfully, using widely varying theories of occlusion, choices of posterior tooth form, and restorative materials. Therefore, experience has demonstrated that there is no one righ r way to restore the occlusion of all patients. Partially edentulous patients have many and varied needs. Clinicians must understand the healthy physiologic gnathostomatic system and properly diagnose what is or may become pathologic. Henderson [3] stated that the occlusion of the successfully treated patient allows the masticating mechanism to carry out its physiologic functions while the temporomandibular joints, the neuromuscular mechanism, the teeth and their supporting structures remain in a good state of health. Skills in diagnosis and treatment planning are of utmost importance in treating these patients, for whom the clinician's goals are not only an esthetic and functional restoration but also a lasting harmonious state. Perhaps this was best state by DeVan [55] more than 60 years ago in his often-quoted objective. "The patient's fundamental need is the continued meticulous restoration of what is missing, since what is lost is in a sense irretrievably lost." Because it is clear that there is no one method, no one occlusal scheme, or one material that guarantees success for all patients, recommendations for consideration when establishing or reestablishing occlusal schemes have been presented. These recommendations must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic and technical skills.

  20. Evaluation of Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abnormal PT and APTT in untreated patients with diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Diabetes, Prothrombine ... may in turn enhance cardiovascular risk by increasing the likely hood of .... normalizes PT levels in diabetic patients (Standl et al,. 1996).

  1. The effect of gas plasma modification on platelet and contact phase activation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nicholas P; Wilson, Darren J; Williams, Rachel L

    2007-11-01

    Medical-grade polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyetherurethane (PEU) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were plasma treated with O2, Ar, N2 and NH3. Their surface properties were characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SSIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis. Platelet adhesion, aggregation, activation and release of microparticles were determined after contact with whole blood in a cone and plate viscometer. Activation of the coagulation system was quantified in a static environment using a partial thromboplastin time (PTT) assay. The chemical compositions of the untreated surfaces were found to be very similar to those of the bulk material except for PEU, whose surface was comprised almost entirely of soft ether segments. For all materials, the different plasma treatments resulted in moderate etching with the incorporation of functional groups and removal of side groups: defluorination, dehydrogenation, cleavage of methyl side groups and soft segments for PTFE, UHMWPE, PDMS and PEU, respectively. Consequently, plasma treatment resulted in increased wettability in all cases. Blood contact with the virgin materials resulted in activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Plasma treatment resulted in a significant reduction in platelet adhesion for all materials and all treatments. In the case of PTFE and PEU, the activation status of these cells was also reduced. Plasma treatment of all materials reduced fluid-phase CD62P expression. Platelet aggregate size correlated well with degree of aggregate formation, but many treatments increased the degree of aggregation, as was the case for microparticle shedding. There was no correlation between CD62P expression, aggregate formation and platelet microparticle (PMP) shedding. It is concluded that despite incorporation of the same chemical groups, the pattern of response to

  2. Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 1–13, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s and N-(4′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo and on tail bleeding time (in vivo on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product.

  3. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  4. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  5. 国产蛇毒激活血浆蛋白C的研究%Identification of protein c activator from nine species of Chinese snake venoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林光; 管锦霞; 黄劭; 余清声

    2001-01-01

    目的:从9种国产蛇毒中筛选具有激活血浆蛋白C作用的蛇毒。方法:运用活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)和发色底物实验分别观察抗凝活性和酰胺酶活性,综合抗凝活性和酰胺酶活性确定蛋白C蛇毒激活作用。结果:在9种国产蛇毒中烙铁头蛇毒及蝮蛇毒在1.5 mg/L浓度下即使人血浆纯蛋白C产生酰胺酶活性,并使APTT显著延长。结论:9种国产蛇毒中烙铁头蛇毒及蝮蛇毒具有激活人体血浆蛋白C成为活化蛋白C(APC)的作用。%AIM:To determine which species of snake venoms contained protein c activator among 9 species of Chinese snake venoms. METHODS: Anticoagulant activity was examined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay,and amidolytic activity was measured with activated protein c (APC) specific chromogenic peptide substrate-chromozy APC. RESULTS: Among 9 species of Chinese snake venoms,Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus venom and Agkistrodon halys venom were not only able to generate amidolytic activity from purified human PC, but also prolonged APTT strongly even at such a concentration as 1.5 mg/L.CONCLUSION: Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus venom and Agkistrodon halys venom contain protein c activator which activating human plasma PC into APC.

  6. Removable partial dentures without rests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinig, D A

    1994-04-01

    Ever since Bonwill recommended the use of rests on removable partial dentures in 1899, rests have been universally considered inviolate and have gone unchallenged and untested. The author claims that removable partial dentures without rests may not cause the adverse conditions usually predicted, such as gingival stripping, gingival inflammation, mutilated residual ridges, or extensive and rapid resorption of the alveolar ridges. In removable partial dentures made by the author for several patients, the residual ridge remained stable and in physiologic equilibrium when rests were not used. A history of the long-term effect on patients wearing partial dentures with and without rests is presented.

  7. A novel trypsin Kazal-type inhibitor from Aedes aegypti with thrombin coagulant inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Renata M O; Soares, Tatiane S; Morais-Zani, Karen; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M; Maciel, Ceres; Capurro, Margareth L; Torquato, Ricardo J S; Tanaka, Aparecida S

    2010-08-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors play several important roles in invertebrates, such as anticoagulant, vasodilator and antimicrobial activities. Putative Kazal-type inhibitors were described in several insect transcriptomes. In this paper we characterized for the first time a Kazal unique domain trypsin inhibitor from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Previously, analyses of sialotranscriptome of A. aegypti showed the potential presence of a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, in female salivary glands, carcass and also in whole male, which we named AaTI (A. aegypti trypsin inhibitor). AaTI sequence showed amino acid sequence similarity with insect thrombin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitor from Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes and tryptase inhibitor from leech Hirudo medicinalis (LDTI). In this work we expressed, purified and characterized the recombinant AaTI (rAaTI). Molecular weight of purified rAaTI was 7 kDa rAaTI presented dissociation constant (K(i)) of 0.15 and 3.8 nM toward trypsin and plasmin, respectively, and it weakly inhibited thrombin amidolytic activity. The rAaTI was also able to prolong prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. AaTI transcription was confirmed in A. aegypti female salivary gland and gut 3 h and 24 h after blood feeding, suggesting that this molecule can act as anticoagulant during the feeding and digestive processes. Its transcription in larvae and pupae suggested that AaTI may also play other functions during the mosquito's development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Lexicographic Shellability of Partial Involutions

    CERN Document Server

    Can, Mahir Bilen

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript we study inclusion posets of Borel orbit closures on (symmetric) matrices. In particular, we show that the Bruhat poset of partial involutions is a lexicographiically shellable poset. Also, studying the embeddings of symmetric groups and involutions into rooks and partial involutions, respectively, we find new $EL$-labelings on permutations as well as on involutions.

  9. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  10. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  11. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  12. Discovery of highly potent and selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists containing an isoxazolylpyridine ether scaffold that demonstrate antidepressant-like activity. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Fang; Eaton, J Brek; Fedolak, Allison; Zhang, Han-Kun; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-11-26

    In our continued efforts to develop α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists as novel antidepressants having a unique mechanism of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration of certain isoxazolylpyridine ethers is presented. In particular, modifications to both the azetidine ring present in the starting structure 4 and its metabolically liable hydroxyl side chain substituent have been explored to improve compound druggability. The pharmacological characterization of all new compounds has been carried out using [(3)H]epibatidine binding studies together with functional assays based on (86)Rb(+) ion flux measurements. We found that the deletion of the metabolically liable hydroxyl group or its replacement by a fluoromethyl group not only maintained potency and selectivity but also resulted in compounds showing antidepressant-like properties in the mouse forced swim test. These isoxazolylpyridine ethers appear to represent promising lead candidates in the design of innovative chemical tools containing reporter groups for imaging purposes and of possible therapeutics.

  13. The theory and measurement of partial discharge transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical approach to partial discharge transients is presented. This approach is based on the relationship between the charge induced on the measurement electrode by those created in the interelectrode volume during partial discharge activity. The primary sources for these induced charges ar...... electrode systems of practical interest is illustrated. A discussion of the salient features and practical aspects of the theory is included...

  14. Partially Flipped Linear Algebra: A Team-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Debra; Ormes, Nicholas; Swanson, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a partially flipped Introductory Linear Algebra course developed by three faculty members at two different universities. We give motivation for our partially flipped design and describe our implementation in detail. Two main features of our course design are team-developed preview videos and related in-class activities.…

  15. A Platelet Substitute: The Plateletsome to be Used in Transfusion Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-25

    Collagen, FGN, FNC) plus BSA (to block residual sites), or containing circlets (10-50mm diameter) of de-endo- thelialized bovine or human (2hrs post mortem...block residual sites) and cultured fibroblast monolayers or thin tissue sections or de-endothelized human(post-mortem) and bovine aorta in the chamber...prothrombin time(PT) and partial thromboplastin time(PTT) using automated techniques with kaolin and thromboplastin reagent as activators; the whole blood

  16. Permutation and Its Partial Transpose

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Werner, R F; Zhang, Yong; Kauffman, Louis H.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2006-01-01

    Permutation and its partial transpose play important roles in quantum information theory. The Werner state is recognized as a rational solution of the Yang--Baxter equation, and the isotropic state with an adjustable parameter is found to form a braid representation. The set of permutation's partial transposes is an algebra called the "PPT" algebra which guides the construction of multipartite symmetric states. The virtual knot theory having permutation as a virtual crossing provides a topological language describing quantum computation having permutation as a swap gate. In this paper, permutation's partial transpose is identified with an idempotent of the Temperley--Lieb algebra. The algebra generated by permutation and its partial transpose is found to be the Brauer algebra. The linear combinations of identity, permutation and its partial transpose can form various projectors describing tangles; braid representations; virtual braid representations underlying common solutions of the braid relation and Yang--...

  17. Replicating and Extending Research on the Partial Assignment Completion Effect: Is Sunk Cost Related to Partial Assignment Completion Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Nalls, Meagan L.

    2014-01-01

    After students acquire a skill, mastery often requires them to choose to engage in assigned academic activities (e.g., independent seatwork, and homework). Although students may be more likely to choose to work on partially completed assignments than on new assignments, the partial assignment completion (PAC) effect may not be very powerful. The…

  18. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  19. PARTIAL SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; LIU Zeng-rong

    2005-01-01

    A new method for partial synchronization between different systems was obtained. The definition of partial synchronization under which the problem works is given. The stability of the method is analyzed by the Liapunov function method and the condition of choosing the control term is derived. The reliability of this method is proved by some numerical examples, in which the dynamical behaviors of the synchronized systems are observed and it is found that whatever state the response system is partial synchronization can be always achieved by adding some proper control term.

  20. Hypoperfusion in severely injured trauma patients is associated with reduced coagulation factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jan O; Scarpelini, Sandro; Pinto, Ruxandra; Tien, Homer C; Callum, Jeannie; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2011-11-01

    II, VII, IX, X, and XI may differ. Preservation of coagulation factor activity in the majority of normally and moderately hypoperfused patients suggests that aggressive administration of plasma is probably only indicated in severely hypoperfused patients. Markers of hypoperfusion, such as base deficit, might be better and more readily available predictors of who require coagulation support than international normalized ratio or activated partial thromboplastin time.

  1. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarda, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.sarda@iut-tlse3.fr [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Errassifi, Farid [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Marsan, Olivier [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France); Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine [Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMS006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); INSERM-UPS, UMS 006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); Drouet, Christophe [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Interaction of tranexamic acid (TAX)/hydroxyapatite was studied. • The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation. • The release of TAX, fast during the first hours, was governed by a complex process. • Preliminary aPTT hemostasis tests show promising results. • The aim is to develop biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

  2. Stochastic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lototsky, Sergey V

    2017-01-01

    Taking readers with a basic knowledge of probability and real analysis to the frontiers of a very active research discipline, this textbook provides all the necessary background from functional analysis and the theory of PDEs. It covers the main types of equations (elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic) and discusses different types of random forcing. The objective is to give the reader the necessary tools to understand the proofs of existing theorems about SPDEs (from other sources) and perhaps even to formulate and prove a few new ones. Most of the material could be covered in about 40 hours of lectures, as long as not too much time is spent on the general discussion of stochastic analysis in infinite dimensions. As the subject of SPDEs is currently making the transition from the research level to that of a graduate or even undergraduate course, the book attempts to present enough exercise material to fill potential exams and homework assignments. Exercises appear throughout and are usually directly connected ...

  3. Rapid and high-capacity ultrasonic assisted adsorption of ternary toxic anionic dyes onto MOF-5-activated carbon: Artificial neural networks, partial least squares, desirability function and isotherm and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Hanieh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Azghandi, Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    The present paper focused on the ultrasonic assisted simultaneous removal of fast green (FG), eosin Y (EY) and quinine yellow (QY) from aqueous media following using MOF-5 as a metal organic framework and activated carbon hybrid (AC-MOF-5). The structure and morphology of AC-MOF-5 was identified by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The interactive and main effects of variables such as pH, initial dyes concentration (mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (mg) and sonication time (min) on removal percentage were studied by central composite design (CCD), subsequent desirability function (DF) permit to achieved real variable experimental condition. Optimized values were found 7.06, 5.68, 7.59 and 5.04mgL(-1), 0.02g and 2.55min for pH, FG, EY and QY concentration, adsorbent dosage and sonication time, respectively. Under this conditions removal percentage were obtained 98.1%, 98.1% and 91.91% for FG, EY and QY, respectively. Two models, namely partial least squares (PLS) and multi-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model were used for building up to construct an empirical model to predict the dyes under study removal behavior. The obtained results show that ANN and PLS model is a powerful tool for prediction of under-study dyes adsorption by AC-MOF-5. The evaluation and estimation of equilibrium data from traditional isotherm models display that the Langmuir model indicated the best fit to the equilibrium data with maximum adsorption capacity of 21.230, 20.242 and 18.621mgg(-1), for FG, EY and QY, respectively, while the adsorption rate efficiently follows the pseudo-second-order model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  5. Symmetries of partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Gaussier, Hervé; Merker, Joël

    2004-01-01

    We establish a link between the study of completely integrable systems of partial differential equations and the study of generic submanifolds in C^n. Using the recent developments of Cauchy-Riemann geometry we provide the set of symmetries of such a system with a Lie group structure. Finally we determine the precise upper bound of the dimension of this Lie group for some specific systems of partial differential equations.

  6. Partial agonistic action of endomorphins in the mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, H; Wu, H E; Narita, M

    2001-09-07

    The partial agonistic properties of endogenous mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 for G-protein activation were determined in the mouse spinal cord, monitoring the increases in guanosine-5'-o-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding. The G-protein activation induced by endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin in the spinal cord was significantly, but partially, attenuated by co-incubation with endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2. The data indicates that endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 are endogenous partial agonists for mu-opioid receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  7. Structure and anticoagulant activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm. Sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide account for its high anticoagulant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, P A; Pereira, M S; Pavão, M S; Mulloy, B; Tollefsen, D M; Mowinckel, M C; Abildgaard, U

    1996-09-27

    A polysaccharide isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea has a backbone like that of mammalian chondroitin sulfate: [4-beta-D-GlcA-1-->3-beta-D-GalNAc-1]n but substituted at the 3-position of the beta--glucuronic acid residues with sulfated alpha--fucopyranosyl branches (Vieira, R. P., Mulloy, B., and Mourão, P. A. S. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13530-13536). Mild acid hydrolysis removes the sulfated alpha--fucose branches, and cleaved residues have been characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy; the most abundant species is fucose 4-O-monosulfate, but 2,4- and 3, 4-di-O-sulfated residues are also present. Degradation of the remaining polysaccharide with chondroitin ABC lyase shows that the sulfated alpha-L-fucose residues released by mild acid hydrolysis are concentrated toward the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chains; enzyme-resistant polysaccharide material includes the reducing terminal and carries acid-resistant -fucose substitution. The sulfated alpha-L-fucose branches confer anticoagulant activity on the polysaccharide. The specific activity of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay is greater than that of a linear homopolymeric alpha-L-fucan with about the same level of sulfation; this activity is lost on defucosylation or desulfation but not on carboxyl-reduction of the polymer. Assays with purified reagents show that the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate can potentiate the thrombin inhibition activity of both antithrombin and heparin cofactor II.

  8. Monotherapy for partial epilepsy: focus on levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gambardella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gambardella1,2, Angelo Labate1,2, Eleonora Colosimo1, Roberta Ambrosio1, Aldo Quattrone1,21Institute of Neurology, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Institute of Neurological Sciences, National Research Council, Piano Lago di Mangone, Cosenza, ItalyAbstract: Levetiracetam (LEV, the S-enantiomer of alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrollidine acetamide, is a recently licensed antiepileptic drug (AED for adjunctive therapy of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is uncertain but it exhibits a unique profile of anticonvulsant activity in models of chronic epilepsy. Five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials enrolling adult or pediatric patients with refractory partial epilepsy have demonstrated the efficacy of LEV as adjunctive therapy, with a responder rate (≥50% reduction in seizure frequency of 28%–45%. Long-term efficacy studies suggest retention rates of 60% after one year, with 13% of patients seizure-free for 6 months of the study and 8% seizure-free for 1 year. More recent studies illustrated successful conversion to monotherapy in patients with refractory epilepsy, and its effectiveness as a single agent in partial epilepsy. LEV has also efficacy in generalized epilepsies. Adverse effects of LEV, including somnolence, lethargy, and dizziness, are generally mild and their occurrence rate seems to be not significantly different from that observed in placebo groups. LEV also has no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with other AEDs, or with commonly prescribed medications. The combination of effective antiepileptic properties with a relatively mild adverse effect profile makes LEV an attractive therapy for partial seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs

  9. Hub discovery in partial correlation graphical models

    CERN Document Server

    Hero, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of screening a p-variate sample for strongly and multiply connected vertices in the partial correlation graph associated with the the partial correlation matrix of the sample. This problem, called hub screening, is important in many applications ranging from network security to computational biology to finance to social networks. In the area of network security, a node that becomes a hub of high correlation with neighboring nodes might signal anomalous activity such as a coordinated flooding attack. In the area of computational biology the set of hubs of a gene expression correlation graph can serve as potential targets for drug treatment to block a pathway or modulate host response. In the area of finance a hub might indicate a vulnerable financial instrument or sector whose collapse might have major repercussions on the market. In the area of social networks a hub of observed interactions between criminal suspects could be an influential ringleader. The techniques and theory pr...

  10. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  11. New evidence for intrinsic blood coagulation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, J A; Hamilton, P B

    1981-01-01

    Coagulation of blood in chickens is considered the result of an extrinsic clotting system initiated, as in mammals, by tissue thromboplastin released from injured tissues. Blood coagulation in mammals depends principally on an intrinsic mechanism in which thromboplastin is generated from blood itself. Only a negligible role, if any, has been ascribed to an intrinsic system in chickens. A reevaluation of intrinsic coagulation in chickens was undertaken in this study. Whole blood of chickens was found to clot over 30% faster when contacted by suitable surface activators such as kaolin or glass than when such contact was omitted. Plasma recalcification times were significantly (P less than .02) shortened by contact activators. Clotting functions were measurable both by partial thromboplastin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, tests that bypass extrinsic factors. Intrinsic thromboplastin could be generated from dilute whole chicken blood although at a slower rate than that reported for human blood. Modification of whole blood thromboplastin generation techniques permitted measurement of activities that seem analogous to human intrinsic factors VIII and IX but not XI or XII. These data provide evidence of a functioning intrinsic clotting mechanism in chickens. A complete description and role for this mechanism remains to be defined.

  12. Reasonable partiality in professional relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Brenda

    2005-04-01

    First, two aspects of the partiality issue are identified: (1) Is it right/reasonable for professionals to favour their clients' interests over either those of other individuals or those of society in general? (2) Are special non-universalisable obligations attached to certain professional roles? Second, some comments are made on the notions of partiality and reasonableness. On partiality, the assumption that only two positions are possible--a detached universalism or a partialist egoism--is challenged and it is suggested that partiality, e.g. to family members, lies between these two positions, being neither a form of egoism, nor of impersonal detachment. On reasonableness, it is pointed out that 'reasonable' is an ambiguous concept, eliding the notions of the 'morally right' and the 'rational.' Third, a series of practical examples are taken from counselling, medicine, law, education and religious practice and some common principles are abstracted from the cases and discussed. These include truth-telling, confidentiality, conflicts of interest between clients and particular others and between clients and society. It is concluded that while partiality can be justified as a useful tool in standard cases, particular circumstances can affect the final verdict.

  13. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  14. Partial Priapism Treated with Pentoxifylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Meghan A.; Carrion, Rafael E.; Yang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Main findings: A 26-year-old man suffering from partial priapism was successfully treated with a regimen including pentoxifylline, a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is often used to conservatively treat Peyronie's disease. Case hypothesis: Partial priapism is an extremely rare urological condition that is characterized by thrombosis within the proximal segment of a single corpus cavernosum. There have only been 36 reported cases to date. Although several factors have been associated with this unusual disorder, such as trauma or bicycle riding, the etiology is still not completely understood. Treatment is usually conservative and consists of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic. Promising future implications: This case report supports the utilization of pentoxifylline in patients with partial priapism due to its anti-fibrogenic and anti-thrombotic properties. PMID:26401875

  15. Partial metrizability in value quantales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph D. Kopperman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Partial metrics are metrics except that the distance from a point to itself need not be 0. These are useful in modelling partially defined information, which often appears in computer science. We generalize this notion to study “partial metrics” whose values lie in a value quantale which may be other than the reals. Then each topology arises from such a generalized metric, and for each continuous poset, there is such a generalized metric whose topology is the Scott topology, and whose dual topology is the lower topology. These are both corollaries to our result that a bitopological space is pairwise completely regular if and only if there is such a generalized metric whose topology is the first topology, and whose dual topology is the second.

  16. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xi-Jun; HAN Yong-Jian; WU Yu-Chun; GUO Guang-Can

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet.Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρT(ρ's partial transposition)when ρ is a two-partite state.There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρT is N(N-1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space CM(×)CN.For the special case,the 2×2 system,we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρT|T≥0.We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρT or the negative entropy of ρ.

  17. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    To steer model-based conformance testing of real-time systems towards certain test purposes or test coverage, many testing methods need (to be enhanced with) the assumption of full observability of the System Under Test (SUT), which means that the tester can observe precisely what state...... precision sensors that we use to measure the SUT. This paper studies the problem of testing timed systems that are only partially observable. We model the SUT using Timed Game Automata (TGA) which has internal actions, uncontrollable outputs and timing uncertainty of outputs. We define the partial...... observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  18. Detailed structural characterization of the grafting of [Ta(=CHtBu)(CH2tBu)3] and [Cp*TaMe4] on silica partially dehydroxylated at 700 C and the activity of the grafted complexes toward alkane metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Erwan; Chabanas, Mathieu; Baudouin, Anne; de Mallmann, Aimery; Coperet, Christophe; Quadrelli, E. Allesandra; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean; Basset, Jean-Marie; Lukens, Wayne; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon; Sunley, Glenn J.

    2004-08-30

    The reaction of [Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 3}] or [Cp*Ta(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}] with a silica partially dehydroxylated at 700 C gives the corresponding monosiloxy surface complexes [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}] and [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cp*] by eliminating a {sigma}-bonded ligand as the corresponding alkane (H-CH{sub 2}tBu or H-CH{sub 3}). EXAFS data show that an adjacent siloxane bridge of the surface plays the role of an extra surface ligand, which most likely stabilizes these complexes as in [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (1a') and [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cp*({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (2a'). In the case of [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})], the structure is further stabilized by an additional interaction: a C-H agostic bond as evidenced by the small J coupling constant for the carbenic C-H (H{sub C-H} = 80 Hz), which was measured by J-resolved 2D solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The product selectivity in propane metathesis in the presence of [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)-(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (1a') as a catalyst precursor and the inactivity of the surface complex [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta-(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cp*({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (2a') show that the active site is required to be highly electrophilic and probably involves a metallacyclobutane intermediate.

  19. Impact of neutrophil apoptosis on haemostatic activation in chronic liver disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Faiza M; Bekheet, Iman W; Saleh, Abeya F; Madkour, Mona E; Bayoumi, Emad El-Din A

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies suggest the impact of apoptosis on the mechanisms leading to hypercoagulability. We aimed to clarify the potential role of neutrophil apoptosis in neutropenia and hypercoagulable state encountered in chronic liver disease patients. This study was conducted on 15 normal controls and 45 patients with chronic liver disease classified according to modified Child Pugh classification into, Child A, B and C groups (15 cases each). Haemostatic parameters studied include, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, tissue factor, protein C antigen, protein S antigen, and markers of haemostatic activation [prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombus precursor protein (TpP) and D-dimer]. Flowcytometric study was done for quantitative assay of neutrophil apoptotic subpopulations to detect the percentage of early and late apoptotic, and necrotic neutrophils using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dye. Semiquantitative assay of apoptotic neutrophils showing DNA fragmentation was performed on neutrophil culture using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling test. In addition to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for soluble Fas (APO-1/CD95) in culture supernatant. The results revealed a rise in the neutrophil apoptotic and necrotic markers with progression of the disease, and they were inversely correlated with the absolute neutrophil count. The apoptotic neutrophil cells showed a significant positive correlation with several haemostatic parameters (tissue factor, prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombus precursor protein and D-dimer). Regression analysis proved that apoptotic parameters are independent determinants of prothrombotic markers, which further incriminate the apoptotic mechanisms in the hypercoagulable state encountered in this clinical setting.

  20. A case for partial patellectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of fractures of the the patella is a subject of controversy. Partial patellectomy with retention of a major fragment and suture of the quadriceps to it, seems reasonable. 18 cases of patella fracture underwent such a procedure. The average age of the patients was 47 years. Maximum recovery took an average of 5 months. There were 6 excellent results, 9 good, 3 fair. Results were assessed on the basis of pain, muscle wasting, quadriceps power, and range of knee motion. Total patellectomy and patella fixation as alternative modes of treatment are discussed. Partial patellectomy, whenever possible, is a good choice.

  1. Yet another partial wave calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel; Rauch, Johannes [TUM, Munich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We will present a new C++ library for partial wave analysis: YAP - yet another partial wave calculator. YAP is intended for amplitude analyses of the decays of spin-0 heavy mesons (principally B and D) to multiple (3, 4, etc.) pseudoscalar mesons but is not hard coded for such situations and is flexible enough to handle other decay scenarios. The library allows for both model dependent and model independent analysis methods. We introduce the software, and demonstrate examples for generating Monte Carlo data efficiently, and for analyzing data (both with the aid of the Bayesian Analysis Toolkit).

  2. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  3. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian N

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  4. Neurotrophic factor - Characterization and partial purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiela, H.; Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neurotrophic activity is required for the normal proliferation and development of muscle cells. The present paper reports a study of the purification and characterization of a neurotrophic factor (NTF) from adult chicken ischiatic-peroneal nerves using two independent quantitative in vitro assay systems. The assays were performed by the measurement of the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the sizes of single-cell clones by chick muscle cells grown in culture. The greatest amount of neutrotrophic activity is found to be extracted at a pH of 8; aqueous suspensions of the activity are stable to long-term storage at room temperature. The specific activity of the substance is doubled upon precipitation with ammonium sulfate or after gel filtration, and increase 4 to 5 fold after salt gradient elution from DEAE cellulose columns. The active fraction obtained after gel filtration and rechromatography on DEAE cellulose exhibits a 7 to 10-fold increase in specific activity. Electrophoresis of the most highly purified material yields a greatly concentrated band at around 80,000 daltons. Although NTF is purified almost 10-fold as indicated by the increase in specific activity, the maximum activity of the partially purified material is greatly reduced, possibly due to a requirement for a cofactor for the expression of maximum activity.

  5. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  6. Partial Dynamical Symmetries in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2000-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) are shown to be relevant to the interpretation of the $K=0_2$ band and to the occurrence of F-spin multiplets of ground and scissors bands in deformed nuclei. Hamiltonians with bosonic and fermionic PDS are presented.

  7. Explanation Based Generalisation = Partial Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Bundy, A.

    1988-01-01

    We argue that explanation-based generalisation as recently proposed in the machine learning literature is essentially equivalent to partial evaluation, a well known technique in the functional and logic programming literature. We show this equivalence by analysing the definitions and underlying algo

  8. Bayesian Sparse Partial Least Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidaurre, D.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Bielza, C.; Larrañaga, P.; Heskes, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) is a class of methods that makes use of a set of latent or unobserved variables to model the relation between (typically) two sets of input and output variables, respectively. Several flavors, depending on how the latent variables or components are computed, have been dev

  9. Migrating Partial Seizures of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A national surveillance study in conjunction with the British Paediatric Neurology Unit was undertaken to further define the clinical, pathological and molecular genetic features of migrating partial seizures of infancy (MPSI, a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor prognosis.

  10. Covert Reinforcement: A Partial Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripstra, Constance C.; And Others

    A partial replication of an investigation of the effect of covert reinforcement on a perceptual estimation task is described. The study was extended to include an extinction phase. There were five treatment groups: covert reinforcement, neutral scene reinforcement, noncontingent covert reinforcement, and two control groups. Each subject estimated…

  11. Hemostatic profile changes in patients with traumatic brain injury with regard to the genotypes of -675 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Potapov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant problem in modern clinical medicine that has both medical and social importance. Analysis of hemostatic changes is a very important aspect of clinical course of TBI and should be paid special attention on it. This analysis is necessary to make prognosis for the treatment outcomes taking into account associations with genetic factors. The aim of research was to analyze hemostatic profile changes in patients with TBI with regard to the genotype of -675 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (РАІ-1. Methods and materials. The research was based on the investigation results of 200 patients with isolated TBI, who were undergoing in-patient treatment at the neurosurgery department at Sumy Regional Clinical Hospital in 2011–2013, and 95 apparently healthy individuals of the control group. The following change cycling was confirmed during the study: a tendency to hypercoagulability on the 1st day transforming into a state of being incapable of coagulation on the 3rd day. On the 7 day hypercoagulability signs dominated and by the 14 day the laboratory findings had gradually become normal. Conclusions. According to the analysis of routine hemostatic profile parameters (activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin index, platelet count, plasma tolerance to heparin, activated recalcification time, euglobulin clot lysis assay, plasma fibrinogen level we concluded that there is no association between the studied parameters and the genotypes of the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene in patients with TBI and controls. Our study confirms the necessity of further monitoring of fibrinolytic system, since routine laboratory tests of haemostasis are not always informative as for the fibrinolytic disorders in patients with TBI.

  12. A computer-based model to assess costs associated with the use of factor VIII and factor IX one-stage and chromogenic activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, S; Blakemore, J; Friedman, K D; Hart, D P; Ko, R H; Perry, D; Platton, S; Tan-Castillo, D; Young, G; Luddington, R J

    2016-04-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) activity can be associated with a high level of variability using one-stage assays based on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Chromogenic assays show less variability, but are less commonly used in clinical laboratories. In addition, one-stage assay accuracy using certain reagent and instrument combinations is compromised by some modified recombinant factor concentrates. Reluctance among some in the hematology laboratory community to adopt the use of chromogenic assays may be partly attributable to lack of familiarity and perceived higher associated costs. To identify and characterize key cost parameters associated with one-stage APTT and chromogenic assays for FVIII and FIX activity using a computer-based cost analysis model. A cost model for FVIII and FIX chromogenic assays relative to APTT assays was generated using assumptions derived from interviews with hematologists and laboratory scientists, common clinical laboratory practise, manufacturer list prices and assay kit configurations. Key factors that contribute to costs are factor-deficient plasma and kit reagents for one-stage and chromogenic assays, respectively. The stability of chromogenic assay kit reagents also limits the cost efficiency compared with APTT testing. Costs for chromogenic assays might be reduced by 50-75% using batch testing, aliquoting and freezing of kit reagents. Both batch testing and aliquoting of chromogenic kit reagents might improve cost efficiency for FVIII and FIX chromogenic assays, but would require validation. Laboratory validation and regulatory approval as well as education and training in the use of chromogenic assays might facilitate wider adoption by clinical laboratories. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6243 Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated

  14. Partial spectral multipliers and partial Riesz transforms for degenerate operators

    CERN Document Server

    ter Elst, A F M

    2012-01-01

    We consider degenerate differential operators $A = \\displaystyle{\\sum_{k,j=1}^d \\partial_k (a_{kj} \\partial_j)}$ on $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ with real symmetric bounded measurable coefficients. Given a function $\\chi \\in C_b^\\infty(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ (respectively, $\\Omega$ a bounded Lipschitz domain) and suppose that $(a_{kj}) \\ge \\mu > 0$ a.e.\\ on $ \\supp \\chi$ (resp., a.e.\\ on $\\Omega$). We prove a spectral multiplier type result: if $F\\colon [0, \\infty) \\to \\mathbb{C}$ is such that $\\sup_{t > 0} \\| \\varphi(.) F(t .) \\|_{C^s} d/2$ then $M_\\chi F(I+A) M_\\chi$ is weak type $(1,1)$ (resp.\\ $P_\\Omega F(I+A) P_\\Omega$ is weak type $(1,1)$). We also prove boundedness on $L^p$ for all $p \\in (1,2]$ of the partial Riesz transforms $M_\\chi \

  15. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This modern take on partial differential equations does not require knowledge beyond vector calculus and linear algebra. The author focuses on the most important classical partial differential equations, including conservation equations and their characteristics, the wave equation, the heat equation, function spaces, and Fourier series, drawing on tools from analysis only as they arise.Within each section the author creates a narrative that answers the five questions: (1) What is the scientific problem we are trying to understand? (2) How do we model that with PDE? (3) What techniques can we use to analyze the PDE? (4) How do those techniques apply to this equation? (5) What information or insight did we obtain by developing and analyzing the PDE? The text stresses the interplay between modeling and mathematical analysis, providing a thorough source of problems and an inspiration for the development of methods.

  16. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  17. Partial AC-coupling minigrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moix, Pierre-Olivier; Ruchet, Claude [Studer Innotec, Sion (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Partial AC-coupling: - It is feasible to make AC-coupling of some compatible elements without V/f droops. Standard elements available on the market were tested. - Optimum design for efficiency is a share of the solar modules between DC-coupling with a solar charger and AC-coupling with a grid inverter according to the load profile. - Partial AC-coupling is better in term of robustness; it is more reliable to have at least a part of the solar production connected directly to DC, or even only DC coupling. The presented concepts are not only theoretical but were implemented and tested on real products available on the market. Many tests have been done to find out the limits and problems that can occur with the use of grid connected and stand alone inverter together. Many combinations were tested and it was found robust enough to be used in the field with the precautions mentioned about microcycling. (orig.)

  18. Interview accuracy in partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besocke, Ana Gabriela; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Garcia, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    The statistical concept of accuracy has never been applied to verify the history data collected on seizure disorders by open format interview. We compared patients'/witnesses' descriptions of epileptic seizures with videotaped seizure characteristics and analyzed the accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), false-positive rate (FPR), and false-negative rate (FNR) of various components of the semiology in patients with partial epilepsy. Language disturbances, complex automatisms, and autonomic signs have high ACC and intermediate FNRs. This means that these manifestations are most obvious to the witness/patient and, therefore, are memorized easily. Dystonic posturing and upper limb automatisms have the highest FNRs, leading to low ACC. These are very subtle signs, not vigorous enough to be paid attention to, but their predictive value in partial epilepsy syndromes is relatively high. We believe these signs need to be directly sought in the interview, because often the patient/witness pays limited attention to them.

  19. Partial oral treatment of endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; Høst, Nis Baun; Bruun, Niels Eske;

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length...... of hospital stay. Evidence supporting partial oral therapy as an alternative to the routinely recommended continued parenteral therapy is scarce, although observational data suggest that this strategy may be safe and effective....

  20. Exact Dynamical and Partial Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a hierarchy of broken symmetries with special emphasis on partial dynamical symmetries (PDS). The latter correspond to a situation in which a non-invariant Hamiltonian accommodates a subset of solvable eigenstates with good symmetry, while other eigenstates are mixed. We present an algorithm for constructing Hamiltonians with this property and demonstrate the relevance of the PDS notion to nuclear spectroscopy, to quantum phase transitions and to mixed systems with coexisting regularity and chaos.

  1. Exact dynamical and partial symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A, E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-03-01

    We discuss a hierarchy of broken symmetries with special emphasis on partial dynamical symmetries (PDS). The latter correspond to a situation in which a non-invariant Hamiltonian accommodates a subset of solvable eigenstates with good symmetry, while other eigenstates are mixed. We present an algorithm for constructing Hamiltonians with this property and demonstrate the relevance of the PDS notion to nuclear spectroscopy, to quantum phase transitions and to mixed systems with coexisting regularity and chaos.

  2. Discretized configurations and partial partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Hower, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We show that the discretized configuration space of $k$ points in the $n$-simplex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres of dimension $n-k+1$. This space is homeomorphic to the order complex of the poset of ordered partial partitions of $\\{1,\\...,n+1\\}$ with exactly $k$ parts. We also compute the Euler characteristic in two different ways, thereby obtaining a topological proof of a combinatorial recurrence satisfied by the Stirling numbers of the second kind.

  3. Partial Differential Equations of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Geroch, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Apparently, all partial differential equations that describe physical phenomena in space-time can be cast into a universal quasilinear, first-order form. In this paper, we do two things. First, we describe some broad features of systems of differential equations so formulated. Examples of such features include hyperbolicity of the equations, constraints and their roles (e.g., in connection with the initial-value formulation), how diffeomorphism freedom is manifest, and how interactions betwee...

  4. Partial Differential Equations An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Choudary, A. D. R.; Parveen, Saima; Varsan, Constantin

    2010-01-01

    This book encompasses both traditional and modern methods treating partial differential equation (PDE) of first order and second order. There is a balance in making a selfcontained mathematical text and introducing new subjects. The Lie algebras of vector fields and their algebraic-geometric representations are involved in solving overdetermined of PDE and getting integral representation of stochastic differential equations (SDE). It is addressing to all scientists using PDE in treating mathe...

  5. Interpolation and partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    MALIGRANDA, Lech; Persson, Lars-Erik; Wyller, John

    1994-01-01

    One of the main motivations for developing the theory of interpolation was to apply it to the theory of partial differential equations (PDEs). Nowadays interpolation theory has been developed in an almost unbelievable way {see the bibliography of Maligranda [Interpolation of Operators and Applications (1926-1990), 2nd ed. (Luleå University, Luleå, 1993), p. 154]}. In this article some model examples are presented which display how powerful this theory is when dealing with PDEs. One main aim i...

  6. Partial Differential Equations An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Choudary, A D R; Varsan, Constantin

    2010-01-01

    This book encompasses both traditional and modern methods treating partial differential equation (PDE) of first order and second order. There is a balance in making a selfcontained mathematical text and introducing new subjects. The Lie algebras of vector fields and their algebraic-geometric representations are involved in solving overdetermined of PDE and getting integral representation of stochastic differential equations (SDE). It is addressing to all scientists using PDE in treating mathematical methods.

  7. The partial fission of fast spinning asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivel, Simon; Sanchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    The spin rates of asteroids systematically change over time due the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. Above a certain spin rate that depends on the body's density, regions of an asteroid can enter in tension, with components held to the body by cohesive forces. When the body fails, deformation or fission can occur. Catastrophic fission leading to complete disruption has been directly observed in active asteroid P/2013 R3. Partial fission, the loss of only part of the body, has been proposed as a mechanism for the formation of binaries and is explored here.The equatorial cavities of (341843) 2008 EV5 and of (185851) 2000 DP107 (a binary system) are consistent with a localized partial fission of the body (LPSC 2016 #1036). The examination of the gravity field of these bodies reveals that a mass placed within these cavities could be shed. In this mechanism, the outward pull of inertial forces creates an average stress at the cavity interface of ≈1 Pa for 2008 EV5 and ≈3 Pa for 2000 DP107 at spin periods of ≈3.15 h for the assumed densities of 1.3 g/cm3.This work continues the study of this partial, localized fission. Specifically, it addresses the issue of the low cohesion necessary to the mechanism. These cohesion values are typically lower than global strength values inferred on other asteroids (10 - 200 Pa), meaning that partial fission may occur prior to larger-scale deformations. Yet, several processes can explain the discrepancy, as they can naturally segregate particles by size. For instance, landslides or granular convection (Brazil nut effect) could bring larger boulders to the equator of the body, while finer particles are left at higher latitudes or sink to the center. Conversely, failure of the interior could bring boulders to the surface. The peculiar profile shape of these asteroids, shared by many binaries (e.g. 1999 KW4, 1996 FG3) may also be a clue of this heterogeneity, as this "spin top" shape is obtained in simulations with

  8. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, factor VIII, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2, anticardiolipin, and antiprothrombin antibodies are risk factors for thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Marotta, Rosa; Anastasio, Pietro; Mosavat, Mahrokh; De Lucia, Domenico

    2004-09-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition

  9. Solar Partial N-burst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Jun Ning; Yu-Ying Liu; Qi-Jun Fu; Fu-Ying Xu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new sub-class of type III solar radio burst at the highfrequencies around 6.0 GHz. In addition to a descending and an ascending branchon the dynamic spectrum, it has an inverted morphology different from the simpletype U-burst. We call it "partial N-burst" because it is interpreted as the knownN-burst minus its first branch. The partial N-burst presented here was detectedamong a reverse slope type III (RS-III) burst group prior to the type V solar radiocontinuum and was simultaneously recorded by two spectrometers at the NationalAstronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC, 5.20-7.60 GHz)and at Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO, 4.50-7.50 GHz) on 1999 August 25.After the N-burst and M-burst, the partial N-burst is a third piece of evidence for amagnetic mirror effect in solar radio observation, when the same electron is reflectedat a pinched foot of a flare loop.

  10. Searching for partial Hadamard matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Víctor; Frau, María-Dolores; Gudiel, Félix; Güemes, María-Belén; Martín, Elena; Osuna, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Three algorithms looking for pretty large partial Hadamard matrices are described. Here "large" means that hopefully about a third of a Hadamard matrix (which is the best asymptotic result known so far, [dLa00]) is achieved. The first one performs some kind of local exhaustive search, and consequently is expensive from the time consuming point of view. The second one comes from the adaptation of the best genetic algorithm known so far searching for cliques in a graph, due to Singh and Gupta [SG06]. The last one consists in another heuristic search, which prioritizes the required processing time better than the final size of the partial Hadamard matrix to be obtained. In all cases, the key idea is characterizing the adjacency properties of vertices in a particular subgraph G_t of Ito's Hadamard Graph Delta (4t) [Ito85], since cliques of order m in G_t can be seen as (m+3)*4t partial Hadamard matrices.

  11. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Newer trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish Aron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the advances in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN for renal masses with emphasis on technically challenging cases. Methods: Literature in the English language was reviewed using the National Library of Medicine database using the key words kidney, renal, tumor, nephron sparing surgery, and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, for the period between 1993 and 2009. Over 500 articles were identified. A total of 50 articles were selected for this review based on their relevance to the evolution of the technique and outcomes, as well as expanding indications for LPN. Results: In expert hands, LPN is safe and effective for central tumors, completely intrarenal tumors, hilar tumors, tumor in a solitary kidney, large tumors requiring heminephrectomy, cystic tumors, multiple tumors, obese patients, and even incidental stage ≥ pT2 tumors. Perioperative outcomes and 5-year oncologic outcomes after LPN are comparable to open partial nephrectomy (OPN. Conclusions: In experienced hands indications for LPN have expanded significantly. In 2009, advanced LPN remains a skill-intensive procedure that can nevertheless provide excellent outcomes for patients with renal tumors.

  12. Partial domain wall partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on a rectangular lattice with n (N) horizontal (vertical) lines, and "partial domain wall boundary conditions" defined as 1. all 2n arrows on the left and right boundaries point inwards, 2. n_u (n_l) arrows on the upper (lower) boundary, such that n_u + n_l = N - n, also point inwards, 3. all remaining n+N arrows on the upper and lower boundaries point outwards, and 4. all spin configurations on the upper and lower boundaries are summed over. To generate (n-by-N) "partial domain wall configurations", one can start from A. (N-by-N) configurations with domain wall boundary conditions and delete n_u (n_l) upper (lower) horizontal lines, or B. (2n-by-N) configurations that represent the scalar product of an n-magnon Bethe eigenstate and an n-magnon generic state on an N-site spin-1/2 chain, and delete the n lines that represent the Bethe eigenstate. The corresponding "partial domain wall partition function" is computed in construction {A} ({B}) as an N-by-N (n-by-n) det...

  13. Partial reinforcement, extinction, and placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yeung, Siu Tsin; Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F; Colloca, Luana

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies indicate that placebo analgesia can be established via conditioning procedures. However, these studies have exclusively involved conditioning under continuous reinforcement. Thus, it is currently unknown whether placebo analgesia can be established under partial reinforcement and how durable any such effect would be. We tested this possibility using electrocutaneous pain in healthy volunteers. Sixty undergraduates received placebo treatment (activation of a sham electrode) under the guise of an analgesic trial. The participants were randomly allocated to different conditioning schedules, namely continuous reinforcement (CRF), partial reinforcement (PRF), or control (no conditioning). Conditioning was achieved by surreptitiously reducing pain intensity during training when the placebo was activated compared with when it was inactive. For the CRF group, the placebo was always followed by a surreptitious reduction in pain during training. For the PRF group, the placebo was followed by a reduction in pain stimulation on 62.5% of trials only. In the test phase, pain stimulation was equivalent across placebo and no placebo trials. Both CRF and PRF produced placebo analgesia, with the magnitude of initial analgesia being larger after CRF. However, although the placebo analgesia established under CRF extinguished during test phase, the placebo analgesia established under PRF did not. These findings indicate that PRF can induce placebo analgesia and that these effects are more resistant to extinction than those established via CRF. PRF may therefore reflect a novel way of enhancing clinical outcomes via the placebo effect.

  14. Effects of hemolysis and lipemia interference on kaolin-activated thromboelastography, and comparison with conventional coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Jin, Xi; Sun, Ziyong; Jian, Cui

    2017-04-01

    The effects of hemolysis and lipemia on thromboelastography (TEG) analysis have been scarcely evaluated in human samples, and neglected in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro mechanical hemolysis and lipemia on TEG analysis and conventional coagulation tests. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Besides the controls, three groups with slight, moderate and severe mechanical hemolysis were constituted according to free hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of 0.5-1.0, 2.0-6.0 and 7.0-13.0 g/L, respectively; and three groups with mild, moderate and high lipemia were established according to triglyceride concentrations of ∼6.0, ∼12.0, and ∼18.0 mmol/L, respectively. Four TEG parameters, reaction time (R), coagulation time (K), angle (α), and maximum amplitude (MA), were measured alongside conventional plasma tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) by mechanical method, and platelet count by optical method. Results showed that the median R and MA values at moderate and severe hemolysis and K at severe hemolysis exceeded respective reference intervals, and were considered unacceptable. Median values of TEG parameters in lipemic samples were all within reference intervals. Bias values of conventional plasma tests PT, APTT and FIB in hemolyzed or lipemic samples were all lower than the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) allowable limits. Bias values of platelet count at moderate to severe hemolysis and lipemia exceeded the CLIA allowable limits. In conclusion, the detection of TEG was in general more affected by mechanical hemolysis than plasma coagulation tests. Pre-analytical variables should be taken into account when unexpected TEG results are obtained.

  15. Partial least squares methods: partial least squares correlation and partial least square regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Hervé; Williams, Lynne J

    2013-01-01

    Partial least square (PLS) methods (also sometimes called projection to latent structures) relate the information present in two data tables that collect measurements on the same set of observations. PLS methods proceed by deriving latent variables which are (optimal) linear combinations of the variables of a data table. When the goal is to find the shared information between two tables, the approach is equivalent to a correlation problem and the technique is then called partial least square correlation (PLSC) (also sometimes called PLS-SVD). In this case there are two sets of latent variables (one set per table), and these latent variables are required to have maximal covariance. When the goal is to predict one data table the other one, the technique is then called partial least square regression. In this case there is one set of latent variables (derived from the predictor table) and these latent variables are required to give the best possible prediction. In this paper we present and illustrate PLSC and PLSR and show how these descriptive multivariate analysis techniques can be extended to deal with inferential questions by using cross-validation techniques such as the bootstrap and permutation tests.

  16. Low molecular weight heparins prevent thrombin-induced thrombo-embolism in mice despite low anti-thrombin activity. Evidence that the inhibition of feed-back activation of thrombin generation confers safety advantages over direct thrombin inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momi, S; Nasimi, M; Colucci, M; Nenci, G G; Gresele, P

    2001-03-01

    Thrombin-induced thromboembolism in mice is a model in which the feed-back clotting activation produced by the injected enzyme greatly contributes to fibrin accumulation in lungs and to mortality. Using this model we have previously shown that activated human protein C (aPC), by interrupting endogenous clotting activation at a high level (factors Va and VIIIa), prevents mortality inducing only a minor hemostatic impairment. With the same model we have now compared the antithrombotic and prohemorrhagic effects of two low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), reviparin and tinzaparin, which are expected to inhibit preferentially the positive feed-back triggered by thrombin (anti Xa activity), with those of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and PEG-hirudin, which inhibit mainly or exclusively thrombin activity (anti IIa activity). Pulmonary thromboembolism was induced in mice by i.v. injection of bovine thrombin (1,000U/kg). Drugs (from 0.12 to 1.2 mg/kg) were given as bolus injection 2 min prior to thrombin challenge and mortality was assessed within 15 min. The bleeding time was assessed by a tail tip transection model. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin clotting time (TcT), fibrinogen assay and anti Xa activity determination were performed in citrated plasma from saline- or drug-treated animals. All drugs protected mice from thrombin-induced mortality in a dose-dependent way. At comparable antithrombotic dosages, the anti IIa activity generated in plasma (assessed by TcT) was highest with UFH, intermediate with tinzaparin and very low with reviparin. Accordingly, the fibrinogen drop, which is caused mainly by the injected thrombin, was prevented by the heparins to an extent that was fairly well related to their anti IIa activity. aPTT and bleeding time, used as measures of hemorrhagic risk, were markedly more prolonged by UFH than by reviparin. Tinzaparin, instead, had an intermediate effect. Interestingly, PEG-hirudin, at equipotent antithrombotic

  17. Decreased plasma ADAMTS-13 activity as a predictor of postoperative bleeding in cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela P.S. Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity. The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years. The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001. An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081, was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029 and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004. Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group, preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79, 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183, and 37.43 (95% CI 1.79 to 782.73. CONCLUSION: Low plasma ADAMTS-13

  18. Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O Croci

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice

  19. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华中; 陈立; 王红卫; 伍志坚; 吴小兵; 王学峰; 王鸿利; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦

    2001-01-01

    A mutant human factor IX with arginine at 338 residual changed to alanine (hFIXR338A) by site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into AAV vectors, and a recombinant adeno-associ- ated viral vector containing hFIXR338A, prepared by rHSV/AAV hybrid helper virus system, was directly introduced to the hind leg muscle of factor IX knock out mice. The expression and the biological activity of human factor IX mutant, hFIXR338A, and the immune response against it in the treated mice were assayed and detected. The results showed that (i) the high-level expression of human factor IX mutant protein, hFIXR338A, has been detected in rAAV-hFIXR338A treated hemophilia B mice and lasted more than 15 weeks; (ii) the clotting activity of hFIXR338A in plasma is 34.2%± 5.23%, which is remarkably higher than that of (14.27% ± 3.4%) of wild type hFIX treated mice in the activated partial thromboplastin assay; (iii) immune response against factor IX R338A was absent, with no factor IX mutant protein (hFIXR338A) inhibitors development in the treated mice; and (iv) no local or systemic side-effects and toxicity associated with the gene transfer were found. It demonstrated the potential use of treating hemophilia B by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors with mutant hFIXR338A gene, an alternative strategy for hemophilia B gene therapy to wild-type human factor IX.

  20. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy: Animal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiro Inoue

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in firmly establishing laparoscopic hepatectomy, we introduce a porcine model of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy. This procedure has been successfully performed under the normal-pressure or low-pressure pneumoperitoneum condition supported by the full-thickness abdominal wall lifting technique. An ultrasonic dissector combined with electrocautery, newly developed by Olympus Optical Corporation (Japan was effectively utilized in facilitating safe and smooth incisions into the liver parenchyma. Although indications for this procedure seem to be limited only to peripheral lesions and not to central lesions, clinical application of this method may be useful for some patients in the near future.

  1. Partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Colton, David

    2004-01-01

    Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

  2. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  3. Tracking people through partial occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-guo; CAI An-ni

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel people-tracking approach to cope with partial occlusions caused by scene objects. Instead of predicting when and where the occlusions will occur, a part-based model is used to model the pixel distribution of the target body under occlusion. The subdivided patches corresponding to a template image will be tracked independently using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. A set of voting-based rules is established for the patch-tracking result to verify if the target is indeed located at the estimated position. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful......Complex data dependencies can often be expressed concisely by defining a variable in terms of part of its own value. Such a circular reference can be naturally expressed in a lazy functional language or in an attribute grammar. In this paper, we consider circular references in the context...

  5. The mechanism of the partial oxidation of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinev, Mikhail Yu; Korshak, V. N.; Krylov, Oleg V.

    1989-01-01

    The principal characteristics of the homogeneous and heterogeneous-catalytic conversion of methane into condensation products (C2 and C3 hydrocarbons) and partial oxidation products (methanol and formaldehyde) are considered. Data are presented concerning the most effective catalysts and data relating to the mechanism of the activation of methane on oxide and oxide halide catalysts, the nature of the active centres, and the kinetics of the partial oxidation of methane are analysed. It is shown that the oxidative condensation of methane in the presence of the catalysts considered is a heterogeneous-homogeneous process, which imposes special requirements in its practical realisation. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  6. Modification of motoneuron size after partial denervation in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, F; Vrbová, G

    2007-11-01

    Our previous studies have shown that partial denervation of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the rat at 3 days of age causes an increase in the activity of the intact motoneurons. The originally phasic pattern of activity of EDL became tonic after partial denervation. These modifications of motoneuron activity were associated with the change in the phenotype of the muscle from fast to slow contracting and with a conversion of the muscle fibres from a fast to a slow type. The present study investigates whether the size of the cell body of the active EDL motoneurons change in parallel with the altered muscular activity. The study involved partial denervation of rat EDL muscle by section of the L4 spinal nerve at 3 days of age. Then the remaining motoneurons from L5 spinal nerve supplying the EDL muscle were retrogradly labelled with horseradish peroxidase two months later. The results show a reduction in motoneuron size in parallel with an increase in activity of the motoneurons after partial denervation of EDL muscle.

  7. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  8. Planning with Partial Preference Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Tuan; Gerevini, Alfonso; Serina, Ivan; Srivastava, Biplav; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Current work in planning with preferences assume that the user's preference models are completely specified and aim to search for a single solution plan. In many real-world planning scenarios, however, the user probably cannot provide any information about her desired plans, or in some cases can only express partial preferences. In such situations, the planner has to present not only one but a set of plans to the user, with the hope that some of them are similar to the plan she prefers. We first propose the usage of different measures to capture quality of plan sets that are suitable for such scenarios: domain-independent distance measures defined based on plan elements (actions, states, causal links) if no knowledge of the user's preferences is given, and the Integrated Convex Preference measure in case the user's partial preference is provided. We then investigate various heuristic approaches to find set of plans according to these measures, and present empirical results demonstrating the promise of our app...

  9. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-02

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment.

  10. Fair Preorder for Partial Fair Kripke Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蔚文; 陆鑫达

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed how to handle the fairness conditions in partial Kripke structures. The partial Krip-ke structures were used for partial state spaces model checking, which is a new technique to solve problems of stateexplosion. This paper extended the partial Kripke structure with fairness conditions by defining a partial fair Krip-ke structure, and a 3-valued fair CTL(Computation-Tree Logic) semantics correspondingly. It defines a fair pre-order between partial Kripke structures that preserves fairness and is akin to fair bisimulation. In addition, a perti-nent theorem is also given, which indicates the relationship between the partial state spaces and the more completeone by illustrating the characterizations of states in the partial fair structure in terms of CTL formulae.

  11. Abstract methods in partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Detailed, self-contained treatment examines modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially abstract evolution equations. Suitable for graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. 1969 edition.

  12. Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Deformed Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    1996-07-01

    We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Partial dynamical symmetry in deformed nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei.

  14. The Hydra-k Partial Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pendavingh; S.H.M. van Zwam (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the paper "Confinement of matroid representations to subsets of partial fields" (arXiv:0806.4487) we introduced the Hydra-k partial fields to study quinary matroids with inequivalent representations. The proofs of some results on these partial fields require extensive computations.

  15. Partial Oblique Projection Learning for Optimal Generalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Benyong; ZHANG Jing

    2004-01-01

    In practice,it is necessary to implement an incremental and active learning for a learning method.In terms of such implementation,this paper shows that the previously discussed S-L projection learning is inappropriate to constructing a family of projection learning,and proposes a new version called partial oblique projection (POP) learning.In POP learning,a function space is decomposed into two complementary subspaces,so that functions belonging to one of the subspaces can be completely estimated in noiseless case;while in noisy case,the dispersions are set to be the smallest.In addition,a general form of POP learning is presented and the results of a simulation are given.

  16. Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    Although member states are obliged to transpose directives into domestic law in a conformable manner and receive considerable time for their transposition activities, we identify three levels of transposition outcomes for EU directives: conformable, partially conformable and non-conformable....... Compared with existing transposition models, which do not distinguish between different transposition outcomes, we examine the factors influencing each transposition process by means of a competing risk analysis. We find that preference-related factors, in particular the disagreement of a member state...... and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...

  17. Partial Synchronization of Interconnected Boolean Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Liang, Jinling; Lu, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the partial synchronization problem for the interconnected Boolean networks (BNs) via the semi-tensor product (STP) of matrices. First, based on an algebraic state space representation of BNs, a necessary and sufficient criterion is presented to ensure the partial synchronization of the interconnected BNs. Second, by defining an induced digraph of the partial synchronized states set, an equivalent graphical description for the partial synchronization of the interconnected BNs is established. Consequently, the second partial synchronization criterion is derived in terms of adjacency matrix of the induced digraph. Finally, two examples (including an epigenetic model) are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  18. Partial cubes: structures, characterizations, and constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    Partial cubes are isometric subgraphs of hypercubes. Structures on a graph defined by means of semicubes, and Djokovi\\'{c}'s and Winkler's relations play an important role in the theory of partial cubes. These structures are employed in the paper to characterize bipartite graphs and partial cubes of arbitrary dimension. New characterizations are established and new proofs of some known results are given. The operations of Cartesian product and pasting, and expansion and contraction processes are utilized in the paper to construct new partial cubes from old ones. In particular, the isometric and lattice dimensions of finite partial cubes obtained by means of these operations are calculated.

  19. Effect of partial drying and partial baking on starch degradation, on related enzymatic activities and on chemical composition of upper flue-cured tobacco leaves%半晾半烤对上部烟叶淀粉降解和相关酶活性及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文超; 贺帆; 徐成龙; 王涛; 石盼盼; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    The upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco of tobacco cultivars Zhongyan 100 and Yunyan 87 were used to study the effect of different drying periods (48, 60, 72 h) on the activities of amylase and starch phosphorylase. Compared to the routine baking process, amylase activity of the leaves pretreated with air drying reached its first peak 12 h earlier during the baking process, which extended the life time of amylase; the starch phosphorylase activity in the early period of baking process decreased, but in the late period the decrease was not obvious. The leaves pretreated with 60 h of air drying had high activities of amylase and starch phosphorylase, high amylase degradation, and the amylase content was low while the contents of water-soluble total sugar and reducing sugar were high in these leaves, these cured upper leaves with balanced chemical components are considered highly applicable.%以烤烟品种中烟100和云烟87的上部叶为材料,研究不同晾黄时间(48、60、72 h)对烟叶烘烤过程中淀粉降解及淀粉酶和淀粉磷酸化酶活性的影响.结果表明:与对照(常规烘烤)相比,晾制处理的烟叶在烘烤过程中淀粉酶活性提前12h达到第1次高峰,适当延长了淀粉酶的有效活性时间;与对照相比,烘烤前期淀粉磷酸化酶活性有所降低,在烘烤后期下降不明显,其中,晾黄60 h后烘烤烟叶的淀粉酶和淀粉磷酸化酶活性、淀粉降解量均较高,烤后烟叶淀粉含量较低,水溶性总糖、还原糖含量较高,各种化学成分较为协调,上部烟叶的可用性较高.

  20. Characterization and partial purification of phospholipase D from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    We report the existence in the human placenta of a phosphatidylcholine- hydrolyzing phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which has been characterized and partially purified. Triton X-100 effectively solubilized PLD from the particulate fraction of human placenta in a dose-dependent manner. However....... The present results form the basis for further purification of a PLD from human tissue....

  1. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B B; Hulthén, K; Brodersen, J; Nilsson, P A; Skov, C; Hansson, L-A; Brönmark, C

    2012-07-01

    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial migration are considered, in an ecological and evolutionary context, and also in an applied sense. Here it is argued that understanding the concept of partial migration is crucial for fisheries and ecosystem managers, and can provide information for conservation strategies. The review concludes with a reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes.

  2. Determination Active Ingredients of Fudosteine Using Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least Squares%近红外光谱结合偏最小二乘法测定福多斯坦成分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫民; 何文; 吴拥军

    2012-01-01

    采用近红外漫反射光谱分析技术和偏最小二乘法对福多斯坦药物的有效成分进行定量分析测定,采集48个不同比例的福多斯坦样品近红外漫反射光谱,用一阶导数的光谱预处理方法,结合偏最小二乘法建立福多斯坦的定量分析模型.结果显示:交互验证均方根误差为0.003 57,相关系数R为0.994 77,预测均方根误差为0.003 89,平均回收率为99.63% (n=8),结果表明,用近红外光谱分析技术联合偏最小二乘法对福多斯坦进行定量分析结果准确可靠,方法简便快速.%Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and partial least squares (PLS) method were applied for the fast, non-destructive, quantitative analysis of fudosteine. The fudosteine quantitative analysis model was established by 48 different series near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of fudosteine samples, combined with a derivative of the spectral pretreatment method and partial least squares. The cross-validation root mean square error was 0.003 57 and correlation coefficient R was 0.994 77; root mean square error of prediction was 0.003 89. The average recovery was 99.63% (n=8). It is shown that near-infrared spectroscopy technology for fudosteine quantitative analysis is accurate and reliable. The method is simple and rapid,and it may be extended to industrial on-line analysis of such samples.

  3. Synthesis and anti-renal fibrosis activity of conformationally locked truncated 2-hexynyl-N(6)-substituted-(N)-methanocarba-nucleosides as A3 adenosine receptor antagonists and partial agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Chandra, Girish; Hwang, Inah; Kim, Kyunglim; Hou, Xiyan; Kim, Hea Ok; Sahu, Pramod K; Roy, Kuldeep K; Yoo, Jakyung; Lee, Yoonji; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Moss, Steven M; Phan, Khai; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Ha, Hunjoo; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2014-02-27

    Truncated N(6)-substituted-(N)-methanocarba-adenosine derivatives with 2-hexynyl substitution were synthesized to examine parallels with corresponding 4'-thioadenosines. Hydrophobic N(6) and/or C2 substituents were tolerated in A3AR binding, but only an unsubstituted 6-amino group with a C2-hexynyl group promoted high hA2AAR affinity. A small hydrophobic alkyl (4b and 4c) or N(6)-cycloalkyl group (4d) showed excellent binding affinity at the hA3AR and was better than an unsubstituted free amino group (4a). A3AR affinities of 3-halobenzylamine derivatives 4f-4i did not differ significantly, with Ki values of 7.8-16.0 nM. N(6)-Methyl derivative 4b (Ki = 4.9 nM) was a highly selective, low efficacy partial A3AR agonist. All compounds were screened for renoprotective effects in human TGF-β1-stimulated mProx tubular cells, a kidney fibrosis model. Most compounds strongly inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen I upregulation, and their A3AR binding affinities were proportional to antifibrotic effects; 4b was most potent (IC50 = 0.83 μM), indicating its potential as a good therapeutic candidate for treating renal fibrosis.

  4. Functional partial agonism at cloned human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1996-01-01

    , and a competitive antagonist, atropine or pirenzepine, at fixed ratios display functional partial agonism. The levels of apparent intrinsic activity of the functional partial agonist responses were shown to be dependent of the receptor density and G-protein concentration in the same manner as that determined...... agonist response, which is dependent on the agonist/antagonist ratio, is predictable from the Waud equation, describing competitive receptor/ligand interactions. In agreement with the relative antagonist potencies of pirenzepine at m1 and m5, a 10:1 ratio of carbachol and pirenzepine produced very low...

  5. Effect of Timing of Surgery in Partially Injured ACLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bai, Lunhao; Fu, Yonghui; Wang, Guangbin; He, Ming; Wang, Jiashi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the optimal timing for surgical intervention of partially injured anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). Thirty-eight patients were divided into early (n=17) or delayed (n=21) surgery groups based on the interval between injury and surgery. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. The outcome measures used were the International Knee Documentation Committee score, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity rating, range of motion, and arthrometer measurements. The findings of this study indicate that early surgical reconstruction of partially ruptured ACLs did not result in arthrofibrosis but may prevent secondary loosening of the intact bundles and further meniscal and chondral injury.

  6. Individualizing goals for users of externally powered partial hand prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Lynsay; Flinn, Sharon; Wagner, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent advances in prosthetic technology available for individuals with partial hand loss or deficiency, research is needed to best ensure the acceptance of these devices. Additionally, this population is subjected to higher risks of overuse syndromes. With improved technological advances in prosthetic devices, clients can engage in more complex activities with less compensation. The purpose of this study was to describe the tasks identified as both difficult and important to individuals with partial hand loss. Recommendations will be provided regarding matching users' individualized goals with considerations in prosthetic design, functional training, programming, and adaptive equipment.

  7. Reasonable partiality in professional ethics: the moral division of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Frans

    2005-04-01

    Attention is given to a background idea that is often invoked in discussions about reasonable partiality: the idea of a moral division of labour. It is not only a right, but also a duty for professionals to attend (almost) exclusively to the interests of their own clients, because their partial activities are part of an impartial scheme providing for an allocation of professional help to all clients. To clarify that idea, a difference is made between two kinds of division of labour, a technical one and a social one. In order to assess the applicability of the idea of a moral division of labour to professional ethics, journalism is contrasted with other professions.

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide/TiO2 Composite%部分还原氧化石墨烯/二氧化钛复合材料的水热合成及其光催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙梅; 丛野; 李轩科; 崔正威; 董志军; 袁观明

    2013-01-01

      采用水热法以Hummers氧化法制备的氧化石墨和钛酸四丁酯为原料制备了部分还原的氧化石墨烯/二氧化钛(RGO/TiO2)复合光催化剂,并研究了该复合材料在可见光以及紫外光下对亚甲基蓝的光催化降解活性。结果表明,通过改变反应温度和氧化石墨加入量可以调控TiO2的晶相组成及其在复合材料中的分散性;在水热反应过程中氧化石墨烯发生了部分还原;所制备的 RGO/TiO2复合材料的可见光和紫外光催化活性均高于纯TiO2;部分还原的氧化石墨烯在复合材料中担当载体和电子受体,同时可以使TiO2的初始吸收边向可见光区域红移,增强了TiO2在可见光区域的吸收,能有效提高对目标污染物的吸附性和光催化降解活性。%Partial y reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide (RGO/TiO2) composite was synthesized using tetrabutyl titanate and graphite oxide by a hydrothermal method. Photocatalytic activity of the material was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light and UV light. The results suggest that the crystal phase and dispersion of titanium oxide in the composite can be control ed by varying the reaction temperature and amount of graphite oxide. Graphene oxide was partial y reduced in the hydrothermal reaction process. Photocatalytic activities of partial y reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide composites under both visible and UV light irradiation were higher than those of pure TiO2. Partial y reduced graphene oxide may act as a support and electron acceptor, and can also extend and enhance the band edge absorption of TiO2 into the visible light region, hence effectively enhancing the adsorbability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

  9. The future of partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthouse, Theo; Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Raison, Nicholas; Lam, Wayne; Challacombe, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Innovation in recent times has accelerated due to factors such as the globalization of communication; but there are also more barriers/safeguards in place than ever before as we strive to streamline this process. From the first planned partial nephrectomy completed in 1887, it took over a century to become recommended practice for small renal tumours. At present, identified areas for improvement/innovation are 1) to preserve renal parenchyma, 2) to optimise pre-operative eGFR and 3) to reduce global warm ischaemia time. All 3 of these, are statistically significant predictors of post-operative renal function. Urologists, have a proud history of embracing innovation & have experimented with different clamping techniques of the renal vasculature, image guidance in robotics, renal hypothermia, lasers and new robots under development. The DaVinci model may soon no longer have a monopoly on this market, as it loses its stranglehold with novel technology emerging including added features, such as haptic feedback with reduced costs. As ever, our predictions of the future may well fall wide of the mark, but in order to progress, one must open the mind to the possibilities that already exist, as evolution of existing technology often appears to be a revolution in hindsight.

  10. Down-regulation of NF-κB expression by n-3 fatty acid-rich linseed oil is modulated by PPARγ activation, eicosanoid cascade and secretion of cytokines by macrophages in rats fed partially hydrogenated vegetable fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Lokesh, B R

    2017-04-01

    The industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acid mostly comprising of elaidic acid (18:1 ∆9t). PHVF is used as a cooking medium in Southeast Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary PHVF on inflammatory mediators and possible ameliorative effects of n-3 fatty acid (α-linolenic acid, ALA)-rich linseed oil (LSO) on the inflammatory mediators. Male Wistar weaning rats were fed AIN-93-purified diet supplemented with one of the following lipids for 60 days, groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), LSO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with LSO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final fat level in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. The macrophages from rats fed PHVF showed higher levels of total cholesterol and free cholesterol as compared to those from rats fed GNO and LSO. Macrophages from rats fed PHVF down-regulated the expression of PPARγ and up-regulated the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and nuclear factor-kappa B p65. The macrophages from rats fed PHVF secreted higher levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. The rats fed PHVF blended with LSO at incremental amounts showed a significant reduction in the expressions of pro-inflammatory markers in dose-dependent manner. Detrimental effects of dietary PHVF in enhancing pro-inflammatory agents in rats could be significantly reduced by providing ALA (n-3 PUFA)-rich LSO.

  11. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  12. On multivariate quantiles under partial ordering

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on generalizing quantiles from the ordering point of view. We propose the concept of {\\it partial quantiles} based on a given partial order. We establish that partial quantiles are equivariant under partial-order-preserving transformations of the data, display a concentration of measure phenomenon, generalize the concept of efficient frontier, and can measure dispersion from the partial order perspective. We also study several statistical aspects of partial quantiles. We provide estimators, associated rates of convergence, and asymptotic distributions that hold uniformly over a continuum of quantile indices. Furthermore, we provide procedures that can restore monotonicity properties that might have been disturbed by estimation error, and establish computational complexity bounds. Finally, we illustrate the concepts by discussing several theoretical examples and simulations. Empirical applications to compare intake nutrients within diets and to evaluate the performance of investment funds ar...

  13. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial...... with a reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes......Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...

  14. Representations of partial derivatives in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John R.; Manogue, Corinne A.; Roundy, David J.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

    2012-02-01

    One of the mathematical objects that students become familiar with in thermodynamics, often for the first time, is the partial derivative of a multivariable function. The symbolic representation of a partial derivative and related quantities present difficulties for students in both mathematical and physical contexts, most notably what it means to keep one or more variables fixed while taking the derivative with respect to a different variable. Material properties are themselves written as partial derivatives of various state functions (e.g., compressibility is a partial derivative of volume with respect to pressure). Research in courses at the University of Maine and Oregon State University yields findings related to the many ways that partial derivatives can be represented and interpreted in thermodynamics. Research has informed curricular development that elicits many of the difficulties using different representations (e.g., geometric) and different contexts (e.g., connecting partial derivatives to specific experiments).

  15. Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang

    2012-12-01

    In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.

  16. Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-01

    We construct a large class of bipartite M⊗N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.

  17. On circulant states with positive partial transpose

    OpenAIRE

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    We construct a large class of quantum "d x d" states which are positive under partial transposition (so called PPT states). The construction is based on certain direct sum decomposition of the total Hilbert space displaying characteristic circular structure - that is way we call them circulant states. It turns out that partial transposition maps any such decomposition into another one and hence both original density matrix and its partially transposed partner share similar cyclic properties. ...

  18. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolev, S L

    1964-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics emphasizes the study of second-order partial differential equations of mathematical physics, which is deemed as the foundation of investigations into waves, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and other physical problems. The book discusses in detail a wide spectrum of topics related to partial differential equations, such as the theories of sets and of Lebesgue integration, integral equations, Green's function, and the proof of the Fourier method. Theoretical physicists, experimental physicists, mathematicians engaged in pure and applied math

  19. Phylogenetic estimation with partial likelihood tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sumner, J G

    2008-01-01

    We present an alternative method for calculating likelihoods in molecular phylogenetics. Our method is based on partial likelihood tensors, which are generalizations of partial likelihood vectors, as used in Felsenstein's approach. Exploiting a lexicographic sorting and partial likelihood tensors, it is possible to obtain significant computational savings. We show this on a range of simulated data by enumerating all numerical calculations that are required by our method and the standard approach.

  20. Partial differential equations possessing Frobenius integrable decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)]. E-mail: mawx@cas.usf.edu; Wu, Hongyou [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2888 (United States)]. E-mail: wu@math.niu.edu; He, Jingsong [Department of Mathematics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: jshe@ustc.edu.cn

    2007-04-16

    Frobenius integrable decompositions are introduced for partial differential equations. A procedure is provided for determining a class of partial differential equations of polynomial type, which possess specified Frobenius integrable decompositions. Two concrete examples with logarithmic derivative Baecklund transformations are given, and the presented partial differential equations are transformed into Frobenius integrable ordinary differential equations with cubic nonlinearity. The resulting solutions are illustrated to describe the solution phenomena shared with the KdV and potential KdV equations.

  1. Partial Evaluation of the Euclidian Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    1997-01-01

    -like behavior. Each of them presents a challenge for partial evaluation. The Euclidian algorithm is one of them, and in this article, we make it amenable to partial evaluation. We observe that the number of iterations in the Euclidian algorithm is bounded by a number that can be computed given either of the two...... arguments. We thus rephrase this algorithm using bounded recursion. The resulting program is better suited for automatic unfolding and thus for partial evaluation. Its specialization is efficient....

  2. In pursuit of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation: carbon analogs of (-)-cytisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jotham W; Vetelino, Michael G; Bashore, Crystal G; Wirtz, Michael C; Brooks, Paige R; Arnold, Eric P; Lebel, Lorraine A; Fox, Carol B; Sands, Steven B; Davis, Thomas I; Schulz, David W; Rollema, Hans; Tingley, F David; O'Neill, Brian T

    2005-06-15

    The preparation and biological activity of analogs of (-)-cytisine, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, are discussed. All-carbon-containing phenyl ring replacements of the pyridone ring system, generated via Heck cyclization protocols, exhibited weaker affinity and lower efficacy partial agonist profiles relative to (-)-cytisine. In vivo, selected compounds exhibit lower efficacy partial agonist profiles than that of (-)-cytisine.

  3. Clinical Analysis of Partial Epilepsy with Auras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study suggested that auras played an important role in the diagnosis, classification, and localization of epilepsy. Epileptic aura could help differentiate partial seizure from generalized seizure.

  4. EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Beiliang

    2007-01-01

    A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.

  5. The Influence on Platelet Activation and Blood Coagulation Function in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction of Helicobacter Pylori Infection%幽门螺杆菌感染对急性脑梗死患者血小板活化水平及凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铭新; 任向利; 刘超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the Helicobacter pylori(Hp)in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI)infection effect on platelet activation and coagulation function generation. Methods Retrospective a-nalysis of our hospital from 2008 June to 2013 June in our department since the treatment of 85 cases of ACI in patients with clinical data,on the basis of Hp infection and not be divided into study group(Hp group,n =43)and control group(non Hp infection group,n = 42),two groups of CD62 p positive percentage of detection of platelet determination of two groups,fibrinogen(Fbg),thrombin time(TT),activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT),international normalized ratio(INR),prothrombin time ratio(PTR),prothrombin time(PT). Re-sults The study group and the control group of CD62 p positive platelets percentage comparison is signifi-cantly difference(P 0. 05),but Fbg,TT,aPTT levels and the control group were compared,is significantly differ-ence(P 0.05),但 Fbg、TT、aPTT 水平与对照组相较,均呈明显差异(P <0.05)。结论急性脑梗死患者 Hp 感染,能够使血小板的活化水平增强,进而对内源性凝血功能产生影响,参与脑梗死发生、发展。

  6. Some examples of universal and generic partial orders

    CERN Document Server

    Nesetril, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    We survey structures endowed with natural partial orderings and prove their universality. These partial orders include partial orders on set of words, partial orders formed by geometric objects, grammars, polynomials and homomorphism order for various combinatorial objects.

  7. An Action Analysis for Combining Partial Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖湖声

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes an action analysis for implementing combining partial evaluation efficiently. By analyzing the results of binding time analysis, operations, which should be used in the combining partial evaluation, are determined in advance, so that the computation in the combination of specialized programs is reduced effectively.

  8. Generalized Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a generalized partial dynamical symmetry for which part of the eigenstates have part of the dynamical symmetry. This general concept is illustrated with the example of Hamiltonians with a partial dynamical O(6) symmetry in the framework of the interacting boson model. The resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions are compared with empirical data in $^{162}$Dy.

  9. Generalized partial dynamical symmetry in nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, A; Isacker, P Van

    2002-11-25

    We introduce the notion of a generalized partial dynamical-symmetry for which part of the eigenstates have part of the dynamical symmetry. This general concept is illustrated with the example of Hamiltonians with a partial dynamical O(6) symmetry in the framework of the interacting boson model. The resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions are compared with empirical data in 162Dy.

  10. Partial dynamical symmetry in a fermion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher; Leviatan

    2000-02-28

    The relevance of the partial dynamical symmetry concept for an interacting fermion system is demonstrated. Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei and shown to be closely related to the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Implications are discussed for the deformed light nucleus 20Ne.

  11. Partial dynamical symmetry in a fermion system

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, J; Escher, Jutta; Leviatan, Amiram

    2000-01-01

    The relevance of the partial dynamical symmetry concept for an interactingfermion system is demonstrated. Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry arepresented in the framework of the symplectic shell-model of nuclei and shown tobe closely related to the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Implications arediscussed for the deformed light nucleus $^{20}$Ne.

  12. Coefficient of Partial Correlation and Its Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段全才; 张保法

    1992-01-01

    This thesis offers the general concept of coefficient of partial correlation.Starting with regres-sion analysis,the paper,by using samples,infers the general formula of expressing coefficient of partial correlation by way of simple correlation coefficient.

  13. Zero ischemia laparoscopic partial thulium laser nephrectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Arun Z

    2013-11-01

    Laser technology presents a promising alternative to achieve tumor excision and renal hemostasis with or without hilar occlusion, yet its use in partial nephrectomy has not been significantly evaluated. We prospectively evaluated the thulium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in our institution over a 1-year period.

  14. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  15. On the Category of Partial Bijections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Categories of partial functions have become increasingly important principally because of their applications in theoretical computer science. In this note we prove that the category of partial bijections between sets as an inverse-Baer*-category with closed projections and in which the idempotents split is an exact category. Finally the Noether isomorphism theorems are given for this exact category.

  16. Enhancing Energy Efficient TCP by Partial Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a study on the effects on a mobile system's energy efficiency of enhancing, with partial reliability, our energy efficient TCP variant (E/sup 2/TCP) (see Donckers, L. et al., Proc. 2nd Asian Int. Mobile Computing Conf. - AMOC2002, p.18-28, 2002). Partial reliability is beneficial for mult

  17. Solution techniques for elementary partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating a number of enhancements, Solution Techniques for Elementary Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition presents some of the most important and widely used methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). The techniques covered include separation of variables, method of characteristics, eigenfunction expansion, Fourier and Laplace transformations, Green’s functions, perturbation methods, and asymptotic analysis.

  18. Brazilian Arms Production: Partial Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    supported by the government, which actively created state enterprises such as Banco do Brasil , Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (the state-owned steel...slate holding company Industria do Material Belico do Brasil (IMBEL) was formed to manage Brazil’s war materiel production factories and to formulate...34 Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS)-Latin America Daily Report (18 July 1988), 24. 12- Bernardini SA. Industria e Comercio , Brazil’s second

  19. Numerical modeling of partial discharges parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent testing of the partial discharges or the use for the diagnosis of insulation condition of high voltage generators, transformers, cables and high voltage equipment develops rapidly. It is a result of the development of electronics, as well as, the development of knowledge about the processes of partial discharges. The aim of this paper is to contribute the better understanding of this phenomenon of partial discharges by consideration of the relevant physical processes in isolation materials and isolation systems. Prebreakdown considers specific processes, and development processes at the local level and their impact on specific isolation material. This approach to the phenomenon of partial discharges needed to allow better take into account relevant discharge parameters as well as better numerical model of partial discharges.

  20. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR DENSITIES OF RANDOM PROCESSES,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS , STOCHASTIC PROCESSES), (*STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ), EQUATIONS, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, STATISTICAL PROCESSES, PROBABILITY, NUMERICAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES