WorldWideScience

Sample records for activated carbon manufacture

  1. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands: Peat moss litter and active carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Gerding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss litter was made from white peat that was ground and sieved in factories which were located mainly in bog areas in the south-east of the province of Drenthe. It served as excellent bedding for horses and cattle. The second form of industrial peat processing was the manufacture, from 1921 onwards, of active carbon made from black peat. The Purit (Norit factory, now part of the Cabot Corporation, is still the only active carbon factory using peat as a raw material. The third form of peat processing was the production of garden peat and potting soil. This is still a widespread activity in peat areas all over the world. The peat moss litter industry thrived from the 1880s until shortly after the First World War. The arrival of the horse-drawn tram in all of the major cities of Europe created a great demand for animal bedding to be used in the vast stables of the tramway companies. Peat moss litter was cleaner, healthier and easier to handle than straw. There was similar demand from the armies, which used millions of horses during the First World War. Owing to the development of motorised vehicles, the peat market collapsed after the war and this plunged the industry into a prolonged crisis which was not overcome until peat was found to be a suitable growing medium for horticulture in the 1950s. Living and working conditions in peatlands were harsh, earnings irregular and labourers’ rights limited. The peat manufacturing industry was the first to introduce collective labour agreements, medical benefits and pension plans. Nonetheless massive unemployment, poverty and the necessity to migrate to other parts of the country were clear signs that the era of

  2. An investigation of the effects of the addition of powdered activated carbon to the activated sludge of cellulose acetate manufacturing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kwelle, Chidiadi Hart

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium powdered activated carbon (PAC) concentrations of 20, 160, and 280 mg/L in activated sludge reactors treating cellulose acetate manufacturing wastewater were found to enhance substrate removal. The improved substrate removal as measured by COD averaged 20 percent. The apparent mechanism of improved removal was the stimulation of greater biomass growth. PAC addition increased the oxygen uptake rate (OUR), the observed cell yield coefficient (Ybbs) and the fi...

  3. STUDY ON USING WASTE ORGANIC SILK TO MANUFACTURE ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER%废旧有机丝制备活性炭纤维的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建利; 杜美利; 黄婕; 王健

    2012-01-01

    活性炭纤维是以高聚物为原料,经高温炭化和活化而制成的一种纤维状高效吸附分离材料.利用废旧有机丝为原料,探索在不同工艺条件下制取活性炭纤维的可行性.经扫描电镜、X射线衍射、红外分光光度计及亚甲基蓝吸附实验分析得出优化的工艺条件为:炭化温度,650℃;用CO2活化,活化温度为950℃,活化时间为60 min,制得吸附性能优良的活性炭纤维.%The activated carbon fiber is a kind of highly effective separation and adsorption material, which takes polymer as raw material while carbonization and activation in high temperature. In this study, we use waste organic silk as raw material, seek feasibility to manufacture activated carbon fiber in different condition. In the end, through the SEM, XRD, IR and adsorption of methylene blue trihydrate, we has preparated excellent performance activated carbon fiber and concluded optimal conditions: carbonization temperature is 650 ℃ , activation is in CO2 atmosphere, activation temperature is 950 ℃, activation time is 60 min.

  4. Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    With the current focus on our climate change impacts, the embodied CO2 emission or "Carbon footprint" is often used as an environmental performance indicator for our products or production activities. The ability of carbon footprint to represent other types of impact like human toxicity, and hence...... the overall environmental impact is investigated based on life cycle assessments of several materials of major relevance to manufacturing industries. The dependence of the carbon footprint on the assumed scenarios for generation of thermal and electrical energy in the life cycle of the materials is analyzed......, and the appropriateness of carbon footprint as an overall indicator of the environmental performance is discussed....

  5. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Platon; A Dumbrava; N Iutes-Petrescu; Luzia Simionescu

    2000-02-01

    Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the `green electrode’. This is then baked under controlled conditions. In case of usage as anodes in steel electric furnaces (or as other carbon and graphite products), the electrodes could undergo further processing like pitch impregnation or graphitization. During heat treatment, some of the organics are destructively distilled, vaporized or decomposed, resulting in carbon deposition in the electrode. As the vaporized materials exit the body of the electrode they cause porosity in the walls, which results in reduction in density, current carrying capacity and flexural strength. The paper presents investigations to improve some physico-chemical characteristics of these electrodes (such as coefficient of thermal expansion, mechanical strengths, density, pore volume, porosity etc.), obtained in different manufacture steps, by addition of varieties of coal tar pitch. These include attempts to improve the chemical compatibility of the coke-pitch system in the mixture and establish the method and the point of introduction of additive, the concentration required and appropriate analytical control during the entire manufacture. Methods of analysis used include thermogravimetry and porosimetry. The microstructure of the electrodes is investigated through a wide range and the data obtained include pore size and pore volume distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The overall results clearly indicate better characteristics and performance for electrodes with additives as against electrodes without them, such as lower porosity, lower thermal expansion coefficients and greater mechanical strength. These data are analyzed with respect to the process step and electrode type.

  6. Low carbon manufacturing: Characterization, theoretical models and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Tridech, S; CHENG, K

    2008-01-01

    Today, the rising of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is becoming the crucial factor for global warming especially in industrial sectors. Therefore, the research to reduce carbon intensity and enhance resources utilization in manufacturing industry is starting to be a timely topic. Low carbon manufacturing (LCM) can be referred to the manufacturing process that produces low carbon emissions intensity and uses energy and resources efficiently and effectively during the process as well. In thi...

  7. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  8. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  9. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  10. ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF MANUFACTURING AND USING OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Лавренченко, Г. К.

    2015-01-01

    The Ukrainian Association of Manufacturers of Industrial Gases «UA-SIGMA» on May, 18-22, 2009 in Odessa had been carried out the third international seminar «СО2-2009». The questions considered at seminar have been incorporated by an actual problem of increase of efficiency and ecologically-technological safety of manufacture and use of carbon dioxide. In this problem was interested not only the manufacturers of СО2 and urea but also those who releases the various carbon dioxide equipment. Th...

  11. Studies of activated carbon and carbon black for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R.; Mueller, S.; Koetz, R.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Carbon Black and activated carbon materials providing high surface areas and a distinct pore distribution are prime materials for supercapacitor applications at frequencies < 0.5 Hz. A number of these materials were tested for their specific capacitance, surface and pore size distribution. High capacitance electrodes were manufactured on the laboratory scale with attention to ease of processability. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref.

  12. Design for manufacturability production management activity report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Norihiko; Sato, T.; Honma, M.; Yoshioka, N.; Hosono, K.; Onodera, T.; Itoh, H.; Suzuki, H.; Uga, T.; Kadota, K.; Iriki, N.

    2006-05-01

    Design For Manufacturability Production Management (DFM-PM) Subcommittee has been started in succession to Reticle Management Subcommittee (RMS) in Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Committee for Japan (SMTCJ) from 2005. Our activity focuses on the SoC (System On Chip) Business, and it pursues the improvement of communication in manufacturing technique. The first theme of activity is the investigation and examination of the new trends about production (manufacturer) technology and related information, and proposals of business solution. The second theme is the standardization activity about manufacture technology and the cooperation with related semiconductors' organizations. And the third theme is holding workshop and support for promotion and spread of the standardization technology throughout semiconductor companies. We expand a range of scope from design technology to wafer pattern reliability and we will propose the competition domain, the collaboration area and the standardization technology on DFM. Furthermore, we will be able to make up a SoC business model as the 45nm node technology beyond manufacturing platform in cooperating with the design information and the production information by utilizing EDA technology.

  13. 基于活动的产品车间制造过程碳排量计算方法%Activity-Based Carbon-computing method for manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐任仲; 贾顺; 吕景祥

    2011-01-01

    An activity-based carbon-computing method was proposed by using the thinking of activity-based costing for reference.Firstly, the conception and principle of the activity-based carbon-computing method were presented; then the carbon-computing model of the product manufacturing process was established based on activity; the acquisition and calculation approach of the key elements of the computing model were analyzed and presented; Finally, a case study was presented, which demonstrates the validity of the proposed method.The research result can be furtherly applied to the low carbon evaluation and optimization.%借鉴基于活动的成本法思想,提出了一种基于活动的碳排量计算方法.首先介绍了活动碳算法的概念和原理,建立了基于活动的产品车间制造过程碳排量计算模型;分析并给出了计算模型中关键要素的获取和计算方法;最后给出应用实例,验证了所提方法的有效性.研究结果可进一步应用于制造过程的低碳评价和优化.

  14. Carbon Emission Trends of Manufacturing and Influencing Factors in Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao; MA Yanji

    2016-01-01

    This paper constructed a carbon emission identity based on five factors:industrial activity,industrial structure,energy intensity,energy mix and carbon emission parameter,and analyzed manufacturing carbon emission trends in Jilin Province at subdivided industrial level through Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method.Results showed that manufacturing carbon emissions of Jilin Province increased 1.304 × 107t by 66% between 2004 and 2010.However,2012 was a remarkable year in which carbon emissions decreased compared with 2011,the first fall since 2004.Industrial activity was the most important factor for the increase of carbon emissions,while energy intensity had the greatest impact on inhibiting carbon emission growth.Despite the impact of industrial structure on carbon emissions fluctuated,its overall trend inhibited carbon emission growth.Further,influences of industrial structure became gradually stronger and surpassed energy intensity in the period 2009-2010.These results conclude that reducing energy intensity is still the main way for carbon emission reduction in Jilin Province,but industrial structure can not be ignored and it has great potential.Based on the analyses,the way of manufacturing industrial structure adjustment for Jilin Province is put forward.

  15. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  16. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  17. Carbon nanotube-polymer composites manufacture, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    The accessible compendium of polymers in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-extremely thin tubes only a few nanometers in diameter but able to attain lengths thousands of times greater-are prime candidates for use in the development of polymer composite materials. Bringing together thousands of disparate research works, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Manufacture, Properties, and Applications covers CNT-polymers from synthesis to potential applications, presenting the basic science and engineering of this dynamic and complex area in an accessible, readable way. Desi

  18. Global Sourcing of Services Versus Manufacturing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    International sourcing strategies and operations are usually described distinctively for manufacturing and services. In this paper, the theoretical and strategic relevance of this distinction is questioned. As an alternative, an activity-based theoretical framework for exploring the linkages...... between the attributes of the globally sourced activities and the international sourcing operations of firms is presented. This paper discusses the implications for global sourcing research and the strategic and organizational implications for managers, and it argues that finding the right match between...... strategy, activity and organization is a key determinant of the success of the sourcing process and outcome....

  19. Trial manufacturing of titanium-carbon steel composite overpack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Takahiko; Tanai, Kenji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports the results of design analysis and trial manufacturing of full-scale titanium-carbon steel composite overpacks. The overpack is one of the key components of the engineered barrier system, hence, it is necessary to confirm the applicability of current technique in their manufacture. The required thickness was calculated according to mechanical resistance analysis, based on models used in current nuclear facilities. The Adequacy of the calculated dimensions was confirmed by finite-element methods. To investigate the necessity of a radiation shielding function of the overpack, the irradiation from vitrified waste has been calculated. As a result, it was shown that shielding on handling and transport equipment is a more reasonable and practical approach than to increase thickness of overpack to attain a self-shielding capability. After the above investigation, trial manufacturing of full-scale model of titanium-carbon steel composite overpack has been carried out. For corrosion-resistant material, ASTM Grade-2 titanium was selected. The titanium layer was bonded individually to a cylindrical shell and fiat cover plates (top and bottom) made of carbon steel. For the cylindrical shell portion, a cylindrically formed titanium layer was fitted to the inner carbon steel vessel by shrinkage. For the flat cover plates (top and bottom), titanium plate material was coated by explosive bonding. Electron beam welding and gas metal arc welding were combined to weld of the cover plates to the body. No significant failure was evident from inspections of the fabrication process, and the applicability of current technology for manufacturing titanium-carbon steel composite overpack was confirmed. Future research and development items regarding titanium-carbon steel composite overpacks are also discussed. (author)

  20. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing Activities No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Part 783—Manufacturing Activities The following constitute manufacturing activities that require...

  2. Occupational exposure to carbon black in its manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, K; Trethowan, W N; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A; Glass, D C

    1992-10-01

    Carbon black is manufactured by the vapour phase pyrolysis of heavy aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks. Its manufacture is worldwide and the majority of its production is for use in the rubber industry especially tyre manufacture. Its carbonaceous nature has led many to investigate the occurrence of exposure-related medical conditions. To quantify any such relationships, it is necessary to assess exposure accurately. As part of such an epidemiological investigation survey involving the measurement both of respirable and of total inhalable carbon black was undertaken in 18 plants in seven European countries between mid-1987 and mid-1989. A total of 1298 respirable samples (SIMPEDS cyclone) and 1317 total inhalable samples (IOM head) were taken and deemed of sufficient quality for inclusion in the study. The distributions of the time-weighted average values were assessed and found to be best described by a log-normal distribution, and so exposure is characterized by geometric means and standard deviations. The data are presented in terms of 13 separate job titles for both dust fractions and shows a wide variation between job titles, with the highest mean exposure experienced by the site cleaners, and 30% of the samples taken from the warehouse packers being in excess of the relevant countries' occupational exposure limits for total inhalable dust. The quality and extent of this data allows both for comparison with exposure standards and for generation of occupational exposure indices, which will be presented in another paper (Gardiner et al., in preparation). PMID:1444068

  3. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  4. 27 CFR 40.256 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and... Provisions Relating to Operations § 40.256 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. The minimum manufacturing and activity requirement prescribed in § 40.61(b) of this part is a continuing condition of...

  5. Strain-engineered manufacturing of freeform carbon nanotube microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Volder, M.; Park, S.; Tawfick, S.; Hart, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    The skins of many plants and animals have intricate microscale surface features that give rise to properties such as directed water repellency and adhesion, camouflage, and resistance to fouling. However, engineered mimicry of these designs has been restrained by the limited capabilities of top-down fabrication processes. Here we demonstrate a new technique for scalable manufacturing of freeform microstructures via strain-engineered growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Offset patterning of the CNT growth catalyst is used to locally modulate the CNT growth rate. This causes the CNTs to collectively bend during growth, with exceptional uniformity over large areas. The final shape of the curved CNT microstructures can be designed via finite element modeling, and compound catalyst shapes produce microstructures with multidirectional curvature and unusual self-organized patterns. Conformal coating of the CNTs enables tuning of the mechanical properties independently from the microstructure geometry, representing a versatile principle for design and manufacturing of complex microstructured surfaces.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Johnson, Joseph E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-06-06

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  7. CARBON NANOTUBE CHOPPED FIBER FOR ENHANCIED PROPERTIES IN ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; JohnsonPh.D., DR Joseph E. [Nanocomp Technologies, Inc.

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  8. Development of an Evaluating Method for Carbon Emissions of Manufacturing Process Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon intensity reduction and energy utilization enhancement in manufacturing industry are becoming a timely topic. In a manufacturing system, the process planning is the combination of all production factors which influences the entail carbon emissions during manufacturing. In order to meet the current low carbon manufacturing requirements, a carbon emission evaluation method for the manufacturing process planning is highly desirable to be developed. This work presents a method to evaluate the carbon emissions of a process plan by aggregating the unit process to form a combined model for evaluating carbon emissions. The evaluating results can be used to decrease the resource and energy consumption and pinpoint detailed breakdown of the influences between manufacturing process plan and carbon emissions. Finally, the carbon emission analysis method is applied to a process plan of an axis to examine its feasibility and validity.

  9. Active assembly for large-scale manufacturing of integrated nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Bachand, George David; Hendricks, Judy K.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are protein-based biological agents that work cooperatively to facilitate the organization and transport of nanomaterials within living organisms. This report describes the application of these biological agents as tools in a novel, interdisciplinary scheme for assembling integrated nanostructures. Specifically, selective chemistries were used to direct the favorable adsorption of active motor proteins onto lithographically-defined gold electrodes. Taking advantage of the specific affinity these motor proteins have for microtubules, the motor proteins were used to capture polymerized microtubules out of suspension to form dense patterns of microtubules and microtubule bridges between gold electrodes. These microtubules were then used as biofunctionalized templates to direct the organization of functionalized nanocargo including single-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. This biologically-mediated scheme for nanomaterials assembly has shown excellent promise as a foundation for developing new biohybrid approaches to nanoscale manufacturing.

  10. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  11. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  12. Preparation and application of active gangue's carbon black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-lin; ZHANG Yi-dong

    2007-01-01

    After three-stage pulverization, dry-distillated activation and coupling agent surface modification, the kaolinite-typed gangue of Sichuan Hongni Coal Mine(SHCM) can be manufactured into activated gangue's carbon black. Its surface area is >25 m2/g, and possesses carbon black's carbon framework and structure. It can be used as strengthening agent of high polymer material such as rubber.

  13. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  14. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon. PMID:24898563

  15. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon.

  16. Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Nowack, B.; Wiesner, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to agg

  17. Decomposition and Decoupling Analysis of Energy-Related Carbon Emissions from China Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Qingchun Liu; Shufang Liu; Lingqun Kong

    2015-01-01

    The energy-related carbon emissions of China’s manufacturing increased rapidly, from 36988.97 × 104 tC in 1996 to 74923.45 × 104 tC in 2012. To explore the factors to the change of the energy-related carbon emissions from manufacturing sector and the decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emissions and economic growth, the empirical research was carried out based on the LMDI method and Tapio decoupling model. We found that the production scale contributed the most to the increa...

  18. Solar-collector manufacturing activity, July through December, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Solar thermal collector and solar cell manufacturing activity is both summarized and tabulated. Data are compared for three survey periods (July through December, 1981; January through June, 1981; and July through December, 1980). Annual totals are also provided for the years 1979 through 1981. Data include total producer shipments, end use, market sector, imports and exports. (LEW)

  19. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 1599, 1/11/2011) and the application has... Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ...

  20. Advanced carbon manufacturing for energy and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon Teixidor, Genis

    The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.

  1. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a...

  2. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sabaliauskaitė; Kliaugaitė, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC) production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and materi...

  3. PROGRESS ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber is one kind of important adsorption materials. These novel fibrousadsorbents have high specific surface areas or abundant functional groups, which make them havegreater adsorption/desorption rates and larger adsorption capacities than other adsorbents. They canbe prepared as bundle, paper, cloth and felt to meet various technical requirement. They also showreduction property. In this paper the latest progress on the studies of the preparation and adsorptionproperties of activated carbon fibers is reviewed. The application of these materials in drinking waterpurification, environmental control, resource recovery, chemical industry, and in medicine and healthcare is also presented.

  4. ACTIVATION ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF DIBENZOFURAN ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Cold-Drawn Low Carbon Steel for Nail Manufacture: Experimental Observation

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Raji; O.O. Oluwole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of service situation on the mechanical properties of plain nails manufactured from low carbon steel. The influence of the degree of cold drawing on the mechanical properties and strain hardening of the material is investigated by tensile test experimentation. The stress-strain relationships of the cold-drawn low carbon steel were investigated over the 20, 25, 40 and 55% degree of drawn deformation for the manufacture of 4, 3, 2½ and ...

  6. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Gerald C. (North Augusta, SC); Falta, Ronald W. (Seneca, SC); Siddall, Alvin A. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  7. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO2 at 9500 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  8. Active carbon catalyst for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidetsugu; Terai, Satoshi [Technology Research Center, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 1818 Azafujimi, Togo, Mobara-shi, Chiba 297-00017 (Japan); Uchida, Masayuki [Business Planning and Exploring Department, Overseas Business Development and Marketing Division, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 2-8-1 Akanehama, Narashino-shi, Chiba 275-0024 (Japan); Cano, Jose L.; Ancheyta, Jorge [Maya Crude Treatment Project, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The active carbon (AC) catalyst was studied by hydrocracking of Middle Eastern vacuum residue (VR) for heavy oil upgrading. It was observed that the active carbon has the affinity to heavy hydrocarbon compounds and adsorption selectivity to asphaltenes, and exhibits better ability to restrict the coke formation during the hydrocracking reaction of VR. The mesopore of active carbon was thought to play an important role for effective conversion of heavy hydrocarbon compounds into lighter fractions restricting carbon formation. The performance of the AC catalyst was examined by continuous hydrocracking by CSTR for the removal of such impurities as sulfur and heavy metals (nickel and vanadium), which are mostly concentrated in the asphaltenes. The AC catalyst was confirmed to be very effective for the removal of heavy metals from Middle Eastern VR, Maya/Istmo VR and Maya VR. The extruded AC catalysts were produced by industrial manufacturing method. The application test of the extruded AC catalyst for ebullating-bed reactor as one of the commercially applicable reactors was carried out at the ebullating-bed pilot plant for 500h. The ebullition of the extruded AC catalyst was successfully traced and confirmed by existing {gamma}-ray density meter. The extruded AC catalyst showed stable performance with less sediment formation at an equivalent conversion by conventional alumina catalyst at commercial ebullating-bed unit. The degradation of the AC catalyst at the aging test was observed to be less than that of the conventional alumina catalyst. Thus, the AC catalyst was confirmed to be effective and suitable for upgrading of heavy oil, especially such heavy oils as Maya, which contains much heavy metals.

  9. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hufenbach; Gude, M.; A. Czulak; J. Śleziona; A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology e...

  10. The Manufacture of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a processing aid to help exfoliate nano-clays and improve their dispersion during melt blending in polymer matrices has been reported in the literature. One of the best processes in terms of improving the degree of nano-clay dispersion and composite mechanical properties was developed in our laboratory. This process allows the clay to be in direct contact with scCO2 and expanding the clay-CO2 mixture via rapid depressurization into a two-stag...

  11. Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.S. Dovbysh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

  12. Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    А.S. Dovbysh; А.F. Budnik; N.І. Andriienko

    2010-01-01

    Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

  13. Photoconductivity of Activated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, K.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    1990-08-01

    The photoconductivity is measured on a high-surface-area disordered carbon material, namely activated carbon fibers, to investigate their electronic properties. Measurements of decay time, recombination kinetics and temperature dependence of the photoconductivity generally reflect the electronic properties of a material. The material studied in this paper is a highly disordered carbon derived from a phenolic precursor, having a huge specific surface area of 1000--2000m{sup 2}/g. Our preliminary thermopower measurements suggest that this carbon material is a p-type semiconductor with an amorphous-like microstructure. The intrinsic electrical conductivity, on the order of 20S/cm at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature in the range 30--290K. In contrast with the intrinsic conductivity, the photoconductivity in vacuum decreases with increasing temperature. The recombination kinetics changes from a monomolecular process at room temperature to a biomolecular process at low temperatures. The observed decay time of the photoconductivity is {approx equal}0.3sec. The magnitude of the photoconductive signal was reduced by a factor of ten when the sample was exposed to air. The intrinsic carrier density and the activation energy for conduction are estimated to be {approx equal}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3} and {approx equal}20meV, respectively. The majority of the induced photocarriers and of the intrinsic carriers are trapped, resulting in the long decay time of the photoconductivity and the positive temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  14. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) model for supply chain collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHAPMAN,LEON D.; PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.

    2000-03-13

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise architecture and collaborative model for supply chains. This model will enable improved collaborative business across any supply chain. The DAMA Model for Supply Chain Collaboration is a high-level model for collaboration to achieve Demand Activated Manufacturing. The five major elements of the architecture to support collaboration are (1) activity or process, (2) information, (3) application, (4) data, and (5) infrastructure. These five elements are tied to the application of the DAMA architecture to three phases of collaboration - prepare, pilot, and scale. There are six collaborative activities that may be employed in this model: (1) Develop Business Planning Agreements, (2) Define Products, (3) Forecast and Plan Capacity Commitments, (4) Schedule Product and Product Delivery, (5) Expedite Production and Delivery Exceptions, and (6) Populate Supply Chain Utility. The Supply Chain Utility is a set of applications implemented to support collaborative product definition, forecast visibility, planning, scheduling, and execution. The DAMA architecture and model will be presented along with the process for implementing this DAMA model.

  15. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  16. Innovative Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube-Loaded Fibrillar Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. J. T.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Fakirov, S.

    The concept of microfibrillar composite (MFC) has been used to create a new type of polymer composites, in which the reinforcing microfibrils are loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNT). Polyamide 66 (PA66) has been melt blended with polypropylene in a twin screw extruder with and without CNT, and thereafter cold drawn to create a fibrillar state as well as to align the CNT in the PA66 microfibrils. The drawn bristles were compression moulded at 180°C to prepare MFC plates. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations indicate near perfect distribution of CNT in the reinforcing PA66 microfibrils. Although the fibrillated PA66 is able to improve the tensile stiffness and strength as expected from the MFC structure, the incorporation of CNT does not exhibit any further enhancing effect. It rather adversely affects the mechanical properties due to poor interface adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing microfibrils with the presence of CNT, as demonstrated by SEM. However, the resulting highly aligned CNT within the MFC are expected to affect the physical and functional properties of these composites.

  17. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices. PMID:27355967

  18. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eifion Jewell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices.

  19. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-06-27

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices.

  20. FAME: Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment: manufacturing process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Venema, Lars; Schnetler, Hermine; Ferrari, Marc; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Extreme freeform mirrors couple a non-axisymmetrical shape and an extreme asphericity, i.e. more than one millimeter of deviation from the best fit sphere. In astronomical instrumentation, such a large asphericity allows compact instruments, using less optical components. However, the lack of freeform mirrors manufacturing facilities is a real issue. We present the concept and development of an innovative manufacturing process based on plasticity forming which allow imprinting permanent deformations on mirrors, following a pre-defined mold. The aim of this activity, pursued in the frame of the OPTICON-FAME (Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment) project, is to demonstrate the suitability of this method for VIS/NIR/MIR applications. The process developed can operate on thin and flat polished initial substrates. Three study cases have been highlighted by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) and the real tests associated were performed on thin substrates in AISI420b stainless steel with 100 mm optical diameter. A comparison between FEA and tests is performed to study the evolution of the mechanical behaviour and the optical quality. The opto-mechanical results will allow a fine tuning of FEA parameters to optimize the residual form errors obtained through this process to converge toward an innovative and recurrent process.

  1. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel ePiñeiro-Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed.In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  2. Carbon black dispersion pre-plating technology for printed wire board manufacturing. Final technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folsom, D.W.; Gavaskar, A.R.; Jones, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    The project compared chemical use, waste generation, cost, and product quality between electroless copper and carbon-black-based preplating technologies at the printed wire board (PWB) manufacturing facility of McCurdy Circuits in Orange, CA. The carbon-black based preplating technology evaluated is used as an alternative process for electroless copper (EC) plating of through-holes before electrolytic copper plating. The specific process used at McCurdy is the BlackHole (BH) technology process, which uses a dispersion of carbon black in an aqueous solution to provide a conductive surface for subsequent electrolytic copper plating. The carbon-black dispersion technology provided effective waste reduction and long-term cost savings. The economic analysis determined that the new process was cost efficient because chemical use was reduced and the process proved more efficient; the payback period was less than 4 yrs.

  3. Manufacturing and characterization of printed strain gauges based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Arreba Garcia-Abad, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), established in nanoscale range, are one of the most studied materials since their discovery, in Japan by S. Iijima in 1991. Due to their excellent electrical, mechanical and thermal properties, it is predicted that CNTs can be used in a wide field of technological applications. The aim of this thesis is to produce a CNT strain gauge due to this material offers higher sensitivity than metallic strain gauges, between other advantages. When manufacturing a CNT strain gau...

  4. Predicting the mechanical behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide with interlaminar manufacturing defects

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann Severin; Koch Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    A finite element approach based on experimental material data is presented in order to compute the mechanical reliability of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide, C/C-SiC, taking interlaminar manufacturing defects into account. The approach is evaluated on sample scale by modelling the flexural behaviour of C/C-SiC samples containing delaminations after liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) processing. The non-destructive evaluation methods, determination of fracture mechanical input data and ...

  5. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  6. Adsorption of Imidacloprid on Powdered Activated Carbon and Magnetic Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, M.; Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorptive characteristics of imidacloprid on magnetic activated carbon (MAC12) in comparison to powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Adsorption of imidacloprid onto powdered activated carbon and magnetic activated carbon was studied as a function of time, initial imidacloprid concentration, temperature and pH. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models for both carbons were used to describe the kinetic data. The adsorption equilibrium data we...

  7. Adsorption Properties of Lignin-derived Activated Carbon Fibers (LACF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Karra, Reddy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The object of this CRADA project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is the characterization of lignin-derived activated carbon fibers (LACF) and determination of their adsorption properties for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Carbon fibers from lignin raw materials were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the technology previously developed at ORNL. These fibers were physically activated at ORNL using various activation conditions, and their surface area and pore-size distribution were characterized by gas adsorption. Based on these properties, ORNL did down-select five differently activated LACF materials that were delivered to UTRC for measurement of VOC adsorption properties. UTRC used standard techniques based on breakthrough curves to measure and determine the adsorption properties of indoor air pollutants (IAP) - namely formaldehyde and carbon dioxide - and to verify the extent of saturated fiber regenerability by thermal treatments. The results are summarized as follows: (1) ORNL demonstrated that physical activation of lignin-derived carbon fibers can be tailored to obtain LACF with surface areas and pore size distributions matching the properties of activated carbon fibers obtained from more expensive, fossil-fuel precursors; (2) UTRC investigated the LACF potential for use in air cleaning applications currently pursued by UTRC, such as building ventilation, and demonstrated their regenerability for CO2 and formaldehyde, (3) Both partners agree that LACF have potential for possible use in air cleaning applications.

  8. Design of a Production Activity Control System for the Computer Integrated Manufacturing Enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, lain Carlyle.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of research into provision of Production Activity Control (PAC) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems for manufacture of discrete parts. The role and environment of PAC systems is described, against the background of development of the discrete parts manufacturing industry. Strategies and architectures for building PAC systems are reviewed, in terms of the goals of PAC ...

  9. Design and Manufacturing of a Composite Lattice Structure Reinforced by Continuous Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hualin; YANG Wei; WANG Bin; YAN Yong; FU Qiang; FANG Daining; ZHUANG Zhuo

    2006-01-01

    New techniques have been developed to make materials with a periodic three-dimensional lattice structure. The high stiffness per unit weight and multifunction of such lattice structures make them attractive for use in aeronautic and astronautic structures. In this paper, epoxy-soaked continuous carbon fibres were first introduced to make lattice composite structures, which maximize the specific load carrying capacity. A micromechanical analysis of several designs, each corresponding to a different manufacturing route, was carried out, in order to find the optimized lattice structure with maximum specific stiffness. An intertwining method was chosen and developed as the best route to make lattice composite materials reinforced by carbon fibers. A sandwich-weaved sample with a three-dimensional intertwined lattice structure core was found to be best. The manufacturing of such a composite lattice material was outlined. In addition to a high shear strength of the core and the integral manufacturing method, the lattice sandwich structure is expected to possess better mechanical capability.

  10. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Cold-Drawn Low Carbon Steel for Nail Manufacture: Experimental Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Raji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of service situation on the mechanical properties of plain nails manufactured from low carbon steel. The influence of the degree of cold drawing on the mechanical properties and strain hardening of the material is investigated by tensile test experimentation. The stress-strain relationships of the cold-drawn low carbon steel were investigated over the 20, 25, 40 and 55% degree of drawn deformation for the manufacture of 4, 3, 2½ and 2 inches nails, respectively. The true stress-strain curves were analyzed to obtain the yield strength and tensile strength of the cold drawn steel. It is shown that the yield strength, tensile strength, hardness and toughness of the low carbon steel reduce with increasing degree of cold-drawn deformation. The micrographs of the deformed samples obtained using optical microscope shows that the grain structure elongates in the direction of the drawing operation and misorientation of the grains set in at 40 and 55% degree of deformation. The difference in yield strength was attributed to the strain hardening, resulting from the different degrees of drawn deformation.

  12. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  13. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  14. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  15. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  16. The Relationship between Manufacturing Integration and Performance from an Activity-Oriented Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ely Laureano Paiva; Iuri Gavronski; Livia Castro D'Avila

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing integration with other functional areas and suppliers is a key aspect for achieving sustainable competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to analyze manufacturing integration from an activity-based perspective. We hypothesize that manufacturing integration with suppliers, marketing, and R&D is positively related to profit and sales growth when it occurs simultaneously in key internal activities. We surveyed 366 companies located in the southern region of Brazil, chos...

  17. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  18. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  19. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  1. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  2. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from demineralized tyre char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Prasad, Guddu R.; Joshi, Parth.; Zala, Ranjitsingh S.; Gokhale, Siddharth S.; Manocha, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon is the most adsorbing material for industrial waste water treatment. For wider applications, the main consideration is to manufacture activated carbon from low cost precursors, which are easily available and cost effective. One such source is scrap tyres. Recently much effort has been devoted to the thermal degradation of tyres into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and solid char residue, all of which have the potential to be processed into valuable products. As for solid residue, char can be used either as low-grade reinforcing filler or as activated carbon. The product recovered by a typical pyrolysis of tyres are usually, 33-38 wt% pyrolytic char, 38-55 wt% oil and 10-30 wt% solid fractions. In the present work activated carbon was prepared from pyrolyzed tyre char (PC). Demineralization involves the dissolution of metal into acids i.e. HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 and in base i.e. NaOH. Different concentration of acid and base were used. Sodium hydroxide showed maximum amount of metal oxide removal. Further the concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied from 1N to 6N. As the concentration of acid are increased demineralization increases. 6N Sodium hydroxide is found to be more effective demineralising agent of tyre char.

  3. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Savory

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Activity for each part type and includes specific information about the cost drivers and cost pools.  The enhanced model output can be used for cost estimation and analysis, manufacturing cell design, part scheduling and other manufacturing decision processes that involve economic considerations. Although the scope of this effort is restricted to a small scale manufacturing cell, the costing concepts have general applicability to manufacturing operations at all levels.

  4. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  5. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  6. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC) approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost ...

  7. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hufenbach

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology enables to fabricate complex carbon aluminium composites with fibre or textile reinforcement using moulds of graphite, but in future development the optimization of infiltration process is required. The load-adapted combination of 3D reinforced semi-finished fibre products (textile preforms made from carbon fibres (CF with aluminium light metal alloys (Al offers a considerable lightweight construction potential, which up to now has not been exploited.Research limitations/implications: Gas pressure infiltration technology enables to fabricate complex carbon aluminium composites with fibre or textile reinforcement using precision moulds of graphite, but in future development the optimization of infiltration process is required.Practical implications: Load-adapted CF/Al-MMC, due to the relatively high stiffness and strength of the metal matrix, allow the introduction of extremely high forces, thereby enabling a much better exploitation of the existing lightweight construction potential of this material in comparison to other composite materials.Originality/value: Constantly rising demands on extremely stressed lightweight structures, particularly in traffic engineering as well as in machine building and plant engineering, increasingly require the use of endless fibre-reinforced composite materials which, due to their selectively adaptable characteristics profiles, are clearly superior to conventional monolithic materials.

  8. Price discovery between carbonated soft drink manufacturers and retailers: A disaggregate analysis with PC and LiNGAM algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Chun Lai; Bessler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the use of two machine learning algorithms to identify the causal relationships among retail prices, manufacturer prices, and number of packages sold. The two algorithms are PC and Linear Non-Gaussian Acyclic Models (LiNGAM). The dataset studied comprises scanner data collected from the retail sales of carbonated soft drinks in the Chicago area. The PC algorithm is not able to assign direction among retail price, manufacturer price and quantity sold, whereas the LiNGAM al...

  9. Controversy of International Carbon-motivated Border Tax Adjustment and Its Impact on China's Manufacturing Industries%Controversy of International Carbon-motivated Border Tax Adjustment and Its Impact on China's Manufacturing Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Keting

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-motivated border tax adjustment (BTA) aims to compensate for the loss of competitiveness of carbon intensive products due to carbon dioxide abatement actions. Based on the analysis of the international background of carbon-motivated BTAs, this paper discusses the fundamental motivation leading to US policy transformation, the potential impacts of the policy on China's manufacturing industries, and the compatibility of the policy to WTO rules. Carbon-motivated BTAs violate the fundamental principle of the UNFCCC, and potentially conflict with the core WTO principle of non-discrimination reflected in the GATT Articles 1 and III. However, Article XX of the GATT may be applicable. Thus, the author suggests several measures to alleviate the impacts of carbon-motivated BTAs, and puts forward countermeasures based on carbon consumption per capita.

  10. Preparation of microporous activated carbons based on carbonized apricot shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pavlenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of applying the method of thermo-oxidative modification of fiber, based on the shell of apricot along with producing on its base microporous activated carbons that have high specific surface area and a significant amount of micropores were presented. The paper contains analysis and interpretation data of changes in the structure and composition of samples, which occurring as a result of thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Morphological features of the surface of produced activated carbons were studied by using SEM microscopy; the pore structure and specific surface area were investigated using the method of low-temperature nitrogen adsorption.

  11. Activation of Carbon Dioxide and Synthesis of Propylene Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide to propylene carbonate catalyzed by tetra-tert-butyl metal phthalocyanine in the presence of tributylamine (TBA) shows higher yield than catalyzed by unsubstituted metal phthalocyanine. Comparing different catalysts of diverse metals, (t-Bu)4PcMg is more active than (t-Bu)4PcFe. But (t-Bu)4PcCo and (t-Bu)4PcNi only have low catalytic activities towards the reaction. Moreover, the yield will increase as the temperature increases.

  12. Methodologies for Active Aging in the Manufacturing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, Rosanna; Berdicchia, Domenica; Zambelli, Mario; Masino, Giovanni

    The research project named “Flexibly Beyond” studied and experimented innovative models for the enhancement of the role of senior workers and prolongation of their working life. The research was based on the application of innovative methods and tools to the ageing society and in particular to the European manufacturing companies represented in the project by apparel and footwear sectors. The project was funded under the Innovative Measures of the art.6 of the European Social Fund (VS/2006/0353) and coordinated by Politecnico Calzaturiero. The real strength of the project was the large network including all the actors of the value chain which allows transferring the theoretical findings to practical level in SMEs manufacturing context.

  13. PREPARATION OF MESOPOROUS CARBON BY CARBON DIOXIDE ACTIVATION WITH CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Z.Shen; A.H.Lu; J.T.Zheng

    2002-01-01

    A mesoporous activated carbon (AC) can be successfully prepared by catalytic activa-tion with carbon dioxide. For iron oxide as catalyst, there were two regions of mesoporesize distribution, i.e. 2-5nm and 30-70nm. When copper oxide or magnesium oxidecoexisted with iron oxide as composite catalyst, the content of pores with sizes of 2-5nm was decreased, while the pores with 30 70nm were increased significantly. Forcomparison, AC reactivated by carbon dioxide directly was also investigated. It wasshown that the size of mesopores of the resulting AC concentrated in 2-5nm with lessvolume. The adsorption of Congo red was tested to evaluate the property of the result-ing AC. Furthermore, the factors affecting pore size distribution and the possibility ofmesopore formation were discussed.

  14. ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF n—HEXANE ON ACTIVATED CARBONS BY PTD TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhong; WANGHongjuan; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,six kinds of activated carbons such as Ag+-activated carbon,Cu2+activated carbon,Fe3+-activated carbon,activated carbon,Ba2+-activated carbon and Ca2+activated carbon were prepared.The model for estimating activated energy of desorption was established.Temperature-programmed desorption(TPD)experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of n-hexanol and then estimate the activation energy for desorption of n-hexanol on the activated carbons.Results showed that the activation energy for the desorption of n-hexanol on the Ag+-activated carbon,the Cu2+-activated carbon and the Fe3+-activated carbon were higher than those of n-hexanol on the activated carbon,the Ca2+-activated carbon and the Ba2+-activated carbon.

  15. ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF n-HEXANE ON ACTIVATED CARBONS BY TPD TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, six kinds of activated carbons such as Ag+-activated carbon, Cu2+-activated carbon, Fe3+- activated carbon, activated carbon, Ba2+- activated carbon and Ca2+-activated carbon were prepared. The model for estimating activated energy of desorption was established. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of n-hexanol and then estimate the activation energy for desorption of n-hexanol on the activated carbons. Results showed that the activation energy for the desorption of n-hexanol on the Ag+- activated carbon, the Cu2+- activated carbon and the Fe3+- activated carbon were higher than those of n-hexanol on the activated carbon, the Ca2+- activated carbon and the Ba2+- activated carbon.

  16. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.

    2012-12-21

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Predicting the mechanical behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide with interlaminar manufacturing defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Severin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element approach based on experimental material data is presented in order to compute the mechanical reliability of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide, C/C-SiC, taking interlaminar manufacturing defects into account. The approach is evaluated on sample scale by modelling the flexural behaviour of C/C-SiC samples containing delaminations after liquid silicon infiltration (LSI processing. The non-destructive evaluation methods, determination of fracture mechanical input data and the numerical cohesive zone approach are described. The numerical predictions of flexural stiffness and strength of samples with and without interlaminar defects were validated by bending tests of the respective samples. The difference between tensile and bending behaviour is explained by FE modelling for this group of CMC materials.

  18. Nanomaterial release characteristics in a single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jun Ho [EcoPictures Co., Ltd (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in various applications, exposure assessment also increases in importance with other various toxicity tests for CNTs. We conducted 24-h continuous nanoaerosol measurements to identify possible nanomaterial release in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing workplace. Four real-time aerosol instruments were used to determine the nanosized and microsized particle numbers, particle surface area, and carbonaceous species. Task-based exposure assessment was carried out for SWCNT synthesis using the arc plasma and thermal decomposition processes to remove amorphous carbon components as impurities. During the SWCNT synthesis, the black carbon (BC) concentration was 2–12 μg/m{sup 3}. The maximum BC mass concentrations occurred when the synthesis chamber was opened for harvesting the SWCNTs. The number concentrations of particles with sizes 10–420 nm were 10,000–40,000 particles/cm{sup 3} during the tasks. The maximum number concentration existed when a vacuum pump was operated to remove exhaust air from the SWCNT synthesis chamber due to the penetration of highly concentrated oil mists through the window opened. We analyzed the particle mass size distribution and particle number size distribution for each peak episode. Using real-time aerosol detectors, we distinguished the SWCNT releases from background nanoaerosols such as oil mist and atmospheric photochemical smog particles. SWCNT aggregates with sizes of 1–10 μm were mainly released from the arc plasma synthesis. The harvesting process was the main release route of SWCNTs in the workplace.

  19. Nanomaterial release characteristics in a single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in various applications, exposure assessment also increases in importance with other various toxicity tests for CNTs. We conducted 24-h continuous nanoaerosol measurements to identify possible nanomaterial release in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing workplace. Four real-time aerosol instruments were used to determine the nanosized and microsized particle numbers, particle surface area, and carbonaceous species. Task-based exposure assessment was carried out for SWCNT synthesis using the arc plasma and thermal decomposition processes to remove amorphous carbon components as impurities. During the SWCNT synthesis, the black carbon (BC) concentration was 2–12 μg/m3. The maximum BC mass concentrations occurred when the synthesis chamber was opened for harvesting the SWCNTs. The number concentrations of particles with sizes 10–420 nm were 10,000–40,000 particles/cm3 during the tasks. The maximum number concentration existed when a vacuum pump was operated to remove exhaust air from the SWCNT synthesis chamber due to the penetration of highly concentrated oil mists through the window opened. We analyzed the particle mass size distribution and particle number size distribution for each peak episode. Using real-time aerosol detectors, we distinguished the SWCNT releases from background nanoaerosols such as oil mist and atmospheric photochemical smog particles. SWCNT aggregates with sizes of 1–10 μm were mainly released from the arc plasma synthesis. The harvesting process was the main release route of SWCNTs in the workplace

  20. Organic solvent regeneration of granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, W. H.; Suidan, M. T.; Roller, M. A.; Kim, B. R.; Gould, J. P.

    1982-09-01

    The use of activated carbon for the treatment of industrial waste-streams was shown to be an effective treatment. The high costs associated with the replacement or thermal regeneration of the carbon have prohibited the economic feasibility of this process. The in situ solvent regeneration of activated carbon by means of organic solvent extraction was suggested as an economically alternative to thermal regeneration. The important aspects of the solvent regeneration process include: the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, the pore size distribution and energy of adsorption associated with the activated carbon; the degree of solubility of the adsorbate in the organic solvent; the miscibility of the organic solvent in water; and the temperature at which the generation is performed.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Maleki Dizaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery.

  2. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  3. Effect of Activated Carbon as a Support on Metal Dispersion and Activity of Ruthenium Catalyst for Ammonia Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ten kinds of activated carbon from different raw materials were used as supports to prepare ruthenium catalysts. N2 physisorption and CO chemisorption were carried out to investigate the pore size distribution and the ruthenium dispersion of the catalysts. It was found that the Ru dispersion of the catalyst was closely related to not only the texture of carbon support but also the purity of activated carbon. The activities of a series of the carbon-supported barium-promoted Ru catalysts for ammonia synthesis were measured at 425 ℃, 10.0 MPa and 10 000 h-1. The result shows that the same raw material activated carbon, with a high purity, high surface area, large pore volume and reasonable pore size distribution might disperse ruthenium and promoter sufficiently, which activated carbon as support, could be used to manufacture ruthenium catalyst with a high activity for ammonia synthesis. The different raw material activated carbon as the support would greatly influence the catalytic properties of the ruthenium catalyst for ammonia synthesis. For example, with coconut shell carbon(AC1) as the support, the ammonia concentration in the effluent was 13.17% over 4%Ru-BaO/AC1 catalyst, while with the desulfurized coal carbon(AC10) as the support, that in the effluent was only 1.37% over 4%Ru-BaO/AC10 catalyst.

  4. Refining of hydrochars/ hydrothermally carbonized biomass into activated carbons and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    Hydrothermally treated biomass could not only be used as a fuel or a fertilizer but it can also be refined into high-value products. Activated carbons are one of those. In the studies of this thesis, four different hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses, including horse manure, grass cuttings, beer waste and biosludge, have been successfully made into activated carbons. The activated carbon materials were in the forms of powdered activated carbons, powdered composites of activated carbon a...

  5. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum Manufactured by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachold, Franziska; Singer, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced aluminum was produced by a specially adapted high-pressure die casting process. The MMC has a fiber volume fraction of 27%. Complete infiltration was achieved by preheating the bidirectional, PAN-based carbon fiber body with IR-emitters to temperatures of around 750 °C. The degradation of the fibers, due to attack of atmospheric oxygen at temperatures above 600 °C, was limited by heating them in argon-rich atmosphere. Additionally, the optimization of heating time and temperature prevented fiber degradation. Only the strength of the outer fibers is reduced by 40% at the most. The fibers in core of fiber body are nearly undamaged. In spite of successful manufacturing, the tensile strength of the MMC is below strength of the matrix material. Also unidirectional MMCs with a fiber volume fraction of 8% produced under the same conditions, lack of the reinforcing effect. Two main reasons for the unsatisfactory mechanical properties were identified: First, the fiber-free matrix, which covers the reinforced core, prevents effective load transfer from the matrix to the fibers. And second, the residual stresses in the fiber-free zones are as high as 100 MPa. This causes premature failure in the matrix. From this, it follows that the local reinforcement of an actual part is limited. The stress distribution caused by residual stresses and by loading needs to be known. In this way, the reinforcing phase can be placed and aligned accordingly. Otherwise delamination and premature failure might occur.

  6. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping

    2011-12-01

    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:22439566

  7. A method of manufacturing process modeling based on activity network for large-sized and complex products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Min; TONG Zhen-bo; WANG Gang

    2008-01-01

    Simulation technique is an efficient approach to realize the planning and scheduling of manufacturing process of products. An appropriate and efficient manufacturing process model is the basis and key of manufac-turing process simulation. By analyzing the features of large-sized and complex products, a method of manufac-turing process modeling based on activity network is presented and a mapping algorithm of translating BOM/ BOP into the manufacturing process model is designed in detail.

  8. Preparation of microporous activated carbons based on carbonized apricot shells

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Pavlenko; Sergey Anurov; Zulkhair Mansurov; Bijsenbaev Makhmut; Tatyana Konkova; Seithan Azat; Sandugash Tanirbergenova; Nurzhamal Zhylybaeva

    2014-01-01

    Results of applying the method of thermo-oxidative modification of fiber, based on the shell of apricot along with producing on its base microporous activated carbons that have high specific surface area and a significant amount of micropores were presented. The paper contains analysis and interpretation data of changes in the structure and composition of samples, which occurring as a result of thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Morphological features of the surface of produced...

  9. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  10. New Product Development for Green and Low-Carbon Products—A Case Study of Taiwan's TFT-LCD Manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Amy H. I.

    2011-11-01

    Green supply chain has become an important topic these days due to pollution, global warming, extreme climatic events, etc. A green product is manufactured with the goal of reducing the damage to the environment and limiting the use of energy and other resources at any stage of its life, including raw materials, manufacture, use, and disposal. Carbon footprint is a good measure of the impact that a product has on the environment, especially in climate change, in the entire lifetime of the product. Carbon footprint is directly linked to CO2 emission; thus, the reduction of CO2 emission must be considered in the product life cycle. Although more and more researchers are working on the green supply chain management in the past few years, few have incorporated CO2 emission or carbon footprint into the green supply chain system. Therefore, this research aims to propose an integrated model for facilitating the new product development (NPD) for green and low-carbon products. In this research, a systematic model based on quality function deployment (QFD) is constructed for developing green and low-carbon products in a TFT-LCD manufacturer. Literature review and interviews with experts are done first to collect the factors for developing and manufacturing green and low-carbon products. Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is applied next to extract the important factors, and fuzzy interpretive structural modeling (FISM) is used subsequently to understand the relationships among factors. A house of quality (HOQ) for product planning is built last. The results shall provide important information for a TFT-LCD firm in designing a new product.

  11. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  12. Manufacturing polymer/carbon nanotube composite using a novel direct process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, C-D; Tran-Cong, T [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre (CESRC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350 (Australia); Lucas, S; Phillips, D G [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 21, Belmont, VIC 3216 (Australia); Randeniya, L K [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Baughman, R H, E-mail: canh-dung.tran@usq.edu.au [NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083-0688 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    A direct process for manufacturing polymer carbon nanotube (CNT)-based composite yarns is reported. The new approach is based on a modified dry spinning method of CNT yarn and gives a high alignment of the CNT bundle structure in yarns. The aligned CNT structure was combined with a polymer resin and, after being stressed through the spinning process, the resin was cured and polymerized, with the CNT structure acting as reinforcement in the composite. Thus the present method obviates the need for special and complex treatments to align and disperse CNTs in a polymer matrix. The new process allows us to produce a polymer/CNT composite with properties that may satisfy various engineering specifications. The structure of the yarn was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with a focused-ion-beam system. The tensile behavior was characterized using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was also used to chemically analyze the presence of polymer on the composites. The process allows development of polymer/CNT-based composites with different mechanical properties suitable for a range of applications by using various resins.

  13. Magnetically anisotropic additive for scalable manufacturing of polymer nanocomposite: iron-coated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Namiko; Manohara, Harish; Platzman, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Novel nanoparticles additives for polymer nanocomposites were prepared by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with ferromagnetic iron (Fe) layers, so that their micro-structures can be bulk-controlled by external magnetic field application. Application of magnetic fields is a promising, scalable method to deliver bulk amount of nanocomposites while maintaining organized nanoparticle assembly throughout the uncured polymer matrix. In this work, Fe layers (˜18 nm thick) were deposited on CNTs (˜38 nm diameter and ˜50 μm length) to form thin films with high aspect ratio, resulting in a dominance of shape anisotropy and thus high coercivity of ˜50-100 Oe. The Fe-coated CNTs were suspended in water and applied with a weak magnetic field of ˜75 G, and yet preliminary magnetic assembly was confirmed. Our results demonstrate that the fabricated Fe-coated CNTs are magnetically anisotropic and effectively respond to magnetic fields that are ˜103 times smaller than other existing work (˜105 G). We anticipate this work will pave the way for effective property enhancement and bulk application of CNT-polymer nanocomposites, through controlled micro-structure and scalable manufacturing.

  14. Manufacturing polymer/carbon nanotube composite using a novel direct process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct process for manufacturing polymer carbon nanotube (CNT)-based composite yarns is reported. The new approach is based on a modified dry spinning method of CNT yarn and gives a high alignment of the CNT bundle structure in yarns. The aligned CNT structure was combined with a polymer resin and, after being stressed through the spinning process, the resin was cured and polymerized, with the CNT structure acting as reinforcement in the composite. Thus the present method obviates the need for special and complex treatments to align and disperse CNTs in a polymer matrix. The new process allows us to produce a polymer/CNT composite with properties that may satisfy various engineering specifications. The structure of the yarn was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with a focused-ion-beam system. The tensile behavior was characterized using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was also used to chemically analyze the presence of polymer on the composites. The process allows development of polymer/CNT-based composites with different mechanical properties suitable for a range of applications by using various resins.

  15. Manufacturing polymer/carbon nanotube composite using a novel direct process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, C.-D.; Lucas, S.; Phillips, D. G.; Randeniya, L. K.; Baughman, R. H.; Tran-Cong, T.

    2011-04-01

    A direct process for manufacturing polymer carbon nanotube (CNT)-based composite yarns is reported. The new approach is based on a modified dry spinning method of CNT yarn and gives a high alignment of the CNT bundle structure in yarns. The aligned CNT structure was combined with a polymer resin and, after being stressed through the spinning process, the resin was cured and polymerized, with the CNT structure acting as reinforcement in the composite. Thus the present method obviates the need for special and complex treatments to align and disperse CNTs in a polymer matrix. The new process allows us to produce a polymer/CNT composite with properties that may satisfy various engineering specifications. The structure of the yarn was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with a focused-ion-beam system. The tensile behavior was characterized using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was also used to chemically analyze the presence of polymer on the composites. The process allows development of polymer/CNT-based composites with different mechanical properties suitable for a range of applications by using various resins.

  16. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  17. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  18. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-ζ, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  19. Methane Adsorption Study Using Activated Carbon Fiber and Coal Based Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Deyong; Li Fei; Liu Wenge

    2013-01-01

    Inlfuence of ammonium salt treatment and alkali treatment of the coal based activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon ifber (ACF) adsorbents on methane adsorption capacity was studied via high-pressure adsorption experiment. Sur-face functional groups and pore structure of two types of adsorbents were characterized by the application of infrared ab-sorption spectroscopy (IR) and low temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method. The results show that both ammonium salt treatment and alkali treatment have obvious effect on changing BET, pore volume as well as pore size distribution of adsorbents; and methane adsorption capacity of the activated carbon ifber is the maximum after the ammonium salt treatment.

  20. Manufacture of and environmental effects on carbon fiber-reinforced phenylethynyl-terminated poly(etherimide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullions, Todd Aaron

    The initial objective of this research project was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites with a matrix consisting of a phenylethynyl-terminated version of a thermoplastic poly(etherimide) termed PETU. Successful composite manufacture with 3,000 g/mol (3k) PETU led to a survey of CFR 3kPETU mechanical properties for comparison with other high-performance composites. Encouraging results led to a study of moisture sorption effects on CFR 3kPETU properties. The success of these initial studies spawned the large scale production of 2,500 g/mol (2.5k) PETU. Thermal characterization of neat and CFR 2.5kPETU via differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and parallel plate rheometry resulted in an understanding of the influence of cure time and temperature on reaction progress via both reaction kinetics and monitoring of the glass transition temperature. From the rheological characterization, a two-stage, dual-Arrhenius model was developed to successfully model isothermal complex viscosity over the range of processing temperatures. Neat 2.5kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU specimens were exposed separately to elevated temperature environments of different moisture and different oxygen concentrations to evaluate the effects of moisture absorption, moisture desorption, and thermal oxidation on material properties. Moisture absorption took place in a 90°C/85% relative humidity environment followed by moisture desorption in a 90°C/10% relative humidity environment. Thermal-oxidative aging for up to 5000 hours took place at 204°C in environments of four different oxygen partial pressures: 0.0 kPa, 2.84 kPa, 20.2 kPa, and 40.4 kPa. Following exposure to the different aging environments, the specimens were tested for retention of mechanical properties. In addition, moisture sorption properties were measured. Results from the moisture sorption studies on CFR 3kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU suggest that fully cured

  1. Supercapacitor Electrodes from Activated Carbon Monoliths and Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolah, B. N. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Deraman, M.; Basri, N. H.; Farma, R.; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    Binderless monoliths of supercapacitor electrodes were prepared by the carbonization (N2) and activation (CO2) of green monoliths (GMs). GMs were made from mixtures of self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) of fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches and a combination of 5 & 6% KOH and 0, 5 & 6% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by weight. The electrodes from GMs containing CNTs were found to have lower specific BET surface area (SBET). The electrochemical behavior of the supercapacitor fabricated using the prepared electrodes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). In general an addition of CNTs into the GMs reduces the equivalent series resistance (ESR) value of the cells. A cell fabricated using electrodes from GM with 5% CNT and 5% KOH was found to have the largest reduction of ESR value than that from the others GMs containing CNT. The cell has steeper Warburg's slope than that from its respective non-CNT GM, which reflect the smaller resistance for electrolyte ions to move into pores of electrodes despite these electrodes having largest reduction in specific BET surface area. The cell also has the smallest reduction of specific capacitance (Csp) and maintains the specific power range despite a reduction in the specific energy range due to the CNT addition.

  2. Voltammetric Response of Epinephrine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; TANG Ping; ZHAO Fa-qiong; ZENG Bai-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of epinephrine at activated glassy carbon electrode and carbon nanotube-coated glassy carbon electrode was studied. Epinephrine could exhibit an anodic peak at about 0.2 V (vs. SCE) at bare glassy carbon electrode, but it was very small.However, when the electrode was activated at certain potential (i. e. 1.9V) or modified with carbon nanotube, the peak became more sensitive,resulting from the increase in electrode area in addition to the electrostatic attraction. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to epinephrine concentration in the range of 3.3 × 10-7-1.1 × 10-5mol/L at activated glassy carbon electrode and in the range of 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-5 mol/L at carbon nanotube-coated electrode. The correlation coefficients were 0. 998 and 0. 997, respectively. The determination limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L. The two electrodes have been successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in adrenaline hydrochloride injection with recovery of 95%-104%.

  3. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm3 to 0.52 g.cm3. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g-1), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g-1). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (Vmicro) was between 0.33cm3.g-1 - 0.40cm3.g-1, while the mesopore volume(Vmeso) was between 0.05 cm3.g-1 - 0.07 cm3.g-1. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m2.g-1. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  4. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572

  5. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Touchstone Research Laboratory, Ltd. (Touchstone) has developed a novel and innovative Out-of-Autoclave (OOA) composites manufacturing process with an electrically...

  6. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites produced with a lean 2-step manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Brooks; Kumar, Sandeep; Tian, Liu; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-05-01

    In this study we report the advantages of a 2-step method that incorporates an additional process pre-conditioning step for rapid and precise blending of the constituents prior to the commonly used melt compounding method for preparing polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites. This additional step (equivalent to a manufacturing cell) involves the formation of a highly concentrated solid nano-nectar of polycarbonate/carbon nanofiber composite using a solution mixing process followed by melt mixing with pure polycarbonate. This combined method yields excellent dispersion and improved mechanical and thermal properties as compared to the 1-step melt mixing method. The test results indicated that inclusion of carbon nanofibers into composites via the 2-step method resulted in dramatically reduced ( 48% lower) coefficient of thermal expansion compared to that of pure polycarbonate and 30% lower than that from the 1-step processing, at the same loading of 1.0 wt%. Improvements were also found in dynamic mechanical analysis and flexural mechanical properties. The 2-step approach is more precise and leads to better dispersion, higher quality, consistency, and improved performance in critical application areas. It is also consistent with Lean Manufacturing principles in which manufacturing cells are linked together using less of the key resources and creates a smoother production flow. Therefore, this 2-step process can be more attractive for industry. PMID:21780388

  7. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites produced with a lean 2-step manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Brooks; Kumar, Sandeep; Tian, Liu; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-05-01

    In this study we report the advantages of a 2-step method that incorporates an additional process pre-conditioning step for rapid and precise blending of the constituents prior to the commonly used melt compounding method for preparing polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites. This additional step (equivalent to a manufacturing cell) involves the formation of a highly concentrated solid nano-nectar of polycarbonate/carbon nanofiber composite using a solution mixing process followed by melt mixing with pure polycarbonate. This combined method yields excellent dispersion and improved mechanical and thermal properties as compared to the 1-step melt mixing method. The test results indicated that inclusion of carbon nanofibers into composites via the 2-step method resulted in dramatically reduced ( 48% lower) coefficient of thermal expansion compared to that of pure polycarbonate and 30% lower than that from the 1-step processing, at the same loading of 1.0 wt%. Improvements were also found in dynamic mechanical analysis and flexural mechanical properties. The 2-step approach is more precise and leads to better dispersion, higher quality, consistency, and improved performance in critical application areas. It is also consistent with Lean Manufacturing principles in which manufacturing cells are linked together using less of the key resources and creates a smoother production flow. Therefore, this 2-step process can be more attractive for industry.

  8. Enhanced capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon by re-activation in molten carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Beihu; Xiao, Zuoan; Zhu, Hua; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Wenlong; Wang, Dihua

    2015-12-01

    Simple, affordable and green methods to improve capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon (AC) are intriguing since ACs possess a predominant role in the commercial supercapacitor market. Herein, we report a green reactivation of commercial ACs by soaking ACs in molten Na2CO3-K2CO3 (equal in mass ratios) at 850 °C combining the merits of both physical and chemical activation strategies. The mechanism of molten carbonate treatment and structure-capacitive activity correlations of the ACs are rationalized. Characterizations show that the molten carbonate treatment increases the electrical conductivity of AC without compromising its porosity and wettability of electrolytes. Electrochemical tests show the treated AC exhibited higher specific capacitance, enhanced high-rate capability and excellent cycle performance, promising its practical application in supercapacitors. The present study confirms that the molten carbonate reactivation is a green and effective method to enhance capacitive properties of ACs.

  9. Proximate analysis for determination of micropores in granulated activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Ya. G.; Nikolaev, V.B.; Shepelev, A.N.

    1987-02-01

    A method is discussed for determining the specific micropore volume of granulated activated carbon used for water treatment in Soviet coking plants. Toluene molecules with a diameter of 0.67 nm are sorbed by activated carbon with micropore diameter ranging from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Therefore, sorptive properties of activated carbon in relation to toluene supply information on micropore volume in carbon. A formula which describes this relation is derived. The method for determining micropore volume on the basis of toluene adsorption was tested using 8 types of activated carbon produced from coal and petroleum. Types of activated carbon characterized by the highest adsorption were selected. 1 ref.

  10. Production of activated carbon from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Férez, María del Remedio; Valdés Barceló, Francisco Javier; García Cortés, Ángela Nuria; Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Chápuli Fernández, Eloy

    2008-01-01

    Presentado como póster en el 11th Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering, Barcelona 2008. Resumen publicado en el libro de actas del congreso. Activated carbon is an important filter material for the removal of different compounds such as hazardous components in exhaust gases, for purification of drinking water, waste water treatment, adsorption of pollution from liquid phases, in catalysis, electrochemistry or for gas storage and present an important demand. Theoretically, activat...

  11. Milk catalase activity as an indicator of thermization treatments used in the manufacture of cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvi, Y; Griffiths, M W

    1998-02-01

    Pilot-scale studies were carried out to determine the effect of different heat treatments on catalase activity during the manufacture and maturation of Cheddar cheese. Three trials were conducted to monitor catalase activity using disk flotation and polarographic methods. Cheese was manufactured from raw milk and from milk that had been treated at 60, 65 and 72 degrees C for 16 s using a high temperature, short time heat exchanger. Catalase activity was also determined in samples of commercial milk and in samples of mild, medium, sharp, and extra sharp Cheddar cheeses obtained from different manufacturers in order to verify that the enzyme could be used as an indicator of the type of heat treatment applied to cheese milk. Catalase activity was present in cheese made from raw milk but was only present at low concentrations in cheese manufactured from thermized milk. However, high catalase activity was observed in commercial samples of sharp and extra sharp Cheddar cheese that was apparently due to the growth of catalase-producing yeasts in the cheese during maturation.

  12. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T S Sonia; P A Mini; R Nandhini; Kalluri Sujith; Balakrishnan Avinash; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the high electrical storage capacity of composite electrodes made from nanoscale activated carbon combined with either poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) or PEDOT doped with multiple dopants such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The composites were fabricated by electropolymerization of the conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS, doped PEDOT) onto the nanoscale activated carbon backbone, wherein the nanoscale activated carbon was produced by ball-milling followed by chemical and thermal treatments. Activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS yielded capacitance values of 640 F g-1 and 26mF cm-2, while activated carbon/doped PEDOT yielded capacitances of 1183 F g-1 and 42 mF cm-2 at 10 mV s-1. This is more than five times the storage capacity previously reported for activated carbon–PEDOT composites. Further, use of multiple dopants in PEDOT improved the storage performance of the composite electrode well over that of PEDOT:PSS. The composite electrodes were characterized for their electrochemical behaviour, structural and morphological details and electronic conductivity and showed promise as high-performance energy storage systems.

  13. 78 FR 13894 - Certain Activated Carbon From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Activated Carbon From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from China would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4381 (February 2013), entitled Certain Activated Carbon from China: Investigation...

  14. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  15. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: Research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sanders

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing, and investigates whether Industry 4.0 is capable of implementing lean. Executing Industry 4.0 is a cost-intensive operation, and is met with reluctance from several manufacturers. This research also provides an important insight into manufacturers’ dilemma as to whether they can commit into Industry 4.0, considering the investment required and unperceived benefits. Design/methodology/approach: Lean manufacturing is first defined and different dimensions of lean are presented. Then Industry 4.0 is defined followed by representing its current status in Germany. The barriers for implementation of lean are analysed from the perspective of integration of resources. Literatures associated with Industry 4.0 are studied and suitable solution principles are identified to solve the abovementioned barriers of implementing lean. Findings: It is identified that researches and publications in the field of Industry 4.0 held answers to overcome the barriers of implementation of lean manufacturing. These potential solution principles prove the hypothesis that Industry 4.0 is indeed capable of implementing lean. It uncovers the fact that committing into Industry 4.0 makes a factory lean besides being smart. Originality/value: Individual researches have been done in various technologies allied with Industry 4.0, but the potential to execute lean manufacturing was not completely perceived. This paper bridges the gap between these two realms, and identifies

  16. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  17. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very...

  18. FDI activity and worker compensation: evidence from U.S. non-manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Ozlem; Peoples, James

    2009-01-01

    This study examines worker compensation effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) activity in US non-manufacturing industry sectors. A clustered standard error correction is used when estimating wage and non-wage compensation equations, with special attention given to FDI’s effect by worker educational attainment and union status. Wage findings reveal that FDI activity is associated with a wage premium for highly educated non-union workers and with union rent erosion for all educational-gend...

  19. Vibration damping with active carbon fiber structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Roscher, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a mechatronic strategy for active reduction of vibrations on machine tool struts or car shafts. The active structure is built from a carbon fiber composite with embedded piezofiber actuators that are composed of piezopatches based on the Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) technology, licensed by NASA and produced by Smart Material GmbH in Dresden, Germany. The structure of these actuators allows separate or selectively combined bending and torsion, meaning that both bending and torsion vibrations can be actively absorbed. Initial simulation work was done with a finite element model (ANSYS). This paper describes how state space models are generated out of a structure based on the finite element model and how controller codes are integrated into finite element models for transient analysis and the model-based control design. Finally, it showcases initial experimental findings and provides an outlook for damping multi-mode resonances with a parallel combination of resonant controllers.

  20. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution. PMID:25185390

  1. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  2. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  3. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost can be optimized. The search method that was used in this experiment is Simulated Annealling, a variant form Hill Climbing Search method. An ideal operation time to proses a part was used as the annealling schedule. From the empirical test, it could be proved that the use of ABC approach and Simulated Annealing to search the route (routing process can optimize the Total Production Cost. In the other hand, the use of ideal operation time to process a part as annealing schedule can control the processing time well. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin-mesin Numerical Control (NC yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin-mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian rute operasi pada mesin yang tepat, untuk lebih mengoptimasi biaya produksi secara keseluruhan. Adapun metode Searching yang digunakan adalah Simulated Annealing yang merupakan varian dari metode searching Hill Climbing. Waktu operasi ideal untuk memproses sebuah part digunakan sebagai Annealing Schedulenya. Dari hasil pengujian empiris dapat dibuktikan bahwa penggunaan pendekatan ABC dan Simulated Annealing untuk proses pencarian rute (routing dapat lebih

  4. The regeneration of polluted activated carbon by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Minghong; Bao Borong [Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (China); Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang; Hu Longxin [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the regeneration of used activated carbon from monosodium glutamate factory was experimented using radiation and acid-alkali chemical cleaning method. Results showed that the activated carbon saturated with pollutants can be wash away easily by flushing with chemical solution prior irradiation. DSC was used to monitor the change of carbon adsorption.

  5. Non-phosgene Method of Manufacturing Diphenyl Carbonate%非光气法合成碳酸二苯酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊杰; 王公应

    2000-01-01

      Non-phosgene processes of manufacturing diphenyl carbonate were reviewed. Catalysts, processes and reaction conditions of transesterification were discussed and catalysts of oxidative carbonylation was also introduced.%  主要介绍了非光气法合成碳酸二苯酯的工艺路线。重点讨论了酯交换法的催化剂、工艺流程和反应条件。对苯酚氧化羰基化法的催化剂进行了重点讨论。

  6. Activity based costing, time-driven activity based costing and lean accounting: differences among three accounting systems' approach to manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Nasiri, Azadeh; Pelaez Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate accounting system for manufacturing has always been a challenge for managers. In this article we try to compare three accounting systems designed since 1980 to address problems of traditional accounting system. In the first place we are going to present a short overview on background and definition of three accounting systems: Activity Based costing, Time-Driven Activity Based Costing and Lean Accounting. Comparisons are made based on the three basic roles of informati...

  7. Clinical and radiographic study of activated carbon workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Uragoda, C. G.

    1989-01-01

    Activated carbon is made in Sri Lanka by passing steam through charcoal made from coconut shells. The carbon does not contain free silica. Sixty six men who had worked in a factory making activated carbon for an average of 7.2 years had no more respiratory symptoms than a control group, and none showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. There was no evidence that people exposed to charcoal and pure carbon for up to 11 years are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis.

  8. Strategies for implementing activity-based costing in the UK manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai; Tan, Swee; Tan, Kian; Sutton, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings with a case study on why activity based costing lacks impact in the UK manufacturing industry. Activity based costing was performed on selected MT range subsystems of an electrical power generator to compare with the current UNN UK’s conven-tional costing system. The results have found that the current costing system works well for the MT products and thus change of costing system is not necessary for these products. The activity based costi...

  9. Study on the calculation method of carbon footprint for cement manufactures%水泥生产厂家碳足迹计算方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘玉凤; 杨李宁; 付祥钊

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyzes factors influencing carbon footprint with technological procedure of cement manufactures in Chongqing city as an example, studies the calculation model and calculation process of carbon footprint, and forms calculation methods of carbon footprint adapting to cement manufactures, which has provide scientific calculation basis for calculating carbon footprint for cement manufactures.%从重庆市水泥生产厂家的工艺流程分析碳足迹的影响要素,研究碳足迹计算模型和计算过程,形成适用于水泥生产厂家的碳足迹计算方法,为水泥产业碳足迹计算提供了科学的计算依据。

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  11. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Determinants of Innovative Activity in Canadian Manufacturing Firms: The Role of Intellectual Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Sabourin, David; Baldwin, John R.; Hanel, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how several factors contribute to innovative activity in the Canadian manufacturing sector. First, it investigates the extent to which intellectual property right protection stimulates innovation. Second, it examines the contribution that R&D makes to innovation. Third, it considers the importance of various competencies in the area of marketing, human resource, technology and production to the innovation process. Fourth, it examines the extent to which a larger firm size ...

  13. Superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges for separation and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanxue; Li, An; Zhu, Zhaoqi; Liang, Weidong; Zhao, Xinhong; La, Peiqing; Deng, Weiqiao

    2013-06-01

    Highly porous activated carbon with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized by KOH activation using commercially available activated carbon as a precursor. By modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), highly porous activated carbon showed superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 163.6°. The changes in wettability of PDMS- treated highly porous activated carbon were attributed to the deposition of a low-surface-energy silicon coating onto activated carbon (confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), which had microporous characteristics (confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses). Using an easy dip-coating method, superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges were also fabricated; those exhibited excellent absorption selectivity for the removal of a wide range of organics and oils from water, and also recyclability, thus showing great potential as efficient absorbents for the large-scale removal of organic contaminants or oil spills from water.

  14. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  15. Merging allylic carbon-hydrogen and selective carbon-carbon bond activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Didier, Dorian; Zabrodski, Tamar; Schinkel, Marvin; Ackermann, Lutz; Marek, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century, many synthetic organic chemists have focused on developing new strategies to regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectively build carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds in a predictable and efficient manner. Ideal syntheses should use the least number of synthetic steps, with few or no functional group transformations and by-products, and maximum atom efficiency. One potentially attractive method for the synthesis of molecular skeletons that are difficult to prepare would be through the selective activation of C-H and C-C bonds, instead of the conventional construction of new C-C bonds. Here we present an approach that exploits the multifold reactivity of easily accessible substrates with a single organometallic species to furnish complex molecular scaffolds through the merging of otherwise difficult transformations: allylic C-H and selective C-C bond activations. The resulting bifunctional nucleophilic species, all of which have an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre, can then be selectively derivatized by the addition of two different electrophiles to obtain more complex molecular architecture from these easily available starting materials.

  16. Metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated IR pyrolized polyacrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Mikhail N.; Zhilyaeva, Natalya A.; Vasilyev, Andrey A.; Muratov, Dmitriy G.; Zemtsov, Lev M.; Karpacheva, Galina P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report about new approach to preparation of metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated carbon. Polyacrylonitrile is suggested as a precursor for Co, Pd and Ru nanoparticles carbon support which is prepared under IR pyrolysis conditions of a precursor. The first part of the paper is devoted to study activated carbon structural characteristics dependence on activation conditions. In the second part the effect of type of metal introduced in precursor on metal-carbon nanocomposite structural characteristics is shown. Prepared AC and nanocomposite samples are characterized by BET, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  17. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  18. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  19. THE ROLE OF ACTIVATED CARBON IN SOLVING ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mukhin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a brief analysis of the current global situation concerning the utilization of activated carbon in various fields. The article presents data concerning the synthesis and adsorption and structure properties of new activated carbons, used for solving ecological problems. The authors investigated the newly obtained activated carbons in comparison with several AC marks known in the world. It has been shown that currently synthesized AC are competitive with foreign marks.

  20. HYDROGEN SULFIDE ADSORPTION BY ALKALINE IMPREGNATED COCONUT SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI SUN CHOO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one type of renewable energy which can be burnt to produce heat and electricity. However, it cannot be burnt directly due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S which is highly corrosive to gas engine. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC was applied as a porous adsorbent for H2S removal. The effect of amount of activated carbon and flow rate of gas stream toward adsorption capacity were investigated. Then, the activated carbons were impregnated by three types of alkaline (NaOH, KOH and K2CO3 with various ratios. The effects of various types of alkaline and their impregnation ratio towards adsorption capacity were analysed. In addition, H2S influent concentration and the reaction temperature on H2S adsorption were also investigated. The result indicated that adsorption capacity increases with the amount of activated carbon and decreases with flow rate of gas stream. Alkaline impregnated activated carbons had better performance than unimpregnated activated carbon. Among all impregnated activated carbons, activated carbon impregnated by K2CO3 with ratio 2.0 gave the highest adsorption capacity. Its adsorption capacity was 25 times higher than unimpregnated activated carbon. The result also indicated that the adsorption capacity of impregnated activated carbon decreased with the increment of H2S influent concentration. Optimum temperature for H2S adsorption was found to be 50˚C. In this study, the adsorption of H2S on K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The fresh and spent K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon were characterized to study the adsorption process.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of humic acids on ordered mesoporous carbon compared with microporous activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengling; Xu, Zhaoyi; Wan, Haiqin; Wan, Yuqiu; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-04-01

    Humic acids are ubiquitous in surface and underground waters and may pose potential risk to human health when present in drinking water sources. In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by means of a hard template method and further characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transition electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and zeta-potential measurement. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate adsorption of two humic acids from coal and soil, respectively, on the synthesized carbon. For comparison, a commercial microporous activated carbon and nonporous graphite were included as additional adsorbents; moreover, phenol was adopted as a small probe adsorbate. Pore size distribution characterization showed that the synthesized carbon had ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the activated carbon was composed mainly of micropores with a much broader pore size distribution. Accordingly, adsorption of the two humic acids was substantially lower on the activated carbon than on the synthesized carbon, because of the size-exclusion effect. In contrast, the synthesized carbon and activated carbon showed comparable adsorption for phenol when the size-exclusion effect was not in operation. Additionally, we verified by size-exclusion chromatography studies that the synthesized carbon exhibited greater adsorption for the large humic acid fraction than the activated carbon. The pH dependence of adsorption on the three carbonaceous adsorbents was also compared between the two test humic acids. The findings highlight the potential of using ordered mesoporous carbon as a superior adsorbent for the removal of humic acids.

  2. A New Fiber Preform with Nanocarbon Binder for Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite by Liquid Molding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Dong Gi; Ha, Jong Rok; Lee, Jea Uk; Lee, Wonoh; Kim, Byung Sun

    2015-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite has been a good candidate of lightweight structural component in the automotive industry. As fast production speed is essential to apply the composite materials for the mass production area such as automotive components, the high speed liquid composite molding processes have been developed. Fast resin injection through the fiber preform by high pressure is required to improve the production speed, but it often results in undesirable deformations of the fiber preform which causes defectives in size and properties of the final composite products. In order to prevent the undesirable deformation and improve the stability of preform shape, polymer type binder materials are used. More stable fiber preform can be obtained by increasing the amount of binder material, but it disturbs the resin impregnation through the fiber preform. In this study, carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide were embedded on the surface of carbon fiber by electrophoretic deposition method in order to improve the shape stability of fiber preform and interfacial bonding between polymer and the reinforcing fiber. Effects of the modified reinforcing fiber were investigated in two respects. One is to increase the binding energy between fiber tows, and the other is to increase the interfacial bonding between polymer matrix and fiber surface. The effects were analyzed by measuring the binding force of fiber preform and interlaminar shear strength of the composite. This study also investigated the high speed liquid molding process of the composite materials composed of polymer matrix and the carbon fiber preforms embedded by carbon nanomaterials. Process parameter such as permeability of fiber preform was measured to investigate the effect of nanoscale surface modification on the macroscale processing condition for composite manufacturing. PMID:26726642

  3. A New Fiber Preform with Nanocarbon Binder for Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite by Liquid Molding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Dong Gi; Ha, Jong Rok; Lee, Jea Uk; Lee, Wonoh; Kim, Byung Sun

    2015-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite has been a good candidate of lightweight structural component in the automotive industry. As fast production speed is essential to apply the composite materials for the mass production area such as automotive components, the high speed liquid composite molding processes have been developed. Fast resin injection through the fiber preform by high pressure is required to improve the production speed, but it often results in undesirable deformations of the fiber preform which causes defectives in size and properties of the final composite products. In order to prevent the undesirable deformation and improve the stability of preform shape, polymer type binder materials are used. More stable fiber preform can be obtained by increasing the amount of binder material, but it disturbs the resin impregnation through the fiber preform. In this study, carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide were embedded on the surface of carbon fiber by electrophoretic deposition method in order to improve the shape stability of fiber preform and interfacial bonding between polymer and the reinforcing fiber. Effects of the modified reinforcing fiber were investigated in two respects. One is to increase the binding energy between fiber tows, and the other is to increase the interfacial bonding between polymer matrix and fiber surface. The effects were analyzed by measuring the binding force of fiber preform and interlaminar shear strength of the composite. This study also investigated the high speed liquid molding process of the composite materials composed of polymer matrix and the carbon fiber preforms embedded by carbon nanomaterials. Process parameter such as permeability of fiber preform was measured to investigate the effect of nanoscale surface modification on the macroscale processing condition for composite manufacturing.

  4. Eco-efficient based logistics network design in hybrid manufacturing/ remanufacturing system in low-carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Low-carbon economy requires the pursuit of eco-efficiency, which is a win-win situation between economic and environmental efficiency. In this paper the question of trading off the economic and environmental effects embodied in eco-efficiency in the hybrid manufacturing/remanufacturing logistics network design in the context of low-carbon economy is examined.Design/methodology/approach: A multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to find the optimal facility locations and materials flow allocation is established. In the objective function, three minimum targets are set: economic cost, CO2 emission and waste generation. Through an iterative algorithm, the Pareto Boundary of the problem is obtained.Findings: The results of numeric study show that in order to achieve a Pareto improvement over an original system, three of the critical rates (i.e. return rate, recovery rate, and cost substitute rate should be increased.Practical implications: To meet the need of low-carbon dioxide, an iso- CO2 emission curve in which decision makers have a series of optimal choices with the same CO2 emission but different cost and waste generation is plotted. Each choice may have different network design but all of these are Pareto optimal solutions, which provide a comprehensive evaluation of both economics and ecology for the decision making.Originality/value: This research chooses carbon emission as one of the three objective functions and uses Pareto sets to analyze how to balance profitability and environmental impacts in designing remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain in the context of low-carbon economy.

  5. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  6. Enzymatic production of glycerol carbonate from by-product after biodiesel manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hongsub; Lee, Youngrak; Kim, Daeheum; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Park, Chulhwan

    2012-08-10

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the higher value-added products derived from glycerol. In this study, glycerol carbonate (GC) was synthesized by transesterification of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica Lipase B) at various conditions. For the enzymatic production of GC, the optimum conditions were the amount of enzyme (75 g/L), DMC/glycerol molar ratio (2.00), reaction temperature (60°C) and organic solvent (acetonitrile). Experimental investigation of the effect of water content revealed that the conversion of GC was maximized with no added water. The addition of surfactant such as Tween 80 increased the GC conversion, which finally reached 96.25% under the optimum condition and with surfactant addition. PMID:22759533

  7. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  8. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  9. Activated Carbons as Supports for Catalyst%作为催化剂载体的活性炭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 韩文锋; 霍超; 刘化章

    2004-01-01

      This paper introduces the advantages of activated carbons as supports for catalysts. The manufacture of the carbons is described briefly, together with their most important chemical and physical properties that are tightly related to catalysts manufacture and use of such catalysts. The treatment methods of activated carbons are also reviewed.%  介绍了活性炭作为催化剂载体的优点、了活性炭的生产方法以及与催化剂的生产和应用密切相关的活性炭的物理及化学性质,并介绍了活性炭的改性处理的方法。

  10. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  11. Slovenske predelovalne dejavnosti in faktorska intenzivnost v proizvodnji: Slovenia's manufacturing activities and factor intensity in production:

    OpenAIRE

    Černoša, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of the measurement of horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade (IIT) for Slovenia''s manufacturing activities at the second and the third-digit level of the ISIC. Vertical IIT is separated on VERT1, which represents higher quality products, and on VERT2, which represents lower quality products. This separation shows that VERT1 comprises approximately one third and VERT2 comprises two thirds of vertical IIT. We present results of the analysis only for those manu...

  12. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENT FOR DECISION-MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana D. BUFAN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management) system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM) system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian ma...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Anzano; Alessandra Tosti; Marina Lasagni; Alfredo Campiglio; Demetrio Pitea; Elena Collina*

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company.The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes.The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied.The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model.The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity,so they were activated with two different processes:thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation,obtaining,respectively,reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF).The flakes,activated with either treatment,showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli.The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes.The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes.The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF,1.0 ± 0.2min-1,was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF,0.069 + 0.004 min-1.This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values.It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium.Furthermore,the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time.Finally,the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  14. Energy-consumption and carbon-emission analysis of vehicle and component manufacturing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-12

    A model is presented for calculating the environmental burdens of the part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (VMA) stage of the vehicle life cycle. The approach is bottom-up, with a special focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. The model is applied to both conventional and advanced vehicles, the latter of which include aluminum-intensive, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. An important component of the model, a weight-based distribution function of materials and associated transformation processes (casting, stamping, etc.), is developed from the United States Council for Automotive Research Generic Vehicle Life Cycle Inventory Study. As the approach is bottom-up, numerous transformation process data and plant operational data were extracted from the literature for use in representing the many operations included in the model. When the model was applied to conventional vehicles, reliable estimates of cumulative energy consumption (34 GJ/vehicle) and CO{sub 2} emission (2 tonnes/vehicle) were computed for the VMA life-cycle stage. The numerous data sets taken from the literature permitted the development of some statistics on model results. Because the model explicitly includes a greater coverage of relevant manufacturing processes than many earlier studies, our energy estimates are on the higher end of previously published values. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Because the material compositions of conventional vehicles within specific classes (cars, light duty trucks, etc.) are sensibly constant on a percent-by-weight basis, the model can be reduced to a simple linear form for each class dependent only on vehicle weight. For advanced vehicles, the material/transformation process distribution developed above needs to be adjusted for different materials and components. This is particularly so for aluminum-intensive and electric-drive vehicles. In fact, because of their comparatively high manufacturing

  15. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  16. Enhanced Capacitive Characteristics of Activated Carbon by Secondary Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; LU Tian-hong; Yoshio Masaki

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the improvement of commercial activated carbon(AC) on its specific capacitance and high rate capability of double layer(dl) charging/discharging process has been studied. The improvement of AC was carried out via a secondary activation under steam in the presence of catalyst NiCl2, and the suitable condition was found to be a heat treatment at about 875 ℃ for 1 h. Under those conditions, the discharge specific capacitance of the improved AC increases up to 53.67 F/g, showing an increase of about 25% as compared with that of as-received AC. The good rectangular-shaped voltammograms and A.C. impedance spectra prove that the high rate capability of the capacitor made of the improved AC is enhanced significantly. The capacitance resistance(RC) time constant of the capacitor containing the improved AC is 1.74 s, which is much lower than that of the one containing as-received AC(an RC value of 4. 73 s). It is noted that both kinds of AC samples show a similar specific surface area and pore size distribution, but some changes have taken place in the carbon surface groups, especially a decrease in the concentration of surface carbonyl groups after the improvement, which have been verified by means of X-photoelectron spectroscopy. Accordingly, it is suggested that the decrease in the concentration of surface carbonyl groups for the improved AC is beneficial to the organic electrolyte ion penetrating into the pores, thus leading to the increase in both the specific capacitance and high rate capability of the supercapacitor.

  17. Polyurethane foams obtained from residues of PET manufacturing and modified with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiebra, L.; Cabulis, U.; Knite, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we report the preparation of rigid microcellular polyurethane/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with different CNT loadings (0.09-0.46%) and various isocyanate indexes (110-260). Water was used as a blowing agent for samples. Density of all obtained samples – 200 ± 10 kg/m3. Electrical properties, as well as heat conductivity, cellular structure and mechanical properties of these nanocomposites were investigated.

  18. Science Letters: Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 and activity in carbon-nitric oxide reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xian-kai; ZOU Xue-quan; SHI Hui-xiang; WANG Da-hui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 was performed by annealing in ammonia, and the activity of the modified carbon for NO reduction was studied in the presence of oxygen. Results show that Fe2O3 enhances the amount of surface oxygen complexes and facilitates nitrogen incorporation in the carbon, especially in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. The modified carbon shows excellent activity for NO reduction in the low temperature regime (<500 ℃) because of the cooperative effect of Fe2O3 and the surface nitrogen species.

  19. Occupational exposure to carbon black in its manufacture: data from 1987 to 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, K; Calvert, I A; van Tongeren, M J; Harrington, J M

    1996-02-01

    Carbon black is a very pure form of very finely divided particulate carbon used mainly in the automotive tyre industry. Its carbonaceous nature and submicron size (unpelleted) have raised concerns with regard to its ability to affect respiratory morbidity. This paper describes the exposure to carbon black dust in the first and second phase of a large multi-national epidemiological study investigating the magnitude of these exposure-related effects. In Phase I, 1278 respirable dust samples were taken (SIMPEDS cyclone) which increased to 2941 in Phase II with a similar rise in the number of total inhalable dust samples (IOM head) from 1288 in Phase I to 3433 Phase II. Exposure dropped markedly between the two phases with total inhalable dust showing a bigger reduction (49.9%) than respirable dust (42%), although the mean exposure for certain factories and job categories dropped more than others. The data are presented by the 14 job titles/numbers (21-34). The highest mean exposure in both phases and for both dust fractions is experienced by the warehouse packers and they are also most likely to exceed the OES of 3.5 mg m-3 (35.1% of samples in Phase I and 12.0% in Phase II). PMID:9054303

  20. Adsorption of radon from a humid atmosphere on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature and relative humidity can influence the adsorption capacity of radon on activated carbon to a great extent, depending on the physical properties of the carbon. Experiments were carried out to measure the radon uptake by an activated carbon in the presence of water vapor in a specially designed adsorption apparatus. The radon concentrations in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon daughter products were reached. The experiments in the presence of water vapor were carried out using two approaches. In one case the activated carbon was preequilibrated with water vapor prior to exposing it to radon. In the other case the carbon was exposed to a mixture of water vapor and radon. The uptake capacity for radon decreased substantially when both components were introduced together compared to when carbon was preequilibrated with water

  1. Production of activated carbon from Atili seed shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemiah Samuel MAINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from atili (black date seed shells by chemical activation with phosphoric acid as an activating agent. Carbonization was done at temperatures of 350°C, 450°C, 550°C, 650°C and at corresponding resident times of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes respectively in a muffle furnace. The study involved the determination of yield, carbon content, burn-off, moisture content, and ash content as well as the temperature and suitable resident time for carbonization. The result showed that, increasing the carbonization temperature from 350°C to 650°C as well as increasing the corresponding resident time from 20 to 60 minutes led to a decrease in carbonization yield as well as an increase in burn off. An increase in carbonization time led to a decrease in ash content while an increase in carbonization temperature led to a decrease in the moisture content. The yield, burn-off and ash content obtained at a carbonization temperature of 650°C and at a corresponding time of 60 minutes were found to be 68.29%, 31.71% and 0.75% respectively while the highest carbon content (99.16 and lowest moisture content (0.09 was obtained at this same temperature and corresponding time. The activated carbon produced gave a yield of 99.37%, ash content (2.01%, moisture content (4.20%, carbon content (93.79%, burn off (0.63% and pH of 6.752. These properties therefore indicate the suitability of the activated carbon produced.

  2. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  3. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

  4. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  5. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  6. APPLICATION OF IMPROVED PRODUCTION ACTIVITY CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR SHOP FLOOR INFORMATION SYSTEM IN DIGITAL MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAHID Ikramullah Butt; SUN Houfang; GAO Zhengqing

    2006-01-01

    Shop floor control (SFC) is responsible for the coordination and control of the manufacturing physical and information flow within the shop floor in the manufacturing system. Weaknesses of the production activity control (PAC) architecture of the shop floor are addressed by the Maglica's new system architecture. This architecture gives rise to unlimited number of movers and producers thus evolving more complex but decentralized architecture. Beijing Institute of Technology - production activity control (BIT-PAC) architecture introduces an idea of sub-producers and sub-movers thus reducing the complexity of the architecture. All the equipments including sub-producers and sub-movers are considered to be passive in the proposed shop floor information system. The dissemination of information from sub-producers and sub-movers is done manually through a PC. Proposed BIT-PAC SFC architecture facilitates the information flow from shop floor to the other area of the organization. Effective use of internet information services (IIS) and SQL2000 is done along with the ASP. NET technology to implement the application logic. Applicability of the software based on BIT-PAC architecture is checked by running application software on a network PC that supports the dynamic flow of information from sub-producers and sub-movers to the other parts of the organization. Use of software is also shown at the end for BIT training workshop thus supporting the use of SFC architecture for similar kind of environments.

  7. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENT FOR DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana D. BUFAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian manufacturing company. The study shows that the ABC/ABM system helps managers to properly manage indirect costs (by activities and understand the profitability of products, distribution channels and customers. Therefore, it offers a powerful instrument for decision-making. Although ABC is a new system of cost calculation that is absolutely necessary, in most cases the ABC method must be implemented in addition to the traditional costing systems, which are essential for the purposes of management accounting.

  8. Microbial diversity, dynamics and activity throughout manufacturing and ripening of Castelmagno PDO cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, P; Alessandria, V; Rantsiou, K; Bertolino, M; Cocolin, L

    2010-09-30

    The diversity, dynamics and activity of Castelmagno PDO cheese microbiota were studied in three batches produced in a floor valley farm, in the Grana Valley (northwest Italy), during the wintertime. Samples of milk, curd and cheese (core and subsurface) at different ripening time were submitted to both culture-dependent and -independent analysis. In particular, DNA and RNA directly extracted from the matrices were studied by PCR-Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. Culture-dependent methods highlighted the initial dominance of a thermophilic streptococcal population with the species Streptococcus thermophilus and S. agalactiae. Then, mesophilic lactococci occurred among isolates during manufacturing, with Lactococcus lactis which was also well represented in the first month of Castelmagno PDO ripening. At this point and throughout the ripening, lactobacilli prevailed in cheese samples, represented from Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. casei. Culture-independent analysis underlined the undoubted role of L. lactis, actively involved in both Castelmagno PDO manufacturing and ripening. Despite Lb. helveticus was never isolated on selective media, a DGGE band referred to this microorganism was detected, at RNA level, in samples from ripened cheeses. On the other hand, Lb. plantarum was widely isolated from the plates, among lactobacilli, but never detected by direct analysis. Due to the importance of microbiota in the sensory richness and properties of traditional cheeses, new information have been added, in this work, on microbial diversity of Castelmagno PDO cheese.

  9. Tetracycline adsorption onto activated carbons produced by KOH activation of tyre pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R; Fierro, V; Martinez de Yuso, A; Nabarlatz, D; Celzard, A

    2016-04-01

    Tyre pyrolysis char (TPC), produced when manufacturing pyrolysis oil from waste tyre, was used as raw material to prepare activated carbons (ACs) by KOH activation. KOH to TPC weight ratios (W) between 0.5 and 6, and activation temperatures from 600 to 800 °C, were used. An increase in W resulted in a more efficient development of surface area, microporosity and mesoporosity. Thus, ACs derived from TPC (TPC-ACs) with specific surface areas up to 814 m(2) g(-1) were obtained. TPC, TPC-ACs and a commercial AC (CAC) were tested for removing Tetracycline (TC) in aqueous phase, and systematic adsorption studies, including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic aspects, were performed. Kinetics was well described by the pseudo-first order model for TPC, and by a pseudo second-order kinetic model for ACs. TC adsorption equilibrium data were also fitted by different isotherm models: Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Dubinin-Astokov, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Radke-Prausnitz and Toth. The thermodynamic study confirmed that TC adsorption onto TPC-ACs is a spontaneous process. TC adsorption data obtained in the present study were compared with those reported in the literature, and differences were explained in terms of textural properties and surface functionalities. TPC-ACs had similar performances to those of commercial ACs, and might significantly improve the economic balance of the production of pyrolysis oil from waste tyres. PMID:26855221

  10. Decoration of activated carbon nanotubes by assembling nano-silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-sha Li; Bin-song Wang; Ying-jie Qiao; Wei-zhe Lu; Ji Liang

    2009-01-01

    A facile solution processed strategy of synthesizing nano silver assembled on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at room tempera-ture was put forward. Activated carbon nanotubes were used as precursors for preparing silver-decorated nanotubes. The nature of the decorated nanotubes was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and en-ergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The inert surfaces of carbon nanotubes were activated by introducing catalytic nuclei via an oxidation-sensitization-activation approach. Activated carbon nanotubes catalyzed the metal deposition specifically onto their surfaces upon immersion in electroless plating baths. The method produced nanotubes decorated with silver. The extent of silver decoration was found to be dependent on fabrication conditions. Dense nano silver assembled on nanotube surfaces could be ob-tained by keeping a low reaction rate in the solution phase. The results here show that this method is an efficient and simple means of achieving carbon nanotubes being assembled by nano metal.

  11. Preparation of activated carbons from Chinese coal and hydrolysis lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.; Han, B.X. [Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL (USA). School of Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Activated carbons from Chinese coal and Chinese hydrolysis lignin have been prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The following aspects of these activated materials have been analyzed: raw material; pre-treatment of raw material; activation agent, activation temperature and time, acid the activation agent/raw material ratio. Activated carbons with BET specific surface areas of the order of 2400-2600 m{sup 2}/g which exhibited substantial microporosity, a total pore volume of over 1.30 cm{sup 3}/g and a Methylene Blue adsorption capacity of over 440 mg/g were obtained.

  12. CCN activation of pure and coated carbon black particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, U; Reischl, G P; Hitzenberger, R

    2006-02-15

    The CCN (cloud condensation nucleus) activation of pure and coated carbon black particles was investigated using the University of Vienna cloud condensation nuclei counter (Giebl, H.; Berner, A.; Reischl, G.; Puxbaum, H.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Hitzenberger, R. J. Aerosol Sci. 2002, 33, 1623-1634). The particles were produced by nebulizing an aqueous suspension of carbon black in a Collison atomizer. The activation of pure carbon black particles was found to require higher supersaturations than predicted by calculations representing the particles as insoluble, wettable spheres with mobility equivalent diameter. To test whether this effect is an artifact due to heating of the light-absorbing carbon black particles in the laser beam, experiments at different laser powers were conducted. No systematic dependence of the activation of pure carbon black particles on laser power was observed. The observations could be modeled using spherical particles and an effective contact angle of 4-6 degrees of water at their surface. The addition of a small amount of NaCl to the carbon black particles (by adding 5% by mass NaCl to the carbon black suspension) greatly enhanced their CCN efficiency. The measured CCN efficiencies were consistent with Kohler theory for particles consisting of insoluble and hygroscopic material. However, coating the carbon black particles with hexadecanol (a typical film-forming compound with one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic end) efficiently suppressed the CCN activation of the carbon black particles.

  13. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1, and C=O (1639,4 cm-1. In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

  14. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-01

    The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K2CO3 activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500-900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m2/g and 0.13 cm3/g at 800 °C, and 540 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300-3400 m2/g and 2.0-2.3 cm3/g after holding at 800-900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K2CO3 mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K2CO3 and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  15. Preparation of Microporous Activated Carbon from Raw Coconut Shell by Two-step Procedure%两步法制备椰壳基微孔活性炭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 周理; 周亚平

    2006-01-01

    A novel two-step procedure was used to manufacture microporous activated carbon from raw coconut shell. In this process, the raw coconut shell was (1) heated in an inert environment to temperatures between 450℃ and 850℃, and reacted with oxygen ( po2 = 1.1 -5.3kPa) for some time, and (2) heated again in inert environment to activation temperature(850℃) to produce an activated carbon. Activated carbons with specific surface area greater than 700m2.g-1 were manufactured with a yield between 24% and 28%. It was shown that the carbon had a narrow distribution of pore size, possibly less than lnm, which was calculated by a simple method based on local density function theory.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensors and Method of Manufacturing and Using Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W. (Inventor); Xu, Jennifer C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A gas sensor comprises a substrate layer; a pair of interdigitated metal electrodes, said electrodes include upper surfaces, the electrodes selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Au, Ir, Ag, Ru, Rh, In, Os, and their alloys. A first layer of solid electrolyte staying in between electrode fingers and partially on said upper surfaces of said electrodes, said first layer selected from NASICON, LISICON, KSICON and.beta.''-Alumina. A second layer of metal carbonate(s) as an auxiliary electrolyte engaging said upper surfaces of the electrodes and the first solid electrolyte. The metal carbonates selected from the group consisting of the following ions Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+, Ba.sup.2+, and any combination thereof. An extra layer of metal oxide selected from the group consisting of SnO.sub.2, In.sub.2O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2, WO.sub.3, ZnO, Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, ITO, CdO, U.sub.3O.sub.8, Ta.sub.2O.sub.5, BaO, MoO.sub.2, MoO.sub.3, V.sub.2O.sub.5, Nb.sub.2O.sub.5, CuO, Cr.sub.2O.sub.3, La.sub.2O.sub.3, RuO.sub.3, RuO.sub.2, ReO.sub.2, ReO.sub.3, Ag.sub.2O, CoO, Cu.sub.2O, SnO, NiO, Pr.sub.2O.sub.3, BaO, PdO.sub.2, HfO.sub.3, HfO.sub.3 or other metal oxide and their mixtures residing above and in engagement with the second electrolyte to improve sensor performance and/or to reduce sensor heating power consumption.

  17. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION OF ZINC-CONTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of activated carbon fibers, using sisal fiber as precursors, were preparedwith steam activation or with ZnCl2 activation. Zinc or its compounds were dispersed in them. Theantibacterial activities of these activated carbon fibers were determined and compared. The researchresults showed that these sisal based activated carbon fibers supporting zinc have strongerantibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial activity is related tothe precursors, the pyrolysis temperature, and the zinc content. In addition, small quantity of silversupported on zinc-containing ACFs will greatly enhance the antibacterial activity of ACFs.

  18. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  19. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μm

  20. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27214000

  1. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  2. Adsorption of light alkanes on coconut nanoporous activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results for adsorption equilibrium of methane, ethane, and butane on nanoporous activated carbon obtained from coconut shells. The adsorption data were obtained gravimetrically at temperatures between 260 and 300K and pressures up to 1 bar. The Toth isotherm was used to correlate the data, showing good agreement with measured values. Low-coverage equilibrium constants were estimated using virial plots. Heats of adsorption at different loadings were also estimated from the equilibrium data. Adsorption properties for this material are compared to the same properties for BPL activated carbon and BAX activated carbon.

  3. Nickel adsorption by sodium polyacrylate-grafted activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewecharoen, A. [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, P., E-mail: paitip@hotmail.com [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Wendel, E.; Bertagnolli, H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A novel sodium polyacrylate grafted activated carbon was produced by using gamma radiation to increase the number of functional groups on the surface. After irradiation the capacity for nickel adsorption was studied and found to have increased from 44.1 to 55.7 mg g{sup -1}. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed nickel on activated carbon and irradiation-grafted activated carbon was coordinated with 6 oxygen atoms at 2.04-2.06 A. It is proposed that this grafting technique could be applied to other adsorbents to increase the efficiency of metal adsorption.

  4. Nickel adsorption by sodium polyacrylate-grafted activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewecharoen, A; Thiravetyan, P; Wendel, E; Bertagnolli, H

    2009-11-15

    A novel sodium polyacrylate grafted activated carbon was produced by using gamma radiation to increase the number of functional groups on the surface. After irradiation the capacity for nickel adsorption was studied and found to have increased from 44.1 to 55.7 mg g(-1). X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed nickel on activated carbon and irradiation-grafted activated carbon was coordinated with 6 oxygen atoms at 2.04-2.06 A. It is proposed that this grafting technique could be applied to other adsorbents to increase the efficiency of metal adsorption. PMID:19576692

  5. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  6. Tribological Characteristics of Chromium-active Carbon Electroplated Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUKa-fi; HUAMeng; Yi-min

    2004-01-01

    A process of chromium electroplating using a standard bath with additives and active carbon particles was reported, and the tribological behaviors of the composite coatings using the pin-on-disk tester and the table wear tester were i nvestig(aed. Experimental results indicate that the electroplated chromium-active carbon composite coatings exhibited the low friction coefficient anti excellent anti-wear properties whets coffered with the normal chromium electroplated ones. The formation of active carbon particles within the chromium matrices can be explained by SEM analysis and the mechanis of wear resistance of the composite coatings were studied.

  7. High Surface Area of Nano Pores Activated Carbon Derived From Agriculture Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the high surface area of nano pores activated carbon rice husk originated from local biomass was investigated. The comparison in terms of surface area, porosity and behavior in electrochemical analysis with commercial activated carbon was studied in details. The nano pores activated carbon rice husk was synthesis using consecutive of carbonization and activation under purified nitrogen and carbon dioxide purge. Interestingly, the surface area and capacity of the nano pores activated carbon rice indicated higher in comparison to commercial activated carbon. This indicated that the nano pores activated carbon has potential to be developed further as an alternative material in reducing suspension on commercial activated carbon. (author)

  8. Mechanism of phenol adsorption onto electro-activated carbon granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounici, H; Aioueche, F; Belhocine, D; Drouiche, M; Pauss, A; Mameri, N

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to determine the mechanisms which govern the adsorption of the phenol onto electro-activated carbon granules. This new activation technique allowed an increase of the performance of the adsorbent. Two models were utilised to understand the improvement in the performance of electroactivated carbon granules. The first, a simple external resistance model based on film resistance, gave acceptable predictions, with an error of less than 15%, between the theoretical results and experimental data independent of the activation potential and phenol initial concentration. The second linear model, based on diffusion phenomena, was more representative in describing the experiment than the first model. It was observed that the electro-activation method did not change the mechanism which governs phenol adsorption onto granular carbon. Indeed, the same mathematical model based on diffusion phenomena made it possible to predict with a very low error (less than 5%) the experimental data obtained for the favourable activation potential, without activation potential and with an unfavourable activation potential. The electro-activation technique makes it possible to increase the number of active sites that improve the performance of the electro-activated granular carbon compared with conventional granular activated carbon.

  9. Interaction forces between waterborne bacteria and activated carbon particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Bjorkquist, David W.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Van der Mei, Henny C.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbons remove waterborne bacteria from potable water systems through attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces despite electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged cells and carbon surfaces. In this paper we quantify the interaction forces between bacteria with negatively and positiv

  10. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    , manufacturing industries take full responsibility for emissions reductions by curtailing their use of energy without any subsidies from the government. Revenue function estimates provide measures of the differential costs imposed on different industries by emissions reductions. In the second scenario, emissions reductions are achieved by changing the mix of electricity generation technologies used by the power generation sector within the country. For the international case, I focus on the fairness of emission reduction responsibility among countries. To be fair to countries at different levels of development and with different rate of carbon emissions, I propose a new method to adjust the timing and rates of emission reductions based on a lifetime cumulative emission per capita.

  11. Intact tropical forests, new evidence they uptake carbon actively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a paper recently published on Nature, tropical forests play as active carbon sink, absorbing 1.3·109 tons of carbon per year on a global scale. Functional interpretation is not clear yet, but a point is quite easy to realize: tropical forests accumulate and contain more carbon than any other vegetation cover and, if their disruption goes on at current rates, these ecosystems could revert to be a “carbon bomb”, releasing huge amount of CO2 to the atmosphere.

  12. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs

  13. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will

  14. Comparison of Grain Size in Plain Carbon Hot-Rolled Sheets Manufactured by CSP and Conventional Rolling Processing%Comparison of Grain Size in Plain Carbon Hot-Rolled Sheets Manufactured by CSP and Conventional Rolling Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xue-song; ZHU Guo-hui; MAO Wei-min

    2012-01-01

    Average grain size and grain size distribution in as hot-rolled SPHC, SPHD, and SPHE sheets manufac- tured by compact strip production (CSP) processing and traditional continuous casting and rolling (CCR) processing respectively were investigated by quantitative metallographic method. The results show that the average grain size and distribution width of grain size in sheets manufactured by CSP processing was obviously larger than that by CCR processing. It was analyzed that multi-phase transformation and high reduction ratio in CCR processing resulted in refining grain size, which would be dominant reason for controlling grain size. In plain carbon steels such as SPHC, SPHD and SPHE, the effect of fine precipitation in CSP on behavior of deformation and recrystallization of austenite during roiling, and consequent refinement of grain size seem not to be as important as the effect of reheating and roughing in CCR processing. Homogenizing in reheating and refining grain size in roughing in CCR processing would refine final grain size and also make grain size homogenized, Very coarse grain size would result in mixed grain size, large distribution width of grain size due to interaction of static and dynamic recrystallization in CSP processing

  15. Adsorptive preconcentration of rareearth oxine complexes onto activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for the determination of traces of rare earth using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) after preconcentration of their oxine complexes onto activated carbon. Various parameters that influence adsorptive preconcentration of rare earth onto activated carbon viz. pH, amounts of activated carbon and oxine, time of stirring and aqueous phase volume were systematically studied. A numerical method based on simple least square procedure using fifth order polynomial with 25 consecutive values was developed for smoothing and differentiation of EDXRF data which was previously digitized and averaged. First order derivative EDXRF in conjunction with adsorptive preconcentration on activated carbon enables one to determine as low as 10 ppb of each individual rare earth elements

  16. Application of Activated Carbon Mixed Matrix Membrane for Oxygen Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of activated carbon on oxygen separation performance of polyethersulfone mixed matrix membrane. In this study, polyethersulfone (PES-activated carbon (AC mixed matrix membranes were fabricated using dry/wet technique. This study investigates the effect of polyethersulfone concentration and activated carbon loading on the performance of mixed matrix membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity of O2/N2 gas separation. The fabricated flat sheet mixed matrix membranes were characterized using permeation test, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. It was found that the activated carbon loading affected the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane. PES- 1wt% AC membrane yielded 3.75 of O2/N2 selectivity, however 5 wt% of AC can produced 5 O2/N2 selectivity

  17. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  18. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  19. A novel process for preparation of active carbon from sapropelitic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodoev, N.V.; Gruber, R.; Kucherenko, V.A.; Guet, J.-M.; Khabarova, T.; Cohaut, N.; Heintz, O.; Rokosova, N.N. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Inst. of Carbon Material Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The paper reports the preparation of active carbons starting from sapropelitic coals. First a traditional route of manufacturing, coking and activation (820{degree}C) was carried out. The specific area (BET) of the activated semicokes of six sapropelitic coal samples varied from a few square meters to about five hundred (for Taimylir coal). Secondly, using Taimylir coal, a novel way of active carbon preparation was attempted combining low temperature modification and chemical activation. The modification was carried out using nitric acid-acetic anhydride mixture at room temperature and tested by swelling and weight uptake measurements. The modified coal samples were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The chemical activation route included impregnation by an activant (KOH) and a subsequent heating (2 hr under argon) at selected temperatures ranging from 300 to 900{degree}C. Surface areas were determined by BET and SAXS methods. The chemical modification resulted in a new functional group formation and organic framework reorganization, which strongly affected the activation, as a value of 1200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} was obtained after chemical activation. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Functionalized Activated Carbon Derived from Biomass for Photocatalysis Applications Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlighted the developments of safe, effective, economic, and environmental friendly catalytic technologies to transform lignocellulosic biomass into the activated carbon (AC. In the photocatalysis applications, this AC can further be used as a support material. The limits of AC productions raised by energy assumption and product selectivity have been uplifted to develop sustainable carbon of the synthesis process, where catalytic conversion is accounted. The catalytic treatment corresponding to mild condition provided a bulk, mesoporous, and nanostructure AC materials. These characteristics of AC materials are necessary for the low energy and efficient photocatalytic system. Due to the excellent oxidizing characteristics, cheapness, and long-term stability, semiconductor materials have been used immensely in photocatalytic reactors. However, in practical, such conductors lead to problems with the separation steps and loss of photocatalytic activity. Therefore, proper attention has been given to develop supported semiconductor catalysts and certain matrixes of carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon microspheres, carbon nanofibers, carbon black, and activated carbons have been recently considered and reported. AC has been reported as a potential support in photocatalytic systems because it improves the transfer rate of the interface charge and lowers the recombination rate of holes and electrons.

  1. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on impregnated powdered activated carbon as cheap substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun, A. A.; Y.M. Ahmed; S.A. Muyibi; M.F.R. Al-Khatib; A.T. Jameel; M.A. AlSaadi

    2016-01-01

    The catalysis and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite are reported in this work. Carbon nanofibers were produced on oil palm shell powdered activated carbon (PAC), which was impregnated with nickel. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of C2H2 was used in the presence of hydrogen at ∼650 °C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs formed directly on the surface of the impregnated PAC. Variable weight percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%) of the catalyst s...

  2. The investment funds in carbon actives: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning in 1999 of the first funds by the World Bank, the purchase mechanisms of carbon actives, developed and reached today more than 1,5 milliards of euros. The landscape is relatively concentrated, in spite of the numerous initiatives. The author presents the situation since 1999, the importance of the european governmental investors, the purchase mechanisms management and an inventory of the carbon actives purchases. (A.L.B.)

  3. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, P., E-mail: pegonzal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Urones-Garrote, E. [Centro Nacional de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Avila-Brande, D.; Otero-Diaz, L.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated carbons were produced by KOH activation at 700 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed nanostructure consists of highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} bond content Almost-Equal-To 95%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Textural parameters show high surface area ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 m{sup 2}/g) and pore width of 1.3-1.8 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific capacitance reaches values as high as 161 F/g. - Abstract: Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 Degree-Sign C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} content Almost-Equal-To 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm{sup 3} (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m{sup 2}/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm{sup 2}) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  4. Development and Environmental Applications of Activated Carbon Cloths

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lea Cukierman

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon cloths have received growing attention because they offer comparative advantages over the traditional powdered or granular forms of this well-known adsorbent, providing further potential uses for technological innovations in several fields. The present article provides an overview of research studies and advances concerned with the development of activated carbon cloths and their use as adsorbent in environmental applications, mostly reported in the last years. The influence ...

  5. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tianchun Zou; Naiqin Zhao; Chunsheng Shi; Jiajun Li

    2011-02-01

    Microwave absorption of composites containing activated carbon fibres (ACFs) was investigated. The results show that the absorptivity greatly depends on increasing ACF content in the absorbing layer, first increasing and then decreasing. When the content is 0.76 wt.%, the bandwidth below −10dB is 12.2 GHz. Comparing the absorption characteristics of the ACF composite with one containing unactivated fibres, it is found that carbon fibre activation increases the absorption of the composite.

  6. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by physical activation with CO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrun, Sutrisno; AyuRizka, Noni; Annisa, SolichaHidayat; Arif, Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the effects of different carbonization temperatures (400, 600, and 800oC) on characteristics of porosity in activated carbon derived from carbonized sugarcane bagassechar at activation temperature of 800oC. The results showed that the activated carbon derived from high carbonized temperature of sugarcane bagassechars had higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield as compared to the activated carbon derived from low carbonized temperature. The BET surface area, total volume and micropore volume of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagassechars obtained at 800oC of carbonized temperature and activation time of 120 min were 661.46m2/g, 0.2455cm3/g and 0.1989cm3/g, respectively. The high carbonization temperature (800oC) generated a highly microporous carbonwith a Type-I nitrogen adsorption isotherm, while the low carbonization temperature (400 and 600oC) generated a mesoporous one with an intermediate between types I and IInitrogen adsorption isotherm.

  7. Removal of dye by immobilised photo catalyst loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photo degrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of removing organic pollutants is shared between activated carbon and titanium dioxide. Immobilisation is selected to avoid unnecessary filtering of adsorbent and photo catalyst. In this study, mixture of activated carbon and titanium dioxide was immobilised on glass slides. Photodegradation and adsorption studies of Methylene Blue solution were conducted in the absence and presence of UV light. The removal efficiency of immobilised TiO2/ AC was found to be two times better than the removal by immobilised AC or immobilised TiO2 alone. In 4 hours and with the concentration of 10 ppm, TiO2 loaded activated carbon prepared from 1.5 g/ 15.0 mL suspension produced 99.50 % dye removal. (author)

  8. Nanoporous activated carbon cloth for capacitive deionization of aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Han-Jun [Department of Materials Science, Hanseo University, Seosan, 352-820 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Ho [Department of Chemistry, Hanseo University, Seosan, 352-820 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsoo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jig [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Choong-Soo [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul, 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cschi@kookmin.ac.kr

    2006-09-25

    Activated nanostructured-carbon cloths with a high ratio of surface area to volume are used as electrode for capacitive deionization. The electrochemical properties on capacitive deionization for NaCl solution have been investigated to improve efficiency of capacitive deionization properties from aqueous solution, employing chemical surface-modification by etching in alkaline and acidic solution. The removal efficiency of inorganic salts of activated carbon cloths by chemical modification significantly increased. Specially the carbon cloth surface modified in HNO{sub 3} showed an effect of improvement in the CDI efficiency due to not only ion adsorption by an electric double layer, but also electron transfer by Faradaic reaction.

  9. Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon preadsorbed with naphtalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, T; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of water vapor on a microporous activated carbon derived from the carbonization of coconut shell has been studied. Preadsorption of naphthalene was used as a tool to determine the location and the influence of the primary adsorbing centers within the porous structure of active carbon. The adsorption was studied in the pressure range p/p0=0-0.95 in a static water vapor system, allowing the investigation of both kinetic and equilibrium experimental data. Modeling of the isotherms using the modified equation of Do and Do was applied to determine the effect of preadsorption on the mechanism of adsorption. PMID:15797395

  10. Robust synthesis and continuous manufacturing of carbon nanotube forests and graphene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S.

    Successful translation of the outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene to commercial applications requires highly consistent methods of synthesis, using scalable and cost-effective machines. This thesis presents robust process conditions and a series of process operations that will enable integrated roll-to-roll (R2R) CNT and graphene growth on flexible substrates. First, a comprehensive study was undertaken to establish the sources of variation in laboratory CVD growth of CNT forests. Statistical analysis identified factors that contribute to variation in forest height and density including ambient humidity, sample position in the reactor, and barometric pressure. Implementation of system modifications and user procedures reduced the variation in height and density by 50% and 54% respectively. With improved growth, two new methods for continuous deposition and patterning of catalyst nanoparticles for CNT forest growth were developed, enabling the diameter, density and pattern geometry to be tailored through the control of process parameters. Convective assembly of catalyst nanoparticles in solution enables growth of CNT forests with density 3-fold higher than using sputtered catalyst films with the same growth parameters. Additionally, laser printing of magnetic ink character recognition toner provides a large scale patterning method, with digital control of the pattern density and tunable CNT density via laser intensity. A concentric tube CVD reactor was conceptualized, designed and built for R2R growth of CNT forests and graphene on flexible substrates helically fed through the annular gap. The design enables downstream injection of the hydrocarbon source, and gas consumption is reduced 90% compared to a standard tube furnace. Multi-wall CNT forests are grown continuously on metallic and ceramic fiber substrates at 33 mm/min. High quality, uniform bi- and multi-layer graphene is grown on Cu and Ni foils at 25 - 495 mm/min. A second machine

  11. The Formation of Carbon Nanofibers on Powdered Activated Carbon Impregnated with Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y. M.; Al-Mamun, A. A.; Muyibi, S. A.; Al-Khatib, M. F. R.; Jameel, A. T.; AlSaadi, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present work, the production and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite is reported. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were produced on powdered activated carbon PAC—impregnated with nickel—by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of a hydrocarbon in the presence of hydrogen at ˜780° C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs were formed directly over the impregnated AC. Variable weight percentage ratios of the catalyst salt (Ni+2) were used for the impregnation (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9%, respectively). The product displays a relatively high surface area, essentially constituted by the external surface, and the absence of the bottled pores encountered with activated carbon. FSEM, TEM and TGA were used for the characterization of the product.

  12. Effect of Surfactants and Manufacturing Methods on the Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube/Silicone Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Hřibová

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionic surfactants and manufacturing methods on the separation and distribution of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs in a silicone matrix are investigated. The CNTs are dispersed in an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA, the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and in a DBSA/CTAB surfactant mixture. Four types of CNT-based composites of various concentrations from 0 to 6 vol.% are prepared by simple mechanical mixing and sonication. The morphology, electrical and thermal conductivity of the CNT-based composites are analyzed. The incorporation of both neat and modified CNTs leads to an increase in electrical and thermal conductivity. The dependence of DC conductivity versus CNT concentration shows percolation behaviour with a percolation threshold of about 2 vol.% in composites with neat CNT. The modification of CNTs by DBSA increases the percolation threshold to 4 vol.% due to the isolation/separation of individual CNTs. This, in turn, results in a significant decrease in the complex permittivity of CNT–DBSA-based composites. In contrast to the percolation behaviour of DC conductivity, the concentration dependence of thermal conductivity exhibits a linear dependence, the thermal conductivity of composites with modified CNTs being lower than that of composites with neat CNTs. All these results provide evidence that the modification of CNTs by DBSA followed by sonication allows one to produce composites with high homogeneity.

  13. Manufacturing and testing a thin glass mirror shell with piezoelectric active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Basso, S.; Candia, R.; Civitani, M.; Di Bella, M.; Di Cicca, G.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lullo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Riva, M.; Salmaso, B.; Sciortino, L.; Varisco, S.

    2015-09-01

    Optics for future X-ray telescopes will be characterized by very large aperture and focal length, and will be made of lightweight materials like glass or silicon in order to keep the total mass within acceptable limits. Optical modules based on thin slumped glass foils are being developed at various institutes, aiming at improving the angular resolution to a few arcsec HEW. Thin mirrors are prone to deform, so they require a careful integration to avoid deformations and even correct forming errors. On the other hand, this offers the opportunity to actively correct the residual deformation: a viable possibility to improve the mirror figure is the application of piezoelectric actuators onto the non-optical side of the mirrors, and several groups are already at work on this approach. The concept we are developing consists of actively integrating thin glass foils with piezoelectric patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays. The actuators are commercial components, while the tension signals are carried by a printed circuit obtained by photolithography, and the driving electronic is a multi-channel low power consumption voltage supply developed inhouse. Finally, the shape detection and the consequent voltage signal to be provided to the piezoelectric array are determined in X-rays, in intra-focal setup at the XACT facility at INAF/OAPA. In this work, we describe the manufacturing steps to obtain a first active mirror prototype and the very first test performed in X-rays.

  14. Comparison of the concentrations of phenolic constituents in cane sugar manufacturing products with their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2006-09-20

    Polyphenol content and free radical scavenging capacity of seven kinds of sugar manufacturing products (A sugars, clear juices, syrups, massecuite, and A, B, and C molasses) were studied. Seventy-two samples were collected at different stages of the process during two sugar harvests from a local sugar factory (Bois-Rouge, La Réunion). The total phenolic content of sugar products was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Polyphenols of sugar products were extracted with ethyl acetate and quantified by LC-UV-ESI-MS during all of the process. ABTS and DPPH assays were applied to aqueous solution of sugar products, which exhibited interesting free radical scavenging activity. Comparatively, ethyl acetate extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis) demonstrated a significant correlation between polyphenols and antioxidant activity. Moreover, it was observed that the sugar process results in an increase of the phenolic content and the free radical scavenging capacity of the different products. These products and especially molasses proved to be a rich source of natural antioxidants and may represent an interesting alternative to synthetic food antioxidants. PMID:16968093

  15. Evaluation of Powdered Activated Carbon Efficiency in Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon inWater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    G.R Bonyadi nejad; R Hadian; M Saadani; B Jaberian; M.M Amin; A Khodabakhshi

    2010-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Powdered Activated$ carbon is known as a suitable absorbent for organic materials. The aim of this research is evaluation of Powdered Activated-Carbon (PAC) efficiency in removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in water treatment in Isfahan."nMaterials and Methods : The increase of PAC for DOC reduction has done in three paths in the Isfahan water treatment plant (WTP). These paths including: 1) Intake up to entrance of WTP 2) Intake to exit ofWTP 3) Between...

  16. Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccar, R. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: rym.baccar@tunet.tn; Bouzid, J. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: jalel.bouzid@tunet.tn; Feki, M. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Industrielle et Materiaux, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: mongi.feki@yahoo.fr; Montiel, A. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: montiel.antoine@free.fr

    2009-03-15

    The present work explored the use of Tunisian olive-waste cakes, a by-product of the manufacture process of olive oil in mills, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon. Chemical activation of this precursor, using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent, was adopted. To optimize the preparation method, the effect of the main process parameters (such as acid concentration, impregnation ratio, temperature of pyrolysis step) on the performances of the obtained activated carbons (expressed in terms of iodine and methylene blue numbers and specific surface area) was studied. The optimal activated carbon was fully characterized considering its adsorption properties as well as its chemical structure and morphology. To enhance the adsorption capacity of this carbon for heavy metals, a modification of the chemical characteristics of the sorbent surface was performed, using KMnO{sub 4} as oxidant. The efficiency of this treatment was evaluated considering the adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions as a model for metallic species. Column adsorption tests showed the high capacity of the activated carbon to reduce KMnO{sub 4} into insoluble manganese (IV) oxide (MnO{sub 2}) which impregnated the sorbent surface. The results indicated also that copper uptake capacity was enhanced by a factor of up to 3 for the permanganate-treated activated carbon.

  17. Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work explored the use of Tunisian olive-waste cakes, a by-product of the manufacture process of olive oil in mills, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon. Chemical activation of this precursor, using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent, was adopted. To optimize the preparation method, the effect of the main process parameters (such as acid concentration, impregnation ratio, temperature of pyrolysis step) on the performances of the obtained activated carbons (expressed in terms of iodine and methylene blue numbers and specific surface area) was studied. The optimal activated carbon was fully characterized considering its adsorption properties as well as its chemical structure and morphology. To enhance the adsorption capacity of this carbon for heavy metals, a modification of the chemical characteristics of the sorbent surface was performed, using KMnO4 as oxidant. The efficiency of this treatment was evaluated considering the adsorption of Cu2+ ions as a model for metallic species. Column adsorption tests showed the high capacity of the activated carbon to reduce KMnO4 into insoluble manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2) which impregnated the sorbent surface. The results indicated also that copper uptake capacity was enhanced by a factor of up to 3 for the permanganate-treated activated carbon

  18. Evaluation of Powdered Activated Carbon Efficiency in Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon inWater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R Bonyadi nejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Powdered Activated$ carbon is known as a suitable absorbent for organic materials. The aim of this research is evaluation of Powdered Activated-Carbon (PAC efficiency in removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC in water treatment in Isfahan."nMaterials and Methods : The increase of PAC for DOC reduction has done in three paths in the Isfahan water treatment plant (WTP. These paths including: 1 Intake up to entrance of WTP 2 Intake to exit ofWTP 3 Between entrance and exit of waterworks. The paths were simulated by the Jar test system. Then DOC and UV254 absorption were analyzed and SUVA parameter for samples and activated-carbon adsorption isotherm was calculated."nResults: The injected PAC doses of 20,40,60,80 and 100 mg/l caused decreasing in DOC and UV254 absorption in every sample in all paths. The average of this decrease, from intake to WTP.s exit (second path was the greatest 69.8± 3.9%and the commonWTP process had capability of removing 35% of DOC. The first path also showed that PAC can reduce 33± 2% DOC of raw water by itself. Activated-carbon absorption results were adhered from Freundlich adsorption isotherm."nConclusion: In the third path therewas lessDOCremoval efficiency than exceptedwhen Activated- Carbon injected in rapid mixed basin with coagulant. Powdered activated carbon porosity reduction due to effect of coagulant can be the reason for this issue.Also according to different paths, the point of intake is more suitable for powdered activated carbon addition.

  19. Planning Machine Activity Between Manufacturing Operations: Maintaining Accuracy While Reducing Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Simon; Vallati, Mauro; Chrpa, Lukáš; Longstaff, Andrew P.; Fletcher, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There has recently been an increased emphasis on reducing energy consumption in manufacturing. This is largely because of fluctuations in energy costs causing uncertainty. The increased competition between manufacturers means that even a slight change in energy consumption can have implications on their profit margin or competitiveness of quote. Furthermore, there is a drive from policy-makers to audit the environmental impact of manufactured goods from cradle-to-grave. The understanding, and...

  20. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter by modified activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Dastgheib, Seyed A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2005-06-01

    Adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) by virgin and modified granular activated carbons (GACs) was studied. DOM samples were obtained from two water treatment plants before (i.e., raw water) and after coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes (i.e., treated water). A granular activated carbon (GAC) was modified by high temperature helium or ammonia treatment, or iron impregnation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment. Two activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were also used, with no modification, to examine the effect of carbon porosity on DOM adsorption. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA(254)) were employed to characterize the DOMs before and after adsorption. Iron-impregnated (HDFe) and ammonia-treated (HDN) activated carbons showed significantly higher DOM uptakes than the virgin GAC. The enhanced DOM uptake by HDFe was due to the presence of iron species on the carbon surface. The higher uptake of HDN was attributed to the enlarged carbon pores and basic surface created during ammonia treatment. The SEC and SUVA(254) results showed no specific selectivity in the removal of different DOM components as a result of carbon modification. The removal of DOM from both raw and treated waters was negligible by ACF10, having 96% of its surface area in pores smaller than 1 nm. Small molecular weight (MW) DOM components were preferentially removed by ACF20H, having 33% of its surface area in 1--3 nm pores. DOM components with MWs larger than 1600, 2000, and 2700 Da of Charleston raw, Charleston-treated, and Spartanburg-treated waters, respectively, were excluded from the pores of ACF20H. In contrast to carbon fibers, DOM components from entire MW range were removed from waters by virgin and modified GACs. PMID:15927230

  2. Composite electrodes of activated carbon derived from cassava peel and carbon nanotubes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Iwantono, Yulita, M.; Taslim, R.; Subagio, A.; Salomo, Deraman, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a composite electrode was prepared from a mixture of activated carbon derived from precarbonization of cassava peel (CP) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The activated carbon was produced by pyrolysis process using ZnCl2 as an activation agent. A N2 adsorption-desorption analysis for the sample indicated that the BET surface area of the activated carbon was 1336 m2 g-1. Difference percentage of CNTs of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% with 5% of PVDF binder were added into CP based activated carbon in order to fabricate the composite electrodes. The morphology and structure of the composite electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The SEM image observed that the distribution of CNTs was homogeneous between carbon particles and the XRD pattern shown the amorphous structure of the sample. The electrodes were fabricated for supercapacitor cells with 316L stainless steel as current collector and 1 M sulfuric acid as electrolyte. An electrochemical characterization was performed by using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method using a Solatron 1286 instrument and the addition of CNTs revealed to improve the resistant and capacitive properties of supercapacitor cell.

  3. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.; Lim, Hyung-nam; Kilduff, James E.

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7-8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of π-electron energy to investigate the role of π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion effects

  4. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7–8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of π-electron energy to investigate the role of π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion

  5. Manufacturing an active X-ray mirror prototype in thin glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D; Barbera, M; Collura, A; Basso, S; Candia, R; Civitani, M; Di Bella, M S; Di Cicca, G; Lo Cicero, U; Lullo, G; Pelliciari, C; Riva, M; Salmaso, B; Sciortino, L; Varisco, S

    2016-01-01

    Adjustable mirrors equipped with piezo actuators are commonly used at synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) beamlines, in order to optimize their focusing properties and sometimes to shape the intensity distribution of the focal spot with the desired profile. Unlike them, X-ray mirrors for astronomy are much thinner in order to enable nesting and reduce the areal mass, and the application of piezo actuators acting normally to the surface appears much more difficult. There remains the possibility to correct the deformations using thin patches that exert a tangential strain on the rear side of the mirror: some research groups are already at work on this approach. The technique reported here relies on actively integrating thin glass foils with commercial piezoceramic patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays, while the tension signals are carried by electrodes on the back of the mirror, obtained by photolithography. Finally, the shape detection and the consequent voltage signal to be provided to the piezoelectric array will be determined by X-ray illumination in an intra-focal setup at the XACT facility. In this work, the manufacturing steps for obtaining a first active mirror prototype are described.

  6. Design and Manufacture of Low Carbon for Grain and Oil Machinery Products%粮油机械产品的低碳设计制造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池优阳; 阮竞兰

    2015-01-01

    分析了传统粮油机械产品在设计制造业和使用行业中对环境造成的影响,并对粮油机械产品低碳设计碳足迹计算、评估、低碳产品认证等方面进行了简要概述,提出了粮油机械产品采用低碳设计制造的方法途径。指出低碳设计制造是粮油机械制造业解决环境污染问题的有效方法,最后对粮油机械产品低碳设计的未来发展趋势进行构想和展望。%The root causes of environmental problems from traditional grain and oil machinery are ana-lyzed,and the following aspects of carbon footprint calculation,evaluation and low carbon product certification as the evaluation index for the low carbon design effects were summarized the way of Design and Manufacture of Low Carbon for Grain and Oil machinery products are put forward.Implementation of Low Carbon design and manufacturing is the way of the Grain and Oil machinery products manufacturing industry to solve the environ-mental problems.Finally the prospects and future development trend of grain and oil machinery products low carbon design were proposed.

  7. 改性轻质碳酸钙在造纸工业中的应用研究%A Study of Application of Modified Light Calcium Carbonate in Paper Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小红; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is indispensible inorganic filler and pigment in paper manufacturing industry. With the upgrade of paper manufacturing industry, paper pulp is changed from acidity to neutral and alkaline, light cal⁃cium carbonate has more advantages than heavy calcium carbonate in paper manufacturing. The paper reviews the research progress of application of light calcium carbonate in paper manufacturing industry, and presents the social significance and popularization and application of calcium carbonate in Chizhou.%重点概述了目前国内外改性轻质碳酸钙在造纸工业中的应用研究进展,并结合本项目组近年来的研究实践,分析指出在池州地区开展碳酸钙应用研究,具有更加重要的社会意义和实际推广应用价值。

  8. Porous texture evolution in Nomex-derived activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Rodil, S; Denoyel, R; Rouquerol, J; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2002-08-01

    In the present work, the textural evolution of a series of activated carbon fibers with increasing burn-off degree, prepared by the pyrolysis and steam activation of Nomex aramid fibers, is followed by measurements of physical adsorption of N(2) (77 K) and CO(2) (273 K) and immersion calorimetry into different liquids (dichloromethane, benzene, cyclohexane). The immersion calorimetry results are discussed in depth, paying special attention to the choice of the reference material. The activated carbon fibers studied possess an essentially homogeneous microporous texture, which suggests that these materials may be applied in gas separation, either directly or with additional CVD treatment. PMID:16290775

  9. Proton catalysis with active carbons and partially pyrolyzed carbonaceous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Strelko; S. S. Stavitskaya; Yu. I. Gorlov

    2014-01-01

    The development of environmentally friendly solid acid catalysts is a priority task. Highly oxidized activated carbon and their ion-substituted (saline) forms are effective proton transfer catalysts in esterification, hydrolysis, and dehydration, and thus are promising candidates as solid acid cata-lysts. Computations by the ab initio method indicated the cause for the enchanced acidity of the carboxylic groups attached to the surface of highly oxidized carbon. The synthesis of phosphorilated carbon was considered, and the proton transfer reactions catalyzed by them in recent studies were analyzed. The development of an amorphous carbon acid catalyst comprising polycyclic carbonaceous (graphene) sheets with-SO3H,-COOH and phenolic type OH-groups was carried out. These new catalysts were synthesized by partial pyrolysis and subsequent sulfonation of carbohydrates, polymers, and other organic compounds. Their high catalytic activities in proton transfere reactions including the processing of bio-based raw materials was demonsrated.

  10. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated Car

  11. Biofuel intercropping effects on soil carbon and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; Leggett, Zakiya H; Sucre, Eric B; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels will help meet rising demands for energy and, ideally, limit climate change associated with carbon losses from the biosphere to atmosphere. Biofuel management must therefore maximize energy production and maintain ecosystem carbon stocks. Increasingly, there is interest in intercropping biofuels with other crops, partly because biofuel production on arable land might reduce availability and increase the price of food. One intercropping approach involves growing biofuel grasses in forest plantations. Grasses differ from trees in both their organic inputs to soils and microbial associations. These differences are associated with losses of soil carbon when grasses become abundant in forests. We investigated how intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgalum), a major candidate for cellulosic biomass production, in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations affects soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial dynamics. Our design involved four treatments: two pine management regimes where harvest residues (i.e., biomass) were left in place or removed, and two switchgrass regimes where the grass was grown with pine under the same two biomass scenarios (left or removed). Soil variables were measured in four 1-ha replicate plots in the first and second year following switchgrass planting. Under switchgrass intercropping, pools of mineralizable and particulate organic matter carbon were 42% and 33% lower, respectively. These declines translated into a 21% decrease in total soil carbon in the upper 15 cm of the soil profile, during early stand development. The switchgrass effect, however, was isolated to the interbed region where switchgrass is planted. In these regions, switchgrass-induced reductions in soil carbon pools with 29%, 43%, and 24% declines in mineralizable, particulate, and total soil carbon, respectively. Our results support the idea that grass inputs to forests can prime the activity of soil organic carbon degrading microbes, leading to net reductions in stocks

  12. Biofuel intercropping effects on soil carbon and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; Leggett, Zakiya H; Sucre, Eric B; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels will help meet rising demands for energy and, ideally, limit climate change associated with carbon losses from the biosphere to atmosphere. Biofuel management must therefore maximize energy production and maintain ecosystem carbon stocks. Increasingly, there is interest in intercropping biofuels with other crops, partly because biofuel production on arable land might reduce availability and increase the price of food. One intercropping approach involves growing biofuel grasses in forest plantations. Grasses differ from trees in both their organic inputs to soils and microbial associations. These differences are associated with losses of soil carbon when grasses become abundant in forests. We investigated how intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgalum), a major candidate for cellulosic biomass production, in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations affects soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial dynamics. Our design involved four treatments: two pine management regimes where harvest residues (i.e., biomass) were left in place or removed, and two switchgrass regimes where the grass was grown with pine under the same two biomass scenarios (left or removed). Soil variables were measured in four 1-ha replicate plots in the first and second year following switchgrass planting. Under switchgrass intercropping, pools of mineralizable and particulate organic matter carbon were 42% and 33% lower, respectively. These declines translated into a 21% decrease in total soil carbon in the upper 15 cm of the soil profile, during early stand development. The switchgrass effect, however, was isolated to the interbed region where switchgrass is planted. In these regions, switchgrass-induced reductions in soil carbon pools with 29%, 43%, and 24% declines in mineralizable, particulate, and total soil carbon, respectively. Our results support the idea that grass inputs to forests can prime the activity of soil organic carbon degrading microbes, leading to net reductions in stocks

  13. Production of activated carbons from coffee endocarp by CO2 and steam activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the use of coffee endocarp as precursor for the production of activated carbons by steam and CO2 was studied. Activation by both methods produces activated carbons with small external areas and microporous structures having very similar mean pore widths. The activation produces mainly primary micropores and only a small volume of larger micropores. The CO2 activation leads to samples with higher BET surface areas and pore volumes when compared with samples produced by steam activation and with similar burn-off value. All the activated carbons produced have basic characteristics with point of zero charge between 10 and 12. By FTIR it was possible to identify the formation on the activated carbon's surface of several functional groups, namely ether, quinones, lactones, ketones, hydroxyls (free and phenol); pyrones and Si-H bonds. (author)

  14. Decolorization of Cheddar cheese whey by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Campbell, Rachel; Drake, MaryAnne; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Colored Cheddar whey is a source for whey protein recovery and is decolorized conventionally by bleaching, which affects whey protein quality. Two activated carbons were studied in the present work as physical means of removing annatto (norbixin) in Cheddar cheese whey. The color and residual norbixin content of Cheddar whey were reduced by a higher level of activated carbon at a higher temperature between 25 and 55°C and a longer time. Activated carbon applied at 40g/L for 2h at 30°C was more effective than bleaching by 500mg/L of hydrogen peroxide at 68°C. The lowered temperature in activated-carbon treatments had less effect on protein structure as investigated for fluorescence spectroscopy and volatile compounds, particularly oxidation products, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Activated carbon was also reusable, removing more than 50% norbixin even after 10 times of regeneration, which showed great potential for decolorizing cheese whey.

  15. ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF L-HISTIDINE ON ACTIVE CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption properties of L-histidine on active carbon were studied in the paper, which are affected by the main parameters, such as the quantity percent of active carbon, pH value of the solution, the time of adsorption equilibrium and adsorption temperature. The results indicate that adsorption equilibrium time of L-his on active carbon is about 80 minutes. With the increasing of the quantity percent of active carbon, the adsorbance of L-his decreases sharply, and increases lighter after that. When the quantity percent of active carbon is 10%, the adsorbance reaches the minimum.pH value of solution and extraction temperature have great affection on the adsorption. When the pH value is higher or lower than the pI of L-his, the adsorbance is small, even zero. It is proven that the experimental equilibrium data which are obtained under the conditions of 80 ℃and pH=1.0, are fitted with the Freundlich equation: q=2.5914c0.8097. The results can provide certain references in L-his adsorption process of industrial operation.

  16. The design and manufacturing development of an active silicon substrate MCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughton, M. G.; Waite, L.

    1994-10-01

    The demand for engine control systems with reduced weight, size and cost, increased integration, improved reliability and higher temperature operation drives the system designer to the use of advanced hybrid assembly technologies. This paper describes the design and manufacturing development of a silicon based 'D' type multichip module, MCM, containing an active substrate of memory. This CPU module is one of the building blocks for a range of generic engine control systems. The active substrate approach potentially gives higher packing density than wafer scale due to its 3D configuration. The active substrate comprises 12 SRAM 128K x 8 bit of diffused memory arranged in groups of three. The design is organized so that a 'memory manager' ASIC selects pages of good memory from the substrate die thus obtaining the best possible yield. A single wafer contains 4 silicon hybrid substrates, each approximately 40mm sq, which will be processed before separating into discrete circuits. The MCM structure is comprised of four aluminium metallization layers with benzocyclobutene, BCB, as the dielectric. Approximately 16 other devices including a processor, the 'memory manager' ASIC, a Processor Support ASIC and EDPROM, plus resistor network chips and decoupling capacitors will be added to the silicon substrate using adhesive and wire bond interconnection. The 'memory manager' ASIC tests the RAM on power-up, reject areas of bad memory and configures the good areas such that a continuous block of functional RAM is available to the processor. The RAM is configured as a 16 bit wide with both 16 bit and 8 bit read/write accesses being supported. The total module is to be assembled in a high temperature co-fired ceramic package with 200 I/O. After test and any rework that may be necessary the package will be sealed with a Kovar lid ready for final test.

  17. Effect of activated carbon layer at sand-carbon filters vertical flow in domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wąsik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research concerning treatment of domestic sewage in sand filters of vertical flow with granular activated carbon layer. Removal of organic compounds and nitrogen from wastewater pre-treated in a septic tank, as well as total suspended solids at different hydraulic load of sand-carbon filters were specified. It was shown that favourable conditions for the development of both heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria were created in the double layer of sand and carbon filter with the upper layer of the activated carbon. For three-month cycle in the load range of 13-131 mm·d-1, mean effectiveness of BOD5, CODCr, N-NH4+ and total suspension were respectively 98%, 94%, 98% and 82%.

  18. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP.

  19. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP. PMID:26447230

  20. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Dinesh [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)]. E-mail: dm_1967@hotmail.com; Singh, Kunwar P. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Singh, Vinod K. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2006-07-31

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 deg. C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 deg. C: ATFAC-10.97 mg/g, ACF-36.05 mg/g; 40 deg. C: ATFAC-16.10 mg/g, ACF-40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.

  1. Breakthrough CO₂ adsorption in bio-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkarami, Sepideh; Azargohar, Ramin; Dalai, Ajay K; Soltan, Jafar

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the effects of different methods of activation on CO2 adsorption performance of activated carbon were studied. Activated carbons were prepared from biochar, obtained from fast pyrolysis of white wood, using three different activation methods of steam activation, CO2 activation and Potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation. CO2 adsorption behavior of the produced activated carbons was studied in a fixed-bed reactor set-up at atmospheric pressure, temperature range of 25-65°C and inlet CO2 concentration range of 10-30 mol% in He to determine the effects of the surface area, porosity and surface chemistry on adsorption capacity of the samples. Characterization of the micropore and mesopore texture was carried out using N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively. Central composite design was used to evaluate the combined effects of temperature and concentration of CO2 on the adsorption behavior of the adsorbents. The KOH activated carbon with a total micropore volume of 0.62 cm(3)/g and surface area of 1400 m(2)/g had the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 1.8 mol/kg due to its microporous structure and high surface area under the optimized experimental conditions of 30 mol% CO2 and 25°C. The performance of the adsorbents in multi-cyclic adsorption process was also assessed and the adsorption capacity of KOH and CO2 activated carbons remained remarkably stable after 50 cycles with low temperature (160°C) regeneration. PMID:26257348

  2. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  3. Ferrous ion oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilized on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-kui; QIN Wen-qing; NIU Yin-jian; LI Hua-xia

    2006-01-01

    The immobilization of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on the activated carbon particles as support matrix was investigated. Cycling batch operation results in the complete oxidation of ferrous iron in 8 d when the modified 9 K medium is set to flow through the mini-bioreactor at a rate of 0.104 L/h at 25 ℃. The oxidation rate of ferrous iron with immobilized T. ferrooxidans is 9.38 g/(L·h). The results show that the immobilization of T. ferrooxidans on activated carbon can improve the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. The SEM images show that a build-up of cells of T. ferrooxidans and iron precipitates is formed on the surface of activated carbon particles.

  4. 碳纤维制造产业的专利分析%Analysis of patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀小强; 易方方

    2012-01-01

    对碳纤维制造技术专利文献进行了检索统计,分别从年度发展趋势、专利申请国分布、申请人状况和中美日欧四局共同申请的重点专利布局等方面对碳纤维制造产业的国内外技术专利进行了分析,揭示了国内外碳纤维专利申请的现状,分析了主要专利申请人专利的国际专利分类领域和技术重点,为我国科研院所和企业提出了专利申请布局的相关建议.提出了我国应利用已公开的专利技术,研发特种碳纤维的制造技术,强化碳纤维的应用技术,促进碳纤维的产业化和工程化.%The relevant patents of carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were retrieved. The China and international patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were analyzed from the aspects of annual trend and geographical spread of patent applications, statistics of patent applicants, distribution of key patents filed in US, Japan, Europe and China patent offices. The status of carbon fiber patent application was explored is China and abroad. The international classification and focal points of patent technology were analyzed according to the dominant patent applicants. Some suggestion on the patent application strategy was put forward for China science research institutes and enterprises. It was pointed out that China should develop the manufacturing technology of special carbon fiber, strengthen the application technology and stimulate the industrialization and engineering technology of carbon fiber using the published patent technologies.

  5. Active Vibration Isolation of Micro-Manufacturing Platform Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The micromation and precision of the Micro-Electromechanical System demand that its manufacturing, measuring and assembling must work in a micro-manufacturing platform with good ability to isolate vibrations. This paper develops a vibration isolation system of micro-manufacturing platform. The brains of many kinds of birds can isolate vibrations well, such as woodpecker's brain. When a woodpecker pecks the wood at the speed as 1.6 times as the velocity of sound, its brain will tolerate the wallop 1 500 time...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACACIA MANGIUM WOOD BASED ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED IN THE PRESENCE OF BASIC ACTIVATING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Danish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effects of alkaline activating agents on the characteristics, composition, and surface morphology of the designed activated carbons. Activated carbons were prepared by pyrolysis of Acacia mangium wood in the presence of two basic activating agents (calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide. The extent of impregnation ratio of precursor to activating agents was fixed at 2:1(w/w. Prior to pyrolysis, 24 hours soaking was conducted at 348 K. Activation was carried out in a stainless steel capped graphite crucible at 773 K for 2 hours in the absence of purge gas. The burn-off percentage was found to be 70.27±0.93% for CaO activated carbon (COAC and 73.30±0.20% for KOH activated carbon (PHAC. The activating agents had a strong influence on the surface functional groups as well as elemental composition of these activated carbons. Characterization of the activated carbon obtained was performed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and nitrogen adsorption as Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR isotherms.

  7. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  8. Scale-up activation of carbon fibres for hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kunowsky, Mirko; Marco Lozar, Juan Pablo; Cazorla Amorós, Diego; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated, at a laboratory scale, the chemical activation of two different carbon fibres (CF), their porosity characterization, and their optimization for hydrogen storage [1]. In the present work, this study is extended to: (i) a larger range of KOH activated carbon fibres, (ii) a larger range of hydrogen adsorption measurements at different temperatures and pressures (i.e. at room temperature, up to 20 MPa, and at 77 K, up to 4 MPa), and (iii) a scaling-up activat...

  9. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  10. Adsorption of Remazol Black B dye on Activated Carbon Felt

    OpenAIRE

    Donnaperna Lucio; Duclaux Laurent; Gadiou Roger

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of Remazol Black B (anionic dye) on a microporous activated carbon felt is investigated from its aqueous solution. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using X-ray microanalysis, "Boehm" titrations and pH of PZC measurements which indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly acidic in nature. The kinetics of Remazol Black B adsorption is observed to be pH dependent and governed by the diffusion of the dye molecules. The experimental data can be explai...

  11. Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

    1994-02-01

    A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Assessment of microbial respiratory activity of a manufactured gas plant soil after remediation using sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Mai, Maike; Li, Peijun

    2005-09-30

    Microbial activity of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, as well as remaining oil degradability, before and after remediation using sunflower oil was assessed. A sandy soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was collected from an MGP site in Berlin, Germany. Column solubilizations of PAHs from the field-moist soil and air-dried soil using sunflower oil as an extractant at an oil/soil ratio of 2:1 (v/m) were carried out to compare PAH removals from the soil under these two conditions. After column solubilizations, portions of untreated soil (UTS), solubilized field-moist soil (SFMS), and solubilized air-dried soil (SADS) were amended with nutrients. Both nutrient amended and unamended soil samples were subjected to soil respiratory measurement. Soil respiration parameters, such as basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, lag time, exponential growth rate, respiratory activation quotient, peak maximum time, and cumulative CO2 evolution were calculated from the soil respiration curves. The parameters were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). Results showed that the impact of soil moisture on the PAH removals was quite significant, with the SADS showing higher PAH removals and the SFMS showing lower ones. There were significant differences between the respiration parameters with respect to the UTS, SFMS, and SADS. Basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, and exponential growth rate were lower for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Lag time and peak maximum time were higher for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Exponential growth rate was higher for the SFMS relative to the SADS. These parameters demonstrated that soil microbial activity was reduced at the onset of the test, because a lot of bioavailable materials for microbial growth were removed by sunflower oil. On the other hand, cumulative CO2 evolutions in the SFMS and SADS were higher than that in

  13. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  14. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  15. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons prepared with different activation levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, C.T.; Teng, H.S.

    2000-07-01

    The paper investigates the influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons were found to vary with the burn-off level. The paper demonstrates that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores.

  16. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  17. Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

  18. Characteristics and properties of active carbon; El carbon activo sus caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groso Cruzado, G.; Brosa Echevarria, J.

    1998-12-01

    Active carbon (AC) is a solid possessing two properties which make it extremely useful in treating water. The first consists in trapping all kinds of organic contaminants in its walls so avidly that it can leave water practically free of such compounds. The second consists in destroying the free waste chlorine which has failed to react once it has completed its disinfecting action. As a result, virtually all industries requiring potable water employ active carbon as one of their basic treatment methods. (Author) 7 refs.

  19. Optimizing the electrochemical performance of aqueous symmetric supercapacitors based on an activated carbon xerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, E. G.; Lufrano, F.; Staiti, P.; Brigandì, A.; Arenillas, A.; Menéndez, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    A highly porous carbon xerogel was synthesized by means of physical activation. The activated carbon xerogel, which displayed a well-developed porous texture (micro- and meso-porosity), was employed as electrode material in different supercapacitors. In assessing the performance of the supercapacitors, special attention was paid to their dimensions and the type of electrolyte used. Both the method of electrode manufacture (rolling and punching of 1 cm2 pellets vs. casting by means of a film applicator to produce 4 cm2 electrodes) and the type of supercapacitor (Swagelok (R) system vs. cell with graphite plate current collectors) were evaluated. The results reveal that the cells with larger electrodes were able to store higher amounts of energy. In addition to the cells, the electrochemical characteristics in aqueous electrolytes with a different pH were studied (H2SO4, Na2SO4 and KOH, 1 M). The highest capacitance values were achieved with sulphuric acid (196 F g-1 as opposed to 140 and 106 F g-1 for Na2SO4 and KOH, respectively), probably due to its higher ionic conductivity and the basic nature of the oxygen functionalities found on the surface of the carbon xerogel. Nevertheless, because of the corrosive character of sulphuric acid, Na2SO4 would be a more suitable electrolyte.

  20. Comparison of the composition and opsonic activities of imported and South African-manufactured intravenous and intramuscular immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, A J; Jooné, G K; Anderson, R

    1994-11-01

    We compared the composition and opsonic activities for two common microbial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) of various imported intravenous (IV) (Sandoglobulin, Octagam and Gammagard) and intramuscular (IM) (Beriglobin and Globuman Berna) immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations with those of the corresponding locally manufactured products, Polygam (IV) and Intragam (IM). When tested at equivalent concentrations (1 g/100 ml) the total IgG and IgG subclass concentrations of the various IV and IM preparations were similar. All the test preparations (IV and IM) possessed similar opsonic activity for S. aureus and S. pyogenes. These findings demonstrate that, in respect of IgG content and protective biological activity, Intragam and Polygam, the locally manufactured IM and IV Ig preparations, respectively, compared extremely favourably with the corresponding imported products. PMID:7495010

  1. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive. PMID:25531980

  2. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive.

  3. Highly active catalyst for vinyl acetate synthesis by modified activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yan Hou; Liang Rong Feng; Fa Li Qiu

    2009-01-01

    A new zinc acetate catalyst which was prepared from modified activated carbon exhibited extreme activity towards the synthesis of vinyl acetate. The activated carbon was modified by nitric acid, vitriol and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). The effect on specific area, structure, pH and surface acidity groups of carriers by modification was discussed. Amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups in activated carbon was increased by peroxyacetic acid treatment. The productivity of the new catalyst was 14.58% higher than that of catalyst prepared using untreated activated carbon. The relationship between amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups (m) and catalyst productivity (P) was P = 1.83 + 2.26 x 10-3e3.17m. Reaction mechanism was proposed.

  4. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  5. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Suijkerbuijk, M.P.; Schmitt, H.; Sinnige, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation po

  6. XPS of nitrogen-containing functional groups on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.J.; Bekkum, van H.

    1995-01-01

    XPS is used to study the binding energy of the Cls, Nls and Ols photoelectrons of surface groups on several nitrogen-containing activated carbons. Specific binding energies are assigned to amide (399.9 eV). lactam and imidc (399.7 eV). pyridine (398.7 eV), pyrrole (400.7 eV), alkylamine. secondary a

  7. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the pa

  8. Activated carbon coated palygorskite as adsorbent by activation and its adsorption for methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Cheng, Liping; Wu, Xueping; Tang, Yingzhao; Wu, Yucheng

    2015-07-01

    An activation process for developing the surface and porous structure of palygorskite/carbon (PG/C) nanocomposite using ZnCl2 as activating agent was investigated. The obtained activated PG/C was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET) techniques. The effects of activation conditions were examined, including activation temperature and impregnation ratio. With increased temperature and impregnation ratio, the collapse of the palygorskite crystal structure was found to accelerate and the carbon coated on the surface underwent further carbonization. XRD and SEM data confirmed that the palygorskite structure was destroyed and the carbon structure was developed during activation. The presence of the characteristic absorption peaks of CC and C-H vibrations in the FTIR spectra suggested the occurrence of aromatization. The BET surface area improved by more than 11-fold (1201 m2/g for activated PG/C vs. 106 m2/g for PG/C) after activation, and the material appeared to be mainly microporous. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue onto the activated PG/C reached 351 mg/g. The activated PG/C demonstrated better compressive strength than activated carbon without palygorskite clay.

  9. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMER-BASED SPHERICAL ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-lian Zhu; Ai-min Li; Ming-fang Xia; Jin-nan Wan; Quan-xing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A series of spherical activated carbons(SACs)with different pore structures were prepared from chloromethylated polydivinylbenzene by ZnCl2 activation.The effects of activation temperature and retention time on the yield and textural properties of the resulting SACs were studied.All the SACs are generated with high yield of above 65% and exhibit relatively high mesopore fraction(me%) of 35.7%-43.6% compared with conventional activated carbons.The sample zlc28 prepared at 800℃ for 2 h has the largest BET surface area of 891m2g-1 and pore volume of 0.489 cm3g-1,SEM and XRD analyses of zlc28 verify the presence of developed porous structure composed of disordered micrographite stacking with large amounts of interspaces in the order of nanometers.

  10. Activation and micropore structure of carbon-fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-12-01

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The main focus of recent work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites to produce controlled pore structures. Processes have been developed using activation in steam and CO{sub 2}, and a less conventional method involving oxygen chemisorption and subsequent heat treatment. Another objective has been to explore applications for the activated composites in environmental applications related to fossil energy production.

  11. Authigenic carbonates from active methane seeps offshore southwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Catherine; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Demange, Jérôme; Boudouma, Omar; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Pape, Thomas; Himmler, Tobias; Fekete, Noemi; Spiess, Volkhard

    2012-12-01

    The southwest African continental margin is well known for occurrences of active methane-rich fluid seeps associated with seafloor pockmarks at water depths ranging broadly from the shelf to the deep basins, as well as with high gas flares in the water column, gas hydrate accumulations, diagenetic carbonate crusts and highly diverse benthic faunal communities. During the M76/3a expedition of R/V METEOR in 2008, gravity cores recovered abundant authigenic carbonate concretions from three known pockmark sites—Hydrate Hole, Worm Hole, the Regab pockmark—and two sites newly discovered during that cruise, the so-called Deep Hole and Baboon Cluster. The carbonate concretions were commonly associated with seep-benthic macrofauna and occurred within sediments bearing shallow gas hydrates. This study presents selected results from a comprehensive analysis of the mineralogy and isotope geochemistry of diagenetic carbonates sampled at these five pockmark sites. The oxygen isotope stratigraphy obtained from three cores of 2-5 m length indicates a maximum age of about 60,000-80,000 years for these sediments. The authigenic carbonates comprise mostly magnesian calcite and aragonite, associated occasionally with dolomite. Their very low carbon isotopic compositions (-61.0 Hole and Worm Hole pockmarks which were interpreted to reflect spatiotemporal variations in AOM related to subsurface gas hydrate formation-decomposition.

  12. The Calculation of Phase Diagram of Manufacturing Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Carbonate By Trona Carbonation%天然碱碳化法制小苏打(或纯碱)相图计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红旺; 武朝军; 刘忠义; 张红秀

    2000-01-01

    According to reference data and manufacturing in practice the phase diagrams of trona system in Inner Mongolia at carbonation temperature are analysed in this paper. And the emphasis is paid on discussion about those diagrams' application in manufacturing sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate by trona and a calculation example is given.%结合生产实际,依据文献数据,对碳化温度下的内蒙古天然碱体系作了相图分析,重点讨论了相图在天然碱碳化法制小苏打(或纯碱)工艺计算中的应用,并给出了计算实例。

  13. Application of planetary ball mill for manufacturing of shielding composite coatings based on polyester powder paints and carbon fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Yazykov, S. Yu; Suslyaev, V. I.; Dorozhkin, K. V.

    2015-10-01

    Blend polyester powder paint and particulate carbon filler in the form of colloidal graphite and the carbon black product were investigated. Powder paint and carbon materials were treated together in a planetary ball mill. The data of the structural analysis and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic waves of terahertz range through the flat shape samples are presented.

  14. Determining water content in activated carbon for double-layer capacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Minato; Izumi, Takuma; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    Karl-Fisher titration is used to estimate water contents in activated carbon and the distribution of impurity-level water in an activated carbon-solvent system. Normalization of the water content of activated carbon is attempted using vacuum drying after immersion in water was controlled. Although vacuum drying at 473 K and 24 h can remove large amounts of water, a substantial amount of water remains in the activated carbon. The water release to propylene carbonate is less than that to acetonitrile. The degradation of capacitor cell capacitance for activated carbon with some amount of water differs according to the electrolyte solvent type: acetonitrile promotes greater degradation than propylene carbonate does.

  15. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER AND THEIR XENON ADSORPTION PROPERTIES (Ⅲ)-ADSORPTION ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Structures of a series of activated carbon fibers were modified by impregnating them withorganic and inorganic materials such as Methylene blue(Mb)、 p-nitrophenol (PNP)、 NaCl or byoxidizing with KMnO4 or HNO3. The influence of pore filling or chemical treatment on their xenonadsorption properties was studied. The experimental results show that Mb and PNP filling ofactivated carbon fibers result in the decrease of xenon adsorption capacities of these treated ACFs,which is due to the decrease of their surface area and micro-pore volume. However, the adsorptioncapacity increases greatly with oxidizing treatment of activated carbon fibers by 7mol/L HNO3.

  16. Activated carbons from KOH-activation of argan (Argania spinosa) seed shells as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouwahidi, Abdelhakim; Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by KOH-activation of argan seed shells (ASS). The activated carbon with the largest surface area and most developed porosity was superficially treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. Activated carbons with a surface area of around 2100 m(2)/g were obtained. Electrochemical measurements were carried out with a three-electrode cell using 1M H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. The O-rich activated carbon showed the lowest capacitance (259 F/g at 125 mA/g) and the lowest capacity retention (52% at 1A/g), due to surface carboxyl groups hindering electrolyte diffusion into the pores. Conversely, the N-rich activated carbon showed the highest capacitance (355 F/g at 125 mA/g) with the highest retention (93% at 1A/g), due to its well-developed micro-mesoporosity and the pseudocapacitance effects of N functionalities. This capacitance performance was among the highest reported for other activated carbons from a large variety of biomass precursors. PMID:22370231

  17. Lean Manufacturing measurement: The relationships between Lean activities and Lean metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Fernando Manotas Duque; Leonardo Rivera Cadavid

    2007-01-01

    Medición en Lean Manufacturing: Relaciones entre Actividades Lean y Métricas Lean Lean Manufacturing fue desarrollada por Toyota para satisfacer sus necesidades específicas en un mercado restringido y en tiempos de estrechez económica. Estos conceptos han sido estudiados y se ha comprobado su aplicabilidad en una amplia variedad de industrias. El objetivo de este artículo es el de integrar un conjunto de métricas que han sido propuestas por diferentes autor...

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  19. Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on properties of supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on electrochemical properties of organic supercapacitor was investigated. The results show that specific surface area and mesoporosity of activated carbon influence specific capacitance. If specific surface area is larger and mesoporosity is higher, the specific capacitance will become bigger. Specific surface area influences resistance of carbon electrode and consequently influences power property and pore size distribution. If specific surface area is smaller and mesoporosity is higher, the power property will become better. Ash influences leakage current and electrochemical cycling stability. If ash content is lower, the performance will become better. The properties of supercapacitor highly depend on the electrolyte. The compatibility of electrolyte and activated carbon is a determining factor of supercapacitor's working voltage. LiPF6/(EC+EMC+DMC) is inappropriate for double layer capacitor. MeEt3NPF4/PC has higher specific capacitance than EtnNPFn/PC because methyl's electronegativity value is lower than ethyl and MeEt3N+ has more positive charges and stronger polarizability than Et4N+ when an ethyl is substituted by methyl.

  20. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  1. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the trends of low-carbon automotive fuel manufacturing technologies; 1998 nendo jidoshayo teitanso nenryo no seizo gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made of optimum materials and methods for manufacturing low-carbon fuels for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When their thermal dynamic limits and the technological maturity are considered, it is inferred that no extensive improvement will be achieved by merely improving on the efficiency of the existing fuels. The use of various high-efficiency driving power sources utterly different in mechanism from the conventional ones, such as those for fuel cell-powered automobiles, and the promotion of the use of low-carbon fuels such as methanol and methane for all kinds of driving power sources including those for the said fuel cell-powered automobiles, will become necessary. The use will also be necessary of recyclable materials. The biomass resources, in particular, since they absorb CO2 gas in their growing process by virtue of photosynthesis, may be said to be free of CO2 gas emissions. They have their own problems, however, which involve the economy of energy consumed for their production, harvesting, transportation, and conversion into fuels. It is therefore required that their whole life cycle be studied before their greenhouse gas reduction effect may be correctly assessed. The quantities of resources available for the production of automotive low-carbon fuels, manufacturing technologies, etc., are first of all put in order for easy perusal. An effective way is assessed for the whole including the life cycle. (NEDO)

  2. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    Addressing three development trends of manufacturing, this thesis aims to explore: (1) facing challenges on manufacturing (globalisation, knowledge-based manufacturing and servitisation of manufacturing), what kinds of roles does manufacturing play within industrial companies; (2) along...... with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  3. Structural Characterization and Property Study on the Activated Alumina-activated Carbon Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Qing; WU Ren-Ping; YE Xian-Feng

    2012-01-01

    AlCl3,NH3·H2O,HNO3 and activated carbon were used as raw materials to prepare one new type of activated alumina-activated carbon composite material.The influence of heat treatment conditions on the structure and property of this material was discussed;The microstructures of the composite material were characterized by XRD,SEM,BET techniques;and its formaldehyde adsorption characteristic was also tested.The results showed that the optimal heat treatment temperature of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was 450 ℃,iodine adsorption value was 441.40 mg/g,compressive strength was 44 N,specific surface area was 360.07 m2/g,average pore size was 2.91 nm,and pore volume was 0.26 m3/g.According to the BET pore size distribution diagram,the composite material has dual-pore size distribution structure,the micro-pore distributes in the range of 0.6-1.7 nm,and the meso-pore in the range of 3.0-8.0 nm.The formaldehyde adsorption effect of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was excellent,much better than that of the pure activated carbon or activated alumina,and its saturated adsorption capacity was 284.19 mg/g.

  4. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  5. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  6. PENDEKATAN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN METODE PENCARIAN HEURISTIC UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN PROBLEM PEMILIHAN PERALATAN PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (FMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2002-01-01

    The application of Activity Based Costing (ABC) approach to select the set-machine that is used in the production of Flexible Manufacture System (FMS) based on technical and economical criteria can be useful for producers to design FMS by considering the minimum production cost. In the other hand, Heuristic Search is known to have a short searching time. Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC approach as the weight in finding the solution to shorten the equipment selection time during the design ...

  7. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  8. VPO catalysts synthesized on substrates with modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VPO catalysts were prepared on oxidized and unoxidized activated carbons differing in initial porous structure. Carbons were oxidized under relatively soft (30% H2O2, 200 deg. C) and hard (50% H2O2, 350 deg. C) conditions. Carbon modification was carried out hydrothermally in a traditional autoclave (HTT) or a microwave reactor (MWT). The synthesis was also carried out under hydrothermal (HTS or MWS) conditions. V2O5 and NH4VO3 were used as precursors. The samples are characterized by diversified porous structure at SBET = 732-1617 m2/g and Vpor = 0.44-0.90 cm3/g, as well as various degree of VPO crystallinity. Possibility of preparation of the VPO catalysts under ecologically appropriate conditions, i.e. in aqueous solutions, was shown.

  9. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  10. 78 FR 52759 - Foreign-Trade Zone 265-Conroe, Texas: Authorization of Production Activity; Bauer Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...; Bauer Manufacturing Inc. (Foundation Casings and Tools/Accessories for Pile Drivers and Boring Machinery... the regulations of the FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 25699, 5-2-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of...

  11. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  12. Surface functional groups and redox property of modified activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xianglan; Deng Shengfu; Liu Qiong; Zhang Yan; Cheng Lei

    2011-01-01

    A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3, H2O2 and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process. The effects of concentration of activation agent, activation time on the surface functional groups and redox property of ACs were characterized by Temperature Program Desorption (TPD) and Cyclic Voitammetry (CV). Results showed that lactone groups of ACs activated by HNO3 increase with activation time, and the carboxyl groups increase with the concentration of HNO3. Carbonyl/quinine groups of ACs activated by H2O2 increase with the activation time and the concentration of H2O2, although the acidic groups decrease with the concentration of H2O2. The redox property reflected by CV at 0 and 0.5 V is different with any kinds of oxygen functional groups characterized by TPD, but it is consistent with the SO2 catalytic oxidization/oxidation properties indicated by TPR.

  13. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. PMID:25595622

  14. Nomex-derived activated carbon fibers as electrode materials in carbon based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, K.; Lerf, A.; Winter, M.; Besenhard, J. O.; Villar-Rodil, S.; Suárez-García, F.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D.

    Electrochemical characterization has been carried out for electrodes prepared of several activated carbon fiber samples derived from poly (m-phenylene isophthalamide) (Nomex) in an aqueous solution. Depending on the burn-off due to activation the BET surface area of the carbons was in the order of 1300-2800 m 2 g -1, providing an extensive network of micropores. Their capability as active material for supercapacitors was evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Values for the capacitance of 175 F g -1 in sulfuric acid were obtained. Further on, it was observed that the specific capacitance and the performance of the electrode increase significantly with increasing burn-off degree. We believe that this fact can be attributed to the increase of surface area and porosity with increasing burn-off.

  15. Calculation of Binary Adsorption Equilibria: Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Krøll, A.

    1999-01-01

    Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary ...... mixtures of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide on activated carbons. The model parameters have been determined, and the model has proven to be suited for prediction of adsorption equilibria in the investigated systems.......Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary...

  16. Structure and electrochemical properties of activated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, Sudhakar; Chae, Han Gi; Jain, Rahul; Kumar, Satish [School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Solution spun polyacrylonitrile (PAN), PAN/multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and PAN/single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers containing 5 wt.% carbon nanotubes were stabilized in air and activated using CO{sub 2} and KOH. The surface area as determined by nitrogen gas adsorption was an order of magnitude higher for KOH activated fibers as compared to the CO{sub 2} activated fibers. The specific capacitance of KOH activated PAN/SWCNT samples was as high as 250 F g{sup -1} in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Under the comparable KOH activation conditions, PAN and PAN/SWCNT fibers had comparable surface areas (BET surface area about 2200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) with pore size predominantly in the range of 1-5 nm, while surface area of PAN/MWCNT samples was significantly lower (BET surface area 970 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The highest capacitance and energy density was obtained for PAN/SWCNT samples, suggesting SWCNT advantage in charge storage. The capacitance behavior of these electrodes has also been tested in ionic liquids, and the energy density in ionic liquid is about twice the value obtained using KOH electrolyte. (author)

  17. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern......: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012....

  18. The treatment of a deposited lignite pyrolysis wastewater by adsorption using activated carbon and activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiessner, A.; Remmler, M.; Kuschk, P.; Stottmeister, U. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Remediation Research

    1998-07-31

    This paper investigated activated carbon and activated coke adsorption for the treatment of highly contaminated discoloured industrial wastewater with a wide molecular size distribution of organic compounds. Lignite pyrolysis wastewater from a filled open-cast coal mine was used for continuous and discontinuous experiments. The investigations were performed using water samples taken from various depths of the deposits ponds. A comparison of the capacities of the adsorption materials used showed, that because of its large number of macro and mesopores, activated coke is more suitable for wastewater treatment and in addition cheaper than activated carbon.

  19. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2010-05-01

    Solute hydrophobicity, polarizability, aromaticity and the presence of H-bond donor/acceptor groups have been identified as important solute properties that affect the adsorption on activated carbon. However, the adsorption mechanisms related to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon loading on a specific activated carbon (F400) for solutes reflecting a wide range of solute properties. In order to improve prediction accuracy, groups (bins) of solutes with similar solute properties were defined and solute removals were predicted for each bin separately. With these individual linear models, coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.61 to 0.84 were obtained. With the mechanistic approach used in developing this predictive model, a strong relation with adsorption mechanisms is established, improving the interpretation and, ultimately, acceptance of the model. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  1. Activated carbon from flash pyrolysis of eucalyptus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima-Olmedo, C; Ramírez-Gómez, Á; Gómez-Limón, D; Clemente-Jul, C

    2016-09-01

    Forestry waste (eucalyptus sp) was converted into activated carbon by initial flash pyrolysis followed carbonization and CO2 activation. These residues were obtained from a pilot plant in Spain that produces biofuel, the biochar represented 10-15% in weight. It was observed that the highest activation was achieved at a temperature of 800 °C, the specific surface increased with time but, on the contrary, high loss of matter was observed. At 600 °C, although there was an important increase of the specific surface and the volume of micropores, at this temperature it was observed that the activation time was not an influential parameter. Finally, at 400 °C it was observed that the activation process was not very significant. Assessing the average pore diameter it was found that the lowest value corresponded to the activation temperature of 600 °C, which indicated the development of microporosity. When the activation temperature increases up to 800 °C the pore diameter increased developing mesoporosity.

  2. Wetting and Non-Wetting Models of Black Carbon Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, B. F.; Laura, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of recent modeling studies on the activation of black carbon (BC) aerosol to form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We use a model of BC activation based on a general modification of the Koehler equation for insoluble activation in which we introduce a term based on the activity of water adsorbed on the particle surface. We parameterize the model using the free energy of adsorption, a parameter directly comparable to laboratory measurements of water adsorption on carbon. Although the model of the water- surface interaction is general, the form of the activation equation that results depends upon a further model of the distribution of water on the particle. One possible model involves the symmetric growth of a water shell around the isoluble particle core (wetting). This model predicts upper and lower bounding curves for the activation supersaturation given by the range of water interaction energies from hydrophobic to hydrophilic which are in agreement with a large body of recent activation data. The resulting activation diameters are from 3 to 10 times smaller than activation of soluble particles of identical dry diameter. Another possible model involves an exluded liquid droplet growing in contact with the particle (non-wetting). The geometry of this model much more resembles classic assumptions of heterogeneous nucleation theory. This model can yield extremely high activation supersaturation as a function of diameter, as has been observed in some experiments, and enables calculations in agreement with some of these results. We discuss these two geometrical models of water growth, the different behaviors predicted by the resulting activation equation, and the means to determine which model of growth is appropriate for a given BC particle characterized by either water interaction energy or morphology. These simple models enable an efficient and physically reasonable means to calculate the activation of BC aerosol to form CCN based upon a

  3. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on impregnated powdered activated carbon as cheap substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mamun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalysis and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs composite are reported in this work. Carbon nanofibers were produced on oil palm shell powdered activated carbon (PAC, which was impregnated with nickel. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD of C2H2 was used in the presence of hydrogen at ∼650 °C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs formed directly on the surface of the impregnated PAC. Variable weight percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% of the catalyst salt (Ni+2 were used for the impregnation. However, the best catalysis was observed on the substrate with 3% Ni+2. The product displayed a relatively high surface area, essentially constituted by the external surface. New functional groups also appeared compared to those in the PAC. Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, BET surface area analysis and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX were used for the characterization of the new carbon nano product, which was produced through a clean novel process.

  4. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium. PMID:23794416

  5. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium.

  6. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass.

  7. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

  8. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube from coconut shells activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melati, A.; Hidayati, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored in almost every single cancer treatment modality, including drug delivery, lymphatic targeted chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and gene therapy. They are considered as one of the most promising nanomaterial with the capability of both detecting the cancerous cells and delivering drugs or small therapeutic molecules to the cells. CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties such as high aspect ratio, ultralight weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. Coconut Shell was researched as active carbon source on 500 - 600°C. These activated carbon was synthesized becomes carbon nanotube and have been proposed as a promising tool for detecting the expression of indicative biological molecules at early stage of cancer. Clinically, biomarkers cancer can be detected by CNT Biosensor. We are using pyrolysis methods combined with CVD process or Wet Chemical Process on 600°C. Our team has successfully obtained high purity, and aligned MWCNT (Multi Wall Nanotube) bundles on synthesis CNT based on coconut shells raw materials. CNTs can be used to cross the mammalian cell membrane by endocytosis or other mechanisms. SEM characterization of these materials have 179 nm bundles on phase 83° and their materials compound known by using FTIR characterization.

  9. Inlfuence of Carbon Content on S Zorb Sorbent Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li

    2013-01-01

    The reaction activity of S Zorb sorbents with different sulfur contents was investigated, and the structure and composition of carbon-containing sorbents were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TG-MS in order to delve into the kind and morphology of carbon on the sorbent. Test results have revealed that coke could be deposited on the S Zorb sorbent dur-ing the operating process, and the coke content was an important factor inlfuencing the reaction performance of the S Zorb sorbent. Retention of a deifnite amount of coke on the sorbent while securing the desulfurization activity of the S Zorb sor-bent would be conducive to the reduction of octane loss of reaction product.

  10. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate,

  12. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, c...

  13. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayotamuno, M. J.; Kogbara, R. B.; Ogaji, S. O. T.; Probert, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  14. Factors governing the adsorption of ethanol on spherical activated carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Anaya, Aroldo José; Lillo Ródenas, María Ángeles; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol adsorption on different activated carbons (mostly spherical ones) was investigated covering the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 1. Oxygen surface contents of the ACs were modified by oxidation (in HNO3 solution or air) and/or by thermal treatment in N2. To differentiate the concomitant effects of porosity and oxygen surface chemistry on ethanol adsorption, different sets of samples were used to analyze different relative pressure ranges (below 1000 ppmv concentration and close t...

  15. The effect of active used product acquisition on manufacturing and remanufacturing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gernot Lechner; Marc Reimann

    2013-01-01

    Companies can gain a competitive edge by managing closed-loop supply chains efficiently. This requires the joint consideration of forward and reverse logistic processes. The acquisition of used products is an important factor within the closed-loop context. The availability of acquired used cores has a direct effect on the manufacturing-reprocessing disposition strategy. Thus, the acquisition process and the production disposition are highly interrelated. In further consequence, the linked vi...

  16. Lean Manufacturing measurement: The relationships between Lean activities and Lean metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Manotas Duque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medición en Lean Manufacturing: Relaciones entre Actividades Lean y Métricas Lean Lean Manufacturing fue desarrollada por Toyota para satisfacer sus necesidades específicas en un mercado restringido y en tiempos de estrechez económica. Estos conceptos han sido estudiados y se ha comprobado su aplicabilidad en una amplia variedad de industrias. El objetivo de este artículo es el de integrar un conjunto de métricas que han sido propuestas por diferentes autores, de tal manera que sean consistentes con las etapas y elementos de implementaciones de Lean Manufacturing. Para lograrlo se presentan dos marcos de referencia para implementaciones Lean y los principales factores de éxito se utilizan como base para proponer métricas que identifiquen el avance en estos factores. Posteriormente se propone una tabla que cruza el impacto de las “Actividades Lean” sobre las métricas, postulando que muchos de los supuestos a priori sobre estos impactos deberían ser precisos. Finalmente se proponen algunas ideas para proyectos de investigación hacia el futuro y posibles extensiones de las aplicaciones propuestas aquí.

  17. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  18. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original. PMID:23243870

  19. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  20. Adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon prepared from olive stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Souad NAJAR-SOUISSI; Abdelmottaleb OUEDERNI; Abdelhamid RATEL

    2005-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from olive stones(OSAC) by a physical process in two steps. The adsorption character of this activated carbon was tested on three colour dyes molecules in aqueous solution: Methylene blue(MB), Rhodamine B(RB) and Congo Red(CR). The adsorption equilibrium was studied through isotherms construction at 30℃, which were well described by Langmuir model.The adsorption capacity on the OSAC was estimated to be 303 mg/g, 217 mg/g and 167 mg/g respectively for MB, RB and CR. This activated carbon has a similar adsorption properties to that of commercial ones and show the same adsorption performances. The adsorption kinetics of the MB molecule in aqueous solution at different initial concentrations by OSAC was also studied. Kinetic experiments were well fitted by a simple intra-particle diffusion model. The measured kinetics constant was influenced by the initial concentration and we found the following correlation: Kid = 1.55 C00.51 .

  1. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Waste Tires and its application in Gasoline Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Produced activated carbon has desired surface area and adsorptive capacity for gasoline adsorption in aquatic environments and it seems preparation activated carbon from waste tiers is cheap, effective and environment friendly.

  2. The performance of four granular active carbons; Rendimiento de cuatro carbones activos granulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontangas, P. A.; Morcillo Perez, J. L.

    1999-08-01

    The ability of granular active carbon (GAC) to absorb organic contaminants explains why is widely used in treating water for human consumption. This study used a pilot plant assess the efficiency of two vegetable and two mineral GACs in regard to the elimination of trihalomethanes, cloudiness and oxidisability. The iodine value was used to evaluate the loss of absorptions capacity of the different GACs. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide by nut shell carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xiaoliang, E-mail: sxl@whut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang Sheng; Dong Xuebin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang Qiaoxin [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Nut shell carbon (NSC)-nanotitanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composites were prepared by sol-gel method. Photocatalytic activity on degradation of dye Rhodamine B was studied. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore size distribution, ultraviolet-vis light absorption spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum were carried out to characterize the composite catalyst. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of NSC-nano-TiO{sub 2} composites was much higher than P25 (Degussa). NSC could greatly absorb the organic substance and oxygen of solution because of its large surface area.

  4. Kinetics of continuous biodegradation of pesticide organic wastewater by activated carbon-activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Organic triazophos wastewater was continuously treated with Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus and activated carbon and activated sludge system(PACT-AS) in a plug bioreactor. A kinetic model of PACT-AS wastewater treatment system was established to provide an useful basis for further simulate scale-up treatment of toxic organic wastewater.

  5. Nanostructured composite TiO{sub 2}/carbon catalysts of high activity for dehydration of n-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyganiuk, Aleksandra [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Klimkiewicz, Roman [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAN, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Bumajdad, Ali [Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969 Safat, Kuwait 13060 (Kuwait); Ilnicka, Anna [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P., E-mail: jerzy_lukaszewicz@o2.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • New biotechnological method for fabrication of composite catalysts. • In situ synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} clusters in the carbon matrix. • High dispersion of TiO{sub 2} in carbon matrix. • High catalytic activity achieved for very low active phase content. • Efficient dehydration of n-butanol to butane-1. - Abstract: A novel method of wood impregnation with titanium ions is presented. Titanium(IV) ions were complexed to peroxo/hydroxo complexes which were obtained by treating a TiCl{sub 4} water solution with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The solution of chelated titanium ions was used for the impregnation of living stems of Salix viminalis wood. Saturated stems were carbonized at 600–800 °C, yielding a microporous carbon matrix, in which nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} were uniformly distributed. A series of composite TiO{sub 2}–carbon catalysts was manufactured and tested in the process of n-butanol conversion to butane-1. The composite catalysts exhibited very high selectivity (ca. 80%) and yield (ca. 30%) despite a low content of titanium (ca. 0.5% atomic). The research proved that the proposed functionalization led to high dispersion of the catalytic phase (TiO{sub 2}), which played a crucial role in the catalyst performance. High dispersion of TiO{sub 2} was achieved due to a natural transport of complexed titanium ions in living plant stems.

  6. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH14CO3 solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases 14CO3 which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 ± 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 ± 1.9 and 2.8 ± 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 ± 14.7 and 2.8 ± 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity

  7. Speculative and hedging activities in the European carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the dynamics of the speculative and hedging activities in European futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. A comparison of the three phases in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) reveals that (i) Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date and (ii) the highest degree of speculative activity for every single phase occurs at the moment of listing the contracts for the first time. A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year, related to the schedule of deadlines of the EU ETS. In addition, a time series analysis confirms that most of the speculative activity each year occurs in the front contract, whereas the hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract. -- Highlights: •This study explores the evolution of speculative and hedging activities in futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. •Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date. •A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year. •Most of the speculative activity occurs in the front contract. •The hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract

  8. Preparation of functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon by a single-step activation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Ren, Jianli; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Chang, Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method to prepare functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon from coal is described in this paper. A mixture of ferric chloride and a sub-bituminous coal was used to demonstrate simultaneous coal activation, chlorine functionalization, and iron/iron oxides impregnation in the resulting porous carbon products. The FeCl3 concentration in the mixture, the method to prepare the FeCl3-coal mixture (solid mixing or liquid impregnation), and activation atmosphere and temperature impacted the surface area and porosity development, Cl functionalization, and iron species impregnation and dispersion in the carbon products. Samples activated in nitrogen or a simulated flue gas at 600 or 1000 °C for 1-2 min had surface areas up to ∼800 m2/g, bulk iron contents up to 18 wt%, and surface chlorine contents up to 27 wt%. Potential catalytic and adsorption application of the carbon materials was explored in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol and adsorption of ionic mercury from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that impregnated activated carbons outperformed their non-impregnated counterparts in both the CWAO and adsorption tests.

  9. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31690 (July 2, 2009). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988 (April 27... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final......

  10. 78 FR 26748 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR... FR 67142 (October 31, 2011); Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China:...

  11. 77 FR 12614 - Activated Carbon From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Activated Carbon From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on activated carbon from China would be likely to lead to..., the Department of Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of activated carbon from...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  14. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 48644 (August 11, 2010) (``First Rescission''). \\5\\ See Certain Activated Carbon... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic...

  15. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Benson, Steven; Crocker, Charlene; Mackenzie, Jill

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  16. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from marine macro-algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindhan, R. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Raghava Rao, J. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)], E-mail: rao_clri@yahoo.com; Unni Nair, B. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Activated carbons prepared from two macro-algal biomass Sargassum longifolium (SL) and Hypnea valentiae (HV) have been examined for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution. The activated carbon has been prepared by zinc chloride activation. Experiments have been carried out at different activating agent/precursor ratio and carbonization temperature, which had significant effect on the pore structure of carbon. Developed activated carbon has been characterized by BET surface area (S{sub BET}) analysis and iodine number. The carbons, ZSLC-800 and ZHVC-800, showed surface area around 802 and 783 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The activated carbon developed showed substantial capability to adsorb phenol from aqueous solutions. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Column studies have also been carried out with ZSLC-800 activated carbon.

  17. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  18. Barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes containing carbon nanotubes or activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdo, Erin M; Khan, Iftheker A; Choudhury, Atif A; Saleh, Navid B; Arnold, William A

    2011-04-15

    Carbon nanotube addition has been shown to improve the mechanical properties of some polymers. Because of their unique adsorptive properties, carbon nanotubes may also improve the barrier performance of polymers used in contaminant containment. This study compares the barrier performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to that for PVA containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Raw and surface-functionalized versions of each sorbent were tested for their abilities to adsorb 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and Cu(2+), representing the important hydrophobic organic and heavy metal contaminant classes, as they diffused across the PVA. In both cases, PAC (for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) and functionalized PAC (for Cu(2+)) outperformed SWCNTs on a per mass basis by trapping more of the contaminants within the barrier membrane. Kinetics of sorption are important in evaluating barrier properties, and poor performance of SWCNT-containing membranes as 1,2,4-TCB barriers is attributed to kinetic limitations. PMID:21349636

  19. Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angın, Dilek; Altintig, Esra; Köse, Tijen Ennil

    2013-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from biochar obtained through pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake by chemical activation with zinc chloride. The influences of process variables such as the activation temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated. Also, the adsorptive properties of activated carbons were tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 128.21 mg g(-1) and carbon content 76.29%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume corresponded to 801.5m(2)g(-1) and 0.393 cm(3)g(-1), respectively. This study demonstrated that high surface area activated carbons can be prepared from the chemical activation of biochar with zinc chloride as activating agents. PMID:24080293

  20. Process understanding for scale-up and manufacture of active ingredients

    CERN Document Server

    Houson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Process Understanding is the underpinning knowledge that allows the manufacture of chemical entities to be carried out routinely, robustly and to the required standard of quality. This area has gained in importance over the last few years, particularly due to the recent impetus from the USA`s Food and Drug Administration. This book covers the multidisciplinary aspects required for successful process design, safety, modeling, scale-up, PAT, pilot plant implementation, plant design as well the rapidly expanding area of outsourcing. In discussing what process understanding means to differ

  1. Detection of trace elements in manufacturing silicon detectors by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements impurities play an important role in manufacturing silicon radiation detectors which require silicon discs of highest purity, e.g. of doping concentrations of 1012 atoms/cm3. Metal contaminations in the range from ppb to ppt may drastically change the electric properties. The technological steps of the planar process were studied with a view to finding out the respective contamination pattern. Such patterns could be used as reference tools in analysing the single process steps in order to facilitate the analytical fault detection in the case of process variations. Knowledge of contamination patterns is also important for the process transfer to other laboratories and for a rapid optimization. (orig.)

  2. Special equipment in competitive activities of powerlifters and dynamics of its manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotendzhy L. V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There was reviewed the problem of use of ergogenic facilities in powerlifting, which makes it possible to expand representation about patterns of this kind of sport development. There was given comparative characteristic of applying special equipment of alternative international powerlifting organizations. There was researched the influence of special equipment on the effectiveness of powerlifters. There was studied the chronology of manufacture dynamics of special powerlifting equipment in different periods. There was grounded the necessity of changes in priorities for further understanding of the special powerlifting equipment taking into account aesthetic, social and ethical norms and its impact on the human body.

  3. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  4. Activation and Micropore Structure Determination of Activated Carbon-Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.

    1999-04-23

    Previous work focused on the production of carbon fiber composites and subsequently activating them to induce adsorbent properties. One problem related to this approach is the difficulty of uniformly activating large composites. In order to overcome this problem, composites have been made from pre-activated fibers. The loss of surface area upon forming the composites after activation of the fibers was investigated. The electrical resistivity and strength of these composites were compared to those made by activation after forming. It was found that the surface area is reduced by about 35% by forming the composite from pre-activated fibers. However, the properties of the activated sample are very uniform: the variation in surface area is less than {+-}0.5%. So, although the surface area is somewhat reduced, it is believed that making composites from pre-activated fibers could be useful in applications where the BET surface area is not required to be very high. The strength of the composites produced from pre-activated fibers is lower than for composites activated after forming when the carbon burnoff is below 45%. For higher burnoffs, the strength of composites made with pre-activated fibers is as good or better. In both cases, there is a dramatic decrease in strength when the fiber:binder ratio is reduced below 4:1. The electrical resistivity is slightly higher for composites made from pre-activated fibers than for composites that are activated after forming, other parameters being constant (P-200 fibers, similar carbon burnoffs). For both types of composite the resistivity was also found to increase with carbon burnoff. This is attributed to breakage of the fiber causing shorter conductive paths. The electrical resistivity also increases when the binder content is lowered, which suggests that there are fewer solid contact points between the fibers.

  5. Kinetic studies on carbon dioxide capture using lignocellulosic based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 (Carbon dioxide) emissions are one of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The power generation industry is one of the main emitters of CO2, and the emissions are expected to increase in the coming years as there seems to be no abatement in the consumption of fossil fuels for the production of electricity. Thus, there is a need for CO2 adsorption technologies to mitigate the emissions. However, there are several disadvantages associated with the current adsorption technologies. One of the issues is corrosion and the need for specialized equipment. Therefore, alternative and more sustainable materials are sought after to improve the viability of the adsorption technology. In this study, several types of agricultural wastes were used as activated carbon precursors for CO2 adsorption process in a TGA (thermogravimetric analyser). The adsorption was also modelled through a pseudo-first order and second order model, Elovich's kinetic model, and an intra-particle diffusion model. From the correlation coefficient, it was found that pseudo-second order model was well-fitted with the kinetic data. In addition, activation energy below than 42 kJ/mol confirmed that the physisorption process occurred. - Highlights: • Utilization of lignocellulosic wastes for production of activated carbon. • Single CO2 activation that yields good adsorptive capacity of adsorbent. • Activation temperature has the most prominent effect on adsorptive properties. • CO2 adsorption capacity reduces with increasing of adsorption temperature. • Pseudo-second order kinetic model shows best fits to the experimental data

  6. Probing mechanics and activity of cytoskeletal networks using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Nikta

    2013-03-01

    We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as multi-scale micro-probes to monitor transport and fluctuations in cytoskeletal networks. SWNTs are nanometer-diameter hollow carbon filaments with micrometer lengths and a tunable bending stiffness. Their persistence length varies between 20-100 microns. We study the motion of individual SWNTs in reconstituted actin networks by near-infrared fluorescence microscopy. At long times, SWNTs reptate through the networks. At short times, SWNTs sample the spectrum of thermal fluctuations in the networks. We can calculate complex shear moduli from recorded fluctuations and observe power-law scaling in equilibrium actin networks. In the non-equilibrium cytoskeleton of cells we have targeted SWNTs to kinesin motors and thereby to their microtubule tracks. We observe both transport along the tracks as well as active fluctuations of the tracks themselves. Human Frontier Science Program Cross-Disciplinary Fellow

  7. Electric Double-layer Capacitor Based on Activated Carbon Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this study electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated carbon material and organic electrolyte (tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) were explored. The fabrication method for EDLC is presented and the performance of EDLC was examined by using the cyclic voltammetry, constant-current charging and discharging technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Influence of various components and design parameters on the performance of the capacitors were preliminarily investigated. Up to now, EDLC based on carbon materials can deliver 20.7 W/kg at the discharge rate ofI=0.3 mA, together with the energy density of 8.5 Wh/kg. Equivalent series resistance (ESR) is 0.716 Ω.cm2. The specific power of the capacitor is low and further attempts to raise the power capability of the capacitors are necessary. Some considerations are put forward to further improve the performance of EDLC.

  8. Joint R and D in low-carbon technology development in China: A case study of the wind-turbine manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China faces the dual challenges of climate change and increased energy demand. These challenges in turn increase the demand for wind energy development. Along with rapid growth in manufacturing capacity, Chinese companies have aspired to increase their innovation capacity in order to enhance their competitiveness in the market. Joint research and development (R and D) is an attractive path for Chinese companies striving to advance their R and D capacity. This paper examines joint R and D between Chinese wind-turbine manufacturing companies and foreign design firms, assessing the performance of joint R and D activities in China using the structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework. The study found that joint R and D has improved Chinese companies’ technical capacity, human resources and financial growth. However, the effect on Chinese companies’ innovation capacity is still limited because of unequal technical capacities of the two sides in collaboration, as well as their preference for augmenting profits rather than technical capacity. Current joint R and D mode is only the extension of licensing mode in wind-turbine manufacturing industry. - Highlights: ► Joint R and D is an attractive path for Chinese companies striving to advance R and D capacity. ► We examined the performance of joint R and D in wind-turbine manufacturing industry. ► Joint R and D has improved Chinese companies’ technical capacity. ► The effect of Joint R and D on innovation capacity is still limited.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of vanadium nanoparticles on activated carbon and their catalytic activity in thiophene hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 40679 (Venezuela); Centro de Quimica Organometalica y Macromolecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 47778 (Venezuela); D' Ornelas, Lindora [Centro de Quimica Organometalica y Macromolecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 47778 (Venezuela); Betancourt, Paulino [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 40679 (Venezuela)], E-mail: pbetanco@strix.ciens.ucv.ve

    2008-06-30

    Vanadium nanoparticles ({approx}7 nm) stabilized on activated carbon were synthesized by the reduction of VCl{sub 3}.3THF with K[BEt{sub 3}H]. This material was characterized by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The catalytic performance of the carbon-supported vanadium was studied using thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) as model reaction at 300 deg. C and P = 1 atm. The catalytic activity of the vanadium carbide phase on the activated carbon carrier was more significant than that of the reference catalysts, alumina supported NiMoS. The method proposed for the synthesis of such a catalyst led to an excellent performance of the HDS process.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of vanadium nanoparticles on activated carbon and their catalytic activity in thiophene hydrodesulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; D'Ornelas, Lindora; Betancourt, Paulino

    2008-06-01

    Vanadium nanoparticles (˜7 nm) stabilized on activated carbon were synthesized by the reduction of VCl 3·3THF with K[BEt 3H]. This material was characterized by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The catalytic performance of the carbon-supported vanadium was studied using thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) as model reaction at 300 °C and P = 1 atm. The catalytic activity of the vanadium carbide phase on the activated carbon carrier was more significant than that of the reference catalysts, alumina supported NiMoS. The method proposed for the synthesis of such a catalyst led to an excellent performance of the HDS process.

  12. Evaluation of emery dust on the manufacture of abrasives by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented an evaluation on the degree of contamination by emery dust in a working area where abrasives are manufactured, in a factory located in the industrial area of Toluca City by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were collected on Whatman filters and attacked with hot concentrated HCl. The elements founded were: Al, Si, V, Mg, Br, Mn, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ca and Pb. They are a risk for the health of the workers. (Author)

  13. Preparation of mesoporous activated carbons from coal liquefaction residue for methane decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Zhang; Lijun Jin; Shengwei Zhu; Haoquan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons were prepared from direct coal liquefaction residue (CLR) by KOH activation method,and the experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of KOH/CLR ratio,solvent for mixing the CLR and KOH,and carbonization procedure on the resultant carbon texture and catalytic activity for catalytic methane decomposition (CMD).The results showed that optimal KOH/CLR ratio of 2 ∶ 1;solvent with higher solubility to KOH or the CLR,and an appropriate carbonization procedure are conductive to improving the carbon pore structure and catalytic activity for CMD.The resultant mesoporous carbons show higher and more stable activity than microporous carbons.Additionally,the relationship between the carbon textural properties and the catalytic activity for CMD was also discussed.

  14. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  15. Sorption of organic compounds to activated carbons. Evaluation of isotherm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption to 'hard carbon' (black carbon, coal, kerogen) in soils and sediments is of major importance for risk assessment of organic pollutants. We argue that activated carbon (AC) may be considered a model sorbent for hard carbon. Here, we evaluate six sorption models on a literature dataset for so

  16. Coupling dehydrogenation of isobutane in the presence of carbon dioxide over chromium oxide supported on active carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Fei Ding; Zhang Feng Qin; Xue Kuan Li; Guo Fu Wang; Jian Guo Wang

    2008-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of isobutane (IB) to produce isobutene coupled with reverse water gas shift in the presence of carbon dioxide was investigated over the catalyst Cr2O3 supported on active carbon (Cr2O3/AC). The results illustrated that isobutane c onversion and isobutene yield can be enhanced through the reaction coupling in the presence of carbon dioxide. Moreover, carbon dioxide can partially eliminate carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst and keep the active phase (Cr2O3), which are then helpful to alleviate the catalyst deactivation.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan-Carbon Nanotube Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have prepared chitosan-carbon nanotube (Chitosan-CNT hydrogels by the freeze-lyophilization method and examined their antimicrobial activity. Different concentrations of CNT were used in the preparation of Chitosan-CNT hydrogels. These differently concentrated CNT hydrogels were chemically characterized using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical microscopy. The porosity of the hydrogels were found to be >94%. Dispersion of chitosan was observed in the CNT matrix by normal photography and optical microscopy. The addition of CNT in the composite scaffold significantly reduced the water uptake ability. In order to evaluate antimicrobial activity, the serial dilution method was used towards Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis. The composite Chitosan-CNT hydrogel showed greater antimicrobial activity with increasing CNT concentration, suggesting that Chitosan-CNT hydrogel scaffold will be a promising biomaterial in biomedical applications.

  18. Electrochemical characteristics of activated carbon nanofiber electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min-Kang [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr

    2009-08-25

    In this work, poly(amide imide) solutions in dimethylformamide were electrospun into webs consisting of 350 nm ultrafine nanofibers. These nanofiber webs were used to produce activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs), through stabilization and carbonisation-activation processes. Experimental results indicated that ACNFs activated at 800 deg. C afforded the highest specific surface area but low mesopore volume. The high specific surface area, mainly due to the micropores, introduced maximum specific capacitance at low current density (150 F g{sup -1} at 10 mA g{sup -1}). Elevating the volume fraction of mesopores gave maximum specific capacitance at high current density (100 F g{sup -1} at 1000 mA g{sup -1}), which could be explained on the basis of ion mobility in the pores. Thus, the capacitance of the supercapacitors was strongly dependent on the specific surface area and micro- or mesopore volume of the ACNFs.

  19. PREPARATION OF MICROWAVE ABSORBING NICKEL-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON BY ELECTROLESS PLATING WITH PALLADIUM-FREE ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Boyang Jia; Lijuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Nickel-based activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the surface of the activated carbon was covered by a Ni-P coating, which was uniform, compact, and continuous and had an obvious metallic sheen. ...

  20. Activated carbon fibers prepared from quinoline and isoquinoline pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; An, K.; Korai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Kojima, T.; Komatsu, M. [Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Nitrogen enriched activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared from isotropic quinoline and isoquinoline pitches produced by the catalytic action of HF/BF3 through spinning, stabilization, carbonization, and oxidative activation. The pitches exhibited excellent spinnability, and the resultant fibers had mechanical properties comparable to those of commercial fibers. The surface areas and nitrogen contents of the ACFs, obtained hereby were 740-860 m{sup 2}/g and 4-5.6%, respectively, at around 50 wt% of burn-off. FT-IR and XPS analyses identified the surface oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on the stabilized and activated fibers. The ACFs from isoquinoline pitch (IQP-ACF) exhibited higher basicity (l.3 meq/g) than commercial ACFs of similar surface areas (0.68 and 0.25 meq/g for PAN (FE-300) and coal tar pitch (OG-8A) based ACFs, respectively) due to a higher basic nitrogen content on the surface. The activation appears to expose basic nitrogen atoms, which were located under the surface. The basicity of ACF from quinoline pitch (QP-ACF) was much lower than that of IQP-ACF, however, QP-ACF adsorbed 74 mg/g of SO2, which was 1.4 and 2.3 times higher than that over FE-300 and OG-8A. In contrast, IQP-ACFs showed less adsorption of SO2 than that of QP-ACF and FE-300, but more than that of OG-8A. Oxidation activity of ACF surface may participate in the adsorption of SO2 in the form of SO3 or H2SO4. The oxygen functional groups under the influence of neighboring nitrogen atoms may be the active sites for the oxidative adsorption. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Development of manufacturing process for large-diameter composite monofilaments by pyrolysis of resin-impregnated carbon-fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, W. G.; Pinoli, P. C.; Vidoz, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Large diameter, carbon-carbon composite, monofilaments were produced from the pyrolysis of organic precursor resins reinforced with high-strenght carbon fibers. The mechanical properties were measured before and after pyrolysis and the results were correlated with the properties of the constituents. The composite resulting from the combination of Thornel 75 and GW-173 resin precursor produced the highest tensile strength. The importance of matching strain-to-failure of fibers and matrix to obtain all the potential reinforcement of fibers is discussed. Methods are described to reduce, within the carbonaceous matrix, pyrolysis flaws which tend to reduce the composite strength. Preliminary studies are described which demonstrated the feasibility of fiber-matrix copyrolysis to alleviate matrix cracking and provide an improved matrix-fiber interfacial bonding.

  2. Thermal analysis of activated carbons modified with silver metavanadate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscianska, Joanna; Nowicki, Piotr; Nowak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Pietrzak, Robert, E-mail: pietrob@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of the activated carbons from waste materials as new supports for AgVO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} to V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sup 0} for the samples 1 and 3 wt.% Ag-V is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples containing 5 wt.% Ag-V decompose to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds. - Abstract: The effect of silver metavanadate doping on physicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of the activated carbons obtained from waste materials was investigated. The carbonaceous supports were subjected to carbonisation at 400 or 600 Degree-Sign C. The samples carbonised at 600 Degree-Sign C have much more developed surface area and porous structure than the analogous samples obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C. Impregnation of activated carbons with silver metavanadate leads to a decrease in their surface area and pore volume. According to thermal analysis (TG, DTG) in the samples containing 1 and 3 wt.% of silver metavanadate, AgVO{sub 3} is fully decomposed to do vanadium oxide and Ag, with no intermediate products, while in the samples containing 5 wt.% AgVO{sub 3}, this salt is decomposed to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds at 350 Degree-Sign C before the formation of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at 500 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in all samples impregnated with silver metavanadate the nanoparticles of silver undergo crystallisation leading to reduction of Ag{sup +} ions from the vanadium salt to Ag{sup 0}.

  3. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m3 to 5.86 kg/m3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  4. Investigating effectiveness of activated carbons of natural sources on various supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Rahman, Muhammad M.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon can be produced from natural sources, such as pistachio and acorn shells, which can be an inexpensive and sustainable sources of natural wastes for the energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors. The carbonaceous materials used in this study were carbonized at the temperatures of 700°C and 900°C after the stabilization process at 240°C for two hours. These shells showed approximately 60% carbon yield. Carbonized nutshells were chemically activated using1wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH). Activated carbon powders with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) were used to construct carbon electrodes. A 1M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) and propylene carbonate (PC) were used as electrolytes. Electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of the supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to inspect the surface texture of the activated carbons. Activated pistachio shells carbonized at 700°C showed more porous surface texture than those carbonized at 900°C. Effects of the carbonization temperatures were studied for their electrochemical characteristics. The shells carbonized at 700°C showed better electrochemical characteristics compared to those carbonized at 900°C. The test results provided about 27,083 μF/g specific capacitance at a scan rate of 10mV/s. This study showed promising results for using these activated carbons produced from the natural wastes for supercapacitor applications.

  5. Supercritical fluid chromatography for GMP analysis in support of pharmaceutical development and manufacturing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael B; Regalado, Erik L; Tan, Feng; Gong, Xiaoyi; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has long been a preferred method for enantiopurity analysis in support of pharmaceutical discovery and development, but implementation of the technique in regulated GMP laboratories has been somewhat slow, owing to limitations in instrument sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness. In recent years, commercialization of next generation analytical SFC instrumentation has addressed previous shortcomings, making the technique better suited for GMP analysis. In this study we investigate the use of modern SFC for enantiopurity analysis of several pharmaceutical intermediates and compare the results with the conventional HPLC approaches historically used for analysis in a GMP setting. The findings clearly illustrate that modern SFC now exhibits improved precision, reproducibility, accuracy and robustness; also providing superior resolution and peak capacity compared to HPLC. Based on these findings, the use of modern chiral SFC is recommended for GMP studies of stereochemistry in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing.

  6. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm). PMID:27219645

  7. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, chemical information of the surface structure of the carbon-water interface in ACs can be used to construct an alternative EDL model for ACs. This EDL model assumes that ACs contain both acidic groups, for instance due to carboxylic functionalities, and basic groups, due to the adsorption of protons to the carbon basal planes. As will be shown, this "amphoteric Donnan" model accurately describes various data sets for ion electrosorption in ACs, for solutions of NaCl, of CaCl2, and mixtures thereof, as function of the exter...

  8. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste activated carbon for waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for waste water treatment over the last decades. The low materials originated from various sources such as agricultural sources and byproducts, agricultural residues and wastes, low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced .The farming waste material has to be disposed either safely or must be reused for some valuable purpose. In this consent Ceiba Pentradenta Wood waste, an agricultural waste material which is being converted as Activated carbon in presence of Nitrogen atmosphere at 7000 C is used as an adsorbent for dye removal. The portrayal studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, soluble matter (water, acid, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, ion exchange capacity, percentage content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in treatment of the water and wastewater. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  9. MODERNIZATION OF PLANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF MANUFACTURE OF LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Кухтинов, Я. В.

    2015-01-01

    The high demands make to lowtemperature carbon dioxide according to the European standards. The analysis of made product by refrigerating carbon dioxide plant has shown that the basic undesirable impurity in ready CO2 is CO. By researches it is established that the maintenance of CO can achieve 17 ppm. Two ways of decrease of CO in lowtemperature liquid CO2 are considered. One of them is based on use of additives O2 in compressed CO2 and the further oxidation of CO and H2 in a reactor on ru...

  10. Effect of activation agents on the surface chemical properties and desulphurization performance of activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Flue gas pollution is a serious environmental problem that needs to be solved for the sustainable development of China.The surface chemical properties of carbon have great influence on its desulphurization performance.A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3,H2O2,NH3·H2O and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process.The ACs were physically and chemically characterized by iodine and SO2 adsorption,ultimate analysis,Boehm titration,and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR).Results showed that the iodine number and desulphurization capacity of NH3·H2O activated carbon (AC-NH3) increase with both activation time,and its desulphurization capacity also increases with the concentration of activation agent.However,HNO3 activated carbon (AC-HNO3) and H2O2 activated carbon (AC-H2O2) exhibit more complex behavior.Only their iodine numbers increase monotonously with activation time.Compared with steam activated AC (AC-H2O),the nitrogen content increases 0.232% in AC-NH3 and 0.077% in AC-HNO3.The amount of total basic site on AC-HNO3 is 0.19 mmol·g-1 higher than that on AC-H2O.H2O2 activation introduces an additional 0.08 mmol·g-1 carboxyl groups to AC surface than that introduced by steam activation.The desulphurization capacity of ACs in simulate flue gas desulphurization decreases as follows: AC-NH3 > AC-HNO3 > AC-H2O2 > AC-H2O.This sequence is in accord with the SO2 catalytic oxidation/oxidation ratio in the absence of oxygen and the oxidation property reflected by TPR.In the presence of oxygen,all adsorbed SO2 on ACs can be oxidized into SO3.The desulphurization capacity increases differently according to the activation agents;the desulphurization capacity of AC-NH3 and AC-HNO3 improves by 4.8 times,yet AC-H2O increases only by 2.62 as compared with the desulphurization of corresponding ACs in absence of oxygen.

  11. Characterization and Methanol Adsorption of Walnut-shell Activated Carbon Prepared by KOH Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiongfen; LI Ming; JI Xu; QIU Yu; ZHU Yuntao; LENG Congbin

    2016-01-01

    Walnut-shell activated carbons (WSACs) were prepared by the KOH chemical activation. The effects of carbonization temperature, activation temperature, and ratio of KOH to chars on the pore development of WSACs were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the microstructure and morphology of WSACs. Methanol adsorption performance onto the optimal WSAC and the coal-based AC were also investigated. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions are a carbonization temperature of 700℃, an activation temperature of 700℃, and a mass ratio of 3. The BET surface area, the micropore volume, and the micropore volume percentage of the optimal WASC are 1636 m2/g, 0.641 cm3/g and 81.97%, respectively. There are a lot of micropores and a certain amount of meso- and macropores. The characteristics of the amorphous state are identified. The results show that the optimal WSAC is favorable for methanol adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the optimal WSAC is 248.02mg/g. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the optimal WSAC is almost equivalent to that of the common activated carbon. Therefore the optimal WSAC could be a potential adsorbent for the solar energy adsorption refrigeration cycle.

  12. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  14. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  15. Current-induced strength degradation of activated carbon spheres in carbon supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Chen, Rong; Lipka, Stephen M.; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-05-01

    Activated carbon microspheres (ACSs), which are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia activation, are used as the active materials in the anode and cathode of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The ACS-based EDLCs of symmetrical electrodes exhibit good stability and a high degree of reversibility over 2000 charge-discharge cycles for electric current up to 10 A g-1. The ACSs maintain a nongraphitized carbon structure after over 2000 charge-discharge cycles. Nanoindentation experiments are performed on the ACSs, which are electrochemically cycled in a voltage window of 0-1 V at three electric currents of 0.5, 5, and 10 A g-1. For the same indentation load, both the contact modulus and indentation hardness of the ACSs decrease with the increase of the electric current used in the electrical charging and discharging. These results suggest that there exists strength degradation introduced by the electric current. A larger electric current will cause more strength degradation than a smaller electric current.

  16. Properties of Portland-Composite Cements with metakaolin: Commercial and manufactured by Thermal Activation of Serbian Kaolin Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovic A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Portland-composite cements (CEM II were prepared with addition of 5 to 35% of metakaolin (MK, manufactured by thermal activation/calcination of Serbian kaolin clay, and commercial matakaolin (CMK. Performance of the composite cements was evaluated, through the setting time (initial and final, compressive strengths (for ages 2, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days and soundness, and compared with control cement (Portland cement – CEM I. Setting time (initial and final is accelerated in Portlandcomposite cements, for both metakaolins used. The acceleration is higher in cement with addition of commercial metakaolin. Lower compressive strength is obtained after 2 days of curing for all Portland-composite cements in comparison with control cement, since pozzolanic reaction still did not show its effect. After 7 days, pozzolanic reaction show its effect, manifested as compressive strength increase of Portland-composite cements with addition of up to 35% of CMK, and 25% in the case of cements with MK. After 28 days compressive strength was higher than that for control cement for cements prepared with addition of CMK, and with addition of up to 25% MK. After 90 days increased compressive strength was noticed with addition of 10 - 20% of CMK, and with 10 and 15% of MK, while after 180 days addition of both metakaolins influences compressive strength decrease. The results of the soundness, 0.5 mm for CEM I, and 1.0 mm in most Portland-composite cements indicate soundness increase with addition of metakaolins. Generally, better performance of Portland-composite cements was obtained with addition of commercial metakaolin, which may be attributed to the differences in the pozzolanic activity of the applied metakaolins, 20.5 MPa and 14.9 MPa for CMK and MK, respectively. By our previous findings pozzolanic activity of the thermally activated clay may be increased by subsequent milling of the metakaolin manufactured by thermal activation process.

  17. Research and manufacture about high-activity small admixture in sprayed concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Y. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo (China)

    2000-04-01

    Two types of high-activity small admixture are researched and produced by using industrial wastes: (1) F-type high-activity small admixture; (2) K-type high-activity small admixture. If these high-activity small admixtures were used to replace 30 percent of cement, the strength of the sprayed concrete may be enhanced by about 20 percent. 1 ref., 7 tabs.

  18. Comparative study of carbon nanotubes and granular activated carbon: Physicochemical properties and adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangupomu, Roja Haritha; Sattler, Melanie L; Ramirez, David

    2016-01-25

    The overall goal was to determine an optimum pre-treatment condition for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to facilitate air pollutant adsorption. Various combinations of heat and chemical pre-treatment were explored, and toluene was tested as an example hazardous air pollutant adsorbate. Specific objectives were (1) to characterize raw and pre-treated single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) CNTs and compare their physical/chemical properties to commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), (2) to determine the adsorption capacities for toluene onto pre-treated CNTs vs. GAC. CNTs were purified via heat-treatment at 400 °C in steam, followed by nitric acid treatment (3N, 5N, 11N, 16N) for 3-12 h to create openings to facilitate adsorption onto interior CNT sites. For SWNT, Raman spectroscopy showed that acid treatment removed impurities up to a point, but amorphous carbon reformed with 10h-6N acid treatment. Surface area of SWNTs with 3 h-3N acid treatment (1347 m(2)/g) was higher than the raw sample (1136 m(2)/g), and their toluene maximum adsorption capacity was comparable to GAC. When bed effluent reached 10% of inlet concentration (breakthrough indicating time for bed cleaning), SWNTs had adsorbed 240 mg/g of toluene, compared to 150 mg/g for GAC. Physical/chemical analyses showed no substantial difference for pre-treated vs. raw MWNTs. PMID:26476807

  19. Molecular simulation of multi-component adsorption processes related to carbon capture in a high surface area, disordered activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Di Biase, Emanuela; Sarkisov, Lev

    2015-01-01

    We employ a previously developed model of a high surface area activated carbon, based on a random packing of small fragments of a carbon sheet, functionalized with hydroxyl surface groups, to explore adsorption of water and multicomponent mixtures under conditions representing typical carbon capture processes. Adsorption of water is initialized and proceeds through the growth of clusters around the surface groups, in a process predominantly governed by hydrogen bond interactions. In contrast,...

  20. Influence of adhesion to activated carbon particles on the viability of waterborne pathogenic bacteria under flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Jager, Debbie; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2008-01-01

    In rural areas around the world, people often rely on water filtration plants using activated carbon particles for safe water supply. Depending on the carbon surface, adhering microorganisms die or grow to form a biofilm. Assays to assess the efficacy of activated carbons in bacterial removal do not

  1. Soil Organic Carbon, Black Carbon, and Enzyme Activity Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xing-hua; ZHENG Jian-wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), enzyme activity, and the relationships among these parameters. Paddy ifeld was continuously fertilized over 30 yr with nine different fertilizer treatments including N, P, K, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK (two-fold NPK), NPK+manure (NPKM), and CK (no fertilization), N, 90 kg urea-N ha-1 yr-1; P, 45 kg triple superphosphate-P2O5 ha-1 yr-1; K, 75 kg potassium chloride-K2O ha-1 yr-1;and pig manure, 22 500 kg ha-1 yr-1. Soil samples were collected and determined for SOC, BC content, and enzyme activity. The results showed that the SOC in the NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than those in the K, P, and CK treatments. The lowest SOC content was found in the CK treatment. SOC content was similar in the N, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK, and NPKM treatments. There was no signiifcant difference in BC content among different treatments. The BC-to-SOC ratios (BC/SOC) ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, suggesting that BC might originate from the same source. Regarding enzyme activity, NPK treatment had higher urease activity than NPKM treatment. The urease activity of NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of 2NPK, NP, N, P, K, CK, and NPKM treatment which produced higher activities of acid phosphatase, catalase, and invertase than all other treatments. Our results indicated that long-term fertilization did not signiifcantly affect BC content. Concurrent application of manure and mineral fertilizers increased SOC content and signiifcantly enhanced soil enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that catalase activity was signiifcantly associated with invertase activity, but SOC, BC, and enzyme activity levels were not signiifcantly correlated with one another. No signiifcant correlations were observed between BC and soil enzymes. It is unknown whether soil enzymes play a role in the decomposition of BC.

  2. Microbial activity in granular activated carbon filters in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The investigations described are carried out to analyse the microbiological processes in relation to the GAC characteristics and the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in Granular Activated Carbon filters (GACFs) in water treatment. The main goal of the study was to obtain a qualitative descrip

  3. COAL DERIVED MATRIX PITCHES FOR CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE/PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND COMPOSITES FROM COAL-BASED PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; John W. Zondlo

    2001-07-01

    The Consortium for premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory continue with the development of innovative technologies that will allow coal or coal-derived feedstocks to be used in the production of value-added carbon materials. In addition to supporting eleven independent projects during budget period 3, three meetings were held at two separate locations for the membership. The first was held at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort on May 15-16, 2000. This was followed by two meetings at Penn State, a tutorial on August 11, 2000 and a technical progress meeting on October 26-27.

  4. Adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon: applications to water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cloirec, P.; Brasquet, C.; Subrenat, E. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    1997-03-01

    The adsorption of polluted waters is performed by activated carbon fibers (ACF). This new material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. BET surface areas and pore volumes are determined. Adsorption of natural organics (humic substances) and micropollutants (aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene) is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classical models are applied and kinetic constants calculated. The results show that the performance of ACF is significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity and selectivity for micropollutants. These higher performances are due to some ACF physical properties, such as their high BET surface area and micropore volume. Moreover, the micropores are directly connected on the external surface area of fibers, which allows smaller mass transfer resistance. In a dynamic reactor, the breakthrough curves obtained with ACF beds are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than that of GAC. The adsorption zone in an ACF bed is about 3.5 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rate within the studied range. 25 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Effect of calcium on adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Shang, Junteng; Wang, Ying; Li, Yansheng; Gao, Hong

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of calcium ion on the adsorption of humic acid (HA) (as a target pollutant) by powered activated carbon. The HA adsorption isotherms at different pH and kinetics of two different solutions including HA alone and HA doped Ca(2+), were performed. It was showed that the adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for HA was markedly enhanced when Ca(2+) was doped into HA. Also, HA and Ca(2+) taken as nitrate were tested on the uptake of each other respectively and it was showed that the adsorbed amounts of both of them were significantly promoted when HA and calcium co-existed. Furthermore, the adsorbed amount of HA slightly decreased with the increasing of Ca(2+) concentration, whereas the amount of calcium increased with the increasing of HA concentration, but all above the amounts without addition. Finally, the change of pH before and after adsorption process is studied. In the two different solutions including HA alone and HA doped Ca(2+), pH had a small rise, but the extent of pH of later solution was bigger. PMID:25078809

  6. An active, flexible carbon nanotube microelectrode array for recording electrocorticograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chan; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Lee, Yu-Tao; Su, Huan-Chieh; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Yew, Tri-Rung; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Yao, Da-Jeng; Chang, Yen-Chung; Chen, Hsin

    2011-06-01

    A variety of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) has been developed for monitoring intra-cortical neural activity at a high spatio-temporal resolution, opening a promising future for brain research and neural prostheses. However, most MEAs are based on metal electrodes on rigid substrates, and the intra-cortical implantation normally causes neural damage and immune responses that impede long-term recordings. This communication presents a flexible, carbon-nanotube MEA (CMEA) with integrated circuitry. The flexibility allows the electrodes to fit on the irregular surface of the brain to record electrocorticograms in a less invasive way. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) further improve both the electrode impedance and the charge-transfer capacity by more than six times. Moreover, the CNTs are grown on the polyimide substrate directly to improve the adhesion to the substrate. With the integrated recording circuitry, the flexible CMEA is proved capable of recording the neural activity of crayfish in vitro, as well as the electrocorticogram of a rat cortex in vivo, with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the proposed CMEA can be employed as a less-invasive, biocompatible and reliable neuro-electronic interface for long-term usage.

  7. Crystallinity Modulation of Layered Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhai; Shen, Yanfei; Li, Ying; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-08-22

    As an emerging metal-free semiconductor, covalently bonded carbon nitride (CN) has attracted much attention in photocatalysis. However, drawbacks such as a high recombination rate of excited electrons and holes hinder its potential applications. Tailoring the crystallinity of semiconductors is an important way to suppress unwanted charge recombination, but has rarely been applied to CN so far. Herein, a simple method to synthesize CN of high crystallinity by protonation of specific intermediate species during conventional polymerization is reported. Interestingly, the as-obtained CN exhibited improved photocatalytic activities of up to seven times those of the conventional bulk CN. This approach, with only a slight change to the conventional method, provides a facile way to effectively regulate the crystallinity of bulk CN to improve its photocatalytic activities and sheds light on large-scale industrial applications of CN with high efficiency for sustainable energy.

  8. Experimental study on adsorption kinetics of activated carbon/R134a and activated carbon/R507A pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Khairul; Koyama, Shigeru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Saha, Bidyut B. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Rahman, Kazi A.; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Ng, Kim Choon [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this article is to evaluate adsorption kinetics of R134a and R507A on pitch based activated carbon experimentally by a constant volume variable pressure method at different adsorption temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 C. These data are useful for the design of adsorption cooling and refrigeration systems and are unavailable in the literature. Data obtained from the kinetic studies were analyzed with various kinetic models and the Fickian diffusion model is found to be the most suitable overall. Guided by the experimental measurements, the surface diffusion is also estimated and is found that it follows the classical Arrhenius law within the experimental range. (author)

  9. Scalability of carbon-nanotube-based thin film transistors for flexible electronic devices manufactured using an all roll-to-roll gravure printing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Choi, Younchang; Sun, Junfeng; Bak, Jina; Noh, Jinsoo; Subramanian, Vivek; Azuma, Yasuo; Majima, Yutaka; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-09-01

    To demonstrate that roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing is a suitable advanced manufacturing method for flexible thin film transistor (TFT)-based electronic circuits, three different nanomaterial-based inks (silver nanoparticles, BaTiO3 nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) were selected and optimized to enable the realization of fully printed SWNT-based TFTs (SWNT-TFTs) on 150-m-long rolls of 0.25-m-wide poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). SWNT-TFTs with 5 different channel lengths, namely, 30, 80, 130, 180, and 230 μm, were fabricated using a printing speed of 8 m/min. These SWNT-TFTs were characterized, and the obtained electrical parameters were related to major mechanical factors such as web tension, registration accuracy, impression roll pressure and printing speed to determine whether these mechanical factors were the sources of the observed device-to-device variations. By utilizing the electrical parameters from the SWNT-TFTs, a Monte Carlo simulation for a 1-bit adder circuit, as a reference, was conducted to demonstrate that functional circuits with reasonable complexity can indeed be manufactured using R2R gravure printing. The simulation results suggest that circuits with complexity, similar to the full adder circuit, can be printed with a 76% circuit yield if threshold voltage (Vth) variations of less than 30% can be maintained.

  10. Molecular isotopic engineering (MIE): industrial manufacture of naproxen of predetermined stable carbon-isotopic compositions for authenticity and security protection and intellectual property considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, J. P.; Farina, P.; Pearson, A.; Mezes, P. S.; Sabatelli, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Isotopic Engineering (MIE) is the directed stable-isotopic synthesis of chemical products for reasons of product identification and of product security, and also for intellectual property considerations. We report here a generally excellent correspondence between the observed and predicted stable carbon-isotopic (δ13C) results for a successful directed synthesis of racemic mixture from its immediate precursors. The observed results are readily explained by the laws of mass balance and isotope mass balance. Oxygen- and hydrogen isotopic results which require an additional assessment of the effects of O and H exchange, presumably due to interaction with water in the reaction solution, are addressed elsewhere. A previous, cooperative study with the US FDA-DPA showed that individual manufacturers of naproxen could readily be differentiated by their stable-isotopic provenance (δ13C, δ18O, and δD ref. 1). We suggest that MIE can be readily employed in the bio/pharmaceutical industry without alteration of present manufacturing processes other than isotopically selecting and/or monitoring reactants and products.

  11. Adsorption of Phenols and Chlorophenols in Wastewaters on Activated Carbon and Dried Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    YENER, Jülide

    1999-01-01

    One of the methods used for removal of phenols and chlorophenols from the wastewaters of petroleum refineries, coke, medicine, dye, plastics, pesticide, insecticide, and paper industry is the adsorption process. In this study, adsorption of phenol, o-chlorophenol and p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on to granular activated carbon and dried activated sludge was investigated as a function of pH, initial pollutant concentration and functional groups. Effects of these parameters on...

  12. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Y Hashempur; R Rezaei Kalantary; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Jorfi, S.

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC)."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was intro...

  13. Alkali-activated binders : a review : part 2. about materials and binders manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge about alkali-activated binders, by reviewing previously published work. As it is shown in Part 1, alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary Portland cement) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact. The subjects of Part 2 of this paper are prime materials, alkaline activators, additives, curing type and constituents mixing order. Practical problems and theoretical questions are discussed. To...

  14. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  15. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of railway wheels manufactured with low-medium carbon Si-Mn-Mo-V steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingru Zhang; Haicheng Gu

    2008-01-01

    The suitability of carbide-free bainite steel as railway wheel materials was investigated. The low-medium carbon Si-Mn-Mo-V steel was designed to make railway wheels by forging and rolling. The slack quenching with water was conducted on the tread of rim section by programmed control to simulate isothermal heat treatment after being austenitized. Microstructures and mechanical properties have been studied. The results indicate that the microstructure of the rim is mainly carbide-free bainite, and the mixed mi- crostructure of bainitic ferrite and granular bainite is observed in web and hub. The mechanical properties are superior to both the standard requirements and the commercial production, such as CL60 plain carbon. The Charpy impact energy is relatively high at room and/or subzero temperatures. The force-displacement curves and fractographies reveal the excellent ability of resistance to crack initiation and propagation.

  17. Activated carbons from potato peels: The role of activation agent and carbonization temperature of biomass on their use as sorbents for bisphenol A uptake from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzidou, An; Deliyanni, Eleni A.

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbons prepared from potato peels, a solid waste by product, and activated with different activating chemicals, have been studied for the adsorption of an endocrine disruptor (Bisphenol-A) from aqueous solutions. The potato peels biomass was activated with phosphoric acid, KOH and ZnCl2. The different activating chemicals were tested in order the better activation agent to be found. The carbons were carbonized by pyrolysis, in one step procedure, at three different temperatures in order the role of the temperature of carbonization to be pointed out. The porous texture and the surface chemistry of the prepared activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption (BET), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pH, the adsorbent dose, the initial bisphenol A concentration and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters such as the change of enthalpy (ΔH0), entropy (ΔS0) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG0) of adsorption systems were also evaluated. The adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found to be 450 mg g-1 at an initial pH 3 at 25 °C for the phosphoric acid activated carbon, that make the activated carbon a promising adsorbent material.

  18. Porous carbon nitride nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jindui; Yin, Shengming; Pan, Yunxiang; Han, Jianyu; Zhou, Tianhua; Xu, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Porous carbon nitride nanosheets (PCNs) have been prepared for the first time by a simple liquid exfoliation method via probe sonication. These mesoporous nanosheets of around 5 nm in thickness combine several advantages including high surface area, enhanced light absorption and excellent water dispersity. It can be used as a versatile support for co-catalyst loading for photocatalytic dye degradation and water reduction. With 3.8 wt% Co3O4 loaded, PCNs can achieve more efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B, compared with non-porous C3N4 nanosheets (CNs), bulk porous C3N4 (PCN) and bulk nonporous C3N4 (CN). With 1.0 wt% Pt loaded, CNs and PCN exhibit 7-8 times enhancement in H2 evolution than CN. Remarkably, PCNs with both porous and nanosheet-like features achieve 26 times higher activity in H2 evolution than CN. These significant improvements in photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the high surface area as well as better electron mobility of the two-dimensional nanostructure.Porous carbon nitride nanosheets (PCNs) have been prepared for the first time by a simple liquid exfoliation method via probe sonication. These mesoporous nanosheets of around 5 nm in thickness combine several advantages including high surface area, enhanced light absorption and excellent water dispersity. It can be used as a versatile support for co-catalyst loading for photocatalytic dye degradation and water reduction. With 3.8 wt% Co3O4 loaded, PCNs can achieve more efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B, compared with non-porous C3N4 nanosheets (CNs), bulk porous C3N4 (PCN) and bulk nonporous C3N4 (CN). With 1.0 wt% Pt loaded, CNs and PCN exhibit 7-8 times enhancement in H2 evolution than CN. Remarkably, PCNs with both porous and nanosheet-like features achieve 26 times higher activity in H2 evolution than CN. These significant improvements in photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the high surface area as well as better electron mobility of

  19. Activated carbon derived from marine Posidonia Oceanica for electric energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    N. Boukmouche; N. Azzouz; L. Bouchama; J.P. Chopart; Y. Bouznit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from marine Posidonia Oceanica were studied. The activated carbon was prepared by a simple process namely pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. The activated carbon can be used as electrodes for supercapacitor devices. X-ray diffraction result revealed a polycrystalline graphitic structure. While scanning electron microscope investigation showed a layered structure with micropores. The EDS analysis showed that the activated car...

  20. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Pantoja, María Teresa; Yuso, A. M. de; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio Villa, Begoña; Pino, María Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation...

  1. Effects of Surface Area and Flow Rate on Marine Bacterial Growth in Activated Carbon Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Robert J.; Pfaender, Frederic K.

    1982-01-01

    The colonization of granular activated carbon columns by bacteria can have both beneficial and potentially detrimental consequences. Bacterial growth on the carbon surface can remove adsorbed organics and thus partially regenerate the carbon bed. However, growth can also increase the levels of bacteria in the column effluents, which can adversely affect downstream uses of the treated water. This study of a sand column and several activated carbon columns demonstrated that considerable marine ...

  2. CAD/CAM activities: Advanced Manufacturing Development Section FY-1982 summary status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendeln, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Osborne, J.M.; Miller, C.A.; Clark, C.D.

    1982-10-01

    Activities at the Mound Facility related to the automatic fabrication and inspection of PETN, HE Ring, and Inert pellets using robots, the use of computers for gauging, microscoping and environmental monitoring activities in high explosive fabrication facilities, the computer-aided design of explosive assemblies, and the development of automated computer-controlled optical inspection systems are summarized. (LCL)

  3. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N2/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H2 and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  4. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate, and a sulfonated diphosphine ligand, bdompp-S (1,3-bis(di-(2-methoxy, 5-sulfonatophenyl)phosphino)propane). In comparison with its non-sulfonated counterpart this catalyst not only exhibits a much...

  5. Effect of calcination on Co-impregnated active carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekyarova, E.; Mehandjiev, D. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of General and Inorganic Chemistry)

    1993-11-01

    Active carbon (AC) from apricot shells with known characteristics has been impregnated with a 9.88% Co(NO[sub 3])[sub 2] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O solution. The samples are destroyed in air at 200, 300, 400, and 550 C. The processes accompanying the thermal treatment are studied by DTA. Two processes are established during calcination of Co-impregnated active carbon: (i) destruction of the support as a result of oxidation catalyzed by the impregnated cobalt and (ii) interaction of the active phase (Co[sub 3]O[sub 4]) with the support (AC), during which Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] is reduced to CoO and Co. The presence of Co[sub 3]O[sub 4], and CoO phases is proved by X-ray measurements, while that of metal Co is established by magnetic measurements. The porous structure changes are investigated by adsorption studies. The characterization of the samples is performed by physical adsorption of N[sub 2] (77.4 K) and CO[sub 2] (273 K). The poresize distribution curves are plotted over the range 0.4--10 nm by the methods of Pierce (for the mesopores) and Medek (for the micropores). The micropore volume is determined by two independent methods: t/F method and D-R plot. The results from adsorption studies indicate a decrease of S[sub BET], V[sub mi], and, especially, the supermicropores of the samples.

  6. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: application to environmental problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Mansor, Mariatul F; Wahid, Radziah

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C and physical activation at 150 degrees C (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800 degrees C. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of activated carbon) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes. PMID:17913162

  7. Effect of textural property of coconut shell-based activated carbon on desorption activation energy of benzothiophene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moxin YU; Zhong LI; Hongxia XI; Qibin XIA; Shuwen WANG

    2008-01-01

    In this work,the effect of the textural property of activated carbons on desorption activation energy and adsorption capacity for benzothiophene (BT) was investi-gated.BET surface areas and the textural parameters of three kinds of the activated carbons,namely SY-6,SY-13 and SY-19,were measured with an ASAP 2010 instru-ment.The desorption activation energies of BT on the activated carbons were determined by temperature-pro-grammed desorption (TPD).Static adsorption experi-ments were carried out to determine the isotherms of BT on the activated carbons.The influence of the textural property of the activated carbons on desorption activa-tion energy and the adsorption capacity for BT was dis-cussed.Results showed that the BET surface areas of the activated carbons,SY-6,SY-13 and SY-19 were 1106,diameters were 1.96,2.58 and 2.16 nm,respectively.The TPD results indicated that the desorption activation energy of BT on the activated carbons,SY-6,SY-19 and SY-13 were 58.84,53.02 and 42.57 KJ/mol,respectively.The isotherms showed that the amount of BT adsorbed on the activated carbons followed the order of SY-6 > SY-19 > SY-13.The smaller the average pore diameter of the activated carbon,the stronger its adsorption for BT and the higher the activation energy required for BT desorp-tion on its surface.The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model can be properly used to formulate the adsorption behavior of BT on the activated carbons.

  8. Characterization of Microporous Activated Carbon Electrodes for Electric Double-layer Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-han; LIU Ling; SONG Huai-he

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) with a wide range of surface areas were made from petroleum coke by means of KOH activation. The electrochemical characterization was carried out for several activated carbons used as polariz able electrodes of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) in an aqueous electrolytic solution. The porous structures and electrochemical double-layer capacitance of the activated carbons were investigated by virtue of nitrogen gas adsorption and constant current cycling(CCC) methods. The relationship among the surface area, pore volume of the activated carbons and specific double-layer capacitance was discussed. It was found that the specific capacitance of ACs increased linearly with the increase of surface area. The presence of mesopores in the activated carbons with very high surface area(>2000 m2/g) was not very effective for them to be used as EDLCs. The influence of chemical characteristics of the activated carbons on the double layer formation could be considered to be negligible.

  9. PENDEKATAN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN METODE PENCARIAN HEURISTIC UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN PROBLEM PEMILIHAN PERALATAN PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (FMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Activity Based Costing (ABC approach to select the set-machine that is used in the production of Flexible Manufacture System (FMS based on technical and economical criteria can be useful for producers to design FMS by considering the minimum production cost. In the other hand, Heuristic Search is known to have a short searching time. Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC approach as the weight in finding the solution to shorten the equipment selection time during the design / redesign process of the FMS in less than exponential time was designed in this research. The increasing speed is useful because with the faster time in design / redesign process, therefore the flexibility level of part variety that can be processed will become better. Theoretical and empirical analysis in Algorithm Heuristic shows that time searching to get appropriate set of equipment is not too long, so that we can assume that the designed Algorithm Heuristic can be implemented in the real world. By comparing the empirical result of Algorithm Heuristic to the Algorithm Exhaustive, we can also assume that Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC method as the weight for finding solution can optimise the equipment selection problem of FMS based on economical criteria too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penggunaan pendekatan Activity Based Costing (ABC untuk memilih set mesin yang digunakan dalam produksi pada Flexible Manufacture Systems (FMS berdasar atas kriteria teknis dan ekonomis, dapat membantu pelaku produksi untuk mendisain FMS dengan pertimbangan minimalisasi biaya produksi. Sementara itu, Heuristic Search dikenal memiliki waktu pencarian yang singkat. Pada riset ini didisain sebuah Algoritma Heuristic yang menggunakan pendekatan ABC sebagai bobot dalam pencarian solusi, untuk mempersingkat waktu pemilihan peralatan saat desain/redisain FMS dalam waktu kurang dari waktu Eksponensial. Peningkatan kecepatan ini bermanfaat, karena dengan cepatnya waktu

  10. Complementarities between organizational changes, R&D activity and technological cooperation for the French manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjem, Olfa; Ayadi, Mohamed; Pierre GARROUSTE

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the determinants of the French companies’ innovation activity while highlighting the importance and the complementarities of the organizational and technological practices’impact. Our results suggest on one hand, that the product or process innovation is determined by the internal and external attributes of the company (size, demand pull and technological class). On the other hand, the complementarities tests between the technological (R&D activity and ...

  11. Design, Manufacturing, and Characterization of High-Performance Lightweight Bipolar Plates Based on Carbon Nanotube-Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelet Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study on manufacturing and characterization of a platform material for high-performance lightweight bipolar plates for fuel cells based on nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs. The experiments were designed and performed in three steps. In the preexperimental stage, xGnP-epoxy composite samples were prepared at various xGnP weight percentages to determine the maximum processable nanofiller concentration. The main part of the experiment employed the statistics-based design of experiments (DOE methodology to identify improved processing conditions and CNT : xGnP ratio for minimized electrical resistivity. In the postexperimental stage, optimized combinations of material and processing parameters were investigated. With the aid of a reactive diluent, 20 wt.% was determined to the be maximum processable carbon nanomaterial content in the epoxy. The DOE analyses revealed that the CNT : xGnP ratio is the most dominant factor that governs the electrical properties, and its implications in relation to CNT-xGnP interactions and microstructure are elucidated. In addition, samples fabricated near the optimized condition revealed that there exists an optimal CNT : xGnP ratio at which the electrical performance can be maximized. The electrical and mechanical properties of optimal samples suggest that CNT-xGnP hybrid nanocomposites can serve as an alternative material platform for affordable, lightweight bipolar plates.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  15. Enhanced mercury ion adsorption by amine-modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhong [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Yang, John, E-mail: yangj@lincolnu.edu [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Deng Baolin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic metals found in water and sediments. In an effort to develop an effective adsorbent for aqueous Hg removal, activated carbon (AC) was modified with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified AC (MAC) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and potentiometry. The impacts of solvent, APTES concentration, reactive time and temperature on the surface modification were evaluated. The aqueous Hg adsorptive kinetics and capacity were also determined. Results demonstrated that the strong Hg-binding amine ligands were effectively introduced onto the AC surfaces through the silanol reaction between carbon surface functional groups (-COOH, -COH) and APTES molecules. The modification lowered the pH at the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) to 4.54 from 9.6, favoring cation adsorption. MAC presented a faster rate of the Hg (II) adsorption and more than double adsorptive capacity as compared with AC.

  16. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  17. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  18. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  19. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  20. Adsorption of carbon dioxide by sodium hydroxide-modified granular coconut shell activated carbon in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, commercial coconut shell activated carbon was impregnated with alkaline NaOH to investigate the efficiency of modified activated carbon for CO2 adsorption in a fixed-bed column adsorption system. The modification parameters, such as the NaOH concentration (24–48%) and dwelling time (1–4 h), were also investigated. The results showed that a 32% NaOH concentration with a 3 h dwelling time provided the best CO2 adsorption capacity. Later, the modified activated carbon was characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of the CO2 % in the feed, the adsorption temperature, the feed flow rate and the amount of adsorbent in the column were investigated in the adsorption experiments. The maximum CO2 adsorption capacity in this study was 27.10 mg/g at 35 °C. This study also suggests that NaOH-modified activated carbon is a state-of-the-art adsorbent for CO2 adsorption. - Highlights: • Coconut shell activated carbon was impregnated with alkaline NaOH. • CO2 was adsorbed in a fixed-bed column adsorption system. • The effects of CO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate and dose are analyzed. • Regeneration of modified activated carbons was effectively tested for ten cycles

  1. A fully roll-to-roll gravure-printed carbon nanotube-based active matrix for multi-touch sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookyu; Koo, Hyunmo; Sun, Junfeng; Noh, Jinsoo; Kwon, Kye-Si; Yeom, Chiseon; Choi, Younchang; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-12-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) printing has been pursued as a commercially viable high-throughput technology to manufacture flexible, disposable, and inexpensive printed electronic devices. However, in recent years, pessimism has prevailed because of the barriers faced when attempting to fabricate and integrate thin film transistors (TFTs) using an R2R printing method. In this paper, we report 20 × 20 active matrices (AMs) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a resolution of 9.3 points per inch (ppi) resolution, obtained using a fully R2R gravure printing process. By using SWCNTs as the semiconducting layer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as the substrate, we have obtained a device yield above 98%, and extracted the key scalability factors required for a feasible R2R gravure manufacturing process. Multi-touch sensor arrays were achieved by laminating a pressure sensitive rubber onto the SWCNT-TFT AM. This R2R gravure printing system overcomes the barriers associated with the registration accuracy of printing each layer and the variation of the threshold voltage (Vth). By overcoming these barriers, the R2R gravure printing method can be viable as an advanced manufacturing technology, thus enabling the high-throughput production of flexible, disposable, and human-interactive cutting-edge electronic devices based on SWCNT-TFT AMs.

  2. 77 FR 67337 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988... Administrative Review, 75 FR 70208, 70210 (November 17, 2010). \\22\\ In Activated Carbon AR3, the Department found..., 76 FR 67142, 67145 n.25 (October 31, 2011) (``Activated Carbon AR3''). \\23\\ In Activated Carbon......

  3. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  4. Assessing manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy-makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  5. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.;

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...... of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...

  6. Improved Isotherm Data for Adsorption of Methane on Activated Carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Wai Soong

    2010-08-12

    This article presents the adsorption isotherms of methane onto two different types of activated carbons, namely, Maxsorb III and ACF (A-20) at temperatures from (5 to 75) °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. The volumetric technique has been employed to measure the adsorption isotherms. The experimental results presented herein demonstrate the improved accuracy of the uptake values compared with previous measurement techniques for similar adsorbate-adsorbent combinations. The results are analyzed with various adsorption isotherm models. The heat of adsorption, which is concentration and temperature dependent, has been calculated from the measured isotherm data. Henry\\'s law coefficients for these adsorbent-methane pairs are also evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Magnetite decorated activated carbon composites for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barala, Sunil Kumar; Arora, Manju; Saini, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon decorated with magnetite (ACMG) nanoparticles composites have been prepared by facile method via impregnation of AC with stable dispersion of superparamagnetic MG nanoparticles followed by drying. These composites exhibit both magnetic and porosity behavior which can be easily optimized by controlling the weight ratio of two phases. The structural, magnetic, thermal and morphological properties of these as synthesized ACMG samples were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, VSM and SEM techniques. The ACMG powder has been used for water purification having methylene blue (MB) dye as an impurity. The nanoporosity of these composites allow rapid adsorption of MB and their magnetic behavior helps in single step separation of MB adsorbed ACMG particles by the application of external magnetic field.

  8. Adsorption Models and Structural Characterization for Activated Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-juan; WANG Ru-zhu; OLIVEIRA R.G.; HU Jin-qiang

    2009-01-01

    The nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77.69 K were measured for two samples of activated carbon fibers and their microstructures were investigated. Among established isotherm equations, the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation showed the best agreement with the experimental data, while the Langmuir equation showed a large deviation when employed at low relative pressures. The MP method, t-method and αs-method were used to analyze the pore size distribution. The calculated average pore widths and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface areas for the sample A-13 were 0.86 nm and 1 286.60 m2/g, while for the sample A-16, they were 0.82 nm and 1 490.64 m2/g. The sample with larger pore width was more suitable to be used as additive in chemical heat pumps, while the other one could be used as adsorbent in adsorption refrigeration systems.

  9. The Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles Onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the results of spectrophotometric, dynamic light scattering (DLS and microscopic (SEM studies of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposition on activated carbon (AC surface modified with primary (ethanolamine and secondary (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine amines. It was found that this method is efficient for deposition of AuNPs from aqueous solution. However, nanoparticles change their morphology depending on the kind of amine used in experiments. On the AC surface modified with ethanolamine, the uniform spherical AuNPs were formed. In case of diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine application, the agglomerates of AuNPs are present. The diameter of individual AuNPs did not exceed 15 nm and was bigger as compared with the diameter of particles present in precursor solution (ca. 10 nm.

  10. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 μg/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  11. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  12. Ozonation of Cephalexin Antibiotic Using Granular Activated Carbon in a Circulating Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circulating reactor was used to decompose cephalexin during catalytic ozonation. The effect of ozone supply and granular activated carbon (GAC) catalyst was investigated for removal of CEX and COD. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon was investigated during in-situ ozonation. According to results, ozone supply appeared as the most influencing variable followed by dosage of granular activated carbon. The BET surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) curves indicated that solid phase regeneration of activated carbon using ozone gas followed by mild thermal decomposition was very effective. The adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbon was slightly lower than virgin activated carbon. The overall study revealed that catalytic ozonation was effective in removing cephalexin from solution and the method can be applied for in-situ ozonation processes. (author)

  13. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested. PMID:23911830

  14. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal. PMID:24292474

  15. Treatment of oil–water emulsions by adsorption onto activated carbon, bentonite and deposited carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Okiel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emulsified oil in waste water constitutes is a severe problem in the different treatment stages before disposed off in a manner that does not violate environmental criteria. One commonly used technique for remediation of petroleum contaminated water is adsorption. The main objective of this study is to examine the removal of oil from oil–water emulsions by adsorption on bentonite, powdered activated carbon (PAC and deposited carbon (DC. The results gave evidence of the ability of the adsorbents to adsorb oil and that the adsorptive property of the three adsorbents (bentonite, PAC, and DC has been influenced by different factors. The effects of contact time, the weight of adsorbents and the concentration of adsorbate on the oil adsorption have been studied. Oil removal percentages increase with increasing contact time and the weight of adsorbents, and decrease with increasing the concentration of adsorbate. Equilibrium studies show that the Freunlich isotherm was the best fit isotherm for oil removal by bentonite, PAC, and DC. The data show higher adsorptive capacities by DC and bentonite compared to the PAC.

  16. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  17. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA.

  18. A gaseous measurement system for carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane: An analytical methodology to be applied in the evaluation of the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane produced via microbial activity in volcanic tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to develop a gaseous measurement system for the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane produced via microbial activity or geochemical action on leachate in tuff; to determine the trapping efficiency of the system for carbon-14 dioxide; to determine the trapping efficiency of the system for carbon-14 methane; to apply the experimentally determined factors regarding the system's trapping efficiency for carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane to a trapping algorithm to determine the activity of the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane in a mixed sample; to determine the minimum detectable activity of the measurement process in picocuries per liter; and to determine the lower limit or detection of the measurement process in counts per minute

  19. Adsorption capacities of activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol vary with activated carbon particle size: Effects of adsorbent and adsorbate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Soichi; Sakamoto, Asuka; Taniguchi, Takuma; Pan, Long; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2015-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of nine activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were evaluated. For some carbons, adsorption capacity substantially increased when carbon particle diameter was decreased from a few tens of micrometers to a few micrometers, whereas for other carbons, the increase of adsorption capacity was small for MIB and moderate for geosmin. An increase of adsorption capacity was observed for other hydrophobic adsorbates besides geosmin and MIB, but not for hydrophilic adsorbates. The parameter values of a shell adsorption model describing the increase of adsorption capacity were negatively correlated with the oxygen content of the carbon among other characteristics. Low oxygen content indicated low hydrophilicity. The increase of adsorption capacity was related to the hydrophobic properties of both adsorbates and activated carbons. For adsorptive removal of hydrophobic micropollutants such as geosmin, it is therefore recommended that less-hydrophilic activated carbons, such as coconut-shell-based carbons, be microground to a particle diameter of a few micrometers to enhance their equilibrium adsorption capacity. In contrast, adsorption by hydrophilic carbons or adsorption of hydrophilic adsorbates occur in the inner pores, and therefore adsorption capacity is unchanged by particle size reduction. PMID:26302219

  20. Adsorption capacities of activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol vary with activated carbon particle size: Effects of adsorbent and adsorbate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Soichi; Sakamoto, Asuka; Taniguchi, Takuma; Pan, Long; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2015-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of nine activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were evaluated. For some carbons, adsorption capacity substantially increased when carbon particle diameter was decreased from a few tens of micrometers to a few micrometers, whereas for other carbons, the increase of adsorption capacity was small for MIB and moderate for geosmin. An increase of adsorption capacity was observed for other hydrophobic adsorbates besides geosmin and MIB, but not for hydrophilic adsorbates. The parameter values of a shell adsorption model describing the increase of adsorption capacity were negatively correlated with the oxygen content of the carbon among other characteristics. Low oxygen content indicated low hydrophilicity. The increase of adsorption capacity was related to the hydrophobic properties of both adsorbates and activated carbons. For adsorptive removal of hydrophobic micropollutants such as geosmin, it is therefore recommended that less-hydrophilic activated carbons, such as coconut-shell-based carbons, be microground to a particle diameter of a few micrometers to enhance their equilibrium adsorption capacity. In contrast, adsorption by hydrophilic carbons or adsorption of hydrophilic adsorbates occur in the inner pores, and therefore adsorption capacity is unchanged by particle size reduction.

  1. Enhancing the capacitances of electric double layer capacitors based on carbon nanotube electrodes by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitors(EDLCs) were made from carbon nanotubes(CNTs).Effect of carbon dioxide activation together with acid oxidation for the electrodes on the characteristics and performances of electrodes and EDLCs was studied.Carbon dioxide activation changed the microstructure of the electrodes,increased the effective surface area of CNTs and optimized the distribution of apertures of the electrodes.Acid oxidization modified the surface characteristics of CNTs.Based on the polarizable electrodes treated by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization,the performances of EDLCs were greatly enhanced.The specific capacitance of the electrodes with organic electrolyte was increased from 21.8 F/g to 60.4 F/g.

  2. Advanced wastewater treatment by nanofiltration and activated carbon for high quality water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Kazner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid processes combining activated carbon and nanofiltration have been studied to identify the optimum solution for advanced wastewater treatment in high quality water reclamation and reuse. With a focus on the removal of bulk and trace organic compounds the investigation identified three promising process combinations, namely powdered activated carbon followed by nanofiltration (PAC/NF), granular activated carbon followed by nanofiltration (GAC/NF) and nanofiltration followed by granular a...

  3. Evaluation of activated carbon processes for removing trihalomethane precursors from a surface water impoundment

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinder, Steven Robert

    1987-01-01

    A pilot plant study was conducted in Newport News, Virginia to investigate the effectiveness of powdered activated carbon [PAC] and granular activated carbon [GAC], with and without preoxidation, for reducing trihalomethane [THM] precursor concentrations in Harwood's Mill Reservoir water. Preoxidation with ozone followed by GAC is referred to as the "biological activated carbonâ [BAC] process. This study showed that the GAC and BAC processes obtained the same level of organic...

  4. Production and characterization of activated carbon from indigenous coal (lakhra coal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, indigenous coal has been exploited for the preparation of activated carbon by physical. activation and characterization of if was done by using available techniques. Physical activation involved two steps; Carbonization and CO; activation. For different temperatures, carbonization was carried out for 4 hours in an oven and it was observed that percent yield and iodine number was maximum at 600 degree C. The carbonized material of 600 C was activated at different intervals of time and different temperatures for constant flow of CO/sub 2/; (activating gas). The optimum temperature and time for CO/sub 2/; activation was observed to be 750 C and 3 hours respectively, which gave lower percent yield of active carbon but of higher iodine number and methylene blue values. (author)

  5. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  6. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length11C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of11C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation

  8. The performance of activated carbons from sugarcane bagasse, babassu, and coconut shells in removing residual chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguaribe, E.F.; Araujo, L.P. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Lab. de Carvao Ativado]. E-mail:emersonjaguaribe@globo.com; Medeiros, L.L.; Barreto, M.C.S. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: luciana-lucena@bol.com.br

    2005-03-01

    The capacity of activated carbons obtained from different raw materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, babassu (Orbygnia speciosa), and coconut (Cocus nucifera) shells, to remove residual chlorine is studied. The influence of particle size and time of contact between particles of activated carbon and the chlorinated solution were taken into account. The adsorptive properties of the activated carbons were measured by gas adsorption (BET method), using an ASAP 2010 porosimeter, and liquid phase adsorption, employing iodine and methylene blue adsorbates. The activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse was the only adsorbent capable of removing 100% of the residual chlorine. (author)

  9. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process.

  10. Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liu, Nei-Ling; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were resource-recovered from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. wood through combined chemical and physical activation (i.e., KOH etching followed by CO2 activation). This invasive species, which has severely damaged the ecological economics of Taiwan, was used as the precursor for producing high-quality carbonaceous electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI). Carbonization and activation conditions strongly influenced the structure of chars and activated carbons. The total surface area and pore volume of activated carbons increased with increasing KOH/char ratio and activation time. Overgasification induced a substantial amount of mesopores in the activated carbons. In addition, the electrochemical properties and CDI electrosorptive performance of the activated carbons were evaluated; cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements revealed a typical capacitive behavior and electrical double layer formation, confirming ion electrosorption in the porous structure. The activated-carbon electrode, which possessed high surface area and both mesopores and micropores, exhibited improved capacitor characteristics and high electrosorptive performance. Highly porous activated carbons derived from waste L. leucocephala were demonstrated to be suitable CDI electrode materials. PMID:26135977

  11. [Modification of activated carbon fiber for electro-Fenton degradation of phenol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Tian, Yao-Jin; Yang, Guang-Ping; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Microwave-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-1), nitric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-2), phosphoric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-3) and ammonia-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-4) were successfully fabricated. The electro-Fenton catalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were evaluated using phenol as a model pollutant. H2O2 formation, COD removal efficiency and phenol removal efficiency were investigated compared with the unmodified activated carbon fiber (ACF-0). Results indicated that ACF-1 showed the best adsorption and electrocatalytic activity. Modification was in favor of the formation of H2O2. The performance of different systems on phenol degradation and COD removal were ACF-1 > ACF-3 > ACF-4 > ACF-2 > ACF-0 and ACF-1 > ACF-4 > ACF-3 > ACF-2 > ACF-0, respectively, which confirmed that electrocatalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were better than the unmodified. In addition, phenol intermediates were not the same while using different modified activated carbon fibers.

  12. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: Application to environmental problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A.MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃ and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800℃ showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800℃. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of AC) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  13. Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eZhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate represents a large portion of carbon reservoir and is used commercially for a variety of applications. Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP, a by-product of microbial activities, plays an important metal coprecipitation and cementation role in natural systems. This natural process occurring in various geological settings can be mimicked and used for a number of biotechnology such as metal remediation, carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery and construction restoration. In this study, different metabolic activities leading to calcium carbonate precipitation, their native environment, and potential applications and challenges are reviewed.

  14. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  15. New Activated Carbon with High Thermal Conductivity and Its Microwave Regeneration Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xuexian; SU Zhanjun; XI Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Using a walnut shell as a carbon source and ZnCl2 as an activating agent, we resolved the temperature gradient problems of activated carbon in the microwave desorption process. An appropriate amount of silicon carbide was added to prepare the composite activated carbon with high thermal conductivity while developing VOC adsorption-microwave regeneration technology. The experimental results show that the coefficient of thermal conductivity of SiC-AC is three times as much as those of AC and SY-6. When microwave power was 480 W in its microwave desorption , the temperature of the bed thermal desorption was 10℃ to 30℃below that of normal activated carbon prepared in our laboratory. The toluene desorption activation energy was 16.05 kJ∙mol-1, which was 15% less than the desorption activation energy of commercial activated carbon. This study testified that the process could maintain its high adsorption and regeneration desorption performances.

  16. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué, P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m‑2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m‑2 yr‑1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m‑2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  17. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  18. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.

    2016-03-16

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  19. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué, P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m-2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m-2 yr-1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m-2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2006-01-01

    Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  1. Manufacturing and testing a thin glass mirror shell with piezoelectric active control

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D; Collura, A; Basso, S; Candia, R; Civitani, M; Di Bella, M; Di Cicca, G; Cicero, U Lo; Lullo, G; Pelliciari, C; Riva, M; Salmaso, B; Sciortino, L; Varisco, S

    2016-01-01

    Optics for future X-ray telescopes will be characterized by very large aperture and focal length, and will be made of lightweight materials like glass or silicon in order to keep the total mass within acceptable limits. Optical modules based on thin slumped glass foils are being developed at various institutes, aiming at improving the angular resolution to a few arcsec HEW. Thin mirrors are prone to deform, so they require a careful integration to avoid deformations and even correct forming errors. On the other hand, this offers the opportunity to actively correct the residual deformation: a viable possibility to improve the mirror figure is the application of piezoelectric actuators onto the non-optical side of the mirrors, and several groups are already at work on this approach. The concept we are developing consists of actively integrating thin glass foils with piezoelectric patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays. The actuators are commercial components, while the tension signal...

  2. Removal performance and mechanism of ibuprofen from water by catalytic ozonation using sludge-corncob activated carbon as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Liqiu; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xue; Li, Lu; Feng, Li

    2014-09-01

    To discover the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon in catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen, the performance of sludge-corncob activated carbon and three selected commercial activated carbons as catalysts in catalytic ozonation was investigated. The observation indicates the degradation rate of Ibuprofen increases significantly in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon is much higher than that of the other three commercial activated carbons. Ibuprofen's removal rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics model well. It is also found that the adsorption removal of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon is less than 30% after 40 min. And the removal efficiency of Ibuprofen in the hybrid ozone/sludge-corncob activated carbon system is higher than the sum of sludge-corncob activated carbon adsorption and ozonation alone, which is a supportive evidence for catalytic reaction. In addition, the results of radical scavenger experiments demonstrate that catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon follows a hydroxyl radical reaction pathway. During ozonation of Ibuprofen in the presence of activated carbon, ozone could be catalytically decomposed to form hydrogen peroxide, which can promote the formation of hydroxyl radical. The maximum amount of hydrogen peroxide occurs in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon, which can explain why sludge-corncob activated carbon has the best catalytic activity among four different activated carbons.

  3. Impact of carbon on the surface and activity of silica-carbon supported copper catalysts for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassova, I.; Stoeva, N.; Nickolov, R.; Atanasova, G.; Khristova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Composite catalysts, prepared by one or more active components supported on a support are of interest because of the possible interaction between the catalytic components and the support materials. The supports of combined hydrophilic-hydrophobic type may influence how these materials maintain an active phase and as a result a possible cooperation between active components and the support material could occur and affects the catalytic behavior. Silica-carbon nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel, using different in specific surface areas and porous texture carbon materials. Catalysts were obtained after copper deposition on these composites. The nanocomposites and the catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, TG, XRD, TEM- HRTEM, H2-TPR, and XPS. The nature of the carbon predetermines the composite's texture. The IEPs of carbon materials and silica is a force of composites formation and determines the respective distribution of the silica and carbon components on the surface of the composites. Copper deposition over the investigated silica-carbon composites leads to formation of active phases in which copper is in different oxidation states. The reduction of NO with CO proceeds by different paths on different catalysts due to the textural differences of the composites, maintaining different surface composition and oxidation states of copper.

  4. Carbon Mineralization in Acidic, Xeric Forest Soils: Induction of New Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon mineralization was examined in Lakehurst and Atsion sands collected from the New Jersey Pinelands and in Pahokee muck from the Everglades Agricultural Area. Objectives were (i) to estimate the carbon mineralization capacities of acidic, xeric Pinelands soils in the absence of exogenously supplied carbon substrate (nonamended carbon mineralization rate) and to compare these activities with those of agriculturally developed pahokee muck, and (ii) to measure the capacity for increased car...

  5. Efficient control of odors and VOC emissions via activated carbon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farhana; Kim, James; Huang, Ruey; Nu, Huong Ton; Lorenzo, Vlad

    2014-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to enhance the efficiency and economy of carbon scrubbers in controlling odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the wastewater collection and treatment facilities of the Bureau of Sanitation, City of Los Angeles. The butane activity and hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity of activated carbon were assessed. Air streams were measured for odorous gases and VOCs and removal efficiency (RE) determined. Carbon towers showed average to excellent removal of odorous compounds, VOCs, and siloxanes; whereas, wet scrubbers demonstrated good removal of odorous compounds but low to negative removal of VOCs. It was observed that the relative humidity and empty bed contact time are one of the most important operating parameters of carbon towers impacting the pollutant RE. Regular monitoring of activated carbon and VOCs has resulted in useful information on carbon change-out frequency, packing recommendations, and means to improve performance of carbon towers.

  6. Modification of granular activated carbon surface by chitosan coating for geosmin removal: sorption performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitnantharat, S; Rattanasirisophon, W; Ishibashi, Y

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of the sorption performances for geosmin removal by sorption onto granular activated carbons (GAC) manufactured from different raw materials of coconut shell and bituminous coal. The surface of GAC was modified by chitosan coating. The 90% deacetylated chitosan flakes were used for coating on GAC with the GAC: chitosan ratio of 5:1. The surface of GAC was characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and measurement of the pH solution of GAC samples. The sorption of geosmin onto the chitosan for both uncoated and coated GACs could be described by the Freundlich adsorption model. Data revealed that the sequence of Freundlich constant (K(F)) was chitosan coated bitominous coal (CB) > uncoated bituminous coal (UB) > chitos approximately equal to an coated coconut shell (CC) approximately equal to uncoated coconut shell (UC). The bituminous coal based GAC with chitosan coating had a maximum capacity of 23.57 microg/g which was approximately two-fold of uncoated bituminous coal based GAC. Two simplified kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, were tested to investigate the sorption mechanisms. It was found that the intraparticle diffusion was a rate controlling step for the sorption and followed the pseudo-second order equation.

  7. A cost-effective and versatile technology for regenerating activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, H. [Waste Min, Inc., Croton, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption by activated carbon is a mainstream technology for the removal of soluble chemicals from waters and wastewaters, as well as for the removal of organics from vapor streams. Activated carbon basically acts like a sponge - accumulating the chemical species removed from the liquid or vapor stream. When the capacity of the carbon is reached, the spent carbon must be replaced or regenerated to restore its ability to adsorb. The current commercial regeneration options for spent carbon have significant shortcomings. Regeneration by steaming or low temperature heating removes low boiling organic compounds from vapor-phase carbon, but is not efficient removing less volatile compounds and does not regenerate liquid-phase activated carbons. High temperature thermal regeneration methods are expensive to build and operate, have high energy requirements, destroy the adsorbed compounds, and gradually destroy the carbon itself. An alternative technology that avoids the shortcomings of current methods is regeneration of spent activated carbon by extraction with organic solvents. The process uses an organic solvent to dissolve adsorbed material out of the internal pores of the activated carbon. Subsequently, the residual solvent is removed, typically by steaming, then the solvent is recovered and recycled. Cost-wise, solvent regeneration of activated carbon is substantially less expensive than thermal methods. The solvent regeneration technology works for virtually all adsorption applications where thermal regeneration is currently utilized. Capacity-wise, solvent regeneration restores 70% to 90% of the adsorption capacity of virgin activated carbon - while recovering the adsorbates intact and without deteriorating the activated carbon. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Textural Development of Activated Carbon Prepared from Recycled PET with Different Chemical Activation Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cansado, Isabel; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela; Carrott, Peter; Mourão, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work a series of microporous activated carbons, with different burn offs, was prepared from recycled PET provided by Selenis (Portalegre-Portugal). These AC were prepared by chemical activation with KOH, NaOH and H3PO4, and carbonised under a N2 flow of 85cm3min-1 between 873 and 1273K. The carbonised samples were then cooled and successively washed until the washable solutions achieved a pH around 7.0, afterwards these were dried at 110ºC. All adsorbents were characterised by the ads...

  9. Comparative Study on Super Fine Mesophase Powder and MCMB Used to Manufacture High-Density Isotropic Carbon Bulks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong-qi; HU Zi-jun; WANG Jun-shan; GUO Yu-ming; WANG Cheng-yang

    2006-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and super fine mesophase powder (SFMP) were prepared firstly from a coal tar pitch and then hot-condensed into high-density isotropic carbon (HDIC) bulks under 160 Mpa and finally sintered at 1 000 ℃. By analyzing the thermogravimetric behavior of the MCMB and SFMP powders, their volume shrinkage and weight loss during sintering and the bulk density and flexural strengths of their sintered bulks, it was found that the smaller sizes and the richer β-resin contents of SFMP have facilitated formation of sintered bulks with more compact isotropic structure and higher flexural strengths than MCMB. Because of the filling and bonding effects of SFMP on MCMB bulks, addition of SFMP, albeit a little, can greatly increase the flexural strengths of sintered bulks of MCMB. However, adding MCMB, even a slight amount, into SFMP can severely impair the flexural strength of sintered bulks. This might be attributed to both the crack initiation along the boundaries between MCMB and SFMP and the formation of layered texture of MCMB sphere.

  10. Fabrication, characterization, and biocompatibility of single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced alginate composite scaffolds manufactured using freeform fabrication technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Eda D; Yin, Xi; Nair, Kalyani; Sun, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Composite polymeric scaffolds from alginate and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) were produced using a freeform fabrication technique. The scaffolds were characterized for their structural, mechanical, and biological properties by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, tensile testing, and cell-scaffold interaction study. Three-dimensional hybrid alginate/SWCNT tissue scaffolds were fabricated in a multinozzle biopolymer deposition system, which makes possible to disperse and align SWCNTs in the alginate matrix. The structure of the resultant scaffolds was significantly altered due to SWCNT reinforcement, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Microtensile testing presented a reinforcement effect of SWCNT to the mechanical strength of the alginate struts. Ogden constitutive modeling was utilized to predict the stress-strain relationship of the alginate scaffold, which compared well with the experimental data. Cellular study by rat heart endothelial cell showed that the SWCNT incorporated in the alginate structure improved cell adhesion and proliferation. Our study suggests that hybrid alginate/SWCNT scaffolds are a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. PMID:18506813

  11. Studies on supercapacitor electrode material from activated lignin-derived mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong K; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Meyer, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, A K

    2014-01-28

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of 1148 m(2)/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm(3)/g. Both physical and chemical activation enhanced the mesoporosity along with significant microporosity. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited a range of surface-area-based capacitance similar to that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and enhanced the gravimetric specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. A vertical tail in the lower-frequency domain of the Nyquist plot provided additional evidence of good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. We have modeled the equivalent circuit of the Nyquist plot with the help of two constant phase elements (CPE). Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  12. Cable manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  13. Production of activated carbons from waste tyres for low temperature NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Waste tyres were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor and the product chars were chemically activated with alkali chemical agents, KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 to produce waste tyre derived activated carbons. The activated carbon products were then examined in terms of their ability to adsorb NOx (NO) at low temperature (25°C) from a simulated industrial process flue gas. This study investigates the influence of surface area and porosity of the carbons produced with the different alkali chemical activating agents on NO capture from the simulated flue gas. The influence of varying the chemical activation conditions on the porous texture and corresponding NO removal from the flue gas was studied. The activated carbon sorbents were characterized in relation to BET surface area, micropore and mesopore volumes and chemical composition. The highest NO removal efficiency for the waste tyre derived activated carbons was ∼75% which was obtained with the adsorbent treated with KOH which correlated with both the highest BET surface area and largest micropore volume. In contrast, the waste tyre derived activated carbons prepared using K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 alkali activating agents appeared to have little influence on NO removal from the flue gases. The results suggest problematic waste tyres, have the potential to be converted to activated carbons with NOx removal efficiency comparable with conventionally produced carbons. PMID:26856444

  14. Influence of KOH activation techniques on pore structure and electrochemical property of carbon electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LI Jie; LAI Yan-qing; SONG Hai-sheng; ZHANG Zhi-an; LIU Ye-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Taking the selection of coal-tar pitch as precursor and KOH as activated agent, the activated carbon electrode material was fabricated for supercapacitor. The surface area and the pore structure of activated carbon were analyzed by Nitro adsorption method. The electrochemical properties of the activated carbons were determined using two-electrode capacitors in 6 mol/L KOH aqueous electrolytes. The influences of activated temperature and mass ratio ofKOH to C on the pore structure and electrochemical property of porous activated carbon were investigated in detail. The reasons for the changes of pore structure and electrochemical performance of activated carbon prepared under different conditions were also discussed theoretically. The results indicate that the maximum specific capacitance of 240 F/g can be obtained in alkaline medium, and the surface area, the pore structure and the specific capacitance of activated carbon depend on the treatment methods; the capacitance variation of activated carbon cannot be interpreted only by the change of surface area and pore structure, the lattice order and the electrolyte wetting effect of the activated carbon should also be taken into account.

  15. Removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical (17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol) from wastewater effluent by activated carbon adsorption: Effects of activated carbon type and competitive adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifelebuegu, A.O.; Lester, J.N.; Churchley, J.; Cartmell, E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). School of Water Science

    2006-12-15

    Granular activated carbon has been extensively used for the adsorption of organic micropollutants for potable water production. In this study the removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical from wastewater final effluent by three types of granular activated carbon (wood, coconut and coal based) has been investigated in batch adsorption experiments and correlated with the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ultraviolet absorbance (UV). The results obtained demonstrated 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) removals of 98.6%, 99.3%, and 96.4% were achieved by the coal based (ACo), coconut based (ACn) and wood based (AWd) carbons respectively at the lowest dose of carbon (0.1 gl{sup -1}). The other adsorbates investigated all exhibited good removal. At an equilibrium concentration of 7 mgl{sup -1} the COD adsorption capacities were 3.16 mg g{sup -1}, 4.8 mg g{sup -1} and 7.1 mg g{sup -1} for the wood, coconut and coal based carbons respectively. Overall, the order of removal efficiency of EE2 and the other adsorbates for the three activated carbons was ACn {gt} ACo {gt} AWd. The adsorption capacities of the carbons were found to be reduced by the effects of other competing adsorbates in the wastewater effluent.

  16. 78 FR 70533 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Results, 78 FR at 26749; see also Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the... FR 67142 (October 31, 2011) (``AR3 Carbon''); Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of... FR 21317 (May 7, 2009), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon from...

  17. Development of a carbon fibre composite active mirror: Design and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, S; Brooks, D; Dorn, C; Yates, C; Dwan, R M; Richardson, I; Evans, G

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite technology for lightweight mirrors is gaining increasing interest in the space- and ground-based astronomical communities for its low weight, ease of manufacturing, excellent thermal qualities and robustness. We present here first results of a project to design and produce a 27 cm diameter deformable carbon fibre composite mirror. The aim was to produce a high surface form accuracy as well as low surface roughness. As part of this programme, a passive mirror was developed to investigate stability and coating issues. Results from the manufacturing and polishing process are reported here. We also present results of a mechanical and thermal finite element analysis, as well as early experimental findings of the deformable mirror. Possible applications and future work are discussed.

  18. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT. PMID:24645431

  19. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT.

  20. Flax shive as a sources of activated carbon for metals remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin, D. E.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive constitutes about 70% of the flax stem and has limited use. Because shive is a lignocellulosic by-product, it can potentially be pyrolyzed and activated to produce an activated carbon. The objective of this study was to create an activated carbon from flax shive by chemical activation in order to achieve significant binding of selected divalent cations (cadmium, calcium, copper, magnesium, nickel, zinc. Shive carbons activated by exposure to phosphoric acid and com-pressed air showed greater binding of cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc than a sulfuric acid-activated flax shive carbon reported in the literature and a commercial, wood-based carbon. Uptake of calcium from a drinking water sample by the shive carbon was similar to commercial drinking water filters that contained cation exchange resins. Magnesium removal by the shive carbon was greater than a commercial drinking water filtration carbon but less than for filters containing cation exchange resins. The results indicate that chemically activated flax shive carbon shows considerable promise as a component in industrial and residential water filtration systems for removal of divalent cations.