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Sample records for action short brace

  1. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulisa Angelo G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO, devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics

  2. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  3. Optimal Numbers of Braces in Braced-frame Structures under Earthquake Action%多层框架-支撑结构在水平地震作用下的支撑合理数量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小燕; 薛彦涛

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the energy dissipation brace, this technology is more and more used in the new structures and the old structures' reinforcement and reconstruction design. In this paper, a series of formulas for determining, optimal numbers of braces under earthquake action are presented, based on the cooperation work principle of brace and frame in braced-frame structure and the code for seismic design of buildings. This method is accurate and convenient enough for use when the braced-frame structure are designed during the preliminary stage of design and the renovated and strengthened of existing frame structure.%随着耗能支撑的发展,支撑越来越多地应用于新建结构和旧有建筑的加固改造中.本文依据框架-支撑结构的协同工作原理,按照我国现行抗震设计规范对混凝土框架-支撑结构侧移变形的限值,推导出了满足层间位移角限值的支撑数量的计算公式,从而为框架-支撑结构的初步设计以及原有框架结构的改造加固提供参考.

  4. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-01

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  5. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  6. Lyon brace.

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    de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Fender, Paule; Tato, Biagio; Lusenti, Piera; Ferracane, Gioacchino

    2008-01-01

    For the last 60 years, the impressive progress of the scoliosis surgery has hidden the development of the conservative orthopedic treatment. The stabilization of the scoliosis, which implies the safeguarding of a spine as mobile as possible, remains a valid objective. The Lyon Brace management combines 3 techniques. A reduction of the scoliosis using a plaster cast fixed on an EDF (Elongation Derotation Flexion) Cotrel's frame. It carries through a flow of the musculoligamentar structure of the concavity. A contention by Lyon Brace. Orthesis without any cervical superstructure is adjustable, symmetric, see through and active. The elongation between the two scapular and pelvic girdle leads to a disc decompression which makes easier the 3D correction of the curves. The individual moulding (custom made) is actually electronic using a "full 3D imaging" system by Orten. To every 14 types of Lenke's classification matches a specific blue print. A specific physiotherapy combining the consciousness of the deformity, suppling up of the retracted elements of the concavity, compensatory suppling up of the girdles, improvement of the vital capacity based on exhalation, reharmonisation of the static, static strengthening in order to facilitate the ability to be still in a corrected position, kyphotisation proprioceptive exercises to stimulate the maturation of the postural system. We advise the scoliotics to practice sport during the treatment period. The long term follow up confirms a global effectiveness indication of 0,89 with the rib hump declining by half. When we treat scoliotics with Cobb angle less than 45 degrees, surgical treatment can be prevented in 98% of the patients.In France 60% of the families agree with this stringent treatment which becomes easier thanks to its ambulatory realization and the excellent formation of the partners, the physiotherapists and the orthesist.

  7. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: Short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); L.N.J.E.M. Coene (Luc); H. Creemers (Huub); A.J. de Gruijter; A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); H.J.A. Kruls; P.J.M. van Loon (Piet); L.C.F. Luttmer; F. de Nies (Frank); J.E.H. Pruijs; L.W. van Rhijn (Lodewijk); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor treatment of teenagers with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an early stage, two options are generally considered: treatment with a brace or observation followed by surgery if necessary. Many doctors and patients prefer conservative treatment (i.e. brace treatment) to s

  8. Study of Buckling Restrained Braces in Steel Frame Building

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    Mr. Y. D. Kumbhar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional braces have limited deformation ductility capacity, and exhibit unsymmetrical hysteretic cycles, with marked strength deterioration when loaded in compression. To overcome the above mentioned problems, a new type of brace was developed in Japan called as buckling restrained braces, designated as BRB’s. These braces are designed such that buckling is inhibited to occur, exhibiting adequate behavior and symmetrical hysteretic curves under the action of both tensile and compressive cycles, produced by the action of seismic and wind forces. This paper presents experimental results concerning the lateral load carrying capacity of steel frame model by use of buckling restrained brace. This paper also includes the comparative study of lateral load carrying capacity of frame model for bare frame, frame with Conventional brace and frame with buckling restrained brace.

  9. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in ca

  10. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in

  11. Knee Bracing: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often for wear and tear. Regular cleaning with soap and water is good for the brace fabric. Cover any exposed metal so that it doesn’t scratch or injure you or someone else.You need the brace to work properly. If your brace is worn out, you ...

  12. Pneumatic osteoarthritis knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Kojić, Milos; Stojanović, Boban; Hunter, David

    2009-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that necessitates long term therapeutic intervention. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated an improvement in the external adduction moment with application of a valgus knee brace. Despite being both efficacious and safe, due to their rigid frame and bulkiness, current designs of knee braces create discomfort and difficulties to patients during prolonged periods of application. Here we propose a novel design of a light osteoarthritis knee brace, which is made of soft conforming materials. Our design relies on a pneumatic leverage system, which, when pressurized, reduces the excessive loads predominantly affecting the medial compartment of the knee and eventually reverses the malalignment. Using a finite-element analysis, we show that with a moderate level of applied pressure, this pneumatic brace can, in theory, counterbalance a greater fraction of external adduction moment than the currently existing braces.

  13. The role of bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briem, Kristin; Ramsey, Daniel K

    2013-03-01

    Regular exercise and weight reduction are not only important for maintaining general health, they are also strongly recommended conservative modalities for managing knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this paper is to discuss the mechanics of knee joint loading and to review the most recent literature with respect to the functionality and efficacy of unloader braces for managing knee OA, specifically from the perspective of the middle-aged athlete. Evidence suggests valgus braces for medial compartment knee OA significantly reduce knee adduction angle measures and improve measures relating to medial knee joint loading, as well as gait symmetry and speed. Benefits were demonstrated during walking and during more demanding functional measures such as running and negotiating stairs. No studies have investigated the efficacy of bracing for relatively young athletic OA patients and, thus, the role of bracing for this population during sports remains unclear.

  14. Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius

    2014-01-01

    Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required. PMID:24688206

  15. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Po-Chien

    Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

  16. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced, Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine, horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction. SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control, equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls, more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort, and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort. Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in

  17. Brace-Frame Interaction in Tension Braced MRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Mehrdad; Mofid, Massood; Alinia, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the possibility of sequential failure analysis of Tension Braced Moment Resisting Frames (TBMRFs) by examining its performance in the linear and nonlinear stages under idealized seismic loading conditions. The results obtained from rigorous analyses by means of numerical methods are utilized to set up and calibrate an analytical model which would appropriately differentiate the contribution shares of the frame and the bracing elements. The paper provides information on key response parameters, including interaction value between frame and brace elements, as well as tensile strength capacity and ductility capability of such systems.

  18. Analysis of multistoried braced steel space frame subjected to gravity and seismic loading.

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    Dhananjay.S.Pawar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures are generally more flexible than other types of structure and lower in weight. Earthquake loads are random in nature. It is difficult to predict them exactly. The action applied to a structure by an earthquake is a ground movement with horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal movement is the most specific feature of earthquake action because of its strength and because structures are generally better designed to resist gravity than horizontal forces. These forces produce large stresses, strains, deformation and displacement particularly in tall structures. To keep displacement within limit generally bracing is provided in steel structure. . Bracings are generally used to increase lateral-stiffness, lateral- strength as well as lateral stability of the frame. Variations in the column stiffness can influence the mode of failure and lateral stiffness of the bracing. In this study steel frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Cross‟ bracing, (iii Model completely with fully braced steel frame („Single diagonal‟ bracing.

  19. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

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    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  20. [Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2017-04-01

    Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.

  1. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  2. Emergency PTCA and Brace Implantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhangquan; Guan Ruming; Zhang Ming

    2000-01-01

    Objective To further improve the rate of reperfusion of infarction related artery in AMI, remove the stricture, rescue ischemic myocardiurn, protect cardiac function and ameliorate the longterm prognosis. Method Among 73 patients with AMI, 50 underwent direct PTCA, 15 immediate PTCA,8 rescue PTCA and 20 braces were implanted. Result The proportion of recanalization is 94.5% (69/73) .The grade of blood flow (TIMI) improved to grade 3 in 20 patients with brace implantation, while 44 to grade 3 and 5 to grade 2 among 49 patients with simple PTCA. Residualstenosis in vessel was 1.8 ± 5.9(-10-10)% in patients with brace implantation versus 15.4 ± 11. (0 -30)% with simple PICA. The incidence of reperfusive cardiac arrythmia was 18.1%(10/62). There was mainly frequent ventricular premature beat and short paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, if left anterior decending branch was reopened,while bradycardia and atrial ventricular block usually occurred after right coronary reperfused. Conclusion Emergency PTCA and brace implantation can apparently improve the proportion of reperfusioa of IRA in AMI. It is necessary to popularize and apply these treatment in medical units with available conditions.

  3. Passive and active mechanisms of correction of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis with a rigid brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Cheneau, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary bracing developed numerous novel technical solutions to most of main aspects of the correction of structural progressive idiopathic scoliosis. This paper presents a short review on principal biomechanical rules for the three dimensional scoliosis correction. Apart from the tissue transfer, which is a known passive mechanism of rigid bracing, the other passive mechanisms are described, containing the "cherry stone" distraction effect, the thoracic derotation and the bending. A demanding technical construction of the orthosis enables active mechanisms to develop: the corrective factor of the vertebral growth, hypercorrection-oriented trunk movements and respiration, as well as the anti-gravitational mechanism, by which postural reflexes maintain the curve correction, proximally and distally out of the limits of the brace. We believe that systematic investigations unfolded in the area of neurophysiological aspects of postural control of the spinal balance will continuously improve the fascinating capabilities of the active scoliosis autocorrrection assisted by the brace.

  4. 含挫屈束制消能斜撑构架效应之接合板耐震设计与试验分析%Evaluating Frame Action on a Corner Gusset Connection in Steel Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames: Seismic Design and Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中哲; 刘佳豪

    2011-01-01

    本研究主要探讨挫屈束制消能斜撑构架中梁柱效应及斜撑轴力效应对接合板耐震行为影响,利用一层楼挫屈束制消能斜撑构架试验及非线性有限元素分析,研究接合板在斜撑构架下的受力行为.本研究考虑接合板在同时承受构架效应(梁及柱剪力效应)及斜撑轴力下的影响,提出等效支撑概念计算接合板在受构架开合(梁及柱剪力)下的力量,如此将接合板的受力分为由构架及斜撑分别提供,再由有限元素分析观察的梁与接合板及柱与接合板界面应力分布,计算接合板端部应力值,以设计接合板及加劲板尺寸.藉由试验及有限元素分析所量测的梁、柱及斜撑力量,配合本研究提出的理论计算接合板在受梁柱开合效应下及斜撑力量下的受力模式,比对试验与分析下接合板端部的应力极值,验证此理论准确性,并建议设计准则,以确保接合板在达到设计层间侧位移角时无破坏产生.%This work presents test and finite element analysis results for a steel buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF). The objectives are to evaluate the forces of frame and brace actions on the corner gusset plate and to develop a method that considers both action forces in design. In the cyclic test of the frame, the BRBF subassembly exhibited excellent performance up to an interstory drift of 2% with a maximum axial strain of 1. 7% in the proposed buckling-restrained brace (BRB). Neither BRB nor corner gusset plate buckled during the frame test. By idealizing the corner gusset plate as a strut,a strut model can be used to determine forces resulting from the frame action,which are the same order as brace forces. Considering stress distributions and force components from the frame and brace actions, maximum stresses in gusset tips are used as an additional design parameter for sizing a gusset plate and stiffeners to reach maximum compression capacity of the BRB.

  5. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + propane{r_brace} and {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + n-butane{r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Mincheol; Yun, Yongju [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Moon Sam [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chungwoon University, Chungnam 350-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2009-12-15

    Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the two systems, {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + propane{r_brace} and {l_brace}trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + n-butane{r_brace}, at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 313.15 K at 10 K intervals. These experiments were performed with a circulating-type apparatus and on-line gas chromatography. Experimental data were well correlated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules and the NRTL model.

  6. Short-term memory traces for action bias in human reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Rafal; McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Cohen, Jonathan D; Montague, P Read

    2007-06-11

    Recent experimental and theoretical work on reinforcement learning has shed light on the neural bases of learning from rewards and punishments. One fundamental problem in reinforcement learning is the credit assignment problem, or how to properly assign credit to actions that lead to reward or punishment following a delay. Temporal difference learning solves this problem, but its efficiency can be significantly improved by the addition of eligibility traces (ET). In essence, ETs function as decaying memories of previous choices that are used to scale synaptic weight changes. It has been shown in theoretical studies that ETs spanning a number of actions may improve the performance of reinforcement learning. However, it remains an open question whether including ETs that persist over sequences of actions allows reinforcement learning models to better fit empirical data regarding the behaviors of humans and other animals. Here, we report an experiment in which human subjects performed a sequential economic decision game in which the long-term optimal strategy differed from the strategy that leads to the greatest short-term return. We demonstrate that human subjects' performance in the task is significantly affected by the time between choices in a surprising and seemingly counterintuitive way. However, this behavior is naturally explained by a temporal difference learning model which includes ETs persisting across actions. Furthermore, we review recent findings that suggest that short-term synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons may provide a realistic biophysical mechanism for producing ETs that persist on a timescale consistent with behavioral observations.

  7. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  8. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  9. Evaluating the ductility characteristics of self-centering buckling-restrained shape memory alloy braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elfath, Hamdy

    2017-05-01

    Recently, self-centering earthquake resistant systems have attracted attention because of their promising potential in controlling the residual drifts and reducing repair costs after earthquake events. Considerable portion of self-centering research is based on using short-segment superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) braces as strengthening technique because of the lower modulus of elasticity of SMA in comparison with that of steel. The goal of this study is to investigate the ductility characteristics of these newly proposed short-segment SMA braces to evaluate their safety levels against fracture failures under earthquake loading. This goal has been achieved by selecting an appropriate seismic performance criterion for steel frames equipped with SMA braces, defining the level of strain capacity of SMA and calculating the strain demands in the SMA braces by conducting a series of pushover and earthquake time history analyzes on typical frame structure. The results obtained in this study indicated the inability of short-segment SMA designs to provide adequate ductility to the lateral resistant systems. An alternative approach is introduced by using hybrid steel-SMA braces that are capable of controlling the residual drifts and providing the structure with adequate lateral stiffness.

  10. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  11. Novel short antibacterial and antifungal peptides with low cytotoxicity: Efficacy and action mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiaobao; Zhou, Chuncai; Li, Peng [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 Singapore (Singapore); Xu, Weixin [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, 637551 Singapore (Singapore); Cao, Ye; Ling, Hua; Ning Chen, Wei; Ming Li, Chang; Xu, Rong [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 Singapore (Singapore); Lamrani, Mouad [Menicon Co., Ltd. Immeuble Espace Cordeliers, 2, rue President Carnot, 69002 Lyon (France); Mu, Yuguang, E-mail: ygmu@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, 637551 Singapore (Singapore); Leong, Susanna Su Jan [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 Singapore (Singapore); Wook Chang, Matthew, E-mail: matthewchang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 Singapore (Singapore); Chan-Park, Mary B., E-mail: mbechan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Short antimicrobial peptides with nine and eleven residues were developed. {yields} These peptides show strong bactericidal activity against clinically important bacterial and fungal pathogens. {yields} These peptides exhibit high stability in the presence of salts, and low cytotoxicity. {yields} These peptides exert their action by disrupting membrane lipids. -- Abstract: Short antimicrobial peptides with nine and eleven residues were developed against several clinically important bacterial and fungal pathogens (specifically Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Fusarium solani). Twelve analogues of previously reported peptides BP76 (KKLFKKILKFL) and Pac-525 (KWRRWVRWI) were designed, synthesized, and tested for their antimicrobial activities. Two of our eleven amino acid peptides, P11-5 (GKLFKKILKIL) and P11-6 (KKLIKKILKIL), have very low MICs of 3.1-12.5 {mu}g ml{sup -1} against all five pathogens. The MICs of these two peptides against S. aureus, C. albicans and F. solani are four to ten times lower than the corresponding MICs of the reference peptide BP76. P9-4 (KWRRWIRWL), our newly designed nine-amino acid analogue, also has particularly low MICs of 3.1-6.2 {mu}g ml{sup -1} against four of the tested pathogens; these MICs are two to eight times lower than those reported for Pac-525 (6.2-50 {mu}g ml{sup -1}).These new peptides (P11-5, P11-6 and P9-4) also exhibit improved stability in the presence of salts, and have low cytotoxicity as shown by the hemolysis and MTT assays. From the results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy, membrane depolarization and dye-leakage assays, we propose that these peptides exert their action by disrupting membrane lipids. Molecular dynamics simulation studies confirm that P11-6 peptide maintains relatively stable helical structure and exerts more perturbation action on the order of acyl tail of lipid bilayer.

  12. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE) and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Pr...

  13. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed.

  14. Prospective study of 158 adult scoliosis treated by a bivalve polyethylene overlapping brace and reviewed at least 5 years after brace fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude de Mauroy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative orthopaedic treatment of adult scoliosis is very disappointing. In a series of 144 patients; only 25 % (33 cases were monitored at 2 years of treatment. (Papadopoulos 2013. Thereby the literature typically focuses on a small number of patients, which limits the usefulness and relevance of its results. The brace effect on pain has been systematically described, but there is no publication on the effect of treatment on the Cobb angle and main clinical parameters. Methods From a prospective database started in 1998, we selected all 158 consecutive patients effectively treated conservatively with the Lyon management treatment and controlled five years after brace fitting. Lyon management includes a lordosing bivalve polyethylene overlapping brace in association with specific physiotherapy. The brace can either be short with anterior support under the chest or long with sterno-clavicular support when there is a high thoracic kyphosis. Results 1. For the rate of scoliosis controlled after 5 years, the follow-up was 24 % of the 661 patients accepting the treatment. Pain is almost the main reason for the medical consultation, generally correlating with an increase of the scoliotic angulation. 2. The descriptive data can be superimposed on general group with age (m=56 years, SD=13 but initial Cobb angulation is significantly higher (m=40°, SD=17. Ratio Female/Male=0.91. Generally, the scoliosis is stabilized at (m=39.74 °, SD=19.40, 8 years after the beginning of the treatment. 38 improvements of more than 5°= 24 %; 88 stable = 56 %; 32 worsening of more than 5° = 20 % The rib hump is improved of by 3 mm, (modelling effect of the brace. The occipital axis is improved by more than 6 mm. But the T1 plumb line distance is worsening by 7 mm (most braces are short without sterno-clavicular support. Conclusions For the first time, the number of records and follow up after 8 years allows to study the

  15. Abating Earthquake Effects on Buildings by Active Slip Brace Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Akbay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid control system for reducing building vibration under a spectrum of earthquake load amplitudes is presented. The hybrid control is accomplished by an energy dissipation device called the active slip brace device (ASBD. The hybrid control system uses the ASBD to regulate the energy dissipation characteristics of the building during its response to earthquakes by utilizing active control principles. The ASBD consists of a Coulomb friction interface with a clamping mechanism on the interface. The clamping force on the friction interface is altered at short time intervals during building vibration. Computer simulations of building response with and without ASBD are compared.

  16. NTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: WITH BRACE VS WITHOUT BRACE AFTER OPERATION A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.A NAZEM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruputer specially in athletics induces knee instability results in pateint disability. Surgical treatment consist of ACL reconstruction and repair. In this study the efficacy of surgical management with brace after operation was compaired to surgical management without brace.
    Methods. One hundred ACL ruptured pateints had reconstructed with BPB graft in two randomzed gruops (50 with brace afetr operation and 50 without brace. Study durated 4 year (1997-2000 in alzahra hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Patients had followed for 12 months after operation.
    Results. Knee range of motion after 1, 3, 6, 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Degree and duration of returning to sport, complications, need to reoperation, stair climbing, specific ACL tests, patelofemoral pain, pain in squatting, running and cutting and quadriceps atrophy, after 12 months follow up were the same in both groups (P > 0.05. Patients without brace returned to their job more sooner than another group (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. There are no significant differnce in cilinical results in tow groups and ACL reconstruction with BPB dose not require to routine bracing. Faster return to job in non bracing group is due to removal of liminting effect of brace wearing. Lesser rate of pain in patients that return to sport due to quadriceps strengthening.

  17. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Prosthetist and Orthotist (CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This Chêneau light™ brace, developed according to the Chêneau principles, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principles of the Chêneau light™ brace have shown a satisfactory in-brace correction exceeding 50% of the initial Cobb angle. Brace description The ScoliOlogiC® off the shelf bracing system enables the CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This brace, when finally adjusted is called Chêneau light™ brace. The advantage of this new bracing system is that the brace is available immediately, is easily adjustable and that it can also be easily modified. This avoids construction periods of sometimes more than 6 weeks, where the curve may drastically increase during periods of fast growth. The disadvantage of this bracing system is that there is a wide variability of possibilities to arrange the different shells during adjustment. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51

  18. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Deborah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs. were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80. In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°. The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p Discussion If we assume that outcome of brace treatment positively correlates with in-brace correction, the treatment should be initiated before the curvature angle exceeds 50 - 55° in a growing adolescent. In scoliosis bracing

  19. Simulation of Scoliosis Treatment Using a Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Čulík

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivo Maoík M.D. has treated many child patients with scoliosis at the "Centre for Locomotor Defects", Olšanská 7, 130 00 Prague 3. The author has cooperated with him, and composed the computer program for the spine stress state under brace effects and for simulating scoliosis treatment. The program simulates the spinal curve remodelling in time for a specific child patients, and the algorithm for stress state calculation and treatment simulation is given.Orthopaedists in the Czech Republic use Cheneau-type or Cerny-type corrective braces. The brace exerts force effects on the skeleton of a child. The brace is made individually for each patient, in the following way: first, a negative plaster form of the child`s trunk is made, and then the positive plaster form is created. The orthopaedist determines the places where brace has to load the patient`s trunk, and the plaster form deepened in these places on the basis of his advice. The laminate brace made according to this plaster form constricts the child`s trunk (like a tight shoe.This paper shows how the stress state is determined in vertebrae and in inter-vertebral discs, and the solution of spinal curvature correction under brace force effects for a specific child patient. The project aims to find the dependence of the activation and velocity of spinal curvature correction in the spinal stress state for many patients. The paper shows the computing algorithms for spinal deformations and the stress state under brace force effects, and a simulation of spinal curvature correction.Spinal curvature is determined according to measured values on an X-ray of a patient before a brace is applied. The stress state in the spine and the spinal deformation are investigated by the finite element method as beam (spine in an elastic ground (soft tissue. Two algorithms are used. The first algorithm deals with the spine above and below the soft tissues, and it is loaded by given displacements of the trunk surface

  20. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  1. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  2. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  3. Valgus bracing in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. A gait analysis study of a new brace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Groen, B.E.; Hampsink, B.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    A new valgus brace was evaluated in 15 patients with medial osteoarthritis of the knee and a varus leg axis. Significant improvement of pain and function were found after 6 weeks of brace treatment. Gait analysis showed that the brace had a tendency of lowering the peak varus moment about the knee.

  4. Treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with spinal deformities using a sagittal re-alignment brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males with chronic low back pain (> 24 months and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™ between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1, at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2 and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3. The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2, highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst

  5. Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Minozzi, Silvia; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maruyama, Toru; Romano, Michele; Zaina, Fabio

    2015-06-18

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine. The most common form is diagnosed in adolescence. While adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. To evaluate the efficacy of bracing for adolescents with AIS versus no treatment or other treatments, on quality of life, disability, pulmonary disorders, progression of the curve, and psychological and cosmetic issues. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, five other databases, and two trials registers up to February 2015 for relevant clinical trials. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and conducted an extensive handsearch of grey literature. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled cohort studies comparing braces with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of braces for adolescent with AIS. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included seven studies (662 participants). Five were planned as RCTs and two as prospective controlled trials. One RCT failed completely, another was continued as an observational study, reporting also the results of the participants that had been randomized.There was very low quality evidence from one small RCT (111 participants) that quality of life (QoL) during treatment did not differ significantly between rigid bracing and observation (mean difference (MD) -2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.69 to 3.49). There was very low quality evidence from a subgroup of 77 adolescents from one prospective cohort study showing that QoL, back pain, psychological, and cosmetic issues did not differ significantly between rigid bracing and observation in the long term (16 years).Results of the secondary outcomes showed that there was low

  6. Cu-capped surface alloys of Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace

    CERN Document Server

    Alshamaileh, E; Wander, A

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Pt on Cu left brace 100 right brace followed by annealing to 525 K results in a sharp c(2 x 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. The structure of this surface alloy is investigated by means of symmetrized automated tensor low-energy electron diffraction (SATLEED) analysis and ab initio plane wave density functional calculations. The results are then compared with those for the similar system 0.5 ML Pd/Cu left brace 100 right brace. SATLEED results for the Pt/Cu left brace 100 right brace show that it consists of an ordered c(2 x 2) Cu-Pt second layer alloy capped with a pure Cu first layer. The first and second interlayer spacings are found to be expanded by +5.1 +- 1.7 and +3.5 +- 1.7% respectively (relative to the bulk Cu interlayer spacing of 1.807 A) due to the insertion of the 8% larger Pt atoms into the second layer. The ordered mixed layer is found to be rippled by 0.08 +- 0.06 A with Pt atoms rippled outwards towards the solid-vacuum ...

  7. Brace Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sehirlioglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spine problem, is a structural lateral and rotatory curvature of the spine arising in otherwise normal children during puberty. It occurs before skeletal maturity. Although there is still no cause for AIS, the natural history of AIS has been established in the literature very well. The aim of nonoperative treatment is mainly an attempt to prevent progression of the curve. Bracing and surgery have been used for large and or progressive curves currently. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although there are numerous studies in literature that have tried to summarize the results of treatment, the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. Many clinicians skeptical about the efficacy of conservative treatments. Because there is no consistency of both the inclusion criteria and the definitions of brace effectiveness. The definition of success or who should be included in the analysis have never been universally agreed upon. The Scoliosis Research Society established parameters for all future AIS bracing studies to be able to make comparison among studies more valid and reliable. These guidelines may standardize orthotic studies by recommending inclusion and assessment criteria and allow the promotion of the effectiveness of different braces and decrease the suspicion about their usefulness. Orthotic treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is used to control spinal curvatures while waiting for skeletal maturation.

  8. Application of FEM Analysis to Braced Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingfei; Atsushi Nakamura; CAI Fei; Keizo Ugai

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming possible to do detailed numerical analyses for the various mechanical behavior of braced excavation by researching and developing the numerical analysis technique such as the finite ele-ment method (FEM).However,the mechanical behavior of braced excavation has not been clanfied fully both in theory and in expedence.Therefore,improving the prediction accuracy during the prior design is very important for making the observational method of braced excavation more effective.In this paper,FEM analyses were performed for a model of braced excavation by using Geotechnical Finite Element Elasto-plastic Analysis Software,GeoFEAS (2D).As the constitutive law of ground,MC-DP model, and Dun-can-Chang model were applied.The results were compared and discussed with that of a site measurement,and the effects of the constitutive law of ground on the analyzed result were verified.For the difference be-tween the results,the reason was investigated by the analyses adjusting the elastic modulus of ground,and the appropriate application of the constitutive law was researched.

  9. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario

    2010-09-06

    Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE) and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Prosthetist and Orthotist (CPO) to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This Chêneau light™ brace, developed according to the Chêneau principles, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) [n = 15]), treated according to the principles of the Chêneau light™ brace have shown a satisfactory in-brace correction exceeding 50% of the initial Cobb angle. The ScoliOlogiC® off the shelf bracing system enables the CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This brace, when finally adjusted is called Chêneau light™ brace. The advantage of this new bracing system is that the brace is available immediately, is easily adjustable and that it can also be easily modified. This avoids construction periods of sometimes more than 6 weeks, where the curve may drastically increase during periods of fast growth. The disadvantage of this bracing system is that there is a wide variability of possibilities to arrange the different shells during adjustment. The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17

  10. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  11. Effect of bracing on dynamic patellofemoral contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicole A; Mazahery, B Tom; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in patellofemoral pain have been demonstrated with bracing; however, the mechanisms of pain reduction remain unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the hypothesis that patellofemoral bracing decreases peak pressure on the retropatellar surface through an increase in patellofemoral contact area. Nine cadaveric knees were tested during simulated free-speed walking with no brace, a knee sleeve, two different patellar stabilization sleeves, and a wrap-style patellar stabilization brace. Contact area and pressure were measured using a dynamic pressure sensor located in the patellofemoral joint. For the unbraced knee, contact area and peak pressure varied with knee flexion angle, ranging from 0.30 ± 0.3 cm(2) and 1.80 ± 1.7 MPa at full extension to 2.28 ± 0.5 cm(2) and 4.19 ± 1.7 MPa at peak knee flexion. All braces increased contact area, while the wrap-style brace decreased peak pressure (p < 0.001). Sleeve braces compress the quadriceps tendon causing the patella to engage the trochlear groove earlier during knee flexion. The wrap-style brace reduced peak pressure by shifting the location of highest pressure to a region with increased articular cartilage thickness. Sleeve braces may be useful for treatment of patellar subluxation disorders, while wrap-style braces may be effective for treatment of disorders associated with degenerative cartilage changes.

  12. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patient...

  13. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson Ragnhild; Steen Harald; Lange Johan; Brox Jens

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%...

  14. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve...... with apex at T7 or below, were treated with the Providence night-time brace. The patients were evaluated every 6 months, with standing x-rays. Compliance with the treatment was recorded during the study. Bracing was continued up to two years post menarche or, for males upon reaching the expected adult......, and the follow up was 12 months (8-37m). The SRS22r Function score was 4, 32, Mental Health 3, 81, SRS22r total 3, 9 and satisfaction with management 3, 90. The Pain domain was 3, 8. Conclusion: This study shows a good curve control with the Providence Night time brace and an acceptable 20 % curve progression...

  15. Dynamic Response of a Chevron Concentrically Braced Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Taichiro; Lignos, Dimitrios G.; Hikino, Tsuyoshi; Kajiwara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale shake table tests were conducted at E-Defense, Japan, to examine the dynamic response of a steel concentrically braced frame. The specimen was a single-bay, single-story frame with a pair of square hollow structural section braces placed in a chevron arrangement. The gusset plates connecting the brace to the framing elements were provided with an elliptic fold line to accommodate out-of-plane rotation of the brace in compression. The specimen was subjected repeatedly to a unidirec...

  16. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + pentafluoroethane (HFC-125){r_brace} system and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one (NOVEC{sup TM}1230){r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keesin [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sukyung [Department of Safety Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Gongneung2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-15

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + pentafluoroethane (HFC-125){r_brace} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 333.15 K and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one (NOVEC{sup TM}1230){r_brace} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 343.15 K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  17. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace......). The mean in-brace correction was 81% (24-100%). After the end of bracing, the mean Cobb angle was 29.1degree (7-50), an average of no progression. There were 11 (18%) brace failures, but only 5 (10%) patients had surgery. (Figure Presented) Discussion & Conclusion : This study shows a good curve control...

  18. Action spectrum for photobleaching of human lenses by short wavelength visible irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by photography and transmission measurements. RESULTS: The action spectrum peaked at 420 nm followed by, in order of decreasing effect, 445, 457, 473, 405 and 375 nm. Younger and less absorbent lenses showed smaller changes than older and more absorbent lenses. There was a dose-dependent increase in lens...

  19. Actionable indicators for short and long term outcomes in rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, Marjan; Otter, Renee; Plukker, John Th. M.; Broekhuis, Manda; Klazinga, Niek S.; Broekhuis, Manda

    Aim of the study: Although patient and tumour characteristics are the most important determinants for outcomes in rectal cancer care, actionable factors for improving these are still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the impact of surgeon and hospital factors which can

  20. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Bracing in Adult With Scoliosis: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Clémence; Montigny, Jean-Paul; Barbot, Frédéric; Bussel, Bernard; Vaugier, Isabelle; Fort, Didier; Courtois, Isabelle; Marty-Poumarat, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of bracing in adult with scoliosis. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatients followed in 2 tertiary care hospitals. Adults (N=38) with nonoperated progressive idiopathic or degenerative scoliosis treated by custom-molded lumbar-sacral orthoses, with a minimum follow-up time of 10 years before bracing and 5 years after bracing. Progression was defined as a variation in Cobb angle ≥10° between the first and the last radiograph before bracing. The brace was prescribed to be worn for a minimum of 6h/d. Not applicable. Rate of progression of the Cobb angle before and after bracing measured on upright 3-ft full-spine radiographs. At the moment of bracing, the mean age was 61.3±8.2 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 49.6°±17.7°. The mean follow-up time was 22.0±11.1 years before bracing and 8.7±3.3 years after bracing. For both types of scoliosis, the rate of progression decreased from 1.28°±.79°/y before to .21°±.43°/y after bracing (Pscoliosis, it dropped from 1.47°±.83°/y before to .24°±.43°/y after bracing (Pscoliosis. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace's effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products.

  3. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatme...

  4. Early weaning might reduce the psychological strain of Boston bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Andersen, Gert Rahbek; Thomsen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    From 1983 to 1990 a total of 136 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were treated with the Boston brace. With the aim of examining the social and psychological impact of the brace treatment all patients received a questionnaire at an average of 3.5 years after termination of the treatment...

  5. Dynamic response of reinforced concrete frame eccentrically braced with steel%带偏心钢支承钢筋砼框架动力反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建光

    2001-01-01

    用动力分析软件对带偏心钢支撑钢筋砼二层框架结构进行了分析,单元模型建立时考虑了材料非线性和轴力与弯矩的相互作用.钢筋砼模型为三折线,钢支撑用非对称双线性模型.从地震动作用下的地震反应知,X-型支撑和K-型支撑有较小的位移、速度和柱剪力.偏心支撑框架有2个途径传递地震反应:柱和支撑与梁.%Two-story frame structures,which are braced with eccentric steel brace,are analyzed with dynamic program.The element models are created depending on the nonlinear behavior of the material and the interaction between the axial force and the moment.The reinforced concrete model is a tri-linear curve and the steel brace is a non-symmetry bi-linear model.From the dynamic response under ground motion wave it is known that the X-type or K-type braced frame has smaller displacement,velocity and column shear.The eccentrically braced frame has two approaches to transfer the seismic action:column and brace with beam.

  6. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  7. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Maha M; Ramadan, Hazem M; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N; Mourad, Sherif A

    2014-03-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  8. Elastoplastic analysis of knee bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LI Qing-song; CHEN Long-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. As the structural fuse of the frame, the knee element will yield first during a severe earthquake so that no damage occurs to the major structural members and the rehabilitation is easy and economical. To help fully understand the relations between its seismic performance and the structural parameters, systematic elastoplastic analysis of the KBF structure with finite element method was conducted in this work. Finally, general design recommendations were made according to the results of the analysis.

  9. A Survey of Parachute Ankle Brace Breakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-10

    reduced since it was subject to abrasion from the concrete in the harness shed, asphalt on the loading ramp, and dirt on the drop zone. b. DJ...strap was also directly under the heel and subject to abrasion from concrete in the harness shed, asphalt on the loading ramp, and dirt on the drop...airborne injuries), airborne students who did not wear the brace were 1.90 times more likely to experience an ankle sprain, 1.47 times more likely to

  10. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the mouse seminal vesicle: actions on chloride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; O, W S; Tang, Fai

    2014-08-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) may regulate seminal vesicle fluid secretion, and this may affect sperm quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADM on chloride secretion in the mouse seminal vesicle. The presence of ADM in mouse seminal vesicle was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on chloride secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole-mount preparation of mouse seminal vesicle in an Ussing chamber. The effects of specific ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists were investigated. Whether the ADM effect depended on the cAMP- and/or calcium-activated chloride channel was also studied using specific chloride channel blockers. The results showed that ADM was present in seminal vesicle epithelial cells. The major molecular species was precursor in the mouse seminal vesicle. ADM increased short-circuit current through the calcium-activated chloride channel in mouse seminal vesicle, and CGRP receptor was involved. We conclude that ADM may regulate chloride and fluid secretion from the seminal vesicle, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the sperm and, hence, fertility.

  11. Angular distribution of Rh atoms desorbed from ion-bombarded Rh l brace 100 r brace : Effect of local environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maboudian, R.; Postawa, Z.; El-Maazawi, M.; Garrison, B.J.; Winograd, N. (Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (USA))

    1990-10-15

    Energy-resolved angular distributions of Rh atoms desorbed by 5 keV Ar-ion bombardment of the Rh{l brace}100{r brace} surface are measured with use of a multiphoton resonance ionization technique. The results are shown to be in good agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations of the ion-impact event using the same interaction potential optimized previously to describe desorption from Rh{l brace}111{r brace}. In addition, by analyzing contour plots of the surface potential energy, the trend in the experimental results for Rh{l brace}100{r brace} and those previously published for Rh{l brace}111{r brace} are well explained. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the peak in the polar-angle distribution of neutral particles desorbed from ion-bombarded single crystals is mainly determined by the relative positions of surface atoms which influence the trajectory of an exiting particle via channeling and blocking. Moreover, the anisotropy of the momentum imparted to the surface atoms in the last collision leads to an enhancement of ejection along certain crystallographic directions.

  12. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  13. Phenylthiazole antibiotics: A metabolism-guided approach to overcome short duration of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Eman; Mohammad, Haroon; Abdelghany, Tamer M; Fayed, Eman; Seleem, Mohamed N; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

    2017-01-27

    Antibacterial resistance is a pressing global health challenge that necessitates the development of new therapeutic agents. Phenylthiazole antibacterial agents have been extensively studied, by our group, as a potential novel class of antibiotics to circumvent the scourge of antibacterial resistance. Previously, the phenylthiazole lead compound 1 was shown to possess potent activity against clinical isolates of methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and VRSA). The promising activity of this novel class of antibiotics is hampered by their short half-life due to rapid hepatic metabolism. In the present study, a metabolic methylene soft spot in the lead 1 was identified and replaced with an oxygen atom. The newly developed phenylthiazoles, with alkoxy side chains, demonstrate high metabolic stability (t1/2 > 4 h), while maintaining their potent anti-MRSA activity. Furthermore, compound 5p demonstrated a selective advantage over vancomycin with its ability to kill intracellular MRSA.

  14. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...

  15. Light Steel-Timber Frame with Composite and Plaster Bracing Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scotta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed light-frame structure comprises steel columns for vertical loads and an innovative bracing system to efficiently resist seismic actions. This seismic force resisting system consists of a light timber frame braced with an Oriented Strand Board (OSB sheet and an external technoprene plaster-infilled slab. Steel brackets are used as foundation and floor connections. Experimental cyclic-loading tests were conduced to study the seismic response of two shear-wall specimens. A numerical model was calibrated on experimental results and the dynamic non-linear behavior of a case-study building was assessed. Numerical results were then used to estimate the proper behavior factor value, according to European seismic codes. Obtained results demonstrate that this innovative system is suitable for the use in seismic-prone areas thanks to the high ductility and dissipative capacity achieved by the bracing system. This favorable behavior is mainly due to the fasteners and materials used and to the correct application of the capacity design approach.

  16. Making short-term climate forecasts useful: Linking science and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, James; Jacobs, Katharine; Cash, David

    2016-04-26

    This paper discusses the evolution of scientific and social understanding that has led to the development of knowledge systems supporting the application of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts, including the development of successful efforts to connect climate predictions with sectoral applications and actions "on the ground". The evolution of "boundary-spanning" activities to connect science and decisionmaking is then discussed, setting the stage for a report of outcomes from an international workshop comprised of producers, translators, and users of climate predictions. The workshop, which focused on identifying critical boundary-spanning features of successful boundary organizations, included participants from Australia, Hawaii, and the Pacific Islands, the US Pacific Northwest, and the state of Ceará in northwestern Brazil. Workshop participants agreed that boundary organizations have multiple roles including those of information broker, convenor of forums for engagement, translator of scientific information, arbiter of access to knowledge, and exemplar of adaptive behavior. Through these roles, boundary organizations will ensure the stability of the knowledge system in a changing political, economic, and climatic context. The international examples reviewed in this workshop demonstrated an interesting case of convergent evolution, where organizations that were very different in origin evolved toward similar structures and individuals engaged in them had similar experiences to share. These examples provide evidence that boundary organizations and boundary-spanners fill some social/institutional roles that are independent of culture.

  17. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  18. The Chêneau concept of bracing--biomechanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Current concept of bracing must take in consideration both the three-dimensional (3D) nature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and its pathomechanism of progression. A modern brace should be able to correct in 3D in order to break the so called 'vicious cycle' model. Generally speaking, it is necessary to create detorsional forces to derotate in the transversal plane, to correct the lateral deviation in the frontal plane and to normalize the sagittal profile of the spine. Breathing mechanics can be used to fight against the thoracic structural flat back. The original Chêneau brace was introduced at the end of the 70's and its principles were based more in anatomical observations rather than in biomechanics. A further evolution , enunciating new principles, has allowed a higher standard, improving in brace corrections and trunk modelling. This biomechanical principles have been developed under the name of Rigo-Chêneau-System (RSC) and used later in latest brace models like the Chêneau light with reduced material, and similar in brace corrections. Experience is also important to improve the end results. The blueprints to built the brace according to the anatomorradiological pattern are very helpful.

  19. Excess properties and vapour pressure of left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine + cyclohexaneright brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khimeche, Kamel, E-mail: kamel.khimeche@yahoo.f [Ecole Militaire Polytechnique EMP, BP 17 Bordj-El-Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Dahmani, Abdallah [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et modelisation moleculaire, Faculte de chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham [Laboratoire de chimie analytique I, Universite Claude Bernard (Lyon I), 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-07-15

    The vapour pressures of liquid left brace3-diethylaminopropylamine (3-DEPA) + cyclohexaneright brace were measured by a static method between T = (273.15 and 363.15) K at 10 K intervals. The excess molar volumes V{sup E} at 298.15 K and excess molar enthalpies H{sup E} at 303.15 K were also measured. The molar excess Gibbs free energies G{sup E} were obtained with Barker's method and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The Wilson equation was also used. Deviations between experimental and predicted G{sup E} and H{sup E}, by using DISQUAC model, were evaluated

  20. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}heptane + xylene + N-formylmorpholine{r_brace} ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongchu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)], E-mail: dcchen@hnust.edu.cn; Ye Hongqi; Hao Wu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, ChangSha 410083 (China)

    2007-12-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary system {l_brace}heptane (1) + m-xylene (2) + N-formylmorpholine (3){r_brace} have been determined experimentally at temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 353.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias and Bachman methods. The universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and The non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data. It is found that UNIQUAC and NRTL used for LLE could provide a good correlation. Distribution coefficients, separation factors, and selectivity were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  1. Interface corrective force measurements in Boston brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, J A A M; van Rhijn, L W; van den Munckhof, R J H; van Ooy, A

    2002-08-01

    Brace application has been reported to be effective in treating idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. The exact working mechanism of a thoracolumbo spinal orthosis is a result of different mechanisms and is not completely understood. One of the supposed working mechanisms is a direct compressive force working through the brace upon the body and thereby correcting the scoliotic deformity, achieving optimal fit of the individual orthosis. In this study we measured these direct forces exerted by the pads in a Boston brace in 16 patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis, using the electronic PEDAR measuring device (Novel, Munich, Germany). This is designed as an in-shoe measuring system consisting of two shoe insoles (size 8 1/2), wired to a computer, recording static and dynamic pressure distribution under the plantar surface of the foot. After positioning the inserts between the lumbar and thoracic pads and the body, we measured the forces acting upon the body in eight different postures. In all positions the mean corrective force through the lumbar brace pad was larger than the mean corrective force over the thoracic brace pad. Some changes in body posture resulted in statistically significant alterations in the exerted forces. There was no significant correlation between the magnitude of the compressive force over the lumbar and thoracic brace-pad and the degree of correction of the major curve. Comparing the corrective forces in a relatively new (6 months) brace, there was no statistically relevant difference, although the corrective force was slightly larger in the new braces. We think that the use of this pressure measurement device is practicable and of value for studies of the working mechanism of brace treatment, and in the future it might be of help in achieving optimal fit of the individual orthosis.

  2. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  3. The three dimensional analysis of the Sforzesco brace correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Donzelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is a three dimensional deformity, and brace correction should be 3D too. There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of braces, particularly in the sagittal and transverse plane. The aim of this study is to analyse the Sforzesco Brace correction, through all the parameters provided by Eos 3D imaging system. Method Design: This is a cross sectional study from a prospective database started in March 2003. Participants: 16 AIS girls (mean age 14.01 in Sforzesco brace treatment, with EOS x-rays, at start, in brace after 1 month and out of brace after the first 4 months of treatment. Outcome measures: All the parameters and the Torsio-Index obtained from 3D Eos System, in and out of brace, in the three planes. Statistical analysis: the variability of the parameters and the mean differences were analyzed and compared using paired T test. ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons. Critical P value was set at 0.05. Results In the comparison of in-brace vs start of treatment, the mean Cobb angle changed significantly from 36.44 +/− 4 to 28.99 + −3.9° (p = 0.01. Significant changes in all the sagittal parameters were found (p = 0.02. In the axial plane, the Torsio Index changed significantly in-brace for thoracolumbar and lumbar curves (P < 0.05. The analysis of the single vertebral tilt demonstrated that the effect of the brace is mostly concentrated at specific segments: T4-T5, T10-T12, L1 and L5 in the axial plane and T3-T6 and T10-L1 in the frontal plane. Conclusion The Sforzesco brace mostly modifies the middle of the spine and preserves the sagittal balance. The single vertebral orientation in each plane should be considered together with the typically used values to assess brace effect.

  4. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  5. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the scientific results stemming from six Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (Action Chair: Lara Pajewski, STSM Manager: Marian Marciniak). STSMs are important means to develop linkages and scientific collaborations between participating institutions involved in a COST Action. Scientists have the possibility to go to an institution abroad, in order to undertake joint research and share techniques/equipment/infrastructures that may not be available in their own institution. STSMs are particularly intended for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), i.e., young scientists who obtained their PhD since no more than 8 years when they started to be involved in the Action. Duration of a standard STSM can be from 5 to 90 days and the research activities carried out during this short stay shall specifically contribute to the achievement of the scientific objectives of the supporting COST Action. The first STSM was carried out by Lara Pajewski, visiting Antonis Giannopoulos at The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). The research activities focused on the electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses to complex targets. A set of test scenarios was defined, to be used by research groups participating to Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208, to test and compare different electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering methods; these scenarios were modelled by using the well-known finite-difference time-domain simulator GprMax. New Matlab procedures for the processing and visualization of GprMax output data were developed. During the second STSM, Iraklis Giannakis visited Lara Pajewski at Roma Tre University (Italy). The study was concerned with the numerical modelling of horn antennas for GPR. An air-coupled horn antenna was implemented in GprMax and tested in a realistically

  6. STIMA: a short screening test for ideo-motor apraxia, selective for action meaning and bodily district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Alessia; Toraldo, Alessio; Lunardelli, Alberta; Zadini, Antonietta; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-06-01

    We propose STIMA, a short test for ideo-motor apraxia, allowing us to quantify the apraxic deficit according to action meaning and affected body segment. STIMA is based on a neurocognitive model holding that there are two processes involved in action imitation (i.e., a semantic route for recognizing and imitating known gestures, and a direct route for reproducing new gestures). The test allows to identify which imitative process has been selectively impaired by brain damage (direct vs. semantic route) and possible deficits depending on the body segment involved (hand/limb vs. hand/fingers). N = 111 healthy participants were administered with an imitation task in two separated blocks of known and new gestures. In each block, half of the gestures were performed mainly with the proximal part of the upper limb and the remaining half with the distal one. It resulted in 18 known gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) and 18 new gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) for a total of 36. Each gesture was presented up to a maximum of two times. Detailed criteria are used to assign the final imitation score. Cut offs, equivalent scores and main percentile scores were computed for each subscale. Participants imitated better known than new gestures, and proximal better than distal gestures. Age influenced performance on all subscales, while education only affected one subscale. STIMA is easy and quick to administer, and compared to previous tests, it offers important information for planning adequate rehabilitation programs based on the functional locus of the deficit.

  7. Seismic Energy Demand of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunhoon; Kim, Jinkoo

    2008-07-01

    In this study seismic analyses of steel structures were carried out to examine the effect of ground motion characteristics and structural properties on energy demands using 60 earthquake ground motions recorded in different soil conditions, and the results were compared with those of previous works. Analysis results show that ductility ratios and the site conditions have significant influence on input energy. The ratio of hysteretic to input energy is considerably influenced by the ductility ratio and the strong motion duration. It is also observed that as the predominant periods of the input energy spectra are significantly larger than those of acceleration response spectra used in the strength design, the strength demand on a structure designed based on energy should be checked especially in short period structures. For that reason framed structures with buckling-restrained-braces (BRBs) were designed in such a way that all the input energy was dissipated by the hysteretic energy of the BRBs, and the results were compared with those designed by conventional strength-based design procedure.

  8. A magnetorheological fluid-based controllable active knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Zite, Jamaal L.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2007-04-01

    High customization costs and reduction of natural mobility put current rehabilitative knee braces at a disadvantage. A resolution to this problem is to integrate a Magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based joint into the system. A MR joint will allow patients to apply and control a resistive torque to knee flexion and extension. The resistance torque can also be continuously adjusted as a function of extension angle and patient strength (or as a function of time), which is currently impossible with state of the art rehabilitative knee braces. A novel MR fluid-based controllable knee brace is designed and prototyped in this research. The device exhibits large resistive torque in the on-state and low resistance in the offstate. The controllable variable stiffness, compactness, and portability of the system make it a proper alternative to current rehabilitative knee braces.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  10. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL RIGID FRAME WITH IMPERFECT BRACE MEMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    AFZALI, Hamid; Yamao, Toshitaka; アフザリ, ハミッド; 山尾, 敏孝

    2015-01-01

    Model of a steel rigid frame made of thin-walled box section with existence of I-section brace member with initial overall and local imperfection adopted to investigate buckling effects on steel structural behavior as it was subjected to earthquake excitation. In order to take into account of the influence of local deflections on structural response, shell elements were employed to model brace member as well as base columns. Cross sections components with relatively high amplitude of buckling...

  11. Evaluating the displacement amplification factors of concentrically braced steel frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mussa; Zaree, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    According to seismic design codes, nonlinear performance of structures is considered during strong earthquakes. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and story drifts occurring during major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts computed from elastic analysis at the prescribed seismic force level with a displacement amplification factor. The present study tries to evaluate the displacement amplification factors of conventional concentric braced frames (CBFs) and buckling restrained braced frames (BRBFs). As such, static nonlinear (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic time history analysis have been performed on the model buildings with single and double bracing bays, and different stories and brace configurations (chevron V, invert V, and X bracing). It is observed that the displacement amplification factors for BRBFs are higher than that of CBFs. Also, the number of bracing bays and height of buildings have a profound effect on the displacement amplification factors. The evaluated ratios between displacement amplification factors and response modification factors are from 1 to 1.12 for CBFs and from 1 to 1.4 for BRBFs.

  12. Effect of uniaxial strain on adatom diffusion across {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianyu, E-mail: wuliyangjianyu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Donghu Street, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Hu Wangyu, E-mail: Wangyuhu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Jianfeng [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion of Pt adatom across the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step is studied by embedded atom method along with nudged elastic band method. For adatom on the flat (1 1 1) surface, the anisotropic diffusion behavior is found as the uniaxial strain is imposed. For the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step, our results show that the maximum energy barrier for adatom crossing step edge remains approximately constant as the strain varied from -1.0% to 1.0%, and there is a rise as the larger uniaxial strain is applied. The calculated energy barrier for adatom diffusion along the step edge increases with increasing tensile strain, and the slope of the straight line is small.

  13. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) + dimethyl ether (DME){r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gangwon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongcheon [LG Chem, Ltd. Research Park, Yuseong-gu, Science Town, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) + dimethyl ether (DME){r_brace} system at temperatures from (313.15 to 363.15) K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by the Peng-Robinson Stryjek-Vera equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  14. Influence of the Soil-Structure Interaction on the Design of Steel-Braced Building Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbakht, Alireza; Ashtiany, Mohsen Ghafory

    2008-07-01

    The modeling and analysis of the superstructure and the foundation for the seismic lateral loads are traditionally done separately. This assumption is an important issue in the design/rehabilitate procedures especially for the short period structures, i.e. steel braced or shear wall systems, which may result to a conservative design. By using more advance procedures, i.e. nonlinear static method, and the incorporation of the soil-structure interaction (SSI), the seismic demand in the lateral resisting system decreases and the design will become more economic. This paper includes an investigation about the influence of the SSI effect on the design of the steel-braced building foundation. The presented example is a three-bay three-storey steel braced frame. Three design methods based on the FEMA 356 guideline and the UBC 97 code are taken in to consideration. The three methods are: (1) linear static analysis based on the UBC 97 code assuming the fixed based condition; (2) linear static analysis based on the FEMA 356 guideline assuming the fixed based condition; and (3) nonlinear static analysis assuming both fixed and flexible based assumptions. The results show that the influence of the SSI on the input demand of the short period building foundations is significant and the foundation design based on the linear static method with the fixed base assumption is so conservative. A simple method is proposed to take the SSI effect in to consideration in the linear static procedure with the fixed base assumption, which is a common method for the engineers. The advantage of this proposed method is the simplicity and the applicability for the engineering purposes.

  15. Birefringence dynamics of poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace} cast films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madruga, Carla [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Filho, Paulo Alliprandini [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Andrade, Marta M. [REQUIMTE, CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Goncalves, Manuel [Institute of Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Raposo, Maria [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ribeiro, Paulo A., E-mail: pfr@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-09-01

    Photoinduced birefringence creation/decay dynamics in poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace}cast films, has been characterized in the 5 to 100 mW writing laser power range at the wavelength of 514 nm. The maximum birefringence magnitude increased with laser beam power, being the largest value of 0.03, measured at 632.8 nm. Birefringence creation kinetics followed a biexponential behavior, where a slow process and a fast process could be clearly distinguished. The fast process accounted for more than 60% of birefringence. The time constants for both fast and slow processes decreased with increasing power of writing beam. Birefringence relaxation after removal of writing laser beam revealed to be independent of beam power and, was found to be ruled by two processes, described by a biexponential curve plus a constant term accounting for residual birefringence. A high residual birefringence signal of 85 {+-} 3% was attained, with the fast process contributing to 67% of decay from maximum value. The large values obtained for time constants for both birefringence creation and relaxation processes are believed to arise from stabilization of azo-group either by the formation of an ionic network, or by local short range interactions that are coming through as a result polyelectrolyte coiling due to its high degree of ionization.

  16. A SURVEY OF BRACING FORMS IN BRACED FRAME STRUCTURE%支撑框架结构中支撑形式综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵作周; 刘庆志; 康洪震; 钱稼茹

    2011-01-01

    对国内外支撑框架结构中的支撑形式进行回顾和比较,主要介绍7类支撑(中心支撑、偏心支撑、斜隅支撑、防屈曲支撑、附设耗能器支撑、自复位支撑和索系支撑)的基本原理、研究现状和存在的问题,在总结的基础上提出各类支撑的相互关系和应用范围。%Seven bracing forms in braced frame structures are reviewed and compared,including concentrical brace,eccentric brace,knee brace,buckling restrained brace,extra damper brace,self-centering brace and cable brace.Fundamental principle,state-of-the-art of study and existing problems of each kind of the braces are introduced.Mutual relationship and range of application of the braces are summarized.

  17. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ghaffarzadeh; M.R. Maheri

    2006-01-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  18. A study on numerical analysis of single story Z-type non-compression braced frame

    OpenAIRE

    高松,隆夫; 山西,央朗

    2012-01-01

    The non-compression brace has been investigated and developed as a new earthquake-resistant structural member by the authors. The Z-type brace shows one-side seismic responses of the structure controlled by the function of the wedge-device. In this paper, an anti-symmetric Z-type braced frame subjected to seismic loadings shows torsional vibration. The braced frame in one-directional ground motions can absorb the plastic energy by twisting deformation.

  19. Analysis of Brace Stiffness Influence on Stability of the Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the numerical and experimental research of stability of a truss with side elastic supports at the top chord. The structure is a model of a real roof truss scaled by factor ¼. The linear buckling analysis and non-linear static analysis were carried out. The buckling length factor for the compressed top chord was calculated and the limit load for the imperfect truss shell model with respect to brace stiffness was obtained. The relation between brace normal force and loading of the truss is presented. The threshold stiffness of braces necessary to obtain the maximum buckling load was found. The truss load bearing capacity obtained from numerical analysis was compared with Eurocode 3 requirements.

  20. "Will My Child Benefit from Using Braces?": Insights on a Challenging Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buethorn, Don

    2008-01-01

    When a child first receives a diagnosis and a treatment plan that includes recommendations for bracing, the prospect of intensive orthotic intervention can be daunting for the parent. Braces traditionally represent a prominent visual cue that the child has trouble walking. The classic brace seems awkward and hard to get into and out of. It is…

  1. Bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis: Design of the Dutch randomized controlled treatment trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunge (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.D. Been (Henk); F.C. van Biezen (Frans); B.J. de Gruijter (Bert); H.P.W. van Jonbergen; L.W.L. Klerk (Luuk); M. de Kleuver (Marinus); P.H.J. Klop (Patrick); F. de Nies (Frank); H.E.H. Pruijs (Hans); M.P. Teeuwen (Marcel); P.B.J. Tilman (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The effectiveness of bracing patients with IS has not yet been convincingly established due to a lack of RCTs. Some authors suggest that their results confirm that bracing is effective; others conclude that the effectiveness of bracing is doubtful or recommend a RCT. The aim

  2. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  3. Structural Behaviour of Steel Building with Diagonal and Chevron Braced CBF (Concentrically Braced Frames by Pushover Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Saloma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents diagonal and chevron braced steel structure design with pushover analysis conducted following ATC-40 guidelines. In this study, the lateral load used is increased gradually until plastic hinge and collapse occur. The results are capacity curve, performance point, and the process of plastic hinge until the building collapse. There are five steel structure models designed based on the various types of bracing and bracing configuration. Model 1 is steel structure without bracing, model 2 and 3 are chevron braced steel structure, model 4 and 5 are diagonal braced steel structure. The results of this study indicate that the performance level of five models structure for earthquake in x direction and y direction according to ATC-40 is IO (Immediate Occupancy. Model 4 has the best effectiveness in terms of plastic hinge mechanism compared to other models. In the last step, model 4 is able to reduce plastic hinge 84% from model 1 for earthquake in x direction and 79% from model 1 for earthquake in y direction. Model 3 has the greatest ability to carry the forces of an earthquake compared to other models. It is 185% bigger than model 1 for x direction and 181% bigger than model 1for y direction. Model 3 has the greatest effectiveness in reducing lateral displacements compared to other models in the amount of 65.47% of model 1 for x direction and 72.14% of model 1 for y direction. Model 3 has the greatest effectiveness in reducing storey drift compared to other models in the amount of 73.89% of model 1 for x direction and 80.55% of model 1 for y direction.

  4. Can Bracing Affect Altered Gait Patterns in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marc R.; Rylander, Jonathan; Shu, Beatrice; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Altered gait patterns have been identified in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a 2nd order reversal in mid stance, that has been shown to be corrected with arthroscopic FAI surgery. Currently, most feel there is no adequate conservative treatment for this malady. The goal of this study is to determine if the gait abnormalities seen with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be modified with bracing. Methods: Eight individuals (4 Male, 34.5 ± 12.8 y.o., 24.0±2.3 BMI) who were diagnosed with FAI after reporting to clinic with groin pain were enrolled in this study. The study was approved by the University Internal Review Board before participants were enrolled. History, clinical exam, and imaging including an AP pelvis and cross table lateral radiograph of the affected hip and MR-arthrogram of the affected hip were utilized to make the diagnosis. Participants who enrolled had primarily unilateral hip symptoms, had positive impingement and labral stress tests on the affected side and were free of other lower extremity, back, and spine disorders. Three dimensional lower limb kinematics were collected using a camera and forceplate system with the subjects wearing reflective markers on anatomical landmarks. Participants were tested prior to surgery. Hip kinematics were collected for the symptomatic limb while the patients walked at a self selected normal walking speed, slowly jogged, and ascended a two stair setup. Three trials for each activity were completed with and without wearing a brace that was designed to externally rotate the femur in the treatment of patellofemoral disorders for a total of 6 trials per activity. Peak hip flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation were calculated over the stance phase for each trial. Averages were calculated over the 3 trials for each activity both with and without the brace. Intra-subject differences were compared between the braced and unbraced trials

  5. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  6. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery. PMID:27630444

  7. Brace Treatment Can Improve Thoracic Kyphosis During Growth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Weiss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. While in scoliosis bracing today there is evidence that during growth curvatures can be corrected significantly, there is no evidence that the standard of kyphosis bracing we use today may lead to final corrections after weaning off the brace. Case report: A 12-year-old kyphosis patient presented at the office of the author with a curve of 58° in summer 2009. Brace treatment with a modern kyphosis brace was started immediately with an in-brace correction of more than 30 degrees. After one year of treatment the patient had outgrown his first brace, but was still immature. Therefore a new brace was constructed. The curvature was 37° without and 25° in the new brace. This brace was worn for another two years for 16 h/day and weaned off in summer 2012. 6 months later—the patient meanwhile was nearly mature (Risser 4/voice change 2.6 years the final X-ray showed an angle of 38° (normal range of kyphosis angles with full flexibility of the spine. Conclusion: Bracing with small size orthosis in kyphosis patients during growth can lead to an improvement of the curvature angle after the end of growth. The functional limitations there are in severe kyphosis angles can be improved and normalized in some cases.

  8. Conceptual design of joints in braced steel frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, C.M.; Evers, H.G.A.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    To help practitioners to find the most economical design of braced frames, this paper proposes a classification of joints in `simple' (e.g. web cleated connections), 'moderate' (e.g. flush end plated connections) and 'complex' (e.g. stiffened extended end plate connections) with respect to the fabri

  9. Stability of the Scoliotic Spine: Effect of Scoliosis Braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, Robert M; Gavin, Thomas M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-04-01

    Orthotic treatment (braces) for scoliosis is best understood in light of the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis and the mechanics of spine stability. Idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity confronted often by spine surgeons. With prompt recognition, treatment can be effective.

  10. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nath Pal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Modified functional cast brace is one of the options in treatment for humeral shaft fractures as it can be applied on the 1 st day of the presentation in most of the situations. Simple objective scoring system was useful particularly in uneducated patients.

  11. A new method of MR total spine imaging for showing the brace effect in scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Kandyba, J.; Koenig, R.; Jaeger, U.E.; Gieseke, J.; Schmitt, O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Bracing is a method of early, nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but a hypokyphotic effect on the thoracic spine is reported. We developed a magnetic resonance tomography (MR) procedure presenting an image of the whole spine in the coronal and sagittal planes (MR total spine imaging), and studied the brace effect, using this technique. We examined 26 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with a Cheneau brace (mean age, 13.2 years; mean duration of brace treatment at the time of investigation, 1.5 years). The MR examinations were performed with the patient in the supine position with and without the brace in direct sequence. As measured on the coronal MR images, the thoracic curve was corrected, on average, from 29 deg to 22 deg (mean correction, 24%). There was a slight reduction in the sagittal Cobb angle measured between T4 and T12 (mean sagittal Cobb angle without brace, 14 deg ; with brace, 12 deg), which was still a significant change. MR total spine imaging could be a useful tool for studying the brace effect in scoliosis in two planes. Using this technique, we found reduced sagittal Cobb angles for the thoracic kyphosis with brace. Because there is no radiation exposure, the MR procedure has a potential use in the monitoring of brace treatment. (author)

  12. Supine Lateral Bending Radiographs Predict the Initial In-brace Correction of the Providence Brace in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: To determine the initial curve correction of the providence brace (PB) and to determine to what extend the in-brace Cobb angle corresponds to the curve seen on supine lateral bending radiographs (SLBR). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SLBR are ...

  13. Insights on Inspirational Education for "High-Risk" Youth Informed by Participatory Action Research (PAR) on Youth Engagement: Short Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Hopper, Tristan; Whelan, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This short communication provides our insights into how or in what ways educators can more effectively support aspiration of at-risk/high-risk youth toward meaningful education. These are informed by the key learnings from our ongoing youth engagement research. Those insights emphasize the importance of "meaningful engagement of youth"…

  14. Studies on phospholipase A and its zymogen from porcine pancreas III. Action of the enzyme on short-chain lecithins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, G.H. de; Bonsen, P.P.M.; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1971-01-01

    1. 1. Short-chain lecithins (with C6, C7, and C8 fatty acid esters) have been used to study kinetically the enzymatic hydrolysis by pancreatic phospholipase A (EC 3.1.1.4) in aqueous systems, without the addition of emulsifiers. 2. 2. Although phospholipase A is able to attack these substrates

  15. Synthesis of N-[l brace]N-[4-(4-[l brace]N-[[sup 11]C]methylamino[r brace]phenyl)butyryl]-L-prolyl[r brace]pyrrolidine: a potential radiotracer for prolyl endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dort, M.E. van; Kilbourn, M.R.; Mangner, T.J. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    The synthesis of the 4-[[sup 11]C]methylamino derivative of N-[l brace]N-[4-(4-Aminophenyl)butyryl]-L-proly[r brace]pyrrolidine (SUAM-1221), is described as a potential marker for prolyl endopeptidase for in vivo positron emission tomography studies. Direct methylation of the 4-amino derivative of SUAM-1221 (1) with methyl iodide provided a mixture of the 4-monomethyl (2) and 4-dimethylamino (3) derivatives which were separated by chromatography. Methylation of 1 with [[sup 11]C]methyl iodide provided the 4-[[sup 11]C]methylamino derivative of SUAM-1221, ([[sup 11]C]2), in 18-30% decay corrected radiochemical yield after HPLC purification, with a specific activity > 1700 Ci/mmol and a 40 minute synthesis time from end of bombardment. (author).

  16. Efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis following Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brace treatment for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains controversial. To make comparisons among studies more valid and reliable, the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has standardized criteria for brace studies in patients with AIS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace for AIS in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the SRS committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. Patients were instructed to wear the brace for a minimum of 20 hours per day at the beginning of brace treatment. The mean duration of brace treatment was 4 years and 8 months. We examined the initial brace correction rate and the clinical outcomes of main curves evaluated by curve progression and surgical rate, and the compliance evaluated by the instruction adherence rate for all cases. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The average initial brace correction rate was 46.8%. In 10 cases the curve progressed, 6 cases the curve improved, and 15 cases the curve remained unchanged (success rate: 67.7%). The mean instruction adherence rate, that was defined the percentage of the visits that patients declared they mostly followed our instruction to total visits, was 53.7%. The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% (88.2%) as compared with in those 50% or less (42.8%). OMC brace treatment for AIS patients could alter the natural history and significantly decreased the progression of curves to the threshold for surgical

  17. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Si donors in GaAs {l_brace}110{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [Universitaet Goettingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Silicon donors in highly n-doped GaAs(6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) are investigated by Cross-Sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in UHV at 8K. Donors near the surface of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes are studied by spatially resolved I(V)-spectroscopy. The dopant atoms are identified by their bias dependent topographic and spectroscopic properties. In addition to the known features at negative and small positive voltages, our measurements on single donors show an additional transport channel for larger positive bias voltages. The current distribution has a circular symmetric structure. The diameter is bias dependent, and can extend up to several nanometers around the donor. The minimal bias voltage of the current onset is localized above the donors. We discuss different scenarios - including tip induced band bending - that can lead to the observed ring-like shapes.

  18. Analysis of multistoried braced frame subjected to seismic and gravity loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay. S. Pawar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure in high seismic areas may be susceptible to the severe damage. Along with gravity load structure has to withstand to lateral load which can develop high stresses. Now-a-days, shear wall in R.C. structure and steel bracings in steel structure are most popular system to resist lateral load due to earthquake, wind, blast etc. bracing is a highly efficient and economical method of resisting horizontal forces in a frame structure. Bracing is efficient because the diagonals work in axial stress and therefore call for minimum member sizes in providing stiffness and strength against horizontal shear. Through the addition of the bracing system, load could be transferred out of the frame and into the braces, by passing the weak columns while increasing strength. In this study Steel Frame is modeled and analyzed three Parts viz., (i Model without Steel bracing (bare frame, (ii Model completely Steel braced (fully braced frame, (iii Model with partially Steel bay wise braced frames. The computer aided analysis is done by using STAAD-PRO to find out the effective lateral load system during earthquake in high seismic areas.

  19. Seismic Behavior of Steel Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS Utilized in Reinforced Concrete Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an eccentricity in this system results in a geometric nonlinearity behavior. The midpoint of the diagonal member is connected to the corner joint using a brace member with a relatively low stiffness, thus forming a three-member bracing system in each braced panel. An iterative method of analysis has been developed to study the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of ODBS. The results indicate that the load-deflection behavior of this system follows a nonlinear stiffness-hardening pattern with two yielding points, which reflect the tensile failure of different bracings; the present study aims to investigate the efficiency of applying off-diagonal steel braces to reinforced concrete frames. To achieve this, three types of 2-story, 6-story, and 15-story structures without and with X-bracing and off-center bracing systems were modeled using SAP2000 software, and for micromodeling ANSYS software was used to achieve finite element results for an exact comparison between various retrofitting systems. The results showed that the structures strengthened by toggle bracing system revealed better behavior for low oscillation periods. Moreover, this type of bracing system is quite suitable for 10-story structures but not for higher ones. Its main problem, which requires special contrivances to solve, is the existence of a soft ground floor.

  20. Optimization of the place of the plastic hinges by steel braces at RC buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Farzad; Ragheb, Mohammad; Namazi, Meysam

    2012-12-01

    Usage of steel braces has become a solution not only for retrofitting of RC structures but as a method in designing of concrete frames in recent years. Although X-braced RC frames have been number of successful studies, but eccentric braced RC frames have not been studied seriously. Maybe it's because of the non ductile behaviour of concrete beams. In this article, a numerical study was conducted to evaluate performance of concrete frames, braced with eccentric steel brace with a vertical steel shear link. Vertical steel shear link eliminated shortcomings of non ductile concrete beam. Therefore 4, 8 and 12 storey concrete frames were designed and subjected to a push over analysis. Life safety level was chose to evaluate the frames and hinges performance. Results were compared with the same frames designed with X braces and moment resisting frame. Results indicated that steel braces shift the place of plastic hinges to be formed on the bracing members instead of columns and beams. Furthermore steel braces delayed the process of formation of first plastic hinge and column failure mechanism.

  1. A new dual bracing system for improving the seismic behavior of steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, A.; Ghassemieh, M.; Abolmaali, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Shape memory alloy braces and buckling restrained braces have been shown to exhibit favorable energy dissipating characteristics in steel structures. However, buckling restrained braces are unable to recover their original shape after unloading and consequently experience large residual inter-story drifts after the earthquake, which leads to large permanent deformations in the structure. On the other hand, shape memory braces possess the recentering feature which enables them to recover their original shape. Nevertheless, compared to buckling restrained braced frames, the shape memory bracing frame usually experiences larger maximum inter-story drifts during the earthquake. This paper presents the results of a numerical study conducted to investigate the benefit of using the combination of buckling restrained braces and shape memory braces (dual bracing) in one structure, for the new design as well as retrofitting purposes. The superelastic model of shape memory alloy and plasticity model of steel are incorporated into the nonlinear finite element program particularly developed for this research. Results revealed that, with the proper configuration, both aims, namely minimizing both residual and maximum inter-story drifts, can be attained.

  2. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  3. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Brace wear preferences and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    In this prospective, multiinstitutional analysis of medial collateral ligament sprains in college football players, we categorized 987 previously uninjured study subjects according to frequency of wearing preventive knee braces, studied the patterns by which 47 of 100 injuries occurred to unbraced knees, and identified several extrinsic, sport-specific risk factors shared for both braced and unbraced knees. The attendance, brace wear choice, position, string, and session of each participant were recorded daily; medial collateral ligament sprains were reported whenever tissue damage was confirmed. Both the likelihood of wearing braces and risk of injury without them was highly dependent on session (games/practices), position group (line, linebacker/tight end, skill), and string group (players/nonplayers). Subjects wearing braces often faced a high injury risk to their unbraced knees, a finding compatible with the opinion that braces were a necessary evil, best worn when concern over danger of injury outweighed desire for speed and agility. It is concluded that to avoid misinterpretations due to the confounding influence of brace wear selection bias, accurate investigation of daily brace wear patterns is required. Then, before considing the impact of preventive knee braces, a repartitioning of the data base is essential to assure that only similar groups will be compared.

  4. Reforming the Belgian market for orthotic braces: what can we learn from the international experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; De Coster, Sandra; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Guillaume, Paul; Depoorter, Antony; Van den Steen, Dirk; Van de Sande, Stefaan; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk; Lona, Murielle

    2008-05-01

    This article aims to review regulation governing outpatient orthotic braces (neck, wrist and knee braces) in France, the Netherlands and Sweden with a view to reforming the Belgian market. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from an analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Sweden, maximum prices in France, and exclusion of expensive braces from reimbursement in the Netherlands. Reimbursement is linked to a medical indication or a chronic condition in France, the Netherlands and Sweden. To gain reimbursement, the cost-effectiveness of orthotic braces needs to be demonstrated in France and the Netherlands. Orthotic braces tend to be initially prescribed by a specialist physician and distributed by orthotists, medical equipment shops and/or community pharmacies. Extensive government intervention exists in the outpatient orthotic brace market in the countries studied. Our recommendations to reform the Belgian market for prefabricated orthotic braces are to separate reimbursement for service provision from reimbursement for braces; to set prices by means of a tendering process or an international price comparison; and to make reimbursement conditional on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of braces.

  5. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  6. Scoliosis brace design: influence of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Derry; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yip, Joanne; Yick, Kit-Lun; Wong, Christina

    2016-09-06

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a common condition found in adolescents. A rigid brace is often prescribed as the treatment for this spinal deformity, which negatively affects user compliance due to the discomfort caused by the brace, and the psychological distress resulting from its appearance. However, the latter, which is the impact of visual aesthetics, has not been thoroughly studied for scoliosis braces. Therefore, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews has been carried out with 10 participants who have a Cobb angle of 20°-30° to determine the impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards the brace. It is found that co-designing with patients on the aesthetic aspects of the surface design of the brace increases the level of user compliance and induces positive user perception. Therefore, aesthetic preferences need to be taken into consideration in the design process of braces. Practitioner Summary: The impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards a rigid brace for scoliosis is investigated. The findings indicate that an aesthetically pleasing brace and the involvement of patients in the design process of the brace are important for increasing user compliance and addressing psychological issues during treatment.

  7. A (vapor + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isopropoxyethanol (iC{sub 3}E{sub 1}){r_brace} and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isobutoxyethanol (iC{sub 4}E{sub 1}){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Moon Sam [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Jong-Kee [LG Chem.Ltd., 20 Ye-dong, Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-Gu, Seoul 150-875 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2008-01-15

    Binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isopropoxyethanol (iC{sub 3}E{sub 1}){r_brace} and the {l_brace}carbon dioxide + isobutoxyethanol (iC{sub 4}E{sub 1}){r_brace} systems at temperatures ranging from (313.15 to 333.15) K. These experiments were performed with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data correlated well with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  8. Electrochemical action due to short-circuiting of dental alloys. An in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B I

    1986-01-01

    Metallic materials in the oral cavity cannot be expected to be inert. However, the electrochemical interaction with the environment, may vary considerably. Corrosion of dental metallic materials has been said to cause local, and even general unpleasant effects. Different forms of corrosion and variations in the complex oral milleu make it difficult to estimate and predict the corrosion occurring. Various methods such as the recording of potentials, potential differences and currents have been used to study the corrosion which may occur when metallic restorations or appliances come into contact. However, an improvement should be obtained if data which are more closely related to the ion release due to short-circuiting could be recorded. Calculated currents were related to those directly measured and the knowledge thus obtained was used to design a convenient equipment for clinical registration of the charge transfer between short-circuited restorations or appliances. The equipment was used in a study of patients with disorders/discomfort allegedly caused by corrosion in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the released quantity of tin and the charge transfer between amalgam and gold alloy electrodes were studied both in vitro and clinically. The currents flowing between amalgam and gold alloy electrode couples were compared using different electrolytes. The findings may be summarized as follows: The quantity of tin released in vitro was related to the charge transferred between short-circuited electrodes consisting of a conventional amalgam and a gold alloy and the same tendency could be shown clinically. When electrodes made of a gold alloy and various types of amalgams were short-circuited, the currents recorded were influenced by the composition of the amalgams and of the electrolytes. The equipment constructed admitting measurements of the charge transfer seems to be suitable for an estimation of corrosion due to contacts between metallic restorations/appliances. No

  9. Short-term social memory deficits in adult female mice exposed to tannery effluent and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Oliveira Costa, Denys Ribeiro; Pereira, Igor; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated organic residues in tannery-plant courtyards are an eating attraction to small rodents; however, the contact of these animals with these residues may change their social behavior. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether the exposure to tannery effluent (TE) can damage the social recognition memory of female Swiss mice, as well as to assess whether vitamin C supplementation could provide information about how TE constituents can damage these animals' memory. We have observed that resident females exposed to TE (without vitamin supplementation) did not explore the anogenital region, their body or chased intruding females for shorter time or with lower frequency during the retest session of the social recognition test, fact that indicates social recognition memory deficit in these animals. Such finding is reinforced by the confirmation that there was no change in the animals' olfactory function during the buried food test, or locomotor changes in females exposed to the pollutant. Since no behavioral change was observed in the females exposed to TE and treated with vitamin C (before or after the exposure), it is possible saying that these social cognitive impairments seem to be directly related to the imbalance between the cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms (oxidative stress) in female mice exposed to the pollutant (without vitamin supplementation). Therefore, the present study evidences that the direct contact with tannery effluent, even for a short period-of-time, may cause short-term social memory deficits in adult female Swiss mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing clinical course of brace treatment apply to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients remain unclear. By making clear them, we may select suitable patients for brace treatment and alleviate overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment for AIS patients in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. We investigated the clinical course and evaluated the impacts of compliance, initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage to clinical outcomes. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The curve progressed in 10 cases, the curve improved in 6 cases, and the curve remained unchanged in 15 cases (success rate: 67.7%). The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% as compared with in those 50% or less. Initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, the magnitude of Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage did not have any significant effect for clinical courses. However, success rate was insignificantly higher in the cases whose Cobb angle in brace was smaller than that in hanging position. OMC brace treatment could alter the natural history of AIS, however, that was significantly affected by compliance of brace wear.

  11. Correction of camptocormia using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension brace and back extensor strengthening exercise in a patient with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Byung Kook; Kim, Hyoung-Seop; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by cardinal motor features including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, freezing gait, and fatigue. Of these, postural instability in the form of hyperflexion of the thoracolumbar spine upon standing and walking that disappears on recumbent positioning is called camptocormia. Many different trials have been conducted on the treatment of camptocormia, including physiotherapy, corsets, medications, and deep brain stimulation. However, there is insufficient evidence as to which treatment modality is the most valid in terms of effectiveness, cost, safety, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we present a patient whose symptom of camptocormia was effectively resolved using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension (CASH) brace and back extensor strengthening exercise which was modified through follow-ups based on a short-term outpatient setting for proper application with minimal discomfort. The patient was satisfied with the amount of correction provided by the brace and exercise.

  12. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: Immobilisation of stable ankle fractures: plaster cast or functional brace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Anna J; Taylor, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    A short-cut review of the literature was carried out to establish whether a functional brace was as good as a traditional plaster of Paris to immobilise a stable ankle fracture in terms of functionality and recovery speed. A total of 260 papers was found using the below outlined search method, of which five were thought to represent the best evidence to answer the specific clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these are shown in table 2. The clinical bottom line is that the limited evidence seems to suggest that a functional brace appears to give more favourable outcomes. Good quality studies involving large populations are, however, needed to delineate a clear answer to this specific question.

  13. Commentary: How ethanol short-circuits the cerebellum-actions on Golgi cells in freely-moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Ronald K

    2012-11-01

    This commentary discusses the important contributions of the article published in this journal by Huang and colleagues, titled, "Acute ethanol exposure increases firing and induces oscillations in cerebellar Golgi cells of freely moving rats." In this manuscript, Huang and colleagues present a number of interesting and important findings. While it has been shown previously that ethanol (EtOH) causes an increase in the firing of cerebellar Golgi cells in brain slice preparations and anesthetized animals, here the authors provide the first evidence that this action of EtOH occurs in vivo in freely moving, unanesthetized animals. These results also enhance our understanding of cerebellar functioning by describing the mechanism by which EtOH essentially de-afferentates (blocks specific inputs to) the cerebellum from the normal processing of sensory signals due to EtOH-induced Golgi neuron excitation, resulting in inhibition of granule cells. Furthermore, the authors characterize the novel observation of EtOH-induced neuronal oscillations, which was not previously observed in other preparations.

  14. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Wan Hu; Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs) subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced fra...

  15. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  16. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they r

  17. Interpreting short and medium exposure etched-track radon measurements to determine whether an action level could be exceeded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, A R; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Phillips, P S

    2016-10-01

    Radon gas is naturally occurring, and can concentrate in the built environment. It is radioactive and high concentration levels within buildings, including homes, have been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. As a result, several methods have been developed to measure radon. The long-term average radon level determines the risk to occupants, but there is always pressure to complete measurements more quickly, particularly when buying and selling the home. For many years, the three-month exposure using etched-track detectors has been the de facto standard, but a decade ago, Phillips et al. (2003), in a DEFRA funded project, evaluated the use of 1-week and 1-month measurements. They found that the measurement methods were accurate, but the challenge lay in the wide variation in radon levels - with diurnal, seasonal, and other patterns due to climatic factors and room use. In the report on this work, and in subsequent papers, the group proposed methodologies for 1-week, 1-month and 3-month measurements and their interpretation. Other work, however, has suggested that 2-week exposures were preferable to 1-week ones. In practice, the radon remediation industry uses a range of exposure times, and further guidance is required to help interpret these results. This paper reviews the data from this study and a subsequent 4-year study of 4 houses, re-analysing the results and extending them to other exposures, particularly for 2-week and 2-month exposures, and provides comprehensive guidance for the use of etched-track detectors, the value and use of Seasonal Correction Factors (SCFs), the uncertainties in short and medium term exposures and the interpretation of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bracing for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS and Scheuermann Kyphosis: the issue of overtreatment in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos S. Karavidas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most recent publications have provided evidence for brace treatment in spinal deformities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of overtreatment for AIS and Kyphosis in Greece, according to the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS guidelines for brace treatment. To date, this is the first study to investigate overtreatment percentage in a group of patients with spinal deformities. Methods Cross-sectional study design and data analysis were performed in a group of patients that received treatment in a private clinic, in 2014. Of 289 patients treated with a brace, 167 young adolescents (126 females - 41 males, mean age 15, 7 years were eligible for inclusion criteria (age 9–18 years, brace wearing. Overtreatment was defined as the unnecessary use of brace according to the international indications for brace treatment. Overtreatment was assessed by a BSPTS - Schroth certified physiotherapist. The brace prescription was made by 34 medical doctors from different geographical areas of Greece. Results The data analysis revealed that 71 out of 167 subjects (42,5 % had received some kind of overtreatment. A further analysis showed that in the AIS subgroup, 20 subjects (16,9 % had Cobb angles < 20°, 7 subjects (5,9 % had Cobb angles 20 – 25° but good prognosis, 12 subjects (10,2 % started bracing after Risser 4, and 12 subjects (10,2 % had delayed brace weaning. It is noticeable that 8 subjects (6,8 % were at Risser 5 with Cobb angle < 20° and were prescribed a brace. In the Kyphosis subgroup, 11 subjects (22,5 % showed no signs of Scheuermann’s disease, 3 subjects (6,1 % started bracing after Risser 4 or 5, and 6 subjects (12,2 % had delayed brace weaning. Conclusions An extremely high rate of overtreatment (42, 5 % was identified in a random group of adolescents treated with a brace for AIS and Kyphosis. Overtreating a child

  19. Lower Extremity Kinematics and Ground Reaction Forces After Prophylactic Lace-Up Ankle Bracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; Brown, Cathleen N; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Context: Long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics are unknown. Ankle motion restriction may negatively affect the body's ability to attenuate ground reaction forces (GRFs). Objective: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and GRFs during a jump landing. Design: Experimental mixed model (2 [group] × 2 [brace] × 2 [time]) with repeated measures. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 37 healthy subjects were assigned randomly to either the intervention (n  =  11 men, 8 women; age  =  19.63 ± 0.72 years, height  =  176.05 ± 10.58 cm, mass  =  71.50 ± 13.15 kg) or control group (n  =  11 men, 7 women; age  =  19.94 ± 1.44 years, height  =  179.15 ± 8.81 cm, mass  =  74.10 ± 10.33 kg). Intervention(s): The intervention group wore braces on both ankles and the control group did not wear braces during all recreational activities for an 8-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Initial ground contact angles, maximum joint angles, time to reach maximum joint angles, and joint range of motion for sagittal-plane knee and ankle motion were measured during a jump-landing task. Peak vertical GRF and the time to reach peak vertical GRF were assessed also. Results: While participants were wearing the brace, ankle plantar flexion at initial ground contact (brace  =  35° ± 13°, no brace  =  38° ± 15°, P  =  .024), maximum dorsiflexion (brace  =  21° ± 7°, no brace  =  22° ± 6°, P  =  .04), dorsiflexion range of motion (brace  =  56° ± 14°, no brace  =  59° ± 16°, P  =  .001), and knee flexion range of motion (brace  =  79° ± 16°, no brace  =  82° ± 16°, P  =  .036) decreased, whereas knee flexion at initial ground contact increased (brace  =  12° ± 9°, no brace  =  9° ± 9°, P  =  .0001). Wearing the brace for 8

  20. A Validated Finite Element Procedure for Buckling Simulation of Diagonally Braced Moment Resisting Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Mehrdad; Mehdi Alinia, Mohammad; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a validated, high fidelity finite element modeling procedure for Diagonally Braced Moment-Resisting Frames (DBMRFs). The model can accurately capture the DBMRF response prior to and through the brace-buckling regime. The model was calibrated through parametric sensitivity studies, which were performed to ascertain the effects of mesh refinement, initial brace imperfection shapes and amplitudes, and the effects of beam-column connection types on the developed analytical model. The validated analytical model can be used for further investigations on the buckling characteristics of the gusset brace system, and for predicting the yield mechanisms, failure modes, and deformation capacities of multistory DBMRFs. The model can also be used for determining frame ductilities, as well as regions of concentration of plastic strains within the frame members and the gusset brace system.

  1. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  2. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  3. (Vapor + liquid) equilibria for the {l_brace}water + poly(ethylene glycol diacetyl ether) (PEGDAE) and methanol + PEGDAE{r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Doo-hwan [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonwoo [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, SAN 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2007-03-15

    We measured binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the {l_brace}water + poly(ethylene glycol diacetyl ether) (PEGDAE) and methanol + PEGDAE{r_brace} systems at pressures up to 400 kPa and temperatures from 333 K to 393 K. A static apparatus was used in this study. The measured data were correlated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules with NRTL as the excess Gibbs free energy model.

  4. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) + isobutene{r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yongju; Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-15

    Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were measured for the {l_brace}1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) + isobutene{r_brace} as an alternative refrigerant in the temperature range from (273.15 to 348.15) K at 15 K intervals. A circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography was used in these experiments. The experimental data were correlated well by Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules.

  5. Nordic workshop on action related to short-lived climate forcers. Organised by the Nordic Council of Ministers Climate and Air Quality Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotte Moeller, H. (ed.)

    2013-02-15

    Nordic Ministers of Environment adopted in March 2012 the ''Svalbard Declaration'' with decisions to reduce the negative impacts of the climate changes and air pollution caused by the emission of the so-called Short-lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) such as black carbon (soot) and methane. Along with CO{sub 2}, they are the main reasons why the ice in the Arctic now is melting rapidly. At a workshop organised by the Nordic Group on Climate and Air Quality in June 2012 researchers and policy-makers discussed the recent scientific findings, the national experiences with emission inventories, identification of cost-effective measures to cut emissions and the drawing up of national action plans as well as the development in the field of international co-operation on SLCFs. The report presents policy recommendations, conclusions and recommendations on scientific research and monitoring. (Author)

  6. Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing: comparison among muscles and exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key PointsTrunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences.Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements.Abdominal bracing should be

  7. Physical properties of {l_brace}anisole + n-alkanes{r_brace} at temperatures between (293.15 and 303.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jimaz, Adel S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait)]. E-mail: a_jimaz@yahoo.com; Al-Kandary, Jasem A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait); Abdul-latif, Abdul-Haq M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait); Al-Zanki, Adnan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaik 70654 (Kuwait)

    2005-07-15

    Density {rho}, viscosity {eta}, and refractive index n {sub D}, values of {l_brace}anisole + hexane, or heptane, or octane, or nonane, or decane, or dodecane{r_brace} binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K, have been investigated at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volume V {sup E}, has been calculated from the experimental measurements. These results were fitted to Redlich and Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary interaction parameters. The viscosity data were correlated with equations of Grunberg and Nissan, and McAllister. The refractive indices data were used to calculate the specific refractivity R {sub 12}, and also correlated with Lorentz-Lorenz equation. While the excess molar volumes of {l_brace}anisole + hexane{r_brace} are negative, and {l_brace}anisole + heptane{r_brace} are sigmoidal S-shaped, the remaining binary mixtures are positive. The effects of n-alkanes chain length as well as the temperature on the excess molar volume have been studied. The calculated values have been qualitatively used to explain the intermolecular interaction between the mixing components.

  8. Patellar bracing affects sEMG activity of leg and thigh muscles during stance phase in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarie Sker, Fatemeh; Anbarian, Mehrdad; Yazdani, Amir H; Hesari, Pouria; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash

    2017-06-29

    Decreases in patellofemoral pain symptoms with bracing treatment have been established; but, the mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of the patellar bracing on electromyography (EMG) activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL), Rectus Femoris, lateral Gastrocnemius, Biceps Femoris and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles during level walking. 12 eligible women aged 20-30 years with diagnosis of patellofemoral pain participated in the before and after study. Intervention consisted of 8 weeks of patellar bracing. First, patients were tested without brace, then with a brace, and finally eight weeks later without a brace. Surface EMG activation of the selected muscles during level walking was recorded. After eight weeks of patellar bracing, EMG activity of VM muscle was significantly higher when compared to first session without brace (p=0.011) at mid-stance sub-phase. Additionally, EMG activity of ST muscle during first session with brace was significantly lower when compared to first session without brace at mid-stance sub-phase (without brace) (p=0.012). EMG activity of VM muscle after eight weeks of patellar bracing was significantly higher than the first session without brace at late stance and preswing sub-phase (p=0.013). Long-term wearing of patellar bracing increases EMG activity of VM during mid-stance and late stance and preswing sub-phases of gait and immediate effect of patellar brace is decrease of EMG activity of ST muscle during mid-stance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potentiation of E-4031-induced torsade de pointes by HMR1556 or ATX-II is not predicted by action potential short-term variability or triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G; Dempster, J; Kane, K A; Coker, S J

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether I Ks blockade or enhancement of I Na could potentiate TdP induced by I Kr blockade and to investigate whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials preceded TdP. Experimental approach: Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, α1-adrenoceptor-stimulated, male New Zealand White rabbits, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either the I Kr blocker E-4031 (1, 3 and 10 nmol kg−1 min−1), the I Ks blocker HMR1556 (25, 75 and 250 nmol kg−1 min−1) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. In a second study rabbits received either the same doses of E-4031, the I Na enhancer, ATX-II (0.4, 1.2 and 4.0 nmol kg−1) or both of these drugs. ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potentials were recorded. Key results: HMR1556 alone did not cause TdP but increased E-4031-induced TdP from 25 to 80%. ATX-II alone caused TdP in 38% of rabbits, as did E-4031; 75% of rabbits receiving both drugs had TdP. QT intervals were prolonged by all drugs but the extent of QT prolongation was not related to the occurrence of TdP. No changes in STV were detected and triangulation was only increased after TdP occurred. Conclusions and implications: Giving modulators of ion channels in combination substantially increased TdP but, in this model, neither STV nor triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP. PMID:17965747

  10. Spring tube braces for seismic isolation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, V.; Yuksel, Ercan; Gokce, T.; Sahin, F.

    2017-01-01

    A new low-cost seismic isolation system based on spring tube bracings has been proposed and studied at the Structural and Earthquake Engineering Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. Multiple compression-type springs are positioned in a special cylindrical tube to obtain a symmetrical response in tension and compression-type axial loading. An isolation floor, which consists of pin-ended steel columns and spring tube bracings, is constructed at the foundation level or any intermediate level of the building. An experimental campaign with three stages was completed to evaluate the capability of the system. First, the behavior of the spring tubes subjected to axial displacement reversals with varying frequencies was determined. In the second phase, the isolation floor was assessed in the quasi-static tests. Finally, a ¼ scaled 3D steel frame was tested on the shake table using actual acceleration records. The transmitted acceleration to the floor levels is greatly diminished because of the isolation story, which effects longer period and higher damping. There are no stability and self-centering problems in the isolation floor.

  11. Full scale tests of all-steel buckling restrained braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Wu, Bin; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Yang, Weibiao

    2009-03-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) are widely used seismic response-controlling members with excellent energy dissipation capacity without buckling at design deformation. However, the property of all-steel BRBs with cruciform cross section encased in a square steel tube remains insufficiently studied. In this paper, the properties of this kind of BRBs, which were used in two office buildings in Beijing, were examined by full-scale test. First, initial design was done according to the client's requirement. Then, two full-scale specimens were tested under uniaxial quasi-static cyclic loading. The test results indicate that there should be no welding in yielding portion of the core. Finally, the full-scale subassemblage test was done with an improved BRB and gusset plates installed in a frame. The result shows that the brace exhibited high energy dissipation capacity and stable hysteretic characteristic. According to the results from above tests, some important issues are summarized to provide advices for practical applications.

  12. Seismic response control of frame structure braced with SMA tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Song, Gangbing; Huo, Linsheng; Gu, Haichang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents studies of seismic response control of a frame structure braced with SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) tendons through both numerical and experimental approaches. Based on the Brinson one-dimensional constitutive law for SMAs, a two-story frame structure braced diagonally with SMA tendons is used as an example to simulate numerically the vibration control process. By considering the temperature, different initial states and thermal properties of the SMA tendon, and the variable intensity and frequency of earthquake input, the parameters of the system were analyzed during the numerically simulation. The time histories of the displacement and hysteretic loops of the SMA tendons were simulated under earthquake ground motion by using finite element method (FEM). To validate the efficiency of the simulation, a shaking table test for the frame structure was conducted. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show that the actively controlled martensite SMA tendons can effectively suppress the vibration of the multi-story frame structure during an earthquake.

  13. Conceptual study of X-braced frames with different steel grades using cyclic half-scale tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Parviz; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, an experimental and analytical study of two half-scale steel X-braced frames with equal nominal shear strength under cyclic loading is described. In these tests, all members except the braces are similar. The braces are made of various steel grades to monitor the effects of seismic excitation. Internal stiffeners are employed to limit the local buckling and increase the fracture life of the steel bracing. A heavy central core is introduced at the intersection of the braces to decrease their effective length. Recent seismic specifications are considered in the design of the X-braced frame members to verify their efficiency. The failure modes of the X-braced frames are also illustrated. It is observed that the energy dissipation capacity, ultimate load capacity and ductility of the system increase considerably by using lower grade steel and proposed detailing. Analytical modeling of the specimens using nonlinear finite element software supports the experimental findings.

  14. Discrepancy in clinical versus radiological parameters describing deformity due to brace treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shape of the torso in patients with idiopathic scoliosis is considered to reflect the shape of the vertebral column, however the direct correlation between parameters describing clinical deformity and those characterizing radiological curvature was reported to be weak. It is not clear if the management proposed for scoliosis (physiotherapy, brace, surgery affects equally the shape of the axial skeleton and the surface of the body. The aim of the study was to compare clinical deformity of (1 idiopathic scoliosis girls being under brace treatment for radiological curves of 25 to 40 degrees and (2 non treated scoliotic girls matched for age and Cobb angle. Methods Cross-sectional study of 24 girls wearing the brace versus 26 girls without brace treatment, matched for age and Cobb angle. Hypothesis: Patients wearing the brace for more than 6 months, when comparing to patients without brace, may present different external morphology of the trunk, in spite of having similar Cobb angle. Material. Inclusion criteria: girls, idiopathic scoliosis, growing age (10–16 years, Cobb angle minimum 25°, maximum 40°. The braced group consisted of girls wearing a TLSO brace (Cheneau for more than 6 months with minimum of 16 hours per day. The non-braced group consisted of girls first seen for their spinal deformity, previously not treated. The groups presented similar curve pattern. Methods. Scoliometer exam: angle of trunk rotation at three levels of the spine: upper thoracic, main thoracic, lumbar or thoracolumbar. The maximal angle was noted at each level and the sum of three levels was calculated. Posterior trunk symmetry index (POTSI and Hump Sum were measured using surface topography. Results Cobb angle was 34.9° ± 4.8° in braced and 32.7° ± 4.9° in un-braced patients (difference not significant. The age was 14.1 ± 1.6 years in braced patients and 13.1 ± 1.9 years in un-braced group (p = 0.046. The value of angle of trunk

  15. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  16. Cyclic Testing of Steel Chevron Braces with Vertically Slotted Beam Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozlyn K. Bubela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were performed to study the seismic behavior and performance of modified steel chevron braced frame systems, which incorporate a vertical slotted connection (VSC detail between the top of the braces and the floor beam above. The VSC detail is intended to prevent vertical load transfer to the beam and limit brace forces to the compressive resistance of the members. Full-scale quasi-static cyclic tests were performed on two specimens with hollow tube braces, with one specimen having the braces filled with concrete. Both frames exhibited stable, predictable behavior under cyclic loading. The VSC detail provided free vertical movement of the brace assembly during both tests. However, its flexibility created a moderate reduction in the overall lateral stiffness of the frame. The concrete-filled tube specimen sustained higher peak loads, demonstrated greater residual strength and dissipated more energy than the hollow tube specimen due to the partial inhibition of local buckling by the concrete core. It was found that the VSC chevron braced frame system is a suitable concept for use in buildings in high-risk seismic zones.

  17. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Effectiveness of preventive braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles on a 3-year investigation of medial collateral ligament sprains of the knee to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces in NCAA Division I college football players. Position, string, type of session, and daily brace wear were recorded. The injury rates for braced and unbraced knees were used to create an incidence density ratio. The data were stratified and simultaneously controlled for position, string, and session and evaluated for their statistical significance. The 987 Big Ten players generated 155,772 knee exposures over the study period (50% braced). Noticeable differences existed in the rates of injury for the braced and unbraced knees in almost every position during practices, depending on player or nonplayer status. When the influential factors of position, string, and session are considered, there is a consistent but not statistically significant tendency for the players wearing preventive knee braces to experience a lower injury rate than for their unbraced counterparts. For starters and substitutes in the line positions, as well as the linebackers and tight ends, there was a consistent trend toward a lower injury rate in both practices and games. The braced players in the skill positions (backs/kickers), at least during games, exhibited a higher injury rate.

  18. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.

  19. The effect of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball-specific tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T; Ng, L; Campbell, A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball tasks. Fifteen healthy, elite, female volleyball players performed a series of straight-line and lateral volleyball tasks with no brace and when wearing an ankle brace. A 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system and AMTI force plate were used to capture the kinetic and kinematic data. Knee range of motion, peak knee anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear forces, and peak ground reaction forces that occurred between initial contact with the force plate and toe off were compared using paired sample t-tests between the braced and non-braced conditions (P volleyball tasks. However, ankle bracing was demonstrated to reduce knee lateral shear forces during all of the lateral movement volleyball tasks. Wearing the Active Ankle T2 brace will not impact knee joint range of motion and may in fact reduce shear loading to the knee joint in volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bracing of the trunk and neck has a differential effect on head control during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S; Russell, D M; Kelleran, K; Walker, M L

    2015-09-01

    During gait, the trunk and neck are believed to play an important role in dissipating the transmission of forces from the ground to the head. This attenuation process is important to ensure head control is maintained. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of externally restricting the motion of the trunk and/or neck segments on acceleration patterns of the upper body and head and related trunk muscle activity. Twelve healthy adults performed three walking trials on a flat, straight 65-m walkway, under four different bracing conditions: 1) control-no brace; 2) neck-braced; 3) trunk-braced; and 4) neck-trunk braced. Three-dimensional acceleration from the head, neck (C7) and lower trunk (L3) were collected, as was muscle activity from trunk. Results revealed that, when the neck and/or trunk were singularly braced, an overall decrease in the ability of the trunk to attenuate gait-related oscillations was observed, which led to increases in the amplitude of vertical acceleration for all segments. However, when the trunk and neck were braced together, acceleration amplitude across all segments decreased in line with increased attenuation from the neck to the head. Bracing was also reflected by increased activity in erector spinae, decreased abdominal muscle activity and lower trunk muscle coactivation. Overall, it would appear that the neuromuscular system of young, healthy individuals was able to maintain a consistent pattern of head acceleration, irrespective of the level of bracing, and that priority was placed over the control of vertical head accelerations during these gait tasks. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Effects of ankle braces upon agility course performance in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriau, M R; Cox, W B; Manning, J

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the Aircast(TM) Sports Stirrup, Aircast(TM) Training brace, Swede-O(TM) brace, and DonJoy(TM) Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions. Sessions 2 and 3 consisted of randomly wearing the ankle braces while running the agility course. A questionnaire concerning support, comfort, and restriction was completed by each subject after wearing each of the braces. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test indicated that a significant difference existed between each ankle brace and the control 2 agility times as well as a control 1 and control 2 time difference. The control time difference was attributed to a learning effect. An ANOVA with repeated measures of only the four braces revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test showed the only difference was between the DonJoy Ankle Ligament Protector and the Aircast Training brace. We concluded: 1) there is limited practical performance effect upon agility while wearing an ankle brace; and 2) an athlete's perceived comfort, support, and performance restriction are contributing factors that may directly influence the effectiveness of ankle bracing.

  2. 3D correction of AIS in braces designed using CAD/CAM and FEM: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobetto, Nikita; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Parent, Stefan; Barchi, Soraya; Turgeon, Isabelle; Labelle, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies showed that finite element model (FEM) combined to CAD/CAM improves the design of braces for the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), using 2D measurements from in-brace radiographs. We aim to assess the immediate effectiveness on curve correction in all three planes of braces designed using CAD/CAM and numerical simulation compared to braces designed with CAD/CAM only. SRS standardized criteria for bracing were followed to recruit 48 AIS patients who were randomized into two groups. For both groups, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso, respectively built from bi-planar radiographs and surface topography, were obtained and braces were designed using the CAD/CAM approach. For the test group, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso were additionally used to generate a personalized FEM to simulate and iteratively improve the brace design with the objective of curve correction maximization in three planes and brace material minimization. For the control group (CtrlBraces), average Cobb angle prior to bracing was 29° (thoracic, T) and 25° (lumbar, L) with the planes of maximal curvature (PMC) respectively oriented at 63° and 57° on average with respect to the sagittal plane. Average apical axial rotation prior to bracing was 7° (T) and 9° (L). For the test group (FEMBraces), initial Cobb angles were 33° (T) and 28° (L) with the PMC at 68° (T) and 56° (L) and average apical axial rotation prior to bracing at 9° (T and L). On average, FEMBraces were 50% thinner and had 20% less covering surface than CtrlBraces while reducing T and L curves by 47 and 48%, respectively, compared to 25 and 26% for CtrlBraces. FEMBraces corrected apical axial rotation by 46% compared to 30% for CtrlBraces. The combination of numerical simulation and CAD/CAM approach allowed designing more efficient braces in all three planes, with the advantages of being lighter than standard CAD/CAM braces. Bracing in AIS may

  3. Overutilization of bracing in the management of penetrating spinal cord injury from gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; McCoy, Eric; Fukunaga, Dudley; Rolfe, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the spinal column are stable injuries and do not require spinal orthoses or bracing postinjury. Nonetheless, a high number of GSW-related spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are referred with a brace to national rehabilitation centers. Unnecessary bracing may encumber rehabilitation, create skin breakdown or pressure ulcers, and add excessive costs. The aim of this study was to confirm the stability of spinal column injuries from GSWs and quantify the overutilization rate of bracing based on long-term follow-up. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed at a nationally renowned rehabilitation center. In total, 487 GSW-related SCI patients were transferred for rehabilitation and identified over the last 14 years. Retrospective chart review and telephone interviews were conducted to identify patients who were braced at the initial treating institution and determine if late instability, deformity, or neurological deterioration resulted in secondary surgery or intervention. In addition, 396 unoperated patients were available for analysis after 91 patients were excluded for undergoing an initial destabilizing surgical dissection or laminectomy, thereby altering the natural history of the injury. All of these 396 patients who presented with a brace had bracing discontinued upon reaching the facility. RESULTS In total, 203 of 396 patients were transferred with a spinal brace, demonstrating an overutilization rate of 51%. No patients deteriorated neurologically or needed later surgery for spinal column deformity or instability attributable to the injury. All patients had stable injuries. The patterns of injury and severity of neurological injury did not vary between patients who were initially braced or unbraced. The average follow-up was 7.8 years (range 1-14 years) and the average age was 25 years (range 10-62 years). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of brace overutilization for penetrating GSW-related SCI was 51%. Long

  4. The Effect of Lace-up Ankle Braces on Injury Rates in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a nkle injuries occur frequently in high school football players no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. Purpose Determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly-assigned to braced or control group. Braced group subjects wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athletic exposures and injuries. Cox Proportional Hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1,000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared to 1.12 in the control group (Cox Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.39, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.24, 0.65, pinjuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (p=0.985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared to 0.69 in the control group, (HR=0.92 [0.57, 1.47], p=0.721). There was no difference (p=0.242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls 11.5 days, braced =17 days. The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group, (HR=0.72 [0.48, 1.09], p=0.117) while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days versus 7 days, p=0.295). Conclusions Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee or other lower extremity injuries. PMID:21926383

  5. Quantifying Earthquake Collapse Risk of Tall Steel Braced Frame Buildings Using Rupture-to-Rafters Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourhatch, Ramses

    This thesis examines collapse risk of tall steel braced frame buildings using rupture-to-rafters simulations due to suite of San Andreas earthquakes. Two key advancements in this work are the development of (i) a rational methodology for assigning scenario earthquake probabilities and (ii) an artificial correction-free approach to broadband ground motion simulation. The work can be divided into the following sections: earthquake source modeling, earthquake probability calculations, ground motion simulations, building response, and performance analysis. As a first step the kinematic source inversions of past earthquakes in the magnitude range of 6-8 are used to simulate 60 scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. For each scenario earthquake a 30-year occurrence probability is calculated and we present a rational method to redistribute the forecast earthquake probabilities from UCERF to the simulated scenario earthquake. We illustrate the inner workings of the method through an example involving earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in southern California. Next, three-component broadband ground motion histories are computed at 636 sites in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area by superposing short-period (0.2s-2.0s) empirical Green's function synthetics on top of long-period (> 2.0s) spectral element synthetics. We superimpose these seismograms on low-frequency seismograms, computed from kinematic source models using the spectral element method, to produce broadband seismograms. Using the ground motions at 636 sites for the 60 scenario earthquakes, 3-D nonlinear analysis of several variants of an 18-story steel braced frame building, designed for three soil types using the 1994 and 1997 Uniform Building Code provisions and subjected to these ground motions, are conducted. Model performance is classified into one of five performance levels: Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety, Collapse Prevention, Red-Tagged, and Model Collapse. The results are combined with

  6. Sub structure on-line tests on braced frames with self-returning joint mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-hyouk; Ohi, Kenichi

    2006-03-01

    A Ni-Ti-Co alloy exhibits shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity, and these transition properties depending on the temperature when used. This paper examined a first-step application of such an alloy to an earthquake resistant structural system by making and testing a pseudo-elastic bracing system. Substructure pseudo-dynamic tests were performed to examine the behavior of pseudo-elastic bracing system during an earthquake when combined with fictitious hysteretic dampers. A pseudo-elastic bracing system is better to be used with other hysteretic elements such as a hysteretic damper. A damper provides energy dissipation within small displacement levels, and a pseudo-elastic bracing system works in turn as a back-up/fail-safe system when an accidental failure of damper or damper interface occurs, and also it helps to pull back the structure to the original position by uninstalling the damper after earthquake.

  7. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  8. Semi-rigid brace and taping decrease variability of the ankle joint position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbanera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of taping and the semi-rigid ankle brace on ankle joint position sense. Sixteen healthy women (20.8 ± 2.3 years old actively placed the ankle in a target position. The experimental conditions were: 1 wearing no orthosis device, 2 using semi-rigid brace, and 3 wearing ankle taping. Absolute error (AE and variable error (VE were calculated to obtain the joint position sense. We found an interaction effect between condition and target angle at 15o of plantar flexion for the variable VE, which showed smaller errors during the use of taping and semi-rigid brace. In conclusion, the use of ankle joint orthoses, whether taping or semi-rigid brace, decrease the variability of the position sense at 15o of plantar flexion, potentially decreasing ankle sprains occurrence.

  9. Effects of Lateral Bracing and Stiffeners on the CFRP Failure of Strengthened Steel Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Jumaat, M. Z.; Sulong, N. H. R.; Qeshta, I. M. I.; Narmashiri, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the effects of lateral bracing and web stiffeners on the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) failure modes and buckling strength of the CFRP strengthened wide-flange steel I-beams are investigated experimentally. The study consisted of eight beams tested under static gradual load until failure. The main test variables were steel plate stiffeners, lateral bracings, and bonding of CFRP plates to beam soffits. The results showed that the use of steel plate stiffeners did not only prevent stress concentration below the point load, but it could also help to delay debonding of the externally bonded CFRP plate. The use of lateral bracing indicated a significant effect in preventing the CFRP splitting failure mode. In addition, the use of stiffeners with lateral bracing simultaneously, showed improvement in the in-plane flexural strength, stiffness and ductility of the CFRP strengthened I-beams.

  10. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laury Cuddihy

    2015-01-01

    =0.07] and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression <10° of 81% versus 61% for bracing (P=0.16. In thoracic curves 35–44°, VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25–34°. Conclusion. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1 moderate IS (25–44°, in smaller thoracic curves (25–34° VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success.

  11. Peculiarity of component interaction in {l_brace}Y, Dy{r_brace}-Mn-Sn ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V. [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Konyk, M. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L., E-mail: romakal@franko.lviv.ua [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Pavlyuk, V. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Jan Dlugosz University, Institute of Chemistry, Environmental Protection and Biotechnology, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Tkachuk, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-07-14

    Highlights: > {l_brace}Y, Dy{r_brace}-Mn-Sn ternary systems at 770 K are characterized by formation of stannides with general compositions RMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} and R{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}. > The crystal structure of YMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} was determined by single crystal and powder diffraction methods. > Structural analysis showed that Dy{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} compound is disordered. > Isostructural R{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} compounds were also found with Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm(confirmed), Yb, and Lu. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Y-Mn-Sn and Dy-Mn-Sn ternary systems were studied at 770 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. Both Y-Mn-Sn and Dy-Mn-Sn systems are characterized by formation of two ternary compounds RMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} (MgFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}-type, space group P6/mmm) and R{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} (Zr{sub 4}Co{sub 4}Ge{sub 7}-type, space group I4/mmm). The disorder in Dy{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}Sn{sub 7} compound was found by single crystal method. Compounds with the same type of structure were also found with Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm (confirmed), Yb, and Lu and their lattice parameters were determined.

  12. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.

  13. Performance-Based Seismic Demand Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frame Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chui-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The special concentrically steel braced frame (SCBF) system is one of the most effective struc-tural systems to resist lateral forces. Because of its effectiveness and straightforward design, many SCBFs are incorporated in structures throughout the world. However, the highly nonlin-ear behavior associated with buckling and non-ductile fracture of braces reduces the ability of the system to dissipate energy resulting in undesirable modes of behavior. While many studies have investigated the...

  14. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: zkcui@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  15. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  16. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  17. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  18. Development of [l brace]100[r brace] texture in silicon steel sheets by isothermal austenite[yields]ferrite transformations and its mechanism. Keiso kohan ni okeru toon [gamma][yields][alpha] hentai ni yoru [l brace]100[r brace] shugo soshiki no keisei to sono kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Technology Research Lab.); Tanaka, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    The texture in silicon steel sheets has been studied during this half of century and the methods for forming the textures suitable as the soft-magnetic materials of [l brace]110[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] as well as [l brace]100[r brace][l angle]001[r angle] have been found. However, few researches has been carried out on the silicon steel using positively the innate properties of the steel such as the transformation between the austenite ([gamma]) and [alpha]-ferrite and the recrystallization in the coexisting area of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex. In this study, the isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation during the process of vacuum-annealing and decarburizing-annealing of 2% silicon steel containing carbon and Mn and the texture formation accompanied therewith are examined. The conclusions are as follows. The isothermal [alpha][yields][gamma] transformation occurs in the layer just below the surface and the structure of the surface becomes the single phase of [alpha]-ferrite in the vacuum of 10[sup -3]Pa and the temperature is kept constant within the range of [alpha]/[gamma] duplex temperature or [gamma]-phase temperature as from 850 to 1050 centigrade. This surface structure develops to the strong [l brace]100[r brace] texture. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  20. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html .

  1. SEISMIC FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED RC FRAMES USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED HAMIDI JAMNANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of bracings to increase the lateral stiffness of building structures is a technique of seismic improvement that engineers frequently have recourse to. Accordingly, investigating the role of bracings in concrete structures along with the development of seismic fragility curves are of overriding concern to civil engineers. In this research, an ordinary RC building, designed according to the 1st edition of Iranian seismic code, was selected for examination. According to FEMA 356 code, this building is considered to be vulnerable. To improve the seismic performance of this building, 3 different types of bracings, which are Concentrically Braced Frames, Eccentrically Braced Frames and Buckling Restrained Frames were employed, and each bracing element was distributed in 3 different locations in the building. The researchers developed fragility curves and utilized 30 earthquake records on the Peak Ground Acceleration seismic intensity scale to carry out a time history analysis. Tow damage scale, including Inter-Story Drifts and Plastic Axial Deformation were also used. The numerical results obtained from this investigation confirm that Plastic Axial Deformation is more reliable than conventional approaches in developing fragility curves for retrofitted frames. In lieu of what is proposed, the researchers selected the suitable damage scale and developed and compared log-normal distribution of fragility curves first for the original and then for the retrofitted building.

  2. Development and preliminary validation of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ: a new instrument for measuring quality of life of brace treated scoliotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkoltsiou Konstantina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life among children with idiopathic scoliosis during their adolescence has been reported to be affected by the brace itself. However, a controversy exists whether brace treated scoliotics experience a poor quality of life, thus there is a need for the development of a brace-oriented instrument, as the now-existing questionnaires that are commonly used, such as the SRS -22, take into consideration the effects of both the conservative and the surgical treatment on quality of life of scoliotic children. The aim of the present study is to assess the validity and reliability of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ, a new instrument for measuring quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are treated conservatively with a brace. Material-method Methodology of development involved literature review, patient and health care professionals' in-depth interviews and content validity analysis on patients. A validation study was performed on 28 brace treated scoliotic children aged between 9 and 18 years old. BrQ was assessed for the following psychometric properties: item convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness to change. Results BrQ is self administrated and developmentally appropriate for ages 9 to 18 years old and is consisted of 34 Likert-scale items associated with eight domains: general health perception, physical functioning, emotional functioning, self esteem and aesthetics, vitality, school activity, bodily pain and social functioning of scoliotic children treated conservatively with a brace. The subscales of these eight dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Higher scores mean a better quality of life. An item convergent validity ≥ 0.40 was satisfied by all items in the present study. A satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the BrQ was recorded (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82. There were no floor or ceiling

  3. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {l_brace}1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600){r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jihoon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gangwon [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Jin [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwayong [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) ]. E-mail: hwayongk@snu.ac.kr

    2007-08-15

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were obtained for the {l_brace}1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600){r_brace} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 363.15 K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules. This system shows positive azeotropic phase behaviour.

  4. Comparison of in-and outpatients protocols for providence night time only bracing in AIS patients -- compliance and satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid Tj; Tropp, Hans; Pedersen, Niels W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim...... of this study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methodsTwenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008...

  5. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Ragnhild

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. Methods 272 (78% of 360 patients, 251 (92% women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32 years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21% patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS (100 - worst possible and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100 - worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 - best possible, EQ-VAS (100 - best possible, and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22 (5 - best possible. Results The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48 years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58° and 32.5 (7 - 80°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88 had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD GFS was 7.4 (10.8, ODI 9.3 (11.0, EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2, EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8, SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8, mental health 4.1 (0.6, self-image 3.7 (0.7, function 4.0 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Conclusion Long-term results were

  6. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-08-31

    It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS) (100 - worst possible) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (100 - worst possible), EuroQol (EQ-5D) (1 - best possible), EQ-VAS (100 - best possible), and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22) (5 - best possible). The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48) years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57)°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58)° and 32.5 (7 - 80)°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88) had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53)°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD) GFS was 7.4 (10.8), ODI 9.3 (11.0), EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2), EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8), SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8), mental health 4.1 (0.6), self-image 3.7 (0.7), function 4.0 (0.6), satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0). Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Long-term results were satisfactory in most braced patients and

  7. Heat capacity and magnetic phase transition of two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Yuji [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyazaki@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Qi [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Qing-sen [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Matsumoto, Tetsuya [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Miyasaka, Hitoshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Matsumoto, Naohide [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sorai, Michio [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-06-15

    Heat capacities of the two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}] [3-MeOsalen N,N'-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneaminato) dianion], were measured at the temperatures from 0.5 to 300 K by adiabatic calorimetry. An antiferromagnetic phase transition was observed at T {sub N} = 8.29 K. Above T {sub N}, a heat capacity tail arising from the short-range-order effect of the spins was found, which is characteristic of two-dimensional magnets. The magnetic enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to be {delta}H = 373 J mol{sup -1} and {delta}S = 31.3 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively. The experimental magnetic entropy is in good agreement with {delta}S = R ln (5 x 5 x 2) (=32.5 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}; R being the gas constant), which is expected for the metal complex with two Mn(III) ions in high spin state (spin quantum number S = 2) and one Fe(III) ion in low spin state (S = 1/2). The spin wave analysis suggests that the complex shows three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order below T {sub N}. The heat capacity tail above T {sub N} was decreased by grinding and pressurizing the crystal. This mechanochemical effect would originate in the increase of lattice defects and imperfections in the crystal lattice, leading to decrease of the magnetic heat capacity and hence the magnetic enthalpy and entropy.

  8. Cloud-point measurements of the {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + poly(ethylene glycol) + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Yecid P.; Taboada, Maria E. [CICITEM, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile); Galleguillos, Hector R., E-mail: hgalleguillos@uantof.cl [CICITEM, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > CP temperatures of the {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + PEG + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} system were measured by the turbidimetry method. > CP temperatures at constant NaNO{sub 3} concentration and different concentrations of PEG were measured. > For a constant NaNO{sub 3} concentration, CP temperature decreases as the PEG concentration increases. > For a constant PEG concentration, CP temperature decreases as the NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases. > The phase diagram was correlated by the Flory-Huggins model. - Abstract: The cloud-point (CP) temperatures and phase separation of {l_brace}H{sub 2}O + poly(ethylene glycol) + NaNO{sub 3}{r_brace} ternary system is studied by the turbidimetry method using a reaction calorimeter. The phase separation was also observed by visual inspection. Differences between the CP measured using the turbidimetry method and visual inspection, was up {+-}0.5 K. The Flory-Huggins model with a temperature and concentration-dependent interaction parameter was employed to correlate the phase diagram of the system. As a result of the correlation an average absolute deviation of 0.002 is obtained.

  9. Shaking Table Tests on R.C. Frame with Dissipative Bracings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Balducci, Francesco; Antonucci, Rodolfo

    2008-07-01

    The use of dissipative bracings in R. C. frames is of particular interest in seismic-prone European and Mediterranean countries for retrofit of existing buildings designed according to non-seismic specifications or old seismic codes, without a capacity design approach and therefore lacking ductility. The supplemental damping offered by the dissipative bracings allows the reduction of the ductility demands in R. C. structural members and thus can significantly reduce their damage. However, most of the experimental research carried out in recent years concerns the use of dissipative bracings in steel structures. This paper describes shaking table tests carried out on a one-bay, two-storey, full-scale spatial R. C. frame equipped with two different types of dissipative braces: fluid viscous dampers atop chevron braces, or buckling restrained braces along the diagonal. Tests were also conducted on the same frame without supplemental damping devices. Scope of these tests was the experimental verification of the effectiveness of dissipative braces in the retrofit of existing R. C.-framed buildings. Shaking table tests were conducted at increasing PGA levels. Various measurements were taken to monitor both overall as well as localized structure behaviour. Results demonstrate that the introduction of these devices could lead to the dissipation of up to 95% of input energy, thereby considerably reducing the ductility requirement of R. C. elements. A reduction of inter-storey drift of at least 50% was observed with all the dampers, in comparison with the bare frame. For example, in one case, the maximum interstorey drift in the test at PGA = 0.23 g was 0.29%, well below the limit of 0.5% usually given by the standards as the SLS limit to avoid damage to masonry infills.

  10. The experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafiri Vassiliki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a chronic illness with several different braces used for its treatment. Brace treatment during childhood/adolescence can produce stress. There are studies supporting that it can decrease body-image perception while other studies support that it has no such effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of brace treatment in children/adolescents with scoliosis. The aim was to investigate which feelings are created by the bracing experience in children/adolescents with scoliosis and what are the children/adolescents' with scoliosis opinions of the support provided to them by health-care professionals and by their families. Methods We conducted interviews with the help of a semi-structured interview guide in order to address the topic of the experience of brace treatment. A convenient sample of twelve children and adolescents with scoliosis was selected from patients attending follow-up appointments at the Outpatient Scoliosis Clinics of two Greek hospitals. The data was analysed using the method of content analysis. Results Patients in the sample were 10–16 years old and they were mainly females (71%. Almost all of the participants reported having to deal with stress, denial, fear, anger, and shame. They were satisfied with the information they received regarding their condition and therapy. However, the information was not accompanied by support from the health care professionals. They reported that they were receiving support mainly from their families, friends, and classmates. Conclusion The present study is contributing to the development of a better understanding of significant issues related to the experience of bracing therapy. It is clear that scoliosis children/adolescents have to be provided with support during the long period of bracing. It is apparent that those children/adolescents have unmet needs for care and health professionals and policy makers should try to find a

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Internal Bracing for Treatment of Medial Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Brian B; Crall, Timothy; DeLong, Jeffrey; Kubo, Takanori; Mackay, Gordon; Jani, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The internal brace technique uses a high-strength suture tie to augment injured tissues or a primary repair, allowing early rehabilitation. Anatomic repair with internal bracing is a novel and promising treatment for femoral-sided medial knee avulsion injuries of the medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament. Unfortunately, biomechanical and clinical data are lacking. To evaluate this technique compared with other treatment options, 3 assays of 9 cadaveric matched pairs (54 knees) were tested to failure at 30° under valgus load in a biomechanical testing apparatus. The primary outcome measure was moment at failure (Nm), with secondary outcome measures of stiffness (Nm/°), valgus angulation at 10 Nm (°), and valgus angulation at failure (°). Repair with internal bracing was compared with the intact state, repair alone, and allograft reconstruction. The mean moment to failure (62.5±24.9 Nm) for internal bracing was significantly lower than that for intact specimens (107.2±39.7 Nm) (P=.009). Mean moment to failure and valgus angle at failure were significantly greater for internal bracing (95±31.9 Nm) than for repair (73.4±27.6 Nm) (P=.05). Internal bracing was similar to reconstruction for the primary outcome measure (53.5±26.3 Nm vs 66.9±28.8 Nm) (P=.227) and for all secondary outcome measures. These findings indicate that posteromedial knee repair with internal bracing for femoral-sided avulsions is superior to repair alone and is similar to allograft reconstruction for all parameters measured; however, this technique did not recreate biomechanical properties equivalent to the intact state. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e532-e537.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES DURING ABDOMINAL BRACING: COMPARISON AMONG MUSCLES AND EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and erector spinae (ES muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax. The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60% than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%. The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements

  13. Bracing Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Design of the Dutch Randomized Controlled Treatment Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Koning Harry J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of bracing patients with IS has not yet been convincingly established due to a lack of RCTs. Some authors suggest that their results confirm that bracing is effective; others conclude that the effectiveness of bracing is doubtful or recommend a RCT. The aim of this study was to establish whether bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS in an early stage will result in at least 5 degrees less mean progression of the curvature compared to the control group after two years of follow-up. Methods A randomized controlled trial was designed. Eligible patients are girls and boys in the age group 8–15 years whose diagnosis of IS has been established by an orthopedic surgeon, who have not yet been treated by bracing or surgery, and for whom further growth of physical height is still expected based on medical examination and maturation characteristics (Risser ≤ 2. The Cobb angle of the eligible patient should either be minimally 22 and maximally 29 degrees with established progression of more than 5 degrees, or should be minimally 30 and maximally 35 degrees; established progression for the latter is not necessary. A total of 100 patients will be included in this trial. The intervention group will be treated with full-time Boston brace wear; the control group will not be braced. Every four months, each patient will have a physical and an X-ray examination. The main outcomes will be the Cobb angle two years after inclusion and health-related quality of life. Discussion The results of this trial will be of great importance for the discussion on early treatment for scoliosis. Furthermore, the result will also be important for screening for scoliosis policies. Trial registration Nederlands Trialregister ISRCTN36964733

  14. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

  16. Force Analysis of Frame Core-tube Structure Added RC Fraction Energy Dissipation Braced%钢筋混凝土摩擦耗能支撑框架-核心筒结构内力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧; 周立超; 潘文; 徐卫宾

    2012-01-01

    The energy dissipation braces are added in two different parts of a frame-tube structure in this paper, the internal forces of the RC fraction energy dissipation braced frame-tube structure are calculated by ETABS, and the effect of energy dissipation under earthquake is analyzed. The results show that dampers couldn' t start under the action of earthquake, and could start-up under the action of severe earthquake. The RC fraction energy dissipation braced frame-tube structure can better improve the seismic performance.%对某框架-核心筒结构实际工程在两个不同的部位加设耗能支撑,采用ETABS软件,计算钢筋混凝土摩擦耗能支撑框架-核心筒结构在地震作用下的内力,分析了耗能器在地震作用下能否启动耗能和其耗能效果.结果表明,在多遇地震下耗能器不启动,在罕遇地震下耗能器启动耗能,能够较好的改善结构的抗震性能.

  17. A new custom moldable external neck brace (ENB 2.0) to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Richard; Clark, Jonathan R; Wismans, Joris G F; McGuiness, John; Palme, Carsten E; Blyth, Katrina; Baxter, Candice; Stone, Danielle B; Marres, Henri A M

    2013-09-01

    The majority of laryngectomy patients fail to use a hands-free valve on a daily basis, mainly due to fixation problems of the adhesive baseplate housing. To support adhesive housings during hands-free speech a new external neck brace (ENB 2.0) was developed. The effect of the brace was assessed in terms of a qualitative assessment, adhesive lifetime, maximum phonation time and patient self-reports. Twenty laryngectomees participated in this randomized, prospective, crossover trial. All participants used the Provox hands-free HME valve with an Xtrabase adhesive for 1 month, 2 weeks with an ENB 2.0, and 2 weeks without. Outcomes were compared with the previous model of the external neck brace (ENB 1.0). The average total number of adhesive baseplates used during the trial was 16.7 in the non-brace group versus 10.9 in the brace group (P = 0.05). The number of daily replacements was 1.4 in the non-brace group and 1.1 in the brace group (P = 0.025). The average time a hands-free valve was worn per baseplate was 9.5 hours when wearing a neck brace versus 7.3 hours without brace (P = 0.09).The majority (81%) of the patients considered the neck brace 2.0 as a welcome addition to improve hands-free speech after laryngectomy and would use it if prescribed (88%). The new model of the neck brace reduces the number of baseplate replacements during hands-free speech and is considered as a helpful device by 81% of the participants. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Analysis and Calculation of Axial Stiffness of Tubular X-joints under Compression on Braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Guo-zhi; ZHAO Jin-cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the influence factors of axial stiffness of tubular X-joints. The analysis model of tubular joints using plate and shell finite element method is also made. Systematic single-parameter analysis of tubular X-joints is performed using Ansys program. The influences of those factors, including ratio of brace diameter to chord diameter (β), ratio of chord diameter to twice chord thickness (γ), ratio of brace wall thickness to that of chord (τ), brace-to-chord intersection angle (θ), and chord stress ratio, ratio of another brace diameter to chord diameter, in-plane and out-of-plane moment of braces, etc., on stiffness of tubular X-joints are analyzed.Two non-dimensional parameters-joint axial stiffness factor ηN and axial force capacity factor ωN are proposed,and the relationship curve of the two factors is determined. Computational formulas of tubular X-joint axial stiffness are obtained by multi-element regression technology. The formulas can be used in design and analysis of steel tubular structures.

  19. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  20. Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

    2012-02-01

    The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

  1. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  2. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  3. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas B; Roos, Ewa M; Wrigley, Tim V; Hall, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader knee brace on knee joint moments in patients following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Within-participant design. Twenty-two patients (age 35-55 years) who had undergone medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the previous 8-15 months completed three-dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition for forward lunge (mean difference [95% CI]) 0.54 [0.27-0.82] (Nm/(BW×HT)%), pknee brace was detected in terms of an increase in peak knee flexion moment during the more demanding tasks such as forward lunge and one-leg rise. This increase implies enhanced stability of the knee provided by the brace, which may induce increased knee function and knee-related confidence during strenuous tasks. Future research is required to explore the structural implications. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonoperative treatment of adult acquired flat foot with the Arizona brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jeffrey F; Lin, Sheldon S; Berberian, Wayne S; Johnson, Jeffrey E

    2003-09-01

    Nonoperative treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction can be successful with the Arizona AFO brace, particularly when treatment is initiated in the early stages of the disease. This mandates that the orthopedist has a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients to make an accurate diagnosis. Although there is a role for surgical management of acquired flat feet, a well-fitted, custom-molded leather and polypropylene orthosis can be effective at relieving symptoms and either obviating or delaying any surgical intervention. In today's climate of patient satisfaction directed health care, a less invasive treatment modality that relieves pain may prove to be more valuable than similar pain relief that is obtained after surgery. Questions regarding the long-term results of bracing remain unanswered. Future studies are needed to determine if disease progression and arthrosis occur despite symptomatic relief with a brace. Furthermore, age- and disease stage-matched control groups who are randomized to undergo surgery or bracing are necessary to compare these different treatment modalities. At this time, the Arizona AFO brace can be a useful weapon in the orthopedist's armamentarium for treating acquired flat foot deformity.

  5. Development of an internally braced prosthesis for total talus replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Markus; Lange, Mirjam; Soldan, Kevin; Peyerl, Steffen; Baumbach, Sebastian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Polzer, Hans

    2017-03-18

    Total loss of talus due to trauma or avascular necrosis, for example, still remains to be a major challenge in foot and ankle surgery with severely limited treatment options. Implantation of a custom made total talar prosthesis has shown promising results so far. Most important factors for long time success are degree of congruence of articular surfaces and ligamentous stability of the ankle. Therefore, our aim was to develop an optimized custom made prosthesis for total talus replacement providing a high level of primary stability. A custom made hemiprosthesis was developed using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data of the affected and contralateral talus considering the principles and technology for the development of the S.T.A.R. prosthesis (Stryker). Additionally, four eyelets for fixation of artificial ligaments were added at the correspondent footprints of the most important ligaments. Two modifications can be provided according to the clinical requirements: A tri-articular hemiprosthesis or a bi-articular hemiprosthesis combined with the tibial component of the S.T.A.R. total ankle replacement system. A feasibility study was performed using a fresh frozen human cadaver. Maximum range of motion of the ankle was measured and ligamentous stability was evaluated by use of standard X-rays after application of varus, valgus or sagittal stress with 150 N. Correct implantation of the prosthesis was technically possible via an anterior approach to the ankle and using standard instruments. Malleolar osteotomies were not required. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were measured as 22-0-28 degrees. Maximum anterior displacement of the talus was 6 mm, maximum varus tilt 3 degrees and maximum valgus tilt 2 degrees. Application of an internally braced prosthesis for total talus replacement in humans is technically feasible and might be a reasonable procedure in carefully selected cases with no better alternatives left.

  6. Treatment of ingrown toenails using a new conservative method: a prospective study comparing brace treatment with Emmert's procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Jörg; Schöffl, Volker; Hohenberger, Werner; Schneider, Ignaz

    2005-01-01

    Ingrown toenails cause incapacitation and pain for the patient and lost time from work. Many different conservative and surgical treatment methods have been described. European chiropodists and podologists have long treated ingrown toenails with orthonyxia, which consists of implantation of a small metal brace or plate onto the dorsum of the nail. To determine whether orthonyxia is an acceptable alternative to surgery, we compared the VHO-Osthold brace (VHO-Osthold-Spange GmbH, Deisenhofen, Germany), a new method of orthonyxia, with Emmert's procedure, a standard surgical method that is virtually identical to the Winograd-type procedure, in a prospective study of 41 patients (21 in the brace group and 20 in the Emmert procedure group). Pain due to treatment was significantly lower in the brace group than in the Emmert procedure group, and patients in the brace group could wear regular shoes again without appreciable pain much earlier than those in the Emmert procedure group. In the brace group, there were four recurrences, and one patient was still receiving treatment at the end of follow-up; in the Emmert procedure group, there were three recurrences. None of the patients in the brace group had to take time off from work, whereas in the Emmert procedure group, working patients were off from work for an average of 14.7 days. Brace treatment proved to be a good conservative alternative to operative procedures.

  7. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  8. The Seismic Performance Evaluation of An Eccentrically Braced Steel Frame by Non-Linear Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Durgun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the non-linear response and to assess the seismic performance of a six story eccentrically braced steel frame (EBF. For this, split-K-braced EBF with high ductility level designed according to the Turkish Earthquake Code-2007 (TEC-07 is analyzed under seven selected earthquake records. The performance of the EBF is assessed considering drift, story and base shear demands, brace and column axial forces and bending moment demands, link beam shear force and rotation demands. Mean values of the demands are used in the performance assessment. The provisions based on capacity design approach specified in TEC-07 for EBFs with high ductility level are discussed by employing the findings.

  9. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  10. Use of an abduction brace for developmental dysplasia of the hip after failure of Pavlik harness use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedequist, Daniel; Kasser, James; Emans, John

    2003-01-01

    The authors reviewed the records of 15 infants who were treated with an abduction brace after Pavlik harness use for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) failed. Failure was defined as persistent dislocation or instability of the hip. Thirteen of these 15 patients had resolution of DDH with the use of an abduction brace. The median time spent in the brace before stabilization of examination findings was 24 days; the median time in the brace before normalization of ultrasound parameters was 46 days. There were no complications with regard to use of the abduction orthosis. At final follow-up of an average of 3 years and 7 months, no patient had undergone surgery and no patient had residual dysplasia or avascular necrosis of the hip. The two patients in whom both the Pavlik harness and abduction brace failed went on to successful closed reduction and spica cast application.

  11. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram

  12. Application Of Steel Bar Bracings In Renovation And Modernization Of Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchta Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of steel bracings is possible in all four stages of engineering activities in the renovation and modernization of historic buildings, i. e.: protecting, repairing, strengthening and rebuilding. Steel bracings are auxiliary structural systems, which, due to their relatively small cross-section dimensions and low weight, provide an efficient way to achieve the required resistance and stability of the original historic building structural systems. The steel structure in most cases is the tissue that differs in style and material of genuine tissue which is present in a renewed historic building, but is also often a rational solution acceptable to the conservation and structural point of view.

  13. Design and control of multifunctional magnetorheological actuators for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a novel multifunctional actuator utilizing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. As a key component for assistive knee braces, the actuator can work with multiple functions as motor, clutch and brake in order to meet the requirement of normal human walking. In this paper, design considerations including configurations, materials selection, mechanical and electromagnetic designs are illustrated. Prototype of the multifunctional actuator is fabricated, and each of its functions is investigated. Control strategies for mimicking normal human walking using the multifunctional actuator are illustrated. Adaptive control algorithm is adopted. Experiments on torque and speed tracking are conducted. The results show that the developed multifunctional actuator is promising for assistive knee braces.

  14. Effects of Ankle Braces Upon Agility Course Performance in High School Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Beriau, Mark R.; Cox, William B.; Manning, James

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the AircastTM Sports Stirrup, AircastTM Training brace, Swede-OTM brace, and DonJoyTM Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions...

  15. Different coordination modes for disulfoxides towards diorganotin(IV) dichlorides. X-ray crystal structures of 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl)ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) and adducts [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] and [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Gerimario F. de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: gfreitas@unb.br; Ellena, Javier [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Malta, Valeria R.S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    The reactions of meso-1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane (meso-bpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, 2-phenyl-1,3-dithiane trans-1-trans-3-dioxide (pdtd) with n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2} and 1,2-cis-bis-(phenylsulfinyl) ethene (rac-,cis-cbpse) with Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}, in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}], [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] and [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(rac,cis-cbpse){r_brace}x] (x = 2 or n), respectively. All adducts were studied by IR, Moessbauer and {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(meso-bpse){r_brace}{sub n}] revealed the occurrence of infinite chains in which the tin(IV) atoms appear in a distorted octahedral geometry with Cl atoms in cis and Ph groups in trans positions. The X-ray crystal structure of [{l_brace}n-Bu{sub 2}SnCl{sub 2}(pdtd){r_brace}{sub 2}] revealed discrete centrosymmetric dimeric species in which the tin(IV) atoms possess a distorted octahedral geometry with bridging disulfoxides in cis and n-butyl moieties in trans positions. The spectroscopic data indicated that the adduct containing the rac,cis-cbpse ligand can be dimeric or polymeric. The X-ray structural analysis of the free rac-,cis-cbpse sulfoxide revealed that the crystals belong to the C2/c space group. (author)

  16. Application of the buckling restrained brace in high-rise steel structure residences%屈曲约束支撑在高层钢结构住宅中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铭; 杨聪武; 曹志丹; 谭咏梅

    2013-01-01

    某高层钢结构住宅楼高48.6m,结构体系采用钢框架-支撑结构,主要抗侧力构件采用屈曲约束支撑.通过多种结构形式的对比分析阐述了框架-屈曲约束支撑结构体系地震作用效应小、塑性耗能能力优等结构特征.阐述了屈曲约束支撑设计控制内力的确定和支撑杆件与框架梁、柱连接节点设计等关键技术.通过多遇地震作用下结构整体计算分析、中震弹性分析和不考虑屈曲约束支撑作用的纯框架结构抗震验算,得出框架-屈曲约束支撑结构体系抗震性能优越、技术经济指标合理的结论.%A high-rise steel structure residence is 48. 6 meters high, structural system of the residence is the steel braced frame structure, and its main anti-lateral force components are buckling restrained braces. Through analysis of a variety of structural forms, structural features of the framework-buckling restrained brace structure system were elaborated, such as small seismic action effect and superior plastic energy dissipation capacity. Key technologies were introduced, including determination of design control internal force for the buckling restrained brace and design of connection nodes among the support rods, frame beams, and columns. Through the overall structure calculation under frequent earthquake, structural seismic elastic analysis under fortification intensity, and pure frame structure seismic calculation without regarding the effect of buckling restrained braces, it is concluded that seismic performance of the framework-buckling restrained brace structure is good and its technical and economic indicators are reasonable.

  17. 少钢支撑RC框架结构的概念%THE CONCEPTION OF RC FRAME STRUCTURES WITH A FEW STEEL BRACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨; 贺小岗; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2015-01-01

    震害表明,在钢筋混凝土(RC)框架结构中增设少量支撑,可以解决纯框架结构抗震防线单一、缺乏足够冗余度的问题,通过多重抗震防线,保护主体结构构件、减小建筑震害、增加结构的安全储备和防倒塌能力.我国现行规范对含有少量剪力墙的框架结构已经有了明确定义和相应的设计方法,而对于含有少量支撑的框架结构没有定义.该文以一个典型RC框架结构及三个带不同钢支撑的RC框架结构为例,基于弹性分析和弹塑性Pushover分析,借鉴少墙框架的定义方法,提出了以底层框架倾覆力矩分担率为控制指标的少钢支撑RC框架结构的定义,并通过基于IDA的结构抗倒塌易损性分析验证了少钢支撑RC框架结构相比纯框架结构的抗倒塌能力提高.%The seismic damage of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during earthquakes has indicated that the widely used RC frame structures are lack of sufficient redundancy under earthquake actions.The damage of RC columns in a RC frame leads to its serious damage even collapses during a strong earthquake.If few steel braces are installed,the RC frame will become multi-fortification with steel braces as its first yielding structure elements and RC frame structure elements will be protected and its damage will be delayed.As a result,its safety margin and collapse-resisting capacity will be improved.According to a RC frame structure with few shear walls,this paper proposed the new conception of a RC frame structure with few braces.A typical RC frame structure and 3 RC frame structures with different braces are studied to achieve the definition of a RC frame structure with few braces based on the overturning moment carried by a frame part.With few steel braces,the collapse-resistant capacities of a RC frame structure is proved through a collapse fragility analysis based on an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA).

  18. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The Lyon approach to the conservative treatment of scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecante Cyril

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lyon Brace, or adjustable multi-shell brace, has been used for more than 60 years. The use and function of the Lyon Brace includes: - The utilization of one or two corrective plaster casts, which enables a true lengthening of the concave ligaments. - An oriented CAD-CAM moulding in 3D auto correction after the removal of the plaster cast. - A blueprint adapted to Lenke's classification. - A specific physiotherapy program. Background Pierre Stagnara created the Lyon Brace in 1947. The brace has the following characteristics: - It adjusts to allow for a child's growth of up to seven centimetres and for an increase in weight of up to seven kilograms. - It is 'active' in that the rigidity of the PMM (polymetacrylate of methyl structure stimulates the user to auto-correct. The active axial auto-correction decreases the pressures of the brace on the trunk. - It is decompressive in that the effect of extension between the two pelvic and scapular girdles decreases the pressure on the intervertebral disc allowing for more effective pushes in the other planes. - It is symmetrical making it both more aesthetically pleasing and easier to build. - It is stable at both shoulders and pelvic girdle, facilitating the intermediate 3D corrections. - It is transparent. The pressure of the shells on the skin can be directly controlled so "pads" are usually not necessary. Brace description Two metal bars are fixed vertically, one anterior the other posterior and all shells are attached from the bottom to the top in this order: - Two pelvic shells ensure an optimal stability of the brace. - One lumbar shell T12-L4, which can be either independent or extending, at the abdominal chondrocostal level. - One thoracic shell at the level of the thoracic convexity. - One opposite thoracic shell used as a counter push. - One shoulder balance shell on the side of the thoracic convexity. Long term follow up results This is a retrospective study of 1,338 completed

  19. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {l_brace}ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Victor H. [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mattedi, Silvana [Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT, edif. CACTUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aznar, Martin [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Iglesias, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.iglesias@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, ETSE, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), P.O. Box 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. > The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. > The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {l_brace}2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol){r_brace} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  20. Chinese Adaptation of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire for Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Under Brace Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment.The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity.The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively.In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been successfully

  1. Isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Comparison of treatment by a functional brace and long-arm cast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Hölmich, P; Orsnes, T;

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, we randomly allocated 39 patients with isolated fractures of the lower two-thirds of the ulnar shaft to treatment either by a prefabricated functional brace or a long-arm cast. Significantly better wrist function and a higher percentage of satisfied patients were found in ...

  2. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

  3. Damping of Offshore Wind Turbine Tower Vibrations by a Stroke Amplifying Brace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    The potential of installing dampers inside the tower of an offshore wind turbine is investigated through simulations. Dampers are installed at the bottom to act on the curvature of the tower, and it is shown that dampers installed in suitable braces have the potential to increase the critical...

  4. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  5. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Wouters, Y.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support

  6. Effects of prophylactic knee bracing on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during netball specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan K; Vincent, Hayley; Richards, Jim D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a prophylactic knee brace on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during netball specific movements. Repeated measures. Laboratory. Twenty university first team level female netball players. Participants performed three movements, run, cut and vertical jump under two conditions (brace and no-brace). 3-D knee joint kinetics and kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. Knee joint kinetics and kinematics were examined using 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA whilst the subjective ratings of comfort and stability were investigated using chi-squared tests. The results showed no differences (p > 0.05) in knee joint kinetics. However the internal/external rotation range of motion was significantly (p knee brace improved knee stability in all movements. Further study is required to determine whether reductions in transverse plane knee range of motion serve to attenuate the risk from injury in netballers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the effect of semi-rigid ankle bracing on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without bracing (right anterior posterior index (RAPI) 2.8 (standard deviation (SD) 0.9); right ... injuries during the return of previously injured hockey players into ... risk of high ankle sprains at the distal tibofibular joint, as well as fractures.

  8. Flexibility Predicts Curve Progression in Providence Nighttime Bracing of Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To determine treatment outcome with providence brace (PB) and to assess the ability of pretreatment supine lateral bending radiographs (SLBR) in predicting curve progression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Results from treatment with the PB for ad...

  9. Lateral Bearing Capacity of Single Connectors in Parallel Loaded Battens used for Truss Bracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    In order to analyse the stiffness and the strength of joints used for battens in bracing of trusses 70 tests have been made. The joint was made by a single nail or screw located perpendicular to or at an angle to the grain direction. The single fastener joints did not fulfil the requirements for ...

  10. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Samdani, Amer F.; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Gaughan, John P.; Antonacci, M. Darryl; Betz, Randal R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Methods. 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25–44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25–34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success. PMID:26618169

  11. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  12. Low back pain sufferers: is standing postural balance facilitated by a lordotic lumbar brace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, F; Salmochi, J-F; Faouën, P; Rougier, P

    2010-06-01

    The use of a lumbar lordosis orthotic device in the treatment of discogenic low back pain could be a valuable option and rehabilitation tool. The lumbar lordosis brace has been designed to meet these requirements and acts as a reminder to the patient to maintain a physiological lumbar lordosis curvature since it comprises a vertical panel on the chest and a curved rigid shell at the back. This lumbar lordosis brace exerts the necessary degree of compression in the lumbar region and achieves correction of the sagittal plane spine balance to improve postural control of the lumbar spine. Quantitative analysis of the centre of pressure (CoP) deviations, which are necessary to maintain the standing posture helps evaluate the impact of such device on postural balance. Eleven patients suffering from lumbar pain with discopathy (seven females and four males) had to stand on a force platform with their eyes closed under two basic conditions (fitted or not with a lumbar lordosis brace). On the antero-posterior axis, the lordosis brace achieved a 6mm CP deviation from its mean position and a 51% reduction in the mean displacement prior to the initiation of the postural control mechanisms. The forces applied by the lumbar lordosis brace (through compression and/or change in the spinal sagittal balance) seem to improve the quality of the patient's balance strategy. Posturography appears as a valuable tool for in situ investigation of the postural benefits achieved when using a thoracolumbosacral orthosis in patients suffering from lumbar pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE LEVEL IV: . Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment. Methods An original classification system ("Rigo Classification" was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern, (II true double (or four curve pattern, (III balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4, (IV single lumbar and (V single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types. Results The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70. The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70. Conclusions A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.

  14. Radiological evaluation of treatment with SpineCor brace in children with idiopathic spinal scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewka, Barbara; Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Witoński, Dariusz; Kołodziejczyk-Klimek, Katarzyna; Plewka, Michał

    2013-06-28

    INTRODUCTION. This paper reports on a radiological evaluation of the outcomes of treatment with the SpineCor brace in children with idiopathic spinal scoliosis vs. a control group who had only received 24 months of rehabilitation. The compliance of the SpineCor-treated patients with medical instructions was also assessed. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A prospective evaluation encompassed a group of forty (40) children, treated with a SpineCor brace for idiopathic scoliosis. A control group included forty (40) children who were followed up. The mean age of the children was 12.0 years and sixty-six (66) of the patients were girls. The study group and the control group were comparable in terms of demographic data and radiological parameters of scoliosis. The mean scoliosis angle was 25.3˚ and 26.1˚ in the thoracic and lumbar spine, respectively. RESULTS. In the (SpineCor-treated) study group, stabilisation or improvement of the scoliosis was obtained in 31 (78%) patients, while progression was noted in 9 (22%). In the control group, stabilisation was found in 21 (53%) patients and progression in 19 (47%), while none of the children met improvement criteria. In the brace-treated group, a smaller change in the thoracic curvature angle was observed (R=0.34, p=0.0001) than in the control group, while no such difference was identified at the lumbar spine level (R=0.15, p=0.18). Out of the 40 treated children, 38 used the brace regularly. Four of the children were active in sports above recreation level. CONCLUSIONS. The treatment of idiopathic spinal scoliosis in children by means of the SpineCor dynamic brace solution significantly more frequently led to stabilisation or correction of scoliosis as measured by Cobb's angle. A high compliance of the children and their parents was also observed.

  15. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with effective braces: early response to trunk asymmetry may avoid curvature progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, J; Dingeldey, E; Wagner, F; Rezai, G; Nahr, K

    2014-07-01

    Vertical posture of the growing child requires minute central nervous control mechanisms in order to maintain symmetry of the torso in its various activities. Scoliosis describes a constant deviation in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes from the dynamic symmetry of the trunk. Early intervention with effective bracing, physiotherapy and sports can reverse curve progression during growth spurts, once these are identified in screening. Modern braces have a derotating and reducing effect (mirror effect) on asymmetric body volumes, thus influencing the growing torso and restoring lasting symmetry. Recent data support the use of braces to reverse progressing scoliosis.

  16. Correction effects of the ScoliOlogiC® „Chêneau light" brace in patients with scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Carola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different bracing concepts are used today for the treatment of scoliosis. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design systems are on the market which allow brace adjustments without plaster. The latest development however, is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the orthopaedic technician to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This „Chêneau light" brace, developed according to the Chêneau principle, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. However, material reduction should not result in reduced effectiveness. Therefore the primary correction effect in the „Chêneau light" brace has been evaluated and compared with that of other braces used today. Methods The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS [n = 15], treated according to the principle of the „Chêneau light" brace were evaluated after an average treatment time of 6 weeks by a full-body X-ray made in the standing position whilst wearing the brace and compared with the last X-ray before bracing. The average curvature angle of the whole group was 35,6°, the average age was 12,9 years (SD 1,9, average Risser sign was 1,3 (SD 1,5, average Tanner rating 2,75 (SD 0,7. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17,4; p Conclusion The use of the „Chêneau light" brace leads to correction effects above average when compared to the correction effects of other braces described in literature. The reduction of material seems to affect the desired correction in a positive way.

  17. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  18. Structures of dissociated <1 1-bar 0 0> dislocations and {l_brace}1 1-bar 0 0{r_brace} stacking faults of alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, E. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [PRESTO, JST, 4-1-8, Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0021 (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Department of Intelligent Materials Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, T. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Ikuhara, Y., E-mail: ikuhara@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)] [WPI-AIMR Research Center, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    An alumina ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) bicrystal with a {l_brace}1 1-bar 0 0{r_brace}/<1 1 2-bar 0> 2{sup o} low-angle grain boundary was fabricated by diffusion bonding, and the grain boundary was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that 1/3<1 1-bar 0 0> partial-dislocation triplets were periodically arrayed along the boundary. The atomic structure within the {l_brace}1 1-bar 0 0{r_brace} stacking faults in between the partial-dislocation triplets was determined by HRTEM combined with first-principles calculations. We discuss the stacking fault structures and their excess energies in detail.

  19. An intrinsic effect of hydrogen on cyclic slip deformation around a {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} fatigue crack in Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y., E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Noguchi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gaseous hydrogen on cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip introduced along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane in a Fe-3.2 wt.% Si alloy is precisely investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and fractography. The results clearly suggest that the fatigue crack growth rate is promoted by hydrogen, whereas the number of dislocations emitted per load cycle is reduced. In addition, dislocation distribution is localized around the crack, causing quasi-brittle crack morphology. A sustained load test confirms that no subcritical crack growth caused by cleavage or micro-void coalescence exists along the {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} plane, which indicates that the observed increase in the fatigue crack growth rate is correlated solely to the intrinsic effect of hydrogen on the cyclic slip-off process around the crack tip.

  20. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Steel Braces Frames and Buckling Restrained Braces Frames in Tall Buildings%高层钢结构支撑方案抗震性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强国平

    2012-01-01

    高层钢结构中框架—支撑结构是一种常用的结构形式,文中介绍了支撑结构体系的发展情况.以某实际工程为例,说明了普通钢支撑和屈曲约束支撑两种不同支撑对结构弹性性能的影响,通过静力弹塑性推覆分析对比研究了两种方案的弹塑性性能,并对屈曲约束支撑采用偏心布置形式对框架梁的影响进行了探讨.%Braced steel frame is a normal structural system in high-rise steel buildings. The development of the braced steel frame is introduced. Based on a practical project, the influences of steel braces and bucking restrained braces on the elastic and elasto-plastic behavior are analyzed. By pushover analysis, the seismic behaviors of two frames are studied. And the buckling restrained braces used in eccentrically braces steel frames are analyzed.

  2. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves. Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1,180°.s(-1 were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05. Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been

  3. A knee brace alters patella position in patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a study using weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; Guney, H; Reeves, N D; Bailey, D; Doslikova, K; Maganaris, C N; Hodgson, R; Felson, D T

    2016-12-01

    To assess using weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs), whether a patellar brace altered patellar position and alignment in patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects age 40-70 years old with symptomatic and a radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) evidence of PFJOA. Weight bearing knee MRIs with and without a patellar brace were obtained using an upright open 0.25 T scanner (G-Scan, Easote Biomedica, Italy). Five aspects of patellar position were measured: mediolateral alignment by the bisect offset index, angulation by patellar tilt, patellar height by patellar height ratio (patellar length/patellar tendon length), lateral patellofemoral (PF) contact area and finally a measurement of PF bony separation of the lateral patellar facet and the adjacent surface on the femoral trochlea (Fig. 1). Thirty participants were recruited (mean age 57 SD 27.8; body mass index (BMI) 27.8 SD 4.2); 17 were females. Four patients had non-usable data. Main analysis used paired t tests comparing within subject patellar position with and without brace. For bisect offset index, patellar tilt and patellar height ratio there were no significant differences between the brace and no brace conditions. However, the brace increased lateral facet contact area (P = .04) and decreased lateral PF separation (P = .03). A patellar brace alters patellar position and increases contact area between the patella and femoral trochlea. These changes would lower contact stress at the PFJ. Such changes in patella position in weight bearing provide a possible biomechanical explanation for the success of the PFJ brace in clinical trials on PFJOA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Two Cases of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Dental Braces Fitted Prior to the Onset of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment typically occurs during early childhood and adolescence but the wearing of dental braces is often associated with sudden changes in eating patterns that prolong treatment into the teenage years. Despite these changes, psychological assessments related to eating disorders during the course of orthodontic treatment are often ignored. Based on the findings of the present case report, it is suggested that adolescent patients who wear braces and exhibit severe weight loss should be carefully monitored for psychiatric problems, including eating disorders.

  5. Application of different measures of skeletal maturity in initiating weaning from a brace for scoliosis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivett LouAnn

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Various measures of skeletal maturity are used to initiate weaning from a brace in patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis, resulting in different outcomes. We present two cases with double major curves, treated with the Rigo System Cheneau brace, and weaned using different criteria. Case presentation Case 1 was a South African, Caucasian girl who was initially treated with a brace at 14.75 years and who began weaning at 16.25 years on the basis of the Greulich and Pyle Index. She was out of her brace in 6 months, at least 11 months before reaching skeletal maturity as shown by the Risser Sign. Case 2 was a South African, Caucasian girl, initially treated with a brace at 14.25 years and who began the weaning process at 17.67 years on the basis of skeletal maturity according to the Risser Sign and static height for a period of 6 months. She was out of the brace 12 months later. In Case 1, the thoracic Cobb angle progressed during weaning and scoliometer readings deteriorated. The iliac apophysis fused 11 months after the wrist. In Case 2, the therapeutic gains made during the period of bracing were maintained during weaning, that is the improvement in the lumbar Cobb angle was maintained until the brace was removed, and scoliometer readings improved. The iliac apophysis fused 8.5 months after the wrist. Conclusions In patients with idiopathic scoliosis, it would seem to be more appropriate to base the timing of weaning on the Risser Sign and static height measurements rather than on traditional methods such as the Greulich and Pyle Index.

  6. CALCULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF RESULTS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL ACTION OF RATIONED BY THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 62305-1-2010 IMPULSE CURRENT OF SHORT BLOW OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING ON THE THIN-WALLED COVERAGE FROM STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of the pre-production thin-walled sheet models of outward roof of height technical buildings from stainless steel are easily soiled 12Х18Н10Т to direct action on them rationed by the International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010 aperiodic impulse of current of short bow of artificial lightning of temporal form 10/350 μs with the proper admittances on his peak-temporal parameters (PTP. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high voltage and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of high-voltage impulsive devices and measuring methods in them LIC with followings below extreme PTP: amplitude of impulse of current of ImL=200 кА (with admittance ±10 %; integral of action of impulse of current of JL=10·106 A2·s (with admittance ±35 %; %; duration of wavefront current of T1=10 μs (with admittance ±20 %; time, proper amplitude of impulse of current of ImL, tmL≤24 μs (with admittance ±20 %; duration of flowing of impulse of current of T2=350 μs (with admittance ±10 %. Results. The results of evaluation calculation and experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of the indicated pre-production sheet models are resulted measuring in the plan of 0,5 x 0,5 m from stainless steel are easily soiled the 12Х18Н10Т thickness of 1 mm to action on them of aperiodic impulse of current of short blow of artificial lightning with rationed PTP on the requirements of the International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010. In high current experiments amplitude of ImL of the aperiodic rationed impulse of current of artificial lightning of temporal form of T1/T2=15 μs/315 μs changed in the range of (100-184 кА. The integral of action of JL of impulse of current for I-IV of levels of protection of lightning of technical objects (TO numeral made from 2,32·106 А2·s to 7,88·106 А2·s, and the flowing through the

  7. Thermophysical properties and phase equilibria study of the binary systems {l_brace}N-hexylquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + aromatic hydrocarbons, or an alcohol{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Thermodynamic Research Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, King George V Avenue, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Zawadzki, Maciej [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Zwolinska, Magdalena [Department of Ergonomics, Laboratory of Thermal Loads, Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: We synthesized new ionic liquid, [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] with low viscosity, and low density. We found high heat capacity, high enthalpy of melting and low melting temperature. HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] is proposed for possible use in the phase change materials (PCM). We examine phase equilibrium changes, SLE and LLE with hydrocarbons and alcohols. [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] may be proposed as entrainer for the separation proceses. - Abstract: The new quinolinium ionic liquid has been synthesised as a continuation of our work with quinolinium-based ionic liquids (ILs). The work includes specific basic characterisation of synthesized compounds: N-hexylquinolinium bromide, [HQuin][Br] and N-hexylquinolinium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl{r_brace}imide [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] by NMR spectra, elementary analysis and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] i.e. melting and glass-transition temperatures, the enthalpy of fusion as well as heat capacity have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC) and thermal analysis instrument (TA). Densities and viscosities were determined as a function of temperature. Phase equilibria for the binary systems: {l_brace}[HQuin][NTf{sub 2}]) + aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, or n-propylbenzene), or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol){r_brace} have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from (270 to 320) K. For all the binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility gap in the liquid phase beginning from (0.13 to 0.28) mole fraction of the IL with very high an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). For mixtures with alcohols, the complete miscibility was observed for 1-butanol and immiscibility with UCST in the liquid phase for the remaining alcohols. The typical

  8. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  9. The Study of Prophylactic Knee Braces Efficacy on Strain Reduction on the Medial Collateral Ligament in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yavarikia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The most frequent site of injury in football is the knee. In this study the value of prophylactic knee braces in reduction of MCL injuries was evaluated.Materials & Methods: In this prospective cohort study we evaluated 11480 athlete-exposure that lasted 30 minutes. After the explanation of study method to coaches and athlete we gave them two kind of study questionnaires. After data collection we analyzed data with SPSS 10.Results: In this study 149 injuries happened out of which. 28 were knee injuries (21 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.21 and 23 were knee ligamentous injuries (16 in unbraced athletes and 7 in braced athletes (P=0.662. There were 16 MCL injuries (11 in unbraced athletes and 5 in braced athletes. The relative risk in this study was 0.454. We evaluated the severity of ligamnetous injury and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.5.Conclusion: In conclusion in this study we found that the prophylactic knee braces had no positive effect in prevention of knee injuries. Some epidemiological studies with large samples and longer period should be designed to discover the real effect of these braces in knee injuries prevention.

  10. The effect of a dynamic PCL brace on patellofemoral compartment pressures in PCL-and PCL/PLC-deficient knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tyler; Keller, Thomas; Maldonado, Ruben; Metzger, Melodie; Mohr, Karen; Kvitne, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The natural history of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency includes the development of arthrosis in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the hypothesis that dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knees. Controlled Laboratory Study. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees with intact cruciate and collateral ligaments were included. PFJ pressures and force were measured using a pressure mapping system via a lateral arthrotomy at knee flexion angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL/PLC-deficient knees under a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Testing was then repeated in PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees after application of a dynamic PCL brace. Application of a dynamic PCL brace led to a reduction in peak PFJ pressures in PCL-deficient knees. In addition, the brace led to a significant reduction in peak pressures in PCL/PLC-deficient knees at 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Application of the dynamic brace also led to a reduction in total PFJ force across all flexion angles for both PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees. Dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/PLC-deficient knees, particularly at high degrees of knee flexion.

  11. [Clinical relevance of unloading in cartilage therapy of the knee--shoe insoles, knee braces or additional operative procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T M; Imhoff, A B; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2015-02-01

    Restoration of a neutral biomechanical environment and reduction of overload is an important factor contributing to the success of any cartilage repair procedure. Reduction of overload can by achieved by so called unloading procedures in order to reduce intraarticular pressure from the repair zone. Unloading can be achieved via loss of weight, wedged shoe insoles, knee braces or via operations such as osteotomies around the knee joint. The cartilage therapy and the concomitant unloading procedure should be adapted to the individual pathology and realistic aims of the patient. Wedged insoles and braces are the least invasive treatment methods. In comparison, however, beneficial effects of braces outline those of laterally wedged heels. Nevertheless long-term compliance with insoles and braces is poor. Concerning braces either because the positive effects of the braces are too small or because the adverse effects are too large. Unloading in the long run may only be achieved through operative procedures. When an osteotomy seems to be too invasive the arthroscopic release of the posterior oblique ligament might be an option. Patients with an intact contralateral chondral status, medium to slight malalignment who want to remain at high activity levels, remain good candidates for unloading osteotomies.

  12. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  13. Seismic design of steel structures with lead-extrusion dampers as knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    monir, Habib Saeed; Naser, Ali

    2008-07-01

    One of the effective methods in decreasing the seismic response of structure against dynamic loads due to earthquake is using energy dissipating systems. Lead-extrusion dampers (LED)are one of these systems that dissipate energy in to one lead sleeve because of steel rod movement. Hysteresis loops of these dampers are approximately rectangular and acts independent from velocity in frequencies that are in the seismic frequency rang. In this paper lead dampers are considered as knee brace in steel frames and are studied in an economical view. Considering that lead dampers don't clog structural panels, so this characteristic can solve brace problems from architectural view. The behavior of these dampers is compared with the other kind of dampers such as XADAS and TADAS. The results indicate that lead dampers act properly in absorbing the induced energy due to earthquake and good function in controlling seismic movements of multi-story structures

  14. Proposed Configurations for the Use of Smart Dampers with Bracings in Tall Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aly Sayed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wind-induced response reduction in a very slender building using smart dampers with proposed bracings-lever mechanism system. The building presents a case study of an engineered design that is instructive. The paper shows that shear response and flexural response of tall buildings present two very different cases for vibration suppression. Smart dampers are implemented optimally in the building to reduce its response in the lateral directions for both structural safety and occupant comfort concerns. New bracings-lever mechanism configurations are proposed for the dampers to improve their performance. The study shows how the proposed configurations can enable application to flexural response and scenarios where the interstory drift is not enough for dampers to work effectively. In addition, a decentralized bang-bang controller improved the performance of the smart dampers.

  15. Seismic Performance and Ice-Induced Vibration Control of Offshore Platform Structures Based on the ISO-PFD-SMA Brace System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pall-typed frictional damper (PFD has higher capacity of energy dissipation, whereas shape memory alloy (SMA has excellent superelastic performance. Therefore, combining PFD and SMA together as a brace system has a great prospect in vibration control of structures. This paper investigates the performance of offshore platform with three structural configurations including the SMA brace system, the ISO-SMA (where ISO stands for isolation brace system, and the ISO-PFD-SMA brace system, which are subjected to seismic and ice-induced excitations. In this study, PFD-SMA brace system is installed on the isolation layer of jacket platform, which is under earthquake excitations and ice loading. Then, the reduction of vibration is evaluated by using ANSYS program. The results show that the PFD-SMA brace system is useful in reducing the seismic response and ice-induced response of offshore platform structures; meanwhile, it also demonstrates excellent energy dissipation and hysteretic behavior.

  16. Effects of Bracing of High-Rise Buildings upon their Static and Dynamic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivánková Oľga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes effects of bracing of high-rise buildings upon their static and dynamic behaviour. In static and dynamic analyses, values of displacement for 4 different variants of stiffening elements distribution were calculated. The calculations were made for building both fixed into the ground and rested on elastic supports. The building was modelled as a 3D variant using Finite Element Method (FEM in program Scia Engineer.

  17. The effect of ankle bracing on landing biomechanics in female netballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Mackay, Anna Ruth; Whatman, Chris; Reid, Duncan; Lorimer, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigate the impact of lace-up ankle braces on landing biomechanics. Within-subject repeated measures. Participants completed a drop jump, drop land, and netball-specific task in braced and unbraced conditions. Biomechanical research laboratory. Twenty female high school netballers. Leg, knee, and ankle stiffness, knee/ankle stiffness ratio, knee and ankle sagittal excursion, peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate. In the brace condition leg stiffness increased bilaterally during the drop land (ES = 0.21, 0.22), ankle stiffness increased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = 0.37, 0.29) and drop land (ES = 0.40, 0.60), and knee/ankle stiffness ratio decreased in all three tasks (ES = -0.22 to -0.45). Ankle sagittal excursion decreased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = -0.35, -0.53) and drop land (ES = -0.23, -0.46), and decreased in the lead limb during the netball jump (ES = -0.36). Knee excursion decreased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = -0.36, -0.40) and in the lead limb during netball task (ES = -0.59). Lead limb TTP was greater during the netball jump (ES = 0.41). Lace-up ankle braces may increase leg and joint stiffness and reduce joint excursion during landing but do not appear to affect landing forces. The observed effect on landing biomechanics may predispose young netballers to injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  19. Orthopedic Management of Scoliosis by Garches Brace and Spinal Fusion in SMA Type 2 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteruccia, Michela; Vuillerot, Carole; Vaugier, Isabelle; Leclair, Danielle; Azzi, Viviane; Viollet, Louis; Estournet, Brigitte; Bertini, Enrico; Quijano-Roy, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is the most debilitating issue in SMA type 2 patients. No evidence confirms the efficacy of Garches braces (GB) to delay definitive spinal fusion. Objective: Compare orthopedic and pulmonary outcomes in children with SMA type 2 function to management. Method: We carried out a monocentric retrospective study on 29 SMA type 2 children who had spinal fusion between 1999 and 2009. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group 1-French patients (12 children) with a preventive use of GB; group 2-French patients (10 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve; and group 3-Italian patients (7 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve referred to our centre to perform orthopedic preoperative management. Results: Mean preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle were significantly lower in the group 1 of proactively braced than in group 2 or 3 (Anova p = 0.03; Kruskal Wallis test p = 0.05). Better surgical results were observed in patients with a minor preoperative Cobb angle (r = 0.92 p <  0.0001). Fewer patients in the group 1 proactively braced required trunk casts and/or halo traction and an additional anterior fusion in comparison with patients in the group 2 and 3. Moreover, major complications tend to be less in the group 1 proactively braced. No significant differences were found between groups in pulmonary outcome measures. Conclusions: A proactive orthotic management may improve orthopedic outcome in SMA type 2. Further prospective studies comparing SMA management are needed to confirm these results. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors on jbjs.org for a complete description of levels of evidence (Retrospective comparative study). PMID:27858747

  20. A Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum Improves Liver Function in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Antioxidant Action and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Tan, Le-He; Li, Chuan; Gong, De-Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-09

    The present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma atrum (PSG-1) on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats. Results showed that PSG-1 decreased the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while increasing hepatic glycogen levels. PSG-1 also exerted strong antioxidant activities, together with upregulated mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were significantly higher in the liver, serum, and faeces of diabetic rats after treating with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. These results suggest that the improvement of PSG-1 on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats may be due to its antioxidant effects, SCFA excretion in the colon from PSG-1, and regulation of hepatic glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation through PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  1. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  2. Developing an Accurate CFD Based Gust Model for the Truss Braced Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increased flexibility of long endurance aircraft having high aspect ratio wings necessitates attention to gust response and perhaps the incorporation of gust load alleviation. The design of civil transport aircraft with a strut or truss-braced high aspect ratio wing furthermore requires gust response analysis in the transonic cruise range. This requirement motivates the use of high fidelity nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for gust response analysis. This paper presents the development of a CFD based gust model for the truss braced wing aircraft. A sharp-edged gust provides the gust system identification. The result of the system identification is several thousand time steps of instantaneous pressure coefficients over the entire vehicle. This data is filtered and downsampled to provide the snapshot data set from which a reduced order model is developed. A stochastic singular value decomposition algorithm is used to obtain a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD model is combined with a convolution integral to predict the time varying pressure coefficient distribution due to a novel gust profile. Finally the unsteady surface pressure response of the truss braced wing vehicle to a one-minus-cosine gust, simulated using the reduced order model, is compared with the full CFD.

  3. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part I: Theoretical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    The insertion of steel braces equipped with dissipative devices proves to be very effective in order to enhance the performance of a framed building under horizontal seismic loads. Multi-level design criteria were proposed according to the Performance-Based Design, in order to get, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance objective of the building (e.g., an assigned damage level of either the framed structure or non-structural elements). In this paper a design procedure aiming to proportion braces with hysteretic dampers in order to attain, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance level of the building is proposed. Exactly, a proportional stiffness criterion, which assumes the elastic lateral storey-stiffness due to the braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame, is combined with the Direct Displacement-Based Design, in which the design starts from target deformations. A computer code has been prepared for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, using a step-by-step procedure. Frame members and hysteretic dampers are idealized by bilinear models.

  4. Clinical use of a neck brace to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Richard; Kooijman, Piet G C; Wouters, Yannick; Marres, Henri A M

    2012-06-01

    Time of adherence of adhesive baseplate housings to the neck of a laryngectomized patient is one of the main problems that account for the low number of laryngectomy patients who benefit from hands-free speech. An external neck brace (ENB 1.0) was introduced to support peristomal fixation of adhesive baseplates. A prospective randomized controlled clinical cross-over trial. A total of 28 laryngectomy patients participated in this randomized, prospective, crossover trial. All used the Provox hands-free heat and moisture exchanger (HME) valve for 1 month: 2 weeks with an ENB and 2 weeks without. The median lifetime of an adhesive baseplate without a brace was 52.5 minutes versus 210 minutes with a brace (P = .03). Four participants considered the ENB as "a little" bit of a welcome addition, nine as "quite a bit," and six as "very much" (79%) to improve hands-free speech. The ENB significantly increases the lifetime of an adhesive baseplate and therefore contributes to achieving hands-free speech for a greater number of patients with laryngectomy. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Study of static permittivity and density of the systems {l_brace}(n-nonane + monoglyme or diglyme){r_brace} at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, A. [Departamento de Tecnologia Electronica E.T.S. Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, M.A.; Legido, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Iglesias, T.P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: tpigles@uvigo.es

    2009-02-15

    Relative permittivity and density on mixing at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from (288.15 to 328.15) K have been measured over the whole composition range for {l_brace}CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2} O){sub m}CH{sub 3}m = 1, 2 (also called monoglyme and diglyme) + n-nonane{r_brace}. Excess permittivity and molar volume on mixing for the above systems have been calculated. The Redlich-Kister equation has been used to estimate the binary fitting parameters and standard deviations from the regression lines were calculated. The density and excess molar volume were fitted to a polynomial equation as a function of the mole fraction and temperature. The temperature dependences of derived magnitudes, (({partial_derivative}V{sub m}{sup E})/({partial_derivative}T) ){sub P,x} and (({partial_derivative}H{sub m}{sup E})/({partial_derivative}P) ){sub T,x}, were computed, due to its importance in the study of specific molecular interactions. Different mixing rules have been applied to predict the permittivity of these mixtures and the results indicate that the predictions are better when the volume change on mixing is incorporated in calculations. In order to determine the dipolar moment of the glymes using Debye's model at infinite dilution, their refraction index was measured. The values obtained agree with those in the literature for infinite dilution in hexane.

  6. Energy-resolved angular distributions and the population partition of excited state Rh atoms ejected from ion bombarded Rh [l brace]001[r brace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Postawa, Z.; El-Maazawi, M.; Rosencrance, S.; Garrison, B.J.; Winograd, N. (Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The energy-resolved angular distributions of Rh atoms ejected from Rh [l brace]001[r brace] by bombardment with 5.0 keV Ar[sup +] ions have been measured for the ground state ([ital a] [sup 4][ital F][sub 9/2]) and the two lowest lying excited state ([ital a] [sup 4][ital F][sub 7/2],[ital a] [sup 4][ital F][sub 5/2]). Simultaneous measurements on these electronic states provide us an opportunity to examine the influence of electronic interactions on desorbed particles. The experimental results show that there is a sequential variation in the angular distributions as the excitation energy increases. These variations are attributed to the interaction between the substrate electrons and the excited state atom as it is being ejected from the surface. Since the measurements are performed using multiphoton ionization via a single intermediate state, the population partition among the three lowest states is obtained as well. The excitation probabilities of the [ital a] [sup 4][ital F][sub 7/2] and [ital a] [sup 4][ital F][sub 5/2] states are compared with those predicted from the expression exp([minus][ital A]/[ital av][sub [perpendicular

  7. 1,2-Bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane: synthesis and x-ray crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.; Turner, E.; Jenkins, H. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca

    2004-03-01

    3-Aminopyridine is diazotized in the conventional manner and the diazonium salt coupled with N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine to afford the title compound (1), which is a potential antitumour agent. The compound has been characterized by spectroscopic methods. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum shows evidence of rotational conformerism, from the observation of broadening of the N-methyl signals in the room-temperature spectrum. Low-temperature NMR spectra (down to 223 K) show the presence of three distinct rotamers. The crystal structure of 1,2-bis-(1-{l_brace}3-pyridyl-{r_brace}3-methyltriazen-3-yl)ethane (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The bis-triazene (1) exists as the 'staggered' conformation in the solid state, with an 'anti-anti' configuration around the N-N bond of the triazene units. The crystal structure of 1 is compared with the closely related bis-triazene 2 and also compared with the simple mono-triazene 3. Crystal data for 1, C{sub 14}H{sub 18}N{sub 8}: orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a=11.2550(8) ANGSTROM, b=8.8507(6) ANGSTROM, c=15.0069(10) ANGSTROM, {beta}=90{sup o} and V=1494.91(18) ANGSTROM{sup 3}, for Z=4. (author)

  8. Schottky-barrier heights of metal/alpha-SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} interfaces by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka 5638577 (Japan); Tamura, Tomoyuki; Ishibashi, Shoji [Research Institute for Computational Sciences, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058568 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Atomic and electronic structures and Schottky barrier heights (SBH) of multi-layer metal (=Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Pt and Au)/6H-SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} interfaces have been calculated by the projector augmented wave (PAW) method. The p-type SBHs of the C-terminated interfaces are smaller than those of the Si-terminated ones due to the different interface dipoles. About the dependence on the metal species, the SBHs of the Si-terminated interfaces range within a relatively narrow energy region because of more metallic characters, although those of the C-terminated ones show clearer dependence, where the SBHs decrease for the increment of metal electronegativity or work function. This inverse proportion is different from the results of monolayer metal/SiC interfaces, while consistent with experiments. All the results can be explained by the viewpoint of the interface dipole and the intrinsic relation of the band structures. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called ;cable-cross-tie systems; forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the ;Equivalent Linearization Method;. A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, ;mode by mode;. It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  10. Results of Milwaukee and Boston Braces with or without Metal Marker Around Pads in Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Ganjavian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBracing is the non-operative treatment of choice for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS and careful application of pads on apical segment of curve is very important for correction. Control of pads` appropriate site in brace is not easy by clinical evaluation. Therefore, we decided to compare results of braces which for better control of pads by radiographs, metal marker inserted around pads with those without metal marker. We evaluated 215 consecutive cases (182 female, 33 male of AIS with 342 major curves from 1993 to 2003. Mean initial age was,13.2 ± 1.8 years (9-16 and mean duration of follow-up was, 16.1±16.4 months (0-114 that treated by 4 type of brace; 89 with type 1(Milwaukee with metal pads, 87 with type 2 (Milwaukee with simple pads, 17 with type 3 (Boston with metal pads and 22 with type 4(Boston with simple pads. Cobb angle recorded at 5 stages (initial, best, wean, stop and final follow-up. Mean initial Cobb was 36.2 ̊, at stop stage, 35.2̊ and reached 38̊ at final follow-up. Overall, 21.3% improved, 42.2% were the same and 36.5% failed. Failure for braces type 1 to 4 were, 40.5%, 34%, 38% and 24% at final follow-up. A total of 59 patients (27.4% underwent spinal fusion that for brace type 1 to 4 , was, 33, 21, 2 and 3 patients respectively. From 16 cases with initial Cobb of 50̊, at follow-up, 12 were ≥50̊ or had spinal fusion. Correction of lumbar (P=0.008 and main thoracic curves (P=0.002 was better by Boston than Milwaukee, however, In general difference between 4 types of braces was not significant and metal marker had no significant effect on results. Two important predictors of brace failure were, initial curve magnitude and brace type, but using metal marker around pads had no effect in results. It seems that bracing did not alter the natural history of scoliosis in early Risser stages with large magnitude of initial curves. Insertion of metal marker around pads is easy and cheap way that facilitate control of

  11. Ankle Bracing, Fatigue, and Time to Stabilization in Collegiate Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Megan Y; Gribble, Phillip A; Frye, Jamie L

    2008-01-01

    Context: Fatigue has been shown to disrupt dynamic stability in healthy volunteers. It is not known if wearing prophylactic ankle supports can improve dynamic stability in fatigued athletes. Objective: To determine the type of ankle brace that may be more effective at providing dynamic stability after a jump-landing task during normal and fatigued conditions. Design: Two separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with 2 within-subjects factors (condition and time) were performed for each dependent variable. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy female collegiate volleyball athletes participated (age  =  19.5 ± 1.27 years, height  =  179.07 ± 7.6 cm, mass  =  69.86 ± 5.42 kg). Intervention(s): Athletes participated in 3 separate testing sessions, applying a different bracing condition at each session: no brace (NB), Swede-O Universal lace-up ankle brace (AB), and Active Ankle brace (AA). Three trials of a jump-landing task were performed under each condition before and after induced functional fatigue. The jump-landing task consisted of a single-leg landing onto a force plate from a height equivalent to 50% of each participant's maximal jump height and from a starting position 70 cm from the center of the force plate. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time to stabilization in the anterior-posterior (APTTS) and medial-lateral (MLTTS) directions. Results: For APTTS, a condition-by-time interaction existed (F2,18  =  5.55, P  =  .013). For the AA condition, Tukey post hoc testing revealed faster pretest (2.734 ± 0.331 seconds) APTTS than posttest (3.817 ± 0.263 seconds). Post hoc testing also revealed that the AB condition provided faster APTTS (2.492 ± 0.271 seconds) than AA (3.817 ± 0.263 seconds) and NB (3.341 ± 0.339 seconds) conditions during posttesting. No statistically significant findings were associated with MLTTS. Conclusions: Fatigue increased APTTS for the AA condition. Because the

  12. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injured patients. Patients and Methods For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down and concentric (up phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL

  13. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s-2) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key points This study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  14. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Blake M.; Song, Junho; Fahnestock, Larry A.

    2009-09-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  15. Assessment of buckling-restrained braced frame reliability using an experimental limit-state model and stochastic dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blake M. Andrews; Junho Song; Larry A. Fahnestock

    2009-01-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) have recently become popular in the United :States for use as primary members of seismic lateral-force-resisting systems. A BRB is a steel brace that does not buckle in compression but instead yields in both tension and compression. Although design guidelines for BRB applications have been developed, systematic procedures for assessing performance and quantifying reliability are still needed. This paper presents an analytical framework for assessing buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) reliability when subjected to seismic loads. This framework efficiently quantifies the risk of BRB failure due to low-cycle fatigue fracture of the BRB core. The procedure includes a series of components that: (1) quantify BRB demand in terms of BRB core deformation histories generated through stochastic dynamic analyses; (2) quantify the limit-state of a BRB in terms of its remaining cumulative plastic ductility capacity based on an experimental database; and (3) evaluate the probability of BRB failure, given the quantified demand and capacity, through structural reliability analyses. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the seismic load, and characteristics of the BRB and BRBF on the probability of brace failure. In addition, fragility curves (i.e., conditional probabilities of brace failure given ground shaking intensity parameters) were created by the proposed framework. While the framework presented in this paper is applied to the assessment of BRBFs, the modular nature of the framework components allows for application to other structural components and systems.

  16. Effectiveness of Chêneau brace treatment for idiopathic scoliosis: prospective study in 79 patients followed to skeletal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progressive idiopathic scoliosis can negatively influence the development and functioning of 2-3% of adolescents, with health consequences and economic costs, placing the disease in the centre of interest of the developmental medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chêneau brace in the management of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods A prospective observational study according to SOSORT and SRS recommendations comprised 79 patients (58 girls and 21 boys with progressive idiopathic scoliosis, treated with Chêneau brace and physiotherapy, with initial Cobb angle between 20 and 45 degrees, no previous brace treatment, Risser 4 or more at the final evaluation and minimum one year follow-up after weaning the brace. Achieving 50° of Cobb angle was considered surgical recommendation. Results At follow-up 20 patients (25.3% improved, 18 patients (22.8% were stable, 31 patients (39.2% progressed below 50 degrees and 10 patients (12.7% progressed beyond 50 degrees (2 of these 10 patients progressed beyond 60 degrees. Progression concerned the younger and less skeletally mature patients. Conclusion Conservative treatment with Chêneau orthosis and physiotherapy was effective in halting scoliosis progression in 48.1% of patients. The results of this study suggest that bracing is effective in reducing the incidence of surgery in comparison with natural history.

  17. Quantification of functional brace forces for posterior cruciate ligament injuries on the knee joint: an in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Smith, Sean D; Wilson, Katharine J; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2015-10-01

    Counteracting posterior translation of the tibia with an anterior force on the posterior proximal tibia has been demonstrated clinically to improve posterior knee laxity following posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. This study quantified forces applied to the posterior proximal tibia by two knee braces designed for treatment of PCL injuries. The forces applied by two knee braces to the posterior proximal tibia and in vivo three-dimensional knee kinematics of six adult, male, healthy volunteer subjects (mean ± standard deviation: height, 182.5 ± 5.2 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 9.3 kg; body mass index, 24.9 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); age, 25.8 ± 2.9 years) were measured using a custom pressure mapping technique and traditional surface marker motion capture techniques, while subjects performed three functional activities. The activities included seated unloaded knee flexion, squatting, and stair descent in a new generation dynamic force (DF) PCL brace and a static force (SF) PCL brace. During unloaded flexion at the lowest force level setting, the force applied by the DF brace increased as a function of flexion angle (slope = 0.7 N/°; p knee laxity following PCL injury. II.

  18. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  19. Morphology and intermolecular dynamics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl{r_brace}amide ionic liquids: structural and dynamic evidence of nanoscale segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici-CNR, Salita Sperone, Contrada Papardo, 98158 Faro Superiore, Messina (Italy); Gontrani, Lorenzo; Caminiti, Ruggero [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Piazzale A Moro, 00185 Roma (Italy); Xiao Dong; Hines, Larry G Jr; Bartsch, Richard A; Quitevis, Edward L [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Plechkova, Natalia; Seddon, Kenneth R, E-mail: triolo@me.cnr.i, E-mail: edward.quitevis@ttu.ed [QUILL Centre, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-21

    Here we report on the structural and dynamical properties of a series of room temperature ionic liquids, namely 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl{r_brace}amide ([C{sub n}mim][NTf{sub 2}]), with varying alkyl chain lengths (1<=n<=10) at ambient temperature, where all the salts are stable liquids. Using small-wide angle x-ray scattering (SWAXS), three major diffraction peaks are found: two high- Q peaks that show little dependence on the alkyl chain length (n) and a low-Q peak that strongly depends both in amplitude and position on n. This low-Q peak is the signature of the occurrence of nanoscale structural heterogeneities whose sizes depend on the length of the alkyl chain and are related to chain segregation into nano-domains. Using optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy, we access intermolecular dynamic features that suggest that chain aggregation only occurs for n>=3, in agreement with the SWAXS data. Moreover, the increase in the frequency and width of the main band of the optical Kerr effect spectra in going from n = 2 to 3 is consistent with stiffening of the intermolecular potential due to chain segregation. Multicomponent line shape analysis suggests that there are least three modes that underlie the main band in the 0-200 cm{sup -1} region of the optical Kerr effect spectra of these ionic liquids. Given the similarity of ionic liquids to other complex fluid systems, we assign the low-frequency component to a fast beta-relaxation mode and the intermediate- and high-frequency components to librational modes.

  20. Thermophysical properties of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool + propan-1-ol{r_brace}: A first stage towards the development of a green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abarrio, Sandra M.; Torcal, Marcos; Haya, M. Luisa; Urieta, Jose S. [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Mainar, Ana M., E-mail: ammainar@unizar.e [Group of Applied Thermodynamics and Surfaces (GATHERS), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Optimization of supercritical processes needs adequate methods to reproduce the phase behavior. {rho}, u, n{sub D} and related properties of the system linalool+propan-1-ol were studied. Collision Factor (u), Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone -Dale (n{sub D}) give the best results. Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT and PC-SAFT were tested as predictive P{rho}T models. PC-SAFT provides the best P{rho}T prediction (20-40 MPa) with an AAD% of 0.83. - Abstract: In this paper, densities, speeds of sound and refractive indexes of binary mixture of {l_brace}({+-})-linalool (1) + propan-1-ol (2){r_brace} at four temperatures (283.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and 0.1 MPa are reported over the whole composition range. These data were used to calculate excess molar volume, speed of sound deviation, excess isentropic compressibility, refractive index deviation, molar refraction, and molar refraction deviation at the four work temperatures. All magnitudes were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Subsequently prediction of speed of sound and refractive index was carried out using several theoretical models or equations. On the other hand, the density of the same mixture was determined in the same temperature range at pressures from 20 MPa to 40 MPa. Four equation of state (Peng-Robinson, Patel-Teja, SAFT, PC-SAFT) were tested as predictive models of the P{rho}T behavior. The best results were obtained by PC-SAFT, with an average absolute deviation of 0.83%.

  1. Effects of soft bracing or taping on a lateral ankle sprain : a non-randomised controlled trial evaluating recurrence rates and residual symptoms at one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, Ingrid; Schmikli, Sandor; Huisstede, Bionka; Hoes, Arno; Backx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: After sustaining an ankle sprain, taping is often the standard treatment in primary care. Ankle braces are sometimes used as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the effects of four weeks of soft bracing or taping following acute lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (ALALS) on sprain

  2. Clinical effect of continuous corrective force delivery in the non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis : a prospective cohort study of the triaC-brace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulthuis, Gerben J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Nijenbanning, Gert

    2008-01-01

    A prospective cohort study of skeletally immature idiopathic scoliotic patients treated with the TriaC brace. To determine if the TriaC brace is effective in preventing curve progression in immature adolescent idiopathic scoliotic patients with a very high risk of curve progression based on reported

  3. Comparison of the Aseismic Behaviors of R.C. Frame with Bracings and the Shear Wall with Hidden Bracings%钢筋混凝土带支撑框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 董宏英; 刘春燕; 张建伟; 施一雷

    2001-01-01

    比较了钢筋混凝土带支撑框架与带暗支撑剪力墙的抗震性能,给出了它们抗震承载力的计算公式,提出了供抗震设计参考的建议.%The aseismic behaviors of R.C. frame with bracings and the shearwall with hidden bracings are made in comparison, and the formula used to calculate their aseismatic capacity are given.Some proposal is put forward foe reference to their aseismic design.

  4. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  5. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  6. Functional bracing for comminuted extra-articular fractures of the distal third of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, A; Horowitch, A; Aboulafia, A; Vangsness, C T

    1990-03-01

    From 1982 to 1987 we treated 85 extra-articular comminuted distal third humeral fractures in adults with prefabricated plastic braces. Of these, 15% were open fractures and 18% had initial peripheral nerve injury. On average, the sleeve was applied 12 days after injury and used for 10 weeks. There was 96% union, with no infections. All nerve injuries resolved or were improving at the latest examination. At union there was varus deformity averaging 9 degrees in 81% of patients, but loss of range of movement was minimal and functional results were good.

  7. Nail Braces as an Alternative Treatment for Ingrown Toenails: Results From a Comparison With the Winograd Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Olcay; Tuna, Hamide; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Erdil, Mehmet; Mutlu, Serhat; Isyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders and can be treated with conservative or surgical approaches. Although discovered a long time ago, the available data are still very limited on the potential effectiveness of nail braces for ingrown toenail treatment. In the present retrospective study, we compared nail braces with surgical wedge excision using the Winograd technique with respect to the time to return to work, recurrence, interval to recurrence, and patient satisfaction. A total of 159 patients were divided into the nail brace (n = 74; mean age 29.51 ± 8.48 years) and Winograd technique (n = 85; mean age 26.95 ± 8.06 years) groups. In the nail brace group, the mean time to return to work (4.15 ± 1.07 days) was significantly shorter than that in the Winograd technique group (13.8 ± 2.26 days; p .05). A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean interval to recurrence (12.46 ± 1.60 versus 13.24 ± 2.48 months, respectively; p = .031). The progression-free follow-up periods for the nail brace and Winograd technique groups were 15.45 ± 0.22 months (95% confidence interval 15.02 to 15.88) and 17.18 ± 0.29 months (95% confidence interval 16.61 to 17.84), respectively. We have concluded that the use of nail braces is an appropriate alternative treatment of ingrown toenails with high patient satisfaction, fast recovery times, and a low recurrence rate.

  8. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaina Fabio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS has traditionally been divided into two phases–correction and stabilisation–and casts, even if less used today, can be considered the best standard in the correction phase. Till the present, however, no comparison between cast and brace efficacy has been proposed. Methods This is a prospective cohort study with a retrospective control group. The aim was to verify if it is possible to obtain with a specifically developed rigid brace results comparable to a cast. We considered fifty AIS patients who had refused surgery, aged 14.1 ± 1.5 years, with 46.7 ± 7.8° Cobb scoliosis. Thirty-two consecutive patients (with no drop-outs were prospectively followed up with the Sforzesco brace (SBG, and compared against a retrospective group of eighteen patients treated with the Risser cast (RCG. The treatment time (the total correction phase was 19 ± 3 months. Out-of-brace x-rays were compared, as well as clinical results. Results Compliance and hours of treatment were higher in the RCG while all the other parameters were not different. We observed a reduction of 6° Cobb and an important aesthetic gain in both groups (P Conclusion In the corrective phase of AIS treatment it is possible with a specific rigid brace (Sforzesco – SPoRT concept to obtain scoliosis correction similar to cast. Due to the human and social costs of casting, and worst sagittal profile results, Sforzesco brace should be the preferred method wherever possible.

  9. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  10. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (pkinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  11. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper W; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-08-01

    Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. 384 athletes, aged 18-70, who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain, were included (training group n=120; brace group n=126; combi group n=138). The training group received an 8-week home-based neuromuscular training programme, the brace group received a semirigid ankle brace to be worn during all sports activities for 12 months, and the combi group received both the training programme, as well as the ankle brace, to be worn during all sports activities for 8 weeks. The main outcome measure was self-reported recurrence of the ankle sprain. During the 1-year follow-up, 69 participants (20%) reported a recurrent ankle sprain: 29 (27%) in the training group, 17 (15%) in the brace group and 23 (19%) in the combi group. The relative risk for a recurrent ankle sprain in the brace group versus the training group was 0.53 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.97). No significant differences were found for time losses or costs due to ankle sprains between the intervention groups. Bracing was superior to neuromuscular training in reducing the incidence but not the severity of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains after usual care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Gait of stance control orthosis users: the dynamic knee brace system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Steven E; Bernhardt, Kathie A; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-12-01

    Individuals with weak or absent quadriceps who wish to walk independently are prescribed knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs). New stance control orthosis (SCO) designs automatically release the knee to allow swing phase flexion and extension while still locking the joint during stance. Twenty-one participants were fitted unilaterally with the Dynamic Knee Brace System (DKBS), a non-commercial SCO. Thirteen subjects were experienced KAFO users (average 28 +/- 18 years of experience) while eight were novice users. Novice users demonstrated increased velocity (55 vs. 71 cm/sec, p = 0.048) and cadence (77 vs. 85 steps/min, p KAFO. Experienced KAFO users tended to have reduced velocity and cadence measures when using the SCO (p KAFO users undoubtedly had ingrained gait patterns designed to compensate for walking with a standard locked KAFO. These patterns may have limited the ability of those users from taking full and immediate advantage of the SCO capabilities. Also, alternate SCO systems may engender different results. Comparison studies and longer term field studies are needed to clarify benefits of the various bracing options.

  13. Experimental study on the seismic response of braced reinforced concrete frame with irregular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianzhuang; Li, Jie; Chen, Jun

    2011-12-01

    A 15-storey K-braced reinforced concrete model frame with irregular columns, i.e., T-shaped, L-shaped, as well as +-shaped columns, was constructed and tested on the six-degree-of-freedom shaking table at the State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering in Tongji, China. Two types of earthquake records, El-Centro wave (south-north direction) and Shanghai artifi cial wave (SHAW) with various peak accelerations and principal-secondary sequences, were input and experimentally studied. Based on the shaking table tests and theoretical analysis, several observations can be made. The failure sequence of the model structure is brace→beam→column→joints, so that the design philosophy for several lines of defense has been achieved. Earthquake waves with different spectrums not only infl uence the magnitude and distribution of the earthquake force and the storey shear force, but also obviously affect the magnitude of the displacement response. The aftershock seismic response of previously damaged reinforced concrete braced frames with irregular columns possesses the equivalent elastic performance characteristic. Generally speaking, from the aspects of failure features and drift ratio, this type of reinforced concrete structure provides adequate earthquake resistance and can be promoted for use in China.

  14. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry A. Fahnestock; Richard Sause; James M. Ricles; Le-Wu Lu

    2003-01-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The bucklingrestrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and timehistory analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and uscd to evaluate thc time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands oa the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studics, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. Thc results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and timehistory analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions.The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  15. Ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames under earthquake loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Larry A.; Sause, Richard; Ricles, James M.; Lu, Le-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Accurate estimates of ductility demands on buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are crucial to performance-based design of BRBFs. An analytical study on the seismic behavior of BRBFs has been conducted at the ATLSS Center, Lehigh University to prepare for an upcoming experimental program. The analysis program DRAIN-2DX was used to model a one-bay, four-story prototype BRBF including material and geometric nonlinearities. The buckling-restrained brace (BRB) model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening. Nonlinear static pushover and time-history analyses were performed on the prototype BRBF. Performance objectives for the BRBs were defined and used to evaluate the time-history analysis results. Particular emphasis was placed on global ductility demands and ductility demands on the BRBs. These demands were compared with anticipated ductility capacities. The analysis results, along with results from similar previous studies, are used to evaluate the BRBF design provisions that have been recommended for codification in the United States. The results show that BRB maximum ductility demands can be as high as 20 to 25. These demands significantly exceed those anticipated by the BRBF recommended provisions. Results from the static pushover and time-history analyses are used to demonstrate why the ductility demands exceed those anticipated by the recommended provisions. The BRB qualification testing protocol contained in the BRBF recommended provisions is shown to be inadequate because it requires only a maximum ductility demand of at most 7.5. Modifications to the testing protocol are recommended.

  16. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  17. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  18. Orthopedic Management of Scoliosis by Garches Brace and Spinal Fusion in SMA Type 2 Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteruccia, Michela; Vuillerot, Carole; Vaugier, Isabelle; Leclair, Danielle; Azzi, Viviane; Viollet, Louis; Estournet, Brigitte; Bertini, Enrico; Quijano-Roy, Susana

    2015-11-21

    Scoliosis is the most debilitating issue in SMA type 2 patients. No evidence confirms the efficacy of Garches braces (GB) to delay definitive spinal fusion. Compare orthopedic and pulmonary outcomes in children with SMA type 2 function to management. We carried out a monocentric retrospective study on 29 SMA type 2 children who had spinal fusion between 1999 and 2009. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group 1-French patients (12 children) with a preventive use of GB; group 2-French patients (10 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve; and group 3-Italian patients (7 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve referred to our centre to perform orthopedic preoperative management. Mean preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle were significantly lower in the group 1 of proactively braced than in group 2 or 3 (Anova p = 0.03; Kruskal Wallis test p = 0.05). Better surgical results were observed in patients with a minor preoperative Cobb angle (r = 0.92 p SMA type 2. Further prospective studies comparing SMA management are needed to confirm these results. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors on jbjs.org for a complete description of levels of evidence (Retrospective comparative study).

  19. Numerical analysis of effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁钰; 郑刚

    2008-01-01

    A plane strain finite element model was established to investigate the effect of friction between diaphragm wall and soil on braced excavation. The behavior of interface between diaphragm wall and soil was simulated with the interface model of ABAQUS. Parametric studies were conducted with different diaphragm wall external friction angles δ. The results show that deflection of diaphragm wall and ground surface settlement decrease with the decrease of δ. However, the reduction effect on diaphragm wall deflection is the most significant at the depth where the maximum wall deflection occurs and can be neglected at the wall base. The ratio between wall deep inward component and wall cantilever component reaches its peak value 2.7 when δ=5°. The ratio of the maximum ground surface settlement to the maximum wall lateral deflection decreases at a reduced rate with the increase of δ. For excavation with braced diaphragm wall, the effect of friction between diaphragm and soil on the deflection of diaphragm wall and ground settlement, especially the distribution of ground surface settlement behind diaphragm, should be taken into account.

  20. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  1. Design and analysis of eccentrically braced steel frames with vertical links using shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massah, Saeed Reza; Dorvar, Hosein

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the philosophy behind traditional methods by which structures were designed to withstand natural disasters has gone through major changes. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are characterized by their superelastic behavior, which enables them to recover their original shape after experiencing large deformations. This characteristic provides an ideal reversibility capacity that can be used in the passive control of buildings exposed to earthquakes. This article has attempted to identify the effects of changing the hysteretic characteristics of SMA materials when they are used as passive control systems in eccentric bracing frames. By evaluating the numerical analysis results obtained from the modeling of an experimental sample and the modeling of the proposed EBF system, the accuracy of the above-stated notion was confirmed. Moreover, the results that pertain to the nonlinear pushover analysis, time-history dynamic analysis and seismic damage analysis of eccentric steel bracing frames of 4-, 9- and 14-story structures indicate that the use of SMA superelastic materials, in addition to effectively improving their ductility, stiffness and lateral strength, provides an excellent reversibility capacity, which considerably reduces both the maximum relative displacement and the residual deformation in the structure.

  2. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  3. X型中心钢支撑混凝土框架地震反应特性%Seismic response properties of steel concentric X-centrically steel braced RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国静; 樊海涛

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the seismic response properties of steel concentric X-centrically steel braced RC frames(RC-XCSB frames),the structural models of RC frames and RC-XSCB frames of 5-storey,8-storey and 12-storey were analyzed, and the influences of steel concentric X-centrically steel braces on the dynamic characteristics and elastic seismic responses of RC frames such as the lateral stiffness, the natural period and internal force distributions under horizontal earthquake action of structures were investigated. The results show that the structural lateral stiffness increases, the natural period decreases, and the storey displacement and inter-storey drift ratio under horizontal earthquake action decreases, although the representative values of structural gravity load can not be increased significantly because the steel concentric X-centrically steel bracings are arranged in RC frames. For the part of storey shear force to be shared by concentric X-centrically steel braces, the internal force distribution of structure is changed, and the internal force of the most members is lower, which creates favorite condition for multilevel fortification of structures under earthquake action. With the increase of the storey of the RC frames, the effect of steel concentric X-centrically steel braces on structural seismic responses is decreased. Compared with RC frames, the inter-storey drift ratio in RC-XCSB frames of 5-storey, 8-storey and 12-storey can be reduced by up to 36%, 24% and 20%, respectively.%为了研究X型中心钢支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构体系地震反应特性,分别对5层、8层和12层钢筋混凝土框架和 X 型中心钢支撑钢筋混凝土框架模型结构的动力特性和弹性地震反应进行分析,探讨 X 型中心钢支撑对结构侧移刚度、自振周期、水平地震作用下结构内力分布的影响。研究结果表明:在没有明显增大结构重力荷载的条件下,支撑提高了结构侧移刚度,降低

  4. RESPONSE MODIFICATION FACTOR R AND OVERSTRENGTH FACTOR OF Y-ECCENTRIC BRACED STEEL FRAME%Y形偏心支撑钢框架的地震反应折减系数和超强系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 顾强; 宋振森; 李东; 方有珍

    2012-01-01

    该文采用静力推覆和能力谱方法分析了基于我国抗震规范设计的12个Y形偏心支撑钢框架的地震反应折减系数R和超强系数及赘余度超强系数3,分析了结构层数、楼层高跨比对各系数的影响。研究结果表明:Y形偏心支撑钢框架的设计地震作用可在我国现行抗震规范的基础上降低20%左右。%Twelve Y-eccentric braced steel frames were designed to complie with Chinese seismic code. The response modification factor R, overstrength factor and redundancy factor of each building were evaluated by the capacity spectrum method combined with the global capacity envelops obtained from an improved pushover analysis. Moreover, the effects of storey numbers and spans of the structure on these factors were analyzed. The results show that the 20% elastic design earthquake action of Y-eccentric braced steel frames can be approximately reduced on the base of Chinese seismic code.

  5. The Differential Effects of Exercise,Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis%The Differential Effects of Exercise, Brace and Combined Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; ZHOU Xuan; LI Jianan; ZHAO Li; TAO Quan; CHEN Ting; CHEN Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of different conservative managements on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Method:One hundred and four AIS patients were recruited for this study.The patients were divided into 3groups:exercise (E group),brace (B group) and combined rehabilitation treatment (brace treatment combined with exercise,CR group).Radiological parameter were used to assess AIS patients before and after treatment.The Chinese version of scoliosis research society-22(SRS-22) patient questionnaires were filled out by patients after treatment.The SRS-22 scores were compared among management groups.Result:The maximal Cobb angles were smaller in E group than in B group or CR group both before and after treatment.The maximal Cobb angles were significantly smaller after treatment than before treatment in B group and CR group.Function/activity was better in E group than in B group or CR group.Self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management were better in E group and CR group than in B group.There was no significant difference among treatment groups in pain and mental health.Conclusion:Both brace and combined rehabilitation treatment can reduce the spinal curve of AIS patients.Both exercise and combined rehabilitation treatment have positive influence on self-image/appearance and satisfaction with management.We support preference of combined rehabilitation treatment above brace treatment.

  6. Crystal structure of [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OH){sub 2}] determined ab initio by charge flipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: alortiz@unex.es; Cumbrera, Francisco L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Perez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria Minera, Geologica y Cartografica, Area de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Melendez-Martinez, Juan J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Palatinus, Lukas [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, BSP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-07

    The crystal structure of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)bis({mu}{sub 2}-hydroxo)-bis(1,2,3,4-tetrakis (methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)-di-palladium, [NBu{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Pd{sub 2}{l_brace}C{sub 4}(COOMe){sub 4}{r_brace}{sub 2} ({mu}-OH){sub 2}], was determined ab initio by X-ray single-crystal diffractometry using the charge flipping method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c as space group and the following cell parameters: a = 12.8481(6) A, b = 63.744(3) A, c = 16.6102(8) A, {beta} = 111.943(10). The asymmetric unit is formed by two molecules, and the unit cell contains eight molecules (Z = 8) giving a density of 1.369 g cm{sup -3}. The coordination around the Pd(II) atoms is approximately planar, the methoxycarbonyl groups at the {alpha} and {beta} positions relative to Pd are perpendicular and parallel to the palladacycle ring, respectively, and the {l_brace}Pd({mu}-O){r_brace}{sub 2} core has a bent conformation. The structure closely resembles the features reported previously for other palladacyclopentadiene complexes.

  7. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Reischl, Nikolaus; Rönn, Karolin; Magnusson, Robert A; Gautier, Emanuel; Jakob, Roland P

    2016-01-01

    Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter), clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC), and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary) of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86) within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation.

  8. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Nikolaus; Rönn, Karolin; Magnusson, Robert A.; Gautier, Emanuel; Jakob, Roland P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter), clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC), and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary) of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86) within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation. PMID:28053787

  9. A new custom moldable external neck brace (ENB 2.0) to improve hands-free speech in laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, R.; Clark, J.R.; Wismans, J.G.; McGuiness, J.; Palme, C.E.; Blyth, K.; Baxter, C.; Stone, D.B.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The majority of laryngectomy patients fail to use a hands-free valve on a daily basis, mainly due to fixation problems of the adhesive baseplate housing. To support adhesive housings during hands-free speech a new external neck brace (ENB 2.0) was developed. The effect of the

  10. In healthy subjects, the sitting position can be used to validate the postural effects induced by wearing a lumbar lordosis brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, M; Rougier, P R

    2010-10-01

    To assess the validity of the sitting position when testing lumbar braces for the maintenance of lordosis. Twelve young adult subjects participated in the experiment, in which they were seated on force platform. The four experimental conditions (with or without a brace and with or without enforced lordosis) were chosen in order to distinguish between the roles played by lordosis and the brace, respectively. The trajectories of the centre of pressure (CP) were analyzed and compared, in order to assess postural orientation and stabilisation processes. Although no effect was seen in terms of orientation, our data showed that use of a lumbar brace led to a notable reduction in CP displacement along the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes. Lordosis barely affected postural performance and only an increase in the mean CP velocity was observed. Lastly, an analysis of variance failed to reveal an interaction between the "lordosis" and "brace" factors. A lumbar brace (in the absence or presence of lordosis) helps subjects to improve their sitting performance. In contrast to previous studies based on the standing posture, the fact that significant differences were found as a function of brace wear emphasises the discriminant power of the sitting position. This task should therefore be applied more widely in the development of more appropriate, validated equipment for lower back pain sufferers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Retrospective analysis of idiopathic scoliosis medical records coming from one out-patient clinic for compatibility with Scoliosis Research Society criteria for brace treatment studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korbel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First author attempted to analyse medical records of patients with idiopathic scoliosis for compliance with the Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 2705 girls treated from 1989 to 2002 was carried out. Methods Age, Cobb, Risser and menarchal status were analyzed for compliance with the Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria: a age ≥10 years, b Risser 0–2, c 25–40° Cobb angle, d no earlier treatment, e patients before first menses or not more than one year from first menses. Results It has been found that 183 girls out of 2705 were ≥10 years old and in the range 25–40° Cobb angle. One hundred two out of 2705 patients revealed eligible for brace effectiveness study according to SRS 2005 criteria. 120 out of 2705 patients revealed eligible for brace brace effectiveness study according to SRS-SOSORT 2014 criteria. Conclusion The excluded patients revealed too old or with too significant Cobb angles. This indicates the changing criteria for scoliosis brace treatment over the time. Direct comparison of current results of brace treatment with historical series of cases turns out to be very difficult.

  12. Halo brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 12. Warner WC. Pediatric cervical spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

  13. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  14. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2006-07-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were investigated with at least 2 years follow-up at the time of receiving a posted self-administered questionnaire. Forty-four patients were treated with Boston brace (B) only, 41 patients had surgery (S), and 33 patients were treated both with brace and surgery (BS). The Cobb angles of the three treatment groups did not differ significantly after completed treatment. The outcome in terms of the total SRS 24 score was not significantly different among the three groups. B patients had a significantly better general (not treatment related) self-image and higher general activity level than the total group of surgically treated patients, while surgically treated patients scored significantly better in post-treatment self-image and satisfaction. Comparing B with BS we found a significantly higher general activity level in B patients, while the BS group had significantly higher satisfaction. There were no significant differences between BS and S patients in any of the domain scores. All treatment groups scored "fair or better" in all domain scores of the SRS 24 questionnaire, except in post-treatment function, where all groups scored worse than "fair". Improvement of appearance by means of surgical correction increases mean scores for post-treatment self-image and post-treatment satisfaction. Double-treatment by brace and surgery does not appear to jeopardize a good final outcome.

  15. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  16. Bracing System of Large Attack Angle in Low Speed Wind Tunnel%低速风洞大攻角张线式支撑系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恩霞; 刁彦飞; 庞永刚

    2001-01-01

    Based on traditional bracing system of wind tunnel testing, a system of hanging brace of large angle of attack was designed, which can reduce frame interference. The contradiction between bracing rigidity and aerodynamic interference can be resolved by this system.%基于传统的风洞试验支撑系统,设计了能减小支架干扰的大攻角张线式支撑系统。该系统能解决支架的支撑刚度与气动干扰之间的矛盾。

  17. Research review of low-cycle fatigue behavior of steel brace%钢支撑低周疲劳性能研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海丰; 张学辉; 李其廉

    2011-01-01

    总结了国际上有关钢支撑低周疲劳性能试验及有限元研究方面的现状,指出了钢支撑低周疲劳性能研究的方向。%Low-cycle fatigue behavior research of the steel brace is prerequisite to the understanding of the seismic performance of concentrically braced frame with moment resisting frame dual systems. In this paper, the current test and finite element research in the low-cycle fatigue behavior of the steel brace is reviewed and the further research direction is pointed out.

  18. Short tunnels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    Before dealing with the question of lighting short tunnels, it is necessary define what is meant by a tunnel and when it should be called 'short'. Confined to motorized road traffic the following is the most apt definition of a tunnel: every form of roofing-over a road section, irrespective of it le

  19. On the short-distance constraints from K{sub L,S}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidori, Gino E-mail: Gino.Isidori@lnf.infn.it; Unterdorfer, Rene

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by new precise results on several K{sub L} decays, sensitive to the {l_brace}K{sub L} {yields}{gamma}{gamma}{r_brace} form factor, we present a new analysis of the K{sub L}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} long-distance amplitude based on a semi-phenomenological approach. Particular attention is devoted to the evaluation of the uncertainties of this method and to the comparison with alternative approaches. Our main result is a conservative upper bound of 2.5 x 10{sup -9} on B(K{sub L}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})short, which is compatible with the SM expectation and which provides significant constraints on new-physics scenarios. The possibility to extract an independent short-distance information from future searches on K{sub S}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} is also briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Fatigue of hollow section T-joints of circular braces and square chords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, S. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Gandhi, P. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras (India); Lereim, J. [Saga Petroleum A.S., Forus (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    Hollow sections are generally either circular-to-circular (CCHS) or rectangular-to-rectangular (RRHS). Structures with circular braces and rectangular chords (CRHS) may have advantages in certain applications, combining a simple joint geometry for fabrication and relatively small stress concentration factors. Seven different CRHS joints were fatigue tested in constant amplitude axial loading. Stress concentration factors (SCF) were measured experimentally and compared with various parametric formulae. The SCF values for CRHS joints were found to be between those of CCHS and RRHS joints. On the basis of measured SCF values for CRHS joints, the fatigue strength was in good correspondence with current fatigue design codes. Parametric formulae for RRHS joints were in all the cases found to give conservative predictions of SCF. In lack of more rational prediction methods, these formulae in combination with the T curve for tubular joints may be used in fatigue design of CRHS joints.

  1. Design and testing of a regenerative magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Chen, Bing; Qin, Ling; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional magneto-rheological actuator with power regeneration capability, named regenerative magnetorheological actuator (RMRA), is designed for gait assistance in the knee joint. RMRA has motor and magnetorheological (MR) brake parts working in parallel that can harvest energy through regenerative braking. This novel design provides multiple functions with good energy efficiency. The configuration and basic design of the RMRA are first introduced. Then geometrical optimization of the MR brake is conducted based on a parameterized model, and multiple factors are considered in the design objectives: braking torque, weight, and power consumption. After the optimal design is obtained, an RMRA prototype is fabricated and associated driver circuits are designed. Finally, multiple functions of the RMRA, especially three different braking modes, are modeled and tested. Experimental results of RMRA output performances in all working modes match the modeling and simulation. Assistive knee braces with the developed RMRA are promising for future applications in gait assistance and rehabilitation.

  2. Effectiveness of damped braces to mitigate seismic torsional response of unsymmetric-plan buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio; Pedace, Emilia; Favero, Francesco Del

    2017-02-01

    The seismic retrofitting of unsymmetric-plan reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings can be carried out by the incorporation of damped braces (DBs). Yet most of the proposals to mitigate the seismic response of asymmetric framed buildings by DBs rest on the hypothesis of elastic (linear) structural response. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of a Displacement-Based Design procedure of hysteretic damped braces (HYDBs) based on the nonlinear behavior of the frame members, which adopts the extended N2 method considered by Eurocode 8 to evaluate the higher mode torsional effects. The Town Hall of Spilinga (Italy), a framed structure with an L-shaped plan built at the beginning of the 1960s, is supposed to be retrofitted with HYDBs to attain performance levels imposed by the Italian seismic code (NTC08) in a high-risk zone. Ten structural solutions are compared by considering two in-plan distributions of the HYDBs, to eliminate (elastic) torsional effects, and different design values of the frame ductility combined with a constant design value of the damper ductility. A computer code for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of r.c. spatial framed structures is adopted to evaluate the critical incident angle of bidirectional earthquakes. Beams and columns are simulated with a lumped plasticity model, including flat surface modeling of the axial load-biaxial bending moment elastic domain at the end sections, while a bilinear law is used to idealize the behavior of the HYDBs. Damage index domains are adopted to estimate the directions of least seismic capacity, considering artificial earthquakes whose response spectra match those adopted by NTC08 at serviceability and ultimate limit states.

  3. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  4. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the quinary {l_brace}Na + K + Mg + Cl + SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{r_brace} system at T=298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Christomir E-mail: hhristov@chem.ucsd.edu

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes a chemical model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in the {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeSO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), and {l_brace}m{sub 1}MgCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq) systems, where m denotes molality at T=298.15 K. The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for thermodynamic analysis of the experimental activity data in binary FeCl{sub 2}(aq) and FeCl{sub 3}(aq) solutions, and ternary solubility data, presented in the literature. The thermodynamic functions needed (binary and ternary parameters of ionic interaction, thermodynamic solubility products) have been calculated and the theoretical solubility isotherms have been plotted. The mixed solution model parameters {l_brace}{theta}(MN) and {psi}(MNX){r_brace} have been chosen on the basis of the compositions of saturated ternary solutions and data on the pure water solubility of the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O double salt. The standard chemical potentials of four ferrous {l_brace}FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, and MgCl{sub 2} {center_dot} FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O{r_brace} and three ferric {l_brace}FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, 2KCl {center_dot} FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, and 2K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Fe{sub 2}(SO

  5. Short stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition. Bone or skeletal disorders, such as: Rickets Achondroplasia Chronic diseases, such as: Asthma Celiac disease Congenital ... growth seems slow or your child seems small. TREATMENT Your child's short stature may affect her self- ...

  6. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    ABSTRACT: Nutrients, metabolizable energy (ME), anti-nutritional factors, digestible organic ... for animals are in short supply and expensive, ... peels from hotels (Hawassa); sisal waste from ..... chain omega-3 fatty acids in livestock meat and.

  7. Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure with Haunch Braces%钢筋混凝土带腋撑框架结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健; 周飞; 钟国坤; 杨春

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种设置带腋撑的新型钢筋混凝土(含预应力混凝土)框架结构.该结构由常规的钢筋混凝土框架结构以及设置在节点区的腋撑组成.腋撑的上、下端分别和框架梁、框架柱刚接.腋撑的设置,改变了框架梁端、框架柱端的设计控制截面的位置,大幅度减少了框架梁端、框架柱端的设计控制截面的弯矩值、剪力值,并且大幅度减少了框架梁跨中的挠度.试验结果表明,该新型结构具有良好的性能.该新型钢筋混凝土带腋撑框架结构适用于单层或多层大跨度的混凝土结构房屋建筑以及土木工程构筑物,有广泛的应用前景.%A new kind of reinforced (prestressed) concrete (RC) frame structure,the RC frame structure with haunch braces,is proposed,which is composed of conventional RC frame structure and haunch braces.The haunch braces are connected rigidly with structural beams and columns.By adding the haunch braces the designing controlling cross sections located at the ends of beams and columns for RC frame structure are changed to the joints connecting the haunch braces with beams and columns.The moments at the designing controlling cross sections and the midspan deflections of the structural beams are significantly decreased.Experimental results show that the new developed RC frame structure with haunch braces exhibits good mechanical behaviors.It can be extensively applied to one or multilayer large span concrete buildings and other civil engineering constructions.

  8. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi; Peyman Beiranvand; Kasra Shahbazian; Shaahin Bidmeshki; Somaye Yaghooti

    2016-01-01

    Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB) are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained ...

  9. Progressive Collapse Mechanism Analysis of Horizontal Steel Braced RC Frames%带水平分布钢支撑RC框架结构的抗连续倒塌机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 郭小刚; 周靖; 王敏

    2012-01-01

    基于备用荷载路径法,分析带钢支撑的钢筋混凝土框架结构抗连续倒塌机理.以一幢8层钢筋混凝土框架结构为原型,根据支撑在平面上沿结构横向和纵向布置方式不同以及在结构立面上布置于第二层或中间层柱间建立了5种有限元模型,采用备用荷载路径法并考虑构件失效持时的影响,根据底层柱失效位置的不同分为4种工况,对每种工况下的5种模型进行了动力非线性分析.分析结果表明:底层柱失效后,沿结构平面横向和纵向布置钢支撑均可有效提高整体拉结力,从面显著减小破坏部位竖向位移,避免造成破坏范围的扩散;钢支撑改变了框架梁的抗连续倒塌机制,使框架以桁架机制提供抗连续倒塌能力;由于水平分布钢支撑形成了加强层,为兼顾抗连续倒塌性能和抗震概念可将加强层设于结构中间楼层.%In this study, alternate path (AP) approach was conducted to investigate the mechanism of the horizontal steel braced reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures against progressive collapse. Five finite element models of 8-story RC frame structure, differing in both horizontal and vertical arrangement of bracing were developed. The situation of different columns on the first floor removed was classified into four operating modes. Using AP method together with considering duration of column removing, five models of four operating modes were analyzed with nonlinear dynamic analyses. The result of nonlinear dynamic analyses indicate that horizontal steel braces can improve the integrity of structures to noticeably reduce the vertical displacement above the removed columns, and cease the spreading of collapse. Steel braces can modify the progressive collapse resistance mechanism of RC frame beams to truss action. The strengthen storey which is formed by braces can be arranged in the mid floor for considering not just progressive collapse resistance but also seismic concept.

  10. High-pressure phase behaviour of the binary system {l_brace}CO{sub 2} + cis-decalin{r_brace} from (292.75 to 373.75) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitu, Stephane [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique des Milieux Polyphases, Nancy-Universite, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy (France); Jaubert, Jean-Noel [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique des Milieux Polyphases, Nancy-Universite, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy (France)], E-mail: jean-noel.jaubert@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Pauly, Jerome; Daridon, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, UMR CNRS 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, B.P. 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    The phase behaviour of the {l_brace}CO{sub 2} (1) + cis-decalin (2){r_brace} binary system has been experimentally studied at temperatures ranging from (292.75 to 373.75) K. Saturation pressures, ranging from (15.9 to 490.5) bar, were obtained using a variable volume high-pressure cell by visual observation of phase transitions at constant overall composition. For this system, no literature data are available and the results obtained in this study reveal the occurrence of vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and vapor-liquid-liquid phase transitions in the investigated temperature range. A total of 133 experimental points are reported including bubble points, dew points, liquid-liquid phase equilibria, and coordinates of the three-phase line. The experimental data can be reasonably predicted by the PPR78 model in which the temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter is calculated by a group contribution method.

  11. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loon Piet JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention. Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques.

  12. The effect of scapular posterior tilt exercise, pectoralis minor stretching, and shoulder brace on scapular alignment and muscles activity in subjects with round-shoulder posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-hyun; Cynn, Heon-seock; Yoon, Tae-lim; Ko, Chang-hee; Choi, Woo-jeong; Choi, Sil-ah; Choi, Bong-sam

    2015-02-01

    There are various methods for rehabilitating round-shoulder posture (RSP), including strengthening exercises, stretching, and using a shoulder brace or taping to correct the altered posture. However, no study has determined which intervention is the most effective of the three methods to decrease RSP (intervention #1: scapular posterior tilting exercise alone [hereafter, SPT], intervention #2: the scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching [PM stretch+SPT], and intervention #3: the scapular posterior tilting exercise with use of a shoulder brace [SPT+brace]). The purpose of this study was to compare the SPT, PM stretch+SPT, and SPT+brace on RSP, PM index (PMI), and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) activity in subjects with RSP. In total, fifteen young men with RSP, participated in the study (21.46 ± 2.30 years old). RSP was confirmed using a caliper measure. Surface electromyography (SEMG) data for LT and SA activity were collected during the three interventions, and the SEMG data are expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). RSP was significantly less in the PM stretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pshoulder brace may help correct RSP and restore the length of the PM. The posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching was the most effective method for eliciting greater LT muscle activation among the interventions tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of trunk perception during brace treatment in moderate juvenile idiopathic scoliosis: What is the impact on self-image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Piccinini, Giulia; Iosa, Marco; Piermattei, Cristina; De Angelis, Simona; Zangrando, Federico; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-01-01

    The perception of body image and the deformity of the trunk in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are a silver lining that has yet to be discussed in the relevant literature during brace rehabilitation treatment. To determine whether and how the use of the brace changes perception of the trunk in patients with AIS by the drawing test. We observed 32 subjects with AIS from our Rehabilitation outpatient clinic and divided them into the brace treatment (BG-16 subjects) and the non-brace treatment (CG-16 subjects). Trunk perception and quality of life were evaluated using the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire, and the perception of one's back was measured by the drawing test. Pain was lower in BG versus CG (p= 0.095). Satisfaction with the treatment was higher in BG than in CG (p= 0.002). Self-image did not differ significantly between the groups in terms of TAPS. Drawings of the most severe cases of scoliosis were made by the group without the brace. The use of the brace corrects the function of the trunk and has a positive influence on its perception.

  14. A study of high-altitude manned research aircraft employing strut-braced wings of high-aspect-ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. M.; Deyoung, J.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of increased wing aspect ratio of subsonic aircraft on configurations with and without strut bracing. Results indicate that an optimum cantilever configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 26, has a 19% improvement in cruise range when compared to a baseline concept with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 10. An optimum strut braced configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 28, has a 31% improvment in cruise range when compared to the same baseline concept. This improvement is mainly due to the estimated reduction in wing weight resulting from use of lifting struts. All configurations assume the same mission payload and fuel. The drag characteristics of the wings are enhanced with the use of laminar flow airfoils. A method for determining the extent of attainable natural laminar flow, and methods for preliminary structural design and for aerodynamic analysis of wings lifting struts are presented.

  15. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  16. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yeda; Zhang Xunan; Sheldon Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the megasub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  17. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  18. Requirements of Purline Stiffness for Angle Brace%隅撑对檩条的刚度要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 许乐欢

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the requirements of purlin stiffness for angle brace in portal frame structure, this paper established the sloped beam-purlin angle brace finite element model in the portal frame system by the finite element software ANSYS. Specific buckling analysis was carried on and the buckling mode of sloped beam system with different spans is discussed. Preliminary analysis shows that, in the sloped beam of large span system, the purlin will precede the oblique beam buckling and fail to provide stable support for the angle brace and the sloped beam, which means that in the large span portal frame, the angle brace requires higher stiffness of the purlin.%为了研究门式刚架结构中隅撑对檩条的刚度要求,本文采用ANSYS有限元软件建立了门式刚架结构中斜梁-檩条-隅撑体系的有限元模型,进行了体系的屈曲分析,分别探讨了不同跨度的斜梁体系的屈曲模态。初步分析表明,在较大跨度斜梁体系中,檩条会先于斜梁发生失稳,不能为隅撑和斜梁提供有效的稳定支承。从而说明在大跨度门式刚架中,隅撑会对檩条产生更高的刚度要求。

  19. Use of a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: A study on gait performance and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yuma; Nishioka, Takashi; Nakajima, Ryo; Imai, Shinji; Vigers, Piers; Kawasaki, Taku

    2017-03-01

    Fall prevention is essential in patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair because of the high risk of re-rupture. However, there are no reports related to falls that occur during the early postoperative period, while the affected limb is immobilized. This study assessed gait performance and falls in patients using a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Prospective cohort and postoperative repeated measures. This study included 29 patients (mean age, 67.1 ± 7.4 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair followed by rehabilitation. The timed up and go test, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Falls Efficacy Scale were measured, and the numbers of falls were compared between those shoulder abduction brace users and patients who had undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty. In arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients, there were significant improvements in timed up and go test and Geriatric Depression Scale, but no significant differences in Falls Efficacy Scale, between the second and fifth postoperative weeks ( p rotator cuff repair patients fell more often than patients with total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty during the same period. The findings suggest that rehabilitation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients is beneficial, but decreased gait performance due to the immobilizing shoulder abduction brace can lead to falls. Clinical relevance Although rehabilitation helps motor function and mental health after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, shoulder abduction brace use is associated with impaired gait performance, high Falls Efficacy Scale scores, and risk of falls, so awareness of risk factors including medications and lower limb dysfunctions is especially important after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  20. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  1. Study of the pressures applied by a Chêneau brace for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, V M; Houilliez, A; Schill, A; Carpentier, A; Herbaux, B; Thevenon, A

    2008-09-01

    We performed a study on 32 idiopathic scoliotic patients (30 females, 2 males) treated with a Chêneau brace. Eighteen patients had a single right thoracic curve and 14 had a single right thoracolumbar curve. We used the TekScan system (ClinSeat Type 5315 Sensor, TekScan, Boston MA, USA) to measure pressures at the skin-brace interface, assess the effect of strap tension and analyze the variation of these pressures with position and activity. The TekScan device enabled identification of the pressure areas corresponding to the brace's three loading points. The pressure under the main pad had a greater mean value than the pressure under the two counter-pads. Tightening the straps led to a significant increase in the pressures, whatever the position studied or the curve pattern. Compared with the standing (reference) position, we observed significantly higher pressures during maximal inspiration (p TekScan system does not provide direct information on the correction of spinal curvature, it appears to be a useful tool in the treatment of scoliotic patients. Strap adjustment clearly influences the applied pressures - particularly those on the rib cage. During activity, there is a natural tendency to decrease the pressure; this justifies efforts to maintain strap tensions in general and during day wear in particular.

  2. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  3. ABDOMINAL EXERCISE WITH BRACING, A THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY IN REDUCING DIASTASIS-RECTI AMONG POSTPARTAL FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Acharry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA has been defined as an impairment characterized by the separation of the two rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba , Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbo-pelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for non surgical management, but very few found to be effective. Objectives To determine if the effectiveness of Abdominal exercise with bracing in reducing the diastasis recti among postpartum females. Methodology: IP&OPD patients of Godavari hospital, Jalgaon for a period of 4 weeks. For this descriptive study a cross-sectional study design was incorporated. A number of (n=30 female patients within 1 month after delivery with Diastasis recti were selected. Each patient was screened, initially by using simple selection proforma relevant to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total (n=30 subjects were included in the study, these 30 subjects all are Females and one month and more after child birth. The subjects included in this study with an age from minimal 23 years to 34 years old. Number of off springs which is another variable used, was listed as 1(Minimum and 4(Maximum children’s. In this study a 26.6% of female are primiparous and 56.7% of them are multiparous. The collected information (data was tabulated and analyzed by using appropriate statistical analysis tools. 30 Female subjects having mean age 28.8(SD=3.23 in which both primiparous and multiparous women having diastasis recti within 1 month postpartum. Diastasis recti pretest was found to be 3.5(SD= 0.5085 Diastasis recti posttest was found to be 2.5(SD=0.5074 t value=29.00 and P value found to be less than 0.001 which is highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, after the exercise regimen and bracing the Diastasis recti muscle

  4. Action physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  5. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  6. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaza, Niyousha; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Abdollah, Vahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2012-01-01

    Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s) without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5) volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control) 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec). Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  7. The effects of a prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves on the performance of healthy athletes: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Knee injury is one of the major problems in sports medicine, and the use of prophylactic knee braces is an attempt to reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries to the knee joint ligament(s without inhibiting knee mobility. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one recently designed prophylactic knee brace and two neoprene knee sleeves upon performance of healthy athletes. Thirty-one healthy male athletes (age = 21.2 ± 1.5 volunteered as participants to examine the effect of prophylactic knee brace/sleeves on performance using isokinetic and functional tests. All subjects were tested in four conditions in a random order: 1. nonbraced (control 2. using a neoprene knee sleeve 3. using a knee sleeve with four bilateral metal supports and 4. using a prophylactic knee brace. The study design was a crossover, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects completed single leg vertical jump, cross-over hop, and the isokinetic knee flexion and extension (at 60, 180, 300°/sec. Data were collected from the above tests and analyzed for jump height, cross-over hop distance, peak torque to body weight ratio and average power, respectively. Comparisons of these variables in the four testing conditions revealed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05. The selected prophylactic brace/sleeves did not significantly inhibit athletic performance which might verify that their structure and design have caused no complication in the normal function of the knee joint. Moreover, it could be speculated that, if the brace or the sleeves had any limiting effect, our young healthy athletic subjects were well able to generate a mean peak torque large enough to overcome this possible restriction. Further studies are suggested to investigate the long term effect of these prophylactic knee brace and sleeves as well as their possible effect on the adjacent joints to the knee.

  8. The influence of elastic orthotic belt on sagittal profile in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis: a comparative radiographic study with Milwaukee brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Bangping

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of bracing on preventing curve progression in coronal plane for mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients has been confirmed by previous radiographic researches. However, a hypokyphotic effect on the sagittal plane has been reported by a few studies. A relatively increasing number of AIS patients were noticed to wear a new kind of elastic orthotic belt for the treatments of scoliosis without doctors' instructions. We postulate the correcting mechanism of this new appliance may cause flattening of the spine. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of this new orthosis on the sagittal profile of AIS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of elastic orthotic belt and Milwaukee brace on the sagittal alignment in AIS patients. Methods Twenty-eight female AIS patients with mild or moderate thoracic curves were included in this study. Standing full-length lateral radiographs were obtained in three conditions: natural standing posture without any treatment, with elastic orthotic belt and with Milwaukee brace. Thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumber lordosis (LL and pelvic incidence (PI were measured and compared between the above three conditions. Results Both elastic orthotic belt and Milwaukee brace can lead to significant decrease of TK, however, the decrease of TK after wearing elastic orthotic belt is significantly larger than that after wearing Milwaukee brace. Compared with no treatment, LL was found to be significantly smaller after wearing Milwaukee brace, however, such significant decrease was not noted after wearing elastic orthotic belt. No significant changes were observed for the PI between 3 conditions. Conclusions The elastic orthotic belt could lead to more severe thoracic hypokyphosis when compared with Milwaukee brace. This belt may not be a suitable conservative method for the treatment of mild and moderate AIS patients.

  9. Improved Lattice Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We give a prescription how to include a chemical potential \\mu into a general lattice action. This inclusion does not cause any lattice artifacts. Hence its application to an improved - or even perfect - action at \\mu =0 yields an improved resp. perfect action at arbitrary \\mu. For short-ranged improved actions, a good scaling behavior holds over a wide region, and the upper bound for the baryon density - which is known for the standard lattice actions - can be exceeded.

  10. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds......, for example, of Paleopathology, should be cross-checked against other sources, for example, CT-scanning, direct inspection (also by endoscopy), and so forth....

  11. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  12. Design and Model Test of a Modularized Prefabricated Steel Frame Structure with Inclined Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modularized prefabricated steel structures have become the preferred design in the industrialization of steel structures due to their advantages of fast construction speed, high degree of industrialization, low labour intensity, and more. Prefabricated steel structures have some engineering applications, but all are low-rise structures with few applications in the field of high-rise buildings. Using finite element analysis with line and solid elements, full-scale experiments were conducted to study the single-span frame, which is the core load-bearing part of a modularized prefabricated high-rise steel frame structure with inclined braces. The mechanical mechanisms, computation methods, and design formulas of truss girders were obtained by comparing the finite element and model experiments and building a theoretical and experimental basis for the compilation of design codes. The mechanical characteristics under design load, the deformation and stress state, the elastic-plastic law of development, and the yield failure mode and mechanism under horizontal ultimate load were also obtained. Based on theoretical analysis, finite element analysis, and experiments, the design method of this frame was summarized and incorporated into the design code.

  13. Neoprene wrist brace for correction of radial club hand in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S M

    1996-01-01

    Thermoplastic wrist orthoses have been used for some time for serial correction before surgery for radial dysplasia to realign the hand on the forearm bone. However, problems have been experienced with pressure areas, especially at the distal and proximal radial edges. Inserting padding with such a small orthosis (if made for a baby) distorts the fit. A neoprene brace has been developed that can be applied to an infant as young as 3 weeks old. Thermoplastic ulnar and radial reinforcers are used to maintain the correction. The method of construction and positioning are described. The reinforcers can be serially adjusted to achieve a neutral position at the wrist. In babies, passive correction may be easier to obtain, but in older children with soft-tissue shortening, acceptable realignment can be achieved serially and maintained until surgery is appropriate. Using neoprene avoids serious pressure problems. Neoprene is durable, washable, and accepted by this client group and their parents. It has been demonstrated that correcting the alignment of the hand improves hand function, especially in bilateral activities, and allows the child to swim and play in water while wearing it, thus enhancing the quality of life.

  14. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin.

  15. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  16. Height Effect on Response Modification Factor of Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of making buildings taller and height of new buildings is now one of the major problems in building design and codes of interest is located. With height, the need for further ductility and the capability of energy dissipation can be a significant role in the proper and safe design of structures to play. It seems that changes the height of buildings can be treated directly on the response modification factor of structures and thus the seismic performance of structures under severe earthquake to be effective. This research is an attempt to evaluate the ductility, over-strength and response modification factors of the Open Chevron Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs with 5, 10, 15 and 20 stories under Tabas, Naghan, Bam and El-Centro strong ground motions. These frames were analyzed by using static pushover analysis, linear dynamic and incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis, and the values of these factors for different models have been determined separately and it is resulted that with increasing the height of buildings, the ductility reduction factor and the response modification factor of EBFs, decrease, but this variation hasn’t any influence on the over strength reduction factor.

  17. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  18. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH WEAK BEAMS%横梁未加强型人字撑框架体系的抗侧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    对7组横梁未加强的人字支撑框架进行弹塑性分析,支撑几何长细比从43变化至132,支撑又分承担和不承担竖向重力两种。研究表明重力荷载使支撑提前屈曲,降低了支撑抗侧力峰值,抗震设防烈度越低,其影响越大。通过对整体、支撑和框架的侧力.侧移曲线的分析,解释了设计人字撑横梁时不应考虑跨中支撑点作用的原因,对欧美日等将中等长细比的支撑框架列为抗震性能最差的框架支撑体系提供了解释。揭示了支撑与框架的极限抗侧力不同时出现的重要现象,提出了设计对策;提出了塑性破坏机构,推导了横梁跨中挠度和支撑出平面外位移与层侧移角的关系。%The elastic-plastic analysis was performed for seven chevron-braced frames with weak beams, with the brace slenderness varying from 43 to 132. The braces are of two types: carrying and free of gravity load. The effect of gravitational axial force in braces on the lateral resistance of the braced frames was studied. The results showed that the gravity load caused the braces buckle (or yield) earlier; it weakened the peak strength of the chevron braces and the overall braced frames; and those effects were greater for slender braces used in regions of smaller seismic fortification intensity. Based on the overall, the brace's and the frame's lateral force-drift curves, the paper explained why the beam should be designed as if no bracing point at midspan, why the United States and Japan treated the braces of moderate slenderness as the structure having the worst seismic behaviour. It was also found that the braces reached its ultimate state at a much smaller drift than the frame, implying that the current design method of linear combination is not fully justified, and an improved design method is proposed. A plastic mechanism was proposed to evaluate the relations between the midspan-deflection of the beams, the out

  19. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4 ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during

  20. Short esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunio, Nicholas R; Dolan, James P; Hunter, John G

    2015-06-01

    In the presence of long-standing and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, patients can develop various complications, including a shortened esophagus. Standard preoperative testing in these patients should include endoscopy, esophagography, and manometry, whereas the objective diagnosis of a short esophagus must be made intraoperatively following adequate mediastinal mobilization. If left untreated, it is a contributing factor to the high recurrence rate following fundoplications or repair of large hiatal hernias. A laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty combined with an antireflux procedure offers safe and effective therapy.

  1. A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Robert N., E-mail: robert.goldberg@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lang, Brian E., E-mail: brian.lang@nist.go [Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20876 (United States); Selig, Michael J., E-mail: michael.selig@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Decker, Stephen R., E-mail: steve.decker@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biosciences Center, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the reaction: {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid(aq){r_brace}, as catalyzed by feruloyl esterase. Values of the apparent equilibrium constant K' = (29.6 {+-} 0.7) (T = 298.15 K, citrate buffer at pH 4.98, ionic strength I = 0.39 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) and of the calorimetrically determined enthalpy of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H(cal) = (4.0 {+-} 0.9) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} (T = 298.15 K and citrate buffer at pH 4.81, I = 0.36 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) were measured. A chemical equilibrium model, together with pKs and standard enthalpies of reaction {Delta}{sub r}H{sup 0} for the H{sup +}(aq) binding reactions of the reactants and products, was then used to calculate the values K = (1.89 {+-} 0.06) . 10{sup -4}, {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} = (7.3 {+-} 1.7) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub r}G{sup o} = (21.25 {+-} 0.07) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub r}S{sup o} = - (46.8 {+-} 5.7) J {center_dot} K{sup -1} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} for the chemical reference reaction {l_brace}methyl ferulate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = methanol(aq) + ferulic acid{sup -}(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. These values of K and {Delta}{sub r}H{sup o} are similar in magnitude to the corresponding values reported for the reaction {l_brace}propyl gallate(aq) + H{sub 2}O(l) = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid{sup -}(aq) + 1-propanol(aq) + H{sup +}(aq){r_brace}. The results obtained in this study can be used in a chemical equilibrium model to calculate how K' and other standard transformed properties such as the standard transformed enthalpy {Delta}{sub r}H'{sup o}, standard transformed Gibbs free energy {Delta}{sub r}G'{sup o}, and the change in binding of H{sup +}(aq), {Delta}{sub r}N(H{sup +}), vary with the independent variables T, pH, and I.

  2. Effectiveness of complete conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (bracing and exercises based on SOSORT management criteria: results according to the SRS criteria for bracing studies - SOSORT Award 2009 Winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS criteria give the methodological reference framework for the presentation of bracing results, while the SOSORT criteria give the clinical reference framework for an appropriate bracing treatment. The two have not been combined in a study until now. Our aim was to verify the efficacy of a complete, conservative treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AISaccording to the best methodological and management criteria defined in the literature. Methods Study Design. Retrospective study. Population. We included all AIS patients respecting the SRS inclusion criteria (age 10 years or older; Risser test 0-2; Cobb degrees 25-40°; no prior treatment; less than one year post-menarchal who had reached the end of treatment since our institute database start in 2003. Thus we had 44 females and four males, with an age of 12.8 ± 1.6 at the commencement of the study. Methods. According to individual needs, two patients have been treated with Risser casts followed by Lyon brace, 40 with Lyon or SPoRT braces (14 for 23 hours per day, 23 for 21 h/d, and seven for 18 h/d at start, and two with exercises only (1 male, 1 female: these were excluded from further analysis. Outcome criteria. SRS (unchanged; worsened 6° or more; over 45° at the end of treatment; surgically treated; two years' follow-up; clinical (ATR, Aesthetic Index, plumbline distances; radiographic (Cobb degrees; and ISICO (optimal; minimal. Statistics. Paired ANOVA and t-test, Tukey-Kramer and chi-square test. Results Median reported compliance during the 4.2 ± 1.4 treatment years was 90% (range 5-106%. No patient progressed beyond 45°, nor was any patient fused, and this remained true at the two-year follow-up for the 85% that reached it. Only two patients (4% worsened, both with single thoracic curve, 25-30° Cobb and Risser 0 at the start. We found statistically significant reductions of the scoliosis curvatures (-7.1°: thoracic (-7.3°, thoracolumbar (-8.4

  3. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Parkin, Nicola; Dyer, Fiona; Millett, Declan T; Furness, Susan; Germain, Peter

    2013-12-12

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of fluoride in reducing the incidence of DWLs on the teeth during orthodontic treatment.The secondary objectives were to examine the effectiveness of different modes of fluoride delivery in reducing the incidence of DWLs, as well as the size of lesions. Participant-assessed outcomes, such as perception of DWLs, and oral health-related quality of life data were to be included, as would reports of adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 31 January 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 31 January 2013); and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 31 January 2013). We included trials if they met the following criteria: (1) parallel-group randomised clinical trials comparing the use of a fluoride-containing product versus placebo, no treatment or a different type of fluoride treatment, in which (2) the outcome of enamel demineralisation was assessed at the start and at the end of orthodontic treatment. At least two review authors independently, in duplicate, conducted risk of bias assessments and extracted data. Authors of trials were contacted to obtain missing data or to ask for clarification of aspects of trial methodology. The Cochrane Collaboration's statistical guidelines were followed. For the 2013 update of this review, three changes were made

  4. Seismic response and performance of buckling-restrained braced frames%BRBFs的抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠宽堂; 黄斌

    2012-01-01

    BRBFs and conventional braced frames were numerically simulated using finite element software ANSYS. The comparison of drift of each story, storey displacement and acceleration of top story under frequent earthquake and rare earthquake were conducted, which showed that the two kinds of strutures performe well under frequent earthquake, but the out-plane buckling of the braces of conventional braced frames resulted in degradation of lateral stiffness of the whole struture. While, BRBFs were able to control the displacement of the structure effectively and reduced the seismic response.%应用ANSYS软件对屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)和普通支撑钢框架的抗震性能进行有限元数值模拟,分析了两种结构在基本烈度地震作用下和罕遇地震作用下的层位移、顶层加速度及层间相对位移等结构响应,结果表明,在小震作用下两种结构抗震性能均表现良好,但在罕遇地震作用下普通支撑钢框架由于支撑的平面外失稳,导致整个结构刚度退化,而屈曲约束支撑钢框架则能更加有效地控制结构的侧移,降低结构的地震响应.

  5. 门式刚架蒙皮抗剪支撑作用的研究%Study on shear bracing behavior of stressed diaphragm for steel gabled frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜喜林

    2011-01-01

    通过分析受力蒙皮单元抗剪支撑作用,利用刚度等效原理把受力蒙皮单元等效成支撑,从而建立考虑蒙皮效应的门式刚架轻钢结构计算模型,提出蒙皮抗剪支撑作用的实用计算方法.%It is also study on shear bracing behavior of stressed diaphragm. Upon the principle of equivalent stiffness, the stressed-skin ofroofs and walls is simplified to the bracing bars, with which the model of building systems can be established in a convenience way. Thecalculate method of the shear bracing behavior of stressed diaphragm is suggested.

  6. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained results of the test and analysis have been compared. The confirmed models have been used for the analysis of two-dimensional frame of plain and perforated steel plate shear walls with a regular pattern of positing holes in the screen, buckling restrained brace and moment frame of 4 floors.

  7. Numerical Model of a Hybrid Damping System Composed of a Buckling Restrained Brace with a Magneto Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip-Vacarescu Norin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of a hybrid damper made from a combination of two dissipative devices. A passive hysteretic device like steel Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB can be combined with a magneto-rheological (MR Fluid Damper in order to obtain a hybrid dissipative system. This system can work either as a semi-active system, if the control unit is available, or as a passive system, tuned for working according to performance based seismic engineering (PBSE scale of reference parameters (i.e. interstory drift.

  8. ESTIMATION OF BEARING STRENGTH OF BRACES AND STRUTS OF FARMS OF COVERAGE OF 6D TYPE HOTHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bearing strength of braces and struts of farms of coverage of hothouses is presented in the article. The deep analysis of the question of bearing strength appeared in the light of mass erection of hothouses, especially in the South Federal district, the construction of which had been bought in the countries of Near East. However, simple transfer of the constructions of hothouses made in foreign countries can not be considered as rational on the territory of the Russian Federation. The constructions of hothouses in most do not maintain exploitation even in one winter, when the considerable snow loadings are, and wind as well. The necessity of bringing of clarity for the folded situation became more obvious. Conducted successive static, dynamic and seismic analyses, executed upon the normative documents and due to the norms of supplier operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, in attachment to the real sections of bearings structural elements, allowed to expose the stated below percents of the use of the examined elements of constructions. Supporting braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 999 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 999 %; Stretched braces of farms of coverage: on the norms of the Russian Federation, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 64,2%; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8 %; on the norms of the Russian Federation taking into account loadings of supplier, on the first maximum state percent of the use – 25,8 %; there is a percent of the use on the second maximum state – 721,8%. Analysis presented allows establishing that at the load

  9. Action-effect bindings and ideomotor learning in intention- and stimulus-based actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid eHerwig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based with actions selected endogenously (intention-based. There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated or retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of acute distal radius fracture stability: A comparative cadaveric study between a thermo-formable bracing system and traditional fiberglass casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Brandon G; Aira, Jazmine R; Diaz, Miguel A; Kyle Stoops, T; Simon, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Distal radius fractures are common musculoskeletal injuries and many can be treated non-operatively with cast immobilization. A thermo-formable brace has been developed for management of such fractures, but no data exist regarding its comparative stabilizing efficacy to fiberglass casting. A worst-case distal radius fracture was created in 6 cadaveric forearms. A radiolucent loading fixture was created to apply cantilever bending/compression loads ranging from 4.5N to 66.7N across the simulated fracture in the: (1) non-stabilized, (2) braced; and (3) casted forearms, each forearm serving as its own control. Fracture fragment translations and rotations were measured radiographically using orthogonal radiographs and a 2D-3D, CT-based transformation methodology. Under 4.5N of load in the non-stabilized condition, average sagittal plane rotation and 3D center of mass translation of the fracture fragment were 12.3° and 5.3mm, respectively. At the 4.5N load step, fragment rotation with the brace (avg. 0.0°) and cast (0.1°) reduced sagittal plane rotation compared to the non-stabilized forearm (Pdifferences in measured sagittal plane fracture fragment rotations or 3D fragment translations between the brace or cast at any of the four load steps (4.5N, 22.2N, 44.5N, and 66.7N, P≥0.138). In this in vitro radiographic study utilizing 6 cadaveric forearms with simulated severe-case, unstable and comminuted distal radius fractures, the thermo-formable brace stabilized the fracture in a manner that was not radiographically or biomechanically different from traditional fiberglass casting. Study results support the use of the thermo-formable brace clinically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research on Seismic of Steel Structure with Buckling Restrained Brace%防屈曲支撑钢框架的抗震性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 李大鹏; 王光云

    2012-01-01

    本文采用ANSYS抗震性能软件,建立了防屈曲支撑钢框架有限元计算模型,通过建模计算验证了防屈曲支撑框架体系优越的结构性能.%This paper uses the ANSYS finite element analysis software,established the buckling-restrained braced frame model,and through the modeling result of buckling restrained braced frame system superior structural performance.

  12. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, b...

  13. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  14. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical and Thermal Environments Dept.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  15. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  16. 隅撑支撑钢框架结构拟静力试验分析%EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON KNEE BRACING BRACING STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE QUASI-STATIC TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉生; 徐超; 段珂

    2013-01-01

    Knee bracing steel frame structure model of quasi-static tests was experimentally investigated.By analysis of the test results,the seismic performance of knee bracing steel frame structure system was studied.Ansys and PKPM was used to determine the test load program,Pul-200 type hydraulic servo actuator and DH3820 strain measurement was used for loading and data acquisition.Draw graphics of hysteresis curve,skeleton curve and stiffness degradation curve to measure energy dissipation capacity,finally,summarize and analyze.%对隅撑支撑钢框架结构模型进行拟静力试验[1],通过对试验结果分析进而对隅撑支撑钢框架结构体系的抗震性能进行研究[2],运用Ansys软件以及PKPM软件的辅助来确定本次试验的加载方案,Pul-200型液压伺服作动器以及DH3820应变测试分析系统进行加载和数据的采集,通过数据来绘制滞回曲线、骨架曲线和刚度退化曲线等衡量耗能能力的图形,最后加以总结分析.

  17. Aging effect in CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07 studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Flores, Jesus [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we study the long-term aging effect caused by Fe atoms in the superconductor CaLaBa{l_brace}Cu{sub 1 - x}Fe{sub x}{r_brace}{sub 3}O{sub 7 - {delta}} with 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.07. XRD confirms that this system has a YBCO-like structure. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) is strongly affected by aging and depends on the amount of Fe in the structure. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals the presence of the typical species A, B-B Prime , C and new species E Prime and F. Interestingly; A, which corresponds to the Fe{sup 3 + } atom located in the Cu(1) of the chains with spin S{sub z} = 3/2, shows a drastic reduction which means migration to the species B, B Prime and C. Species B and B Prime correspond to the Fe{sup 3 + } in the Cu(2) site forming planar quasi-octahedral and planar square pyramidal, while the C specie is a square pyramidal with O(5) respectively (spin S{sub z} = 3/2 in all these cases). Aging causes loss of superconductivity in the samples with 5 and 7% of iron content.

  18. The Nonanuclear [Mo(IV){l_brace}(CN)Fe(III)(3-ethoxy-saldptn){r_brace}{sub 8}]Cl{sub 4} Complex Compound Exhibits Multiple Spin Transitions Observed by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, F., E-mail: Franz.Renz@uni-mainz.de; Kerep, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany)

    2004-12-15

    The pentadentate ligand 3-EO-{sup 5}LH{sub 2}= 3-ethoxy-saldptn N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-1-hydroxy-2-benzyliden)-1,7-diamino-4-azaheptane has been prepared by a Schiff base condensation between 1,7-diamino-4-azaheptane and the corresponding 3-ethoxy-salicyaldehyde. 3-EO-{sup 5}LH{sub 2} is a sterical extention to {sup 5}LH{sub 2}. Its complexation with Fe(III) gave the high-spin (S=5/2) complex of [Fe(III)(3-EO-{sup 5}L)Cl]. This precursor was combined with [Mo(CN){sub 8}]{sup 4-} and a blue nonanuclear cluster [Mo(IV){l_brace}(CN)Fe(III)(3-EO-{sup 5}L){r_brace}{sub 8}]Cl{sub 4} resulted. This starshaped nonanuclear compound is a high-spin system at room temperature. On cooling to 10 K some of the eight iron(III) centers switched to the low-spin state as proven by Moessbauer spectra, i.e. multiple electronic transitions.

  19. State-selective energy and angular resolved detection of neutral species ejected from keV ion bombarded C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/Ag{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandeweert, E.; Meserole, C.A.; Sostarecz, A.; Dou, Y.; Winograd, N. E-mail: nxw@psu.edunxw@psuvm.psu.edu; Postawa, Z

    2000-04-01

    We investigated the desorption of neutral benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) molecules and silver atoms from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/Ag{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} upon bombardment by 8 keV Ar{sup +} ions. Using state-selective resonant ionization spectroscopy, substrate atoms sputtered in the ground and a high-lying metastable state, and ground-state and vibrationally excited molecules could be probed separately. The silver atom yield, kinetic energy and polar angle distributions were found to be modified upon benzene dosing. From these results, it was inferred that a large fraction of the metastable silver atoms de-excite during collisions with adsorbates. Also the ejection of benzene molecules depends strongly both on the internal energy of the molecules and the degree of coverage of the Ag surface. Up to monolayer thickness, the benzene molecules are mainly ejected during collisions with departing substrate particles. Molecules with higher internal energy leave the surface with a distribution shifted towards higher kinetic energies. At multi-layer coverages, a slow desorption mechanism becomes dominant. It is suggested that only benzene molecules vibrationally excited near the benzene-vacuum interface can survive the ejection process without de-excitation.

  20. Ab initio based atomic scattering amplitudes and {l_brace}002{r_brace} electron structure factors of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titantah, J T; Lamoen, D [EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Schowalter, M; Rosenauer, A, E-mail: john.titantah@ua.ac.b [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Bremen, D 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    The atomic scattering amplitudes of the various atoms of the systems Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As, GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and InAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} are calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) approach. The scattering amplitudes of N, Ga, As and In in the model systems are compared with the frequently used Doyle and Turner values. Deviation from the latter values is found for small scattering vectors (s<0.3A{sup -1}) and for these scattering vectors dependence on the orientation of the scattering vector and the chemical environment is reported. We suggest a parametrization of these modified scattering amplitudes (MASAs) for small scattering vectors (s<1.0A{sup -1}). The MASAs are exploited within zero pressure classical Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC), finite temperature calculations to investigate the effect of quantum well size on the electron {l_brace}002{r_brace} structure factor (SF) of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As quantum wells.

  1. The Effect of Analysis Methods on the Response of Steel-Braced Frame Buildings for Seismic Retrofitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Hamidi Jamnani, H.; Mohebi, B.

    In this study, steel-braced frame buildings which are designed according to 2800 Standard of Iran (3rd revision), will be evaluated by four main types of structural analysis (Linear Static, Linear Dynamic, Nonlinear Static and Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses) with regard to Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings in Iran (based on FEMA 273). The discrepancy of the results derived from these four types of analysis and also seismic performance of the buildings in both linear and nonlinear treatments will be analyzed. At first, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for 2 hazard levels has been carried out at center of Tehran, then three 3D models including 3 common buildings (5, 10 and 15-story) have been selected and designed subjected to earthquake according to 2800 Standard. Following this, these three 3D models have been analyzed and controlled based on Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings. The selected rehabilitation goal for this research is Fair (Controlling Life Safety in Hazard Level 1 + Collapse Prevention in Hazard Level 2). According to the results of this research, the accuracy of linear analysis for evaluating bracing elements is very low, in evaluating columns the results of linear static analysis is much more acceptable than linear dynamic and nonlinear static analysis. Also, by increasing the number of stories the accuracy of nonlinear static analysis decreases.

  2. Portable Myoelectric Brace Use Increases Upper Extremity Recovery and Participation But Does Not Impact Kinematics in Chronic, Poststroke Hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; McNally, Michael P; Hewett, Timothy E; Page, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of an 8-week regimen combining repetitive task-specific practice (RTP) with a myoelectric brace (RTP+Myomo) on paretic upper extremity (UE; use in valued activities, perceived recovery, and reaching kinematics) in 12 subjects (4 men; M age = 53.5 years; mean time poststroke = 61.7 months). Seven subjects were administered RTP+Myomo therapy, and 5 were administered RTP only. Both groups participated in individualized, 45-min therapy sessions occurring 3 days/week over an 8-week period. The arm, hand ability, activities of daily living, and perceptions of recovery subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), as well as UE reaching kinematics, assessed before and after the intervention. Subjects in the RTP+Myomo group showed greater improvements on all SIS subscales, with the recovery scale reaching statistical significance (p = .03). Subjects in the RTP-only group showed a greater increase in hand velocity in the reach up task (p = .02), but no changes were observed in the range of shoulder flexion or elbow extension during reaching. None of the changes in kinematic outcome measures significantly correlated with any of the changes in SIS subscales. RTP integrating myoelectric bracing may be more beneficial than RTP only in improving self-reported function and perceptions of overall recovery. The authors observed no changes in the range of elbow extension, and no relationship between self-reported improvements and changes in reaching kinematics.

  3. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  4. A prospective study comparing attempted weight bearing in fiberglass below-knee casts and prefabricated pneumatic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lyndon W; Dodds, Alex

    2010-04-01

    Partial weight bearing is commonly advised after fracture of the lower extremity. Research has determined this to be inaccurate both in its instruction and its reproducibility. Many trauma departments are commonly using alternatives to plaster in the splintage of fractures, such as fiberglass and the prefabricated pneumatic braces. This study's null hypothesis is that there is no difference between partial weight bearing through a fiberglass cast as compared with a pneumatic walker. A prospective study was conducted in our department including all patients who had metatarsal or ankle fractures and could partially weight bear. Patients were excluded if they were not allowed to bear weight, had received operative fixation of their fracture, or were younger than age 16 years. The patients' total weight was measured first, and then they were trained to place 50% of their weight through the splinted limb. Three measurements were taken of their attempted weight bearing at 50%, and they were blinded to the results. Over a 16-month period, 117 patients were enrolled for this study: 72 in the pneumatic walker group and 45 in the fiberglass group. There was no significant difference in sex, age, or fracture type. There was a significant difference in percentage of weight placed through the splinted limb, with the pneumatic brace group placing much greater force than the fiberglass group. This may have been caused by altered proprioception from the walker. It is important to realize this when prescribing partial weight bearing in a particular splint as this may result in avoidable complications.

  5. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  6. Effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of a strut-braced wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of the SBW using efficient structural finite element and aerodynamic lifting surface methods. A procedure is developed to generate wing stiffness distribution for detailed and simplified wing models and to include the compressive force effect in the SBW aeroelastic analysis. A sensitivity study is performed to generate response surface equations for the wing flutter speed as functions of several design variables. These aeroelastic procedures and response surface equations provide a valuable tool and trend data to study the unconventional nature of SBW. In order to estimate the effect of the compressive force, the inner part of the wing structure is modeled as a beam-column. A structural finite element method is developed based on an analytical stiffness matrix formulation of a non-uniform beam element with arbitrary polynomial variations in the cross section. By using this formulation, the number of elements to model the wing structure can be reduced without degrading the accuracy. The unsteady aerodynamic prediction is based on a discrete element lifting surface method. The present formulation improves the accuracy of existing lifting surface methods by implementing a more rigorous treatment on the aerodynamic kernel integration. The singularity of the kernel function is isolated by implementing an exact expansion series to solve an incomplete cylindrical function problem. A hybrid doublet lattice/doublet point scheme is devised to reduce

  7. Study on response modification factor R and overstrength factor Ω of Y-eccentric braced steel frame based on IDA method%基于IDA的Y形偏心支撑钢框架地震反应折减系数和超强系数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文侠; 顾强; 宋振森; 李东

    2011-01-01

    按我国现行抗震规范设计了12个不同层数和不同跨度的Y形偏心支撑钢框架算例,利用基于IDA(incremental dynamic analysis)分析的能力谱方法确定了各算例的地震反应折减系数R和超强系数Ω,分析了结构总层数和楼层高跨比对各系数的影响.研究结果表明Y形偏心支撑钢框架的设计地震作用可在我国现行抗震规范的基础上降低20%左右.%Twelve Y-eccentric braced steel frames with various stories and spans lengths were designed complying with the Chinese Seismic Code. The response modification factors R and overstrength factors of each building were evaluated by capacity spectrum method based on the global capacity envelops obtained from incremental dynamic analysis. Based on the analysis results, the effects of storey numbers and spans of frames on these factors were analyzed. The results show that the elastic design earthquake action of Y-eccentric braced steel frames can be reduced by approximately 20% on the basis of Chinese Seismic Code.

  8. Action Emulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); J. Ruan; T. Sadzik

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of public announcements, private communications, deceptive messages to groups, and so on, can all be captured by a general mechanism of updating multi-agent models with update action models, now in widespread use. There is a natural extension of the definition of

  9. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  10. Do IGF-I concentrations better reflect growth hormone (GH action in children with short stature than the results of GH stimulating tests? Evidence from the simultaneous assessment of thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyńska Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies between the results of GHST and IGF-I secretion are observed. It seems purposeful to determine the significance of GHST and IGF-I assessment in diagnosing GHD. The relationship between GH secretion and thyroid function, as well as GH influence on the peripheral thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 deiodination, mediated by IGF-I, were identified. Thus, clear differences in thyroid function between GH-deficient and non-GH-deficient subjects should exist. Methods Analysis comprised 800 children (541 boys, age 11.6 ± 3.1 years (mean ± SD, with short stature, in whom two (2 standard GHST (with clonidine and with glucagon were performed and IGF-I, free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3 and TSH serum concentrations were assessed. The patients were qualified to the following groups: GHD - decreased GH peak in GHST and IGF-I SDS (n = 81, ISS - normal GH peak and IGF-I SDS (n = 347, low GH - normal IGF-I SDS, and decreased GH peak (n = 212, low IGF - decreased IGF-I SDS, and normal GH peak (n = 160. The relationships among the results of particular tests were evaluated. Results In the groups with decreased IGF-I concentrations (GHD Group and low IGF Group, the more severe deficit of height was observed, together with higher TSH and FT4 but lower FT3 levels than in groups with normal IGF-I concentrations (ISS Group and low GH Group, independently of the results of GHST. TSH, FT4 and FT3 concentrations were - respectively - similar in two groups with decreased IGF-I secretion, as well as in two groups with normal IGF-I levels. Significant correlations were found between patients' height SDS and IGF-I SDS, between FT3 and IGF-I SDS (positive, and between FT4 and IGF-I SDS (negative, with no correlation between GH peak and any of the parameters

  11. Based on ANSYS buckling-restrained brace frame structure analysis%基于ANSYS约束屈曲支撑框架结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费建伟

    2011-01-01

    传统的耗能支撑框架结构具有较好的经济性,但是,在中震和强震时,支撑会发生受压屈曲.利用ANSYS模拟约束屈曲支撑框架在地震作用下的结构响应,采用理想弹塑性模型模拟屈曲约束支撑的滞回性能,分别在中震烈度和大震烈度下,对一般框架结构和约束屈曲支撑框架结构进行非线性时程分析,得到结构响应.分析结果表明,约束屈曲支撑结构减震效果良好.%The traditional energy support frame structure with good efficiency, but in moderate earthquakes and strong earthquake support will occur pressure buckling. Using ANSYS simulation buckling-restrained brace framework response of the structure in earthquake. Using the ideal elastic-plastic model describe buckling-restrained brace hysteretic performance, in moderate earthquakes and strong earthquake, general framework and buckling-restrained brace framework for nonlinear time-history analysis, solving structural response. Analysis results show that buckling-restrained brace structure damping effect is good.

  12. Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents : A systematic review of clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssinck, MLB; Frijlink, AC; Berger, MY; Bierma-Zeinstra, SMA; Verkerk, K; Verhagen, AP

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of braces and other conservative treatments of idiopathic scoliosis in a

  13. LATERAL RESISTANCE OF CHEVRON-BRACED FRAMES WITH STRONG BEAMS%横梁加强型人字形支撑的抗侧力性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    The elastic-plastic analysis was made for chevron-braced frames with strong beams, the slenderness and inclination of a brace are varied and the beams are strengthened with four different levels. The results showed that strong beams can delay the degradation of the compressed brace's strength and allow the tensile brace yield, leading to the chevron braces' peak strength over the buckling strength. Formulas for the peak strength and the overstrength factor of chevron braces are proposed. It is found that the braces with moderate slenderness experience a sharp drop in the lateral load immediately after the peak strength is reached, showing the worst seismic behavior. Formulas for predicting the drift at buckling of braces in compress and yielding of braces in tension are suggested. Equations for predicting the degradation of the braces' compressive capacity and the unbalanced force supported by beams with a drift ratio are also proposed. All proposed equations are compared with FEM results, showing excellent agreement.%对人字形支撑进行弹塑性分析,变化支撑长细比和支撑倾斜角度,考虑四种不同的横梁加强程度。研究表明加强横梁可以延缓受压支撑屈曲后承载力的退化和作为受拉支撑的支点让其受拉屈服,使支撑架的极限承载力高于屈曲承载力。拟合了抗侧极限承载力和超强系数公式;分析发现,成对的中等长细比的人字支撑在达到抗侧极限承载力后有明显退化,因而抗震性能较差;提出了受压支撑屈曲后剩余承载力随层侧移角变化的公式,推导了受压支撑屈曲和受拉支撑屈服时的层侧移角公式,分析了横梁跨中承受的竖向不平衡力随层侧移角和支撑长细比的变化规律,提出了计算公式。

  14. Radiologic findings and curve progression 22 years after treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: comparison of brace and surgical treatment with matching control group of straight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, A J; Nachemson, A L

    2001-03-01

    This study is a follow-up investigation for a consecutive series of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated between 1968 and 1977. In this series, 156 patients underwent surgery with distraction and fusion using Harrington rods, and 127 were treated with brace. To determine the long-term outcome in terms of radiologic findings and curve progression at least 20 years after completion of the treatment. Radiologic appearance is important in comparing the outcome of different treatment options and in evaluating clinical results. Earlier studies have shown a slight increase of the Cobb angle in brace-treated patients with time, but not in fused patients. Of 283 patients, 252 attended a clinical and radiologic follow-up assessment by an unbiased observer (91% of the surgically treated and 87% of the brace-treated patients). This evaluation included chart reviews, validated questionnaires, clinical examination, and full-length standing frontal and lateral roentgenographs. Curve size was measured by the Cobb method on anteroposterior roentgenograms as well as by sagittal contour and balance on lateral films. The occurrence of any degenerative changes or other complications was noted. An age- and gender-matched control group of 100 individuals was randomly selected and subjected to the same examinations. The mean follow-up times were 23 years for surgically treated group and 22 years for brace-treated group. The deterioration of the curves was 3.5 degrees for all the surgically treated curves and 7.9 degrees for all the brace-treated curves (P flat back syndrome developed in four patients. Eight of the patients treated with fusion (5.1%) had undergone some additional curve-related surgical procedure. The lumbar lordosis was less in the surgically treated than in the brace-treated patients or the control group (mean, 33 degrees vs 45 degrees and 44 degrees, respectively). Both surgically treated and brace-treated patients had more degenerative disc changes than

  15. Specific exercises performed in the period of brace weaning can avoid loss of correction in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS patients: Winner of SOSORT's 2008 Award for Best Clinical Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercises are frequently performed in order to improve the efficacy of bracing and avoid its collateral effects. Very frequently there is a loss of correction during brace weaning in AIS treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of exercises in reducing correction loss during brace weaning. Study Design Retrospective controlled study. Population Sixty-eight consecutive patients (eight males, age 15 ± 1 and Cobb angle 22 ± 8° at start of brace weaning. Methods The start of brace weaning was defined as the first visit in which the wearing of brace for less than 18/24 hours was prescribed (according to our protocol, at Risser 3. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether or not exercises were performed: (1 EX (exercises, included 39 patients and was further divided into two sub-groups: SEAS (who performed exercises according to our institute's protocol, 14 patients and OTH (other exercises, 25 patients and (2 CON (controls, 29 patients that was divided into two other sub-groups: DIS (discontinuous exercises, 19 patients and NO (no exercises, 10 patients. Complete brace weaning was defined as the first visit in which the brace was no longer prescribed (ringapophysis closure or Risser 5, according to our protocol. ANOVA and Chi Square tests were performed. Results There was no difference between groups at baseline. However, at the end of treatment, 2.7 years after the start of the weaning process, Cobb angle increased significantly in both the DIS and NO groups (3.9° and 3.1° Cobb, respectively. The SEAS and OTH groups did not change. Comparing single groups, OTH (with respect to DIS had a significant difference (P Conclusion Exercises can help reduce the correction loss in brace weaning for AIS.

  16. ROLE OF POSTURAL CORRECTION BRACE ALONG WITH CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN IMPROVEMENT OF FUNCTIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS- RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scoliosis is lateral curvature of spine with torsion of the spine and chest resulting in a disturbed sagittal profile. The exact cause of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS is unknown, but it may be due to combination of genetic and environmental factors. Conservative measures of treatment for AIS are exercises, braces and postural education. The aim of this randomised control study was to assess the effect of adding a brace and postural correction to spinal scoliosis correction exercises on one year outcome of treatment of AIS. Objectives of the study were to assess the effects of adding a brace and postural correction to spinal scoliosis correction exercises on angle of trunk rotation and health-related quality of life in AIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty two patients of AIS who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled in the study. Both the groups undertook self-correction exercises (spinal extension and spinal stretching exercises. Braces and postural correction were added to the experimental group. Effects were assessed after one year using scoliometry for measurement of Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR and SRS-22 was used to assess health-related quality of life. RESULTS ATR was found to be significantly (p=0.02 lower in the Experimental group compared to Control group at one year follow up. A significant (p<0.05 difference in the quality of life parameters was also observed at one year follow up in the experimental group compared to control group, the experimental group showing higher improvement. CONCLUSION Adding brace and postural correction to spinal scoliosis correction exercises improves one year outcome measured in terms of ATR and health-related quality of life.

  17. Clinical assessment of the efficacy of SpineCor brace in the correction of postural deformities in the course of idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewka, Barbara; Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Witoński, Dariusz; Kołodziejczyk-Klimek, Katarzyna; Plewka, Michał

    2013-03-26

    The objective of the study was to perform a clinical, comparative assessment of the degree of postural deformities before and after the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in patients treated with SpineCor brace compared to the control group. A group of 90 children with idiopathic scoliosis (including 74 girls) at the average age of 12.2 was subject to prospective observation. Average pre-treatment Cobb angle was 24.9° in the thoracic spine and 25.8° in the lumbar spine. The group actively treated with the SpineCor brace consisted of 45 children, while the control group consisted of the remaining 45 children with the natural course of the disease. Both groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, gender, height, body weight, Risser sign of skeletal maturity and baseline clinical and radiological parameters of scoliosis. Significant reduction of rib hump was observed upon 2-year SpineCor brace treatment (P=0.04) compared to the group treated by physiotherapy only (P=0.91). Similarly, improvement in lumbar prominence was observed in the actively treated group (P=0.009), with a trend towards worse results in the control group (P=0.07) In the group treated with the SpineCor brace, significant reduction in pectoral and hamstring muscle contractures as well as reduction in shoulder asymmetry and reduction in anterior and posterior vertical deviation were observed. Treatment using the SpineCor dynamic brace leads to a clinical improvement in posture, particularly to reduction in rib hump, lumbar prominence and muscular contractures.

  18. A Study of the Effect of Infilled Brick Walls on Behavior of Eccentrically Braced Frames Using Explicit Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. Daryan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs are usually infilled by masonry walls, but in common design, the stiffness and lateral resistance of these walls is ignored. Considering the results of carried out tests and studies, it seems that infilled masonry walls have a significant influence on the stiffness and the strength of EBFs. Since experimental test of total frame with infilled brick wall is a very expensive and time consuming process, proper numerical models which can precisely simulate the behavior of EBFs considering the effects of infilled brick wall are necessary. Approach: In this study, a proper model is made using explicit finite elements method to study the behavior of EBFs with infilled masonry wall. Because of complicated mechanical and geometrical properties of masonry walls and also because of the interaction between steel frame and masonry wall, this model is not easy to obtain. To ensure the ability of the model to precisely simulate the behavior of an EBF with infilled brick wall, initial models were made and the problems were solved comparing the results of experimental test and the results of these initial models. Firstly, material models and some basic principles of explicit finite element algorithm are used and three initial models were made: a model of a brick wall without eccentrically braced steel frame, a model of an EBF without infilled brick wall and finally a model of an EBF with infilled brick wall. Results: Using these three initial models, constitutive model for masonry and steel material and also the proper elements for modeling the behavior of mortar is obtained. Studies showed that good prediction of the behavior of a system consisting of EBF and masonry wall is possible, by minimizing the kinematical energy and using a special time scaling of explicit finite element model. Conclusion: After verifying the finite element models, the influence of masonry infilled wall on the behavior of

  19. 高大模板支撑架体施工技术%Construction technology of high formwork bracing frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马姗姗

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the architectural structure styles of the engineering gate and auxiliary project,in light of relevant contents of construction technology of high formwork bracing frame,the paper mainly introduces and analyzes the formwork design calculation,structural method,process acceptance and quality control and so on.Practice proves that meets the norms.Thus,it is worth promoting.%结合某工程大门楼及附属工程的建筑结构形式,针对高支模架施工技术的相关内容,重点对模架设计计算、构造做法、过程验收、质量控制等方面做了介绍和分析,经过实例验证均符合规范要求,值得推广使用。

  20. Densities, viscosities, and refractive indexes for {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace} at T=308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, Herminio; Garcia-Garabal, Sandra; Segade, Luisa; Cabeza, Oscar. E-mail: oscabe@udc.es; Franjo, Carlos; Jimenez, Eulogio

    2003-07-01

    In this work we present densities, kinematic viscosities, and refractive indexes of the ternary system {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace} and the corresponding binary mixtures {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace}, {l_brace}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3}+C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH{r_brace}, and {l_brace}C{sub 6}H{sub 13}OH+C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{r_brace}. All data have been measured at T=308.15 K and atmospheric pressure over the whole composition range. The excess molar volumes, dynamic viscosity deviations, and changes of the refractive index on mixing were calculated from experimental measurements. The results for binary mixtures were fitted to a polynomial relationship to estimate the coefficients and standard deviations. The Cibulka equation has been used to correlate the experimental values of ternary mixtures. Also, the experimental values obtained for the ternary mixture were used to test the empirical methods of Kohler, Jacob and Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao and Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al., and Hillert. These methods predict excess properties of the ternary mixtures from those of the involved binary mixtures. The results obtained for dynamic viscosities of the binary mixtures were used to test the semi-empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, McAllister, Auslaender, and Teja-Rice. Finally, the experimental refractive indexes were compared with the predicted results for the Lorentz-Lorenz, Gladstone-Dale, Wiener, Heller, and Arago-Biot equations. In all cases, we give the standard deviation between the experimental data and that calculated with the above named relations.

  1. Blockade of the action of nitric oxide in human septic shock increases systemic vascular resistance and has detrimental effects on pulmonary function after a short infusion of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartner R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of nitric oxide in human sepsis, ten patients with severe septic shock requiring vasoactive drug therapy and mechanical ventilation were enrolled in a prospective, open, non-randomized clinical trial to study the acute effects of methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Hemodynamic and metabolic variables were measured before and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after the start of a 1-h intravenous infusion of 4 mg/kg of methylene blue. Methylene blue administration caused a progressive increase in mean arterial pressure (60 [55-70] to 70 [65-100] mmHg, median [25-75th percentiles]; P<0.05, systemic vascular resistance index (649 [479-1084] to 1066 [585-1356] dyne s-1 cm-5 m-2; P<0.05 and the left ventricular stroke work index (35 [27-47] to 38 [32-56] g m-1 m-2; P<0.05 from baseline to 60 min. The pulmonary vascular resistance index increased from 150 [83-207] to 186 [121-367] dyne s-1 cm-5 m-2 after 20 min (P<0.05. Mixed venous saturation decreased from 65 [56-76] to 63 [55-69]% (P<0.05 after 60 min. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio decreased from 168 [131-215] to 132 [109-156] mmHg (P<0.05 after 40 min. Arterial lactate concentration decreased from 5.1 ± 2.9 to 4.5 ± 2.1 mmol/l, mean ± SD (P<0.05 after 60 min. Heart rate, cardiac filling pressures, cardiac output, oxygen delivery and consumption did not change. Methylene blue administration was safe and no adverse effect was observed. In severe human septic shock, a short infusion of methylene blue increases systemic vascular resistance and may improve myocardial function. Although there was a reduction in blood lactate concentration, this was not explained by an improvement in tissue oxygenation, since overall oxygen availability did not change. However, there was a significant increase in pulmonary vascular tone and a deterioration in gas exchange. Further studies are needed to demonstrate if nitric oxide blockade with methylene blue can be safe for patients with septic shock

  2. MUNC-ing around with insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David E

    2005-02-01

    Defective uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, or insulin resistance, is a central feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. As we brace ourselves for the diabetes epidemic, it is reassuring to know that real progress is being made in defining the molecular biology of how insulin stimulates glucose uptake and what goes awry in obesity and type 2 diabetes. An understanding of the molecular determinants of insulin-stimulated glucose transport has been one of the holy grails of hormone action research. A major breakthrough was the discovery that insulin stimulates the translocation of a specific glucose transport protein, GLUT4, from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. Elucidating how this process is regulated has remained a challenge because it represents a convergence of 2 disparate and complex fields of research--namely, vesicle transport and signal transduction. A study reported in this issue of the JCI using mice lacking Munc18c, one of the vesicle-trafficking proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, has provided new insights into the signaling/trafficking intersection that controls insulin-stimulated GLUT4 movement.

  3. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  4. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  5. Experimental Analysis on Seismic Performance of Steel Bracing Bound-Column Component%钢支撑束柱抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆烨; 刘青; 李国强; 刘玉姝

    2014-01-01

    通过试验和有限元理论对比研究了钢支撑束柱的抗震性能和破坏特性。试验模型采用2层钢支撑束柱构件,其中钢支撑为长肢相并的双角钢支撑。试验共分为3组,1组为单调加载试验,另外2组为滞回性能试验。另对钢支撑束柱的抗震性能进行了有限元理论分析,经试验结果验证,得到了钢支撑束柱试件的抗侧承载力、刚度及滞回性能。研究表明,钢支撑束柱的承载力、刚度主要来自钢支撑,而束柱外框架部分的贡献很小。钢支撑束柱的破坏只发生在钢支撑中,外框架部分没有任何损坏。%The seismic resistant performance and failure mechanism of the steel bracing Bound-Column were analyzed with tests and the finite element method .Two-story steel bracing Bound-Column test specimen was selected .The braces adopt long leg back-back double angle .Tests were divided into three groups , including one monotonic loading test and two cyclic tests . Lateral load-bearing capacity , stiffness and hysteretic behavior of the steel bracing Bound-Column were obtained by the comparison of test results and the finite element method .Results show that the steel brace of Bound-Column contributes a lot to its load capacity and stiffness ,while the external frame provides little lateral rigidity and capacity .Bound-Column failure occurs only in the steel braces ,while the external frame is with no damage .

  6. Significance of hanging total spine x-ray to estimate the indicative correction angle by brace wearing in idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroki Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most idiopathic scoliosis patients subject to conservative treatment in daily clinical practice, there have been no ideal methods to evaluate the spinal flexibility for the patients who are scheduled the brace treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of hanging total spine x-ray to estimate the indicative correction angle by brace wearing in idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods One hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis who were newly prescribed the Osaka Medical College (OMC brace were studied. The study included 14 boys and 162 girls with a mean age of 13 years and 1 month. The type of curves consisted of 62 thoracic, 23 thoracolumbar, 22 lumbar, 42 double major, 14 double thoracic, and 13 triple curve pattern. We compared the Cobb angles on initial brace wearing (BA and in hanging position (HA. Of those, 108 patients who had main thoracic curves were selected and evaluated the corrective ability of OMC brace. These subjects were divided into three groups according to the relation between BA and HA (BA HA group, and then, maturity was compared among them. Results The average Cobb angle in upright position (UA of all cases was 31.0 ± 7.8°. The average BA and HA of all cases were 20.3 ± 9.5° and 21.1 ± 8.4°, respectively. The average chronological age was lowest in BA Conclusions The use of hanging total spine x-ray served as a useful tool to estimate the degree of correction possible curve within the OMC brace for main thoracic curve in idiopathic scoliosis. Maturity had some influence on the correlation between HA and BA. Namely, in immature patients, HA tended to be larger than BA. In contrast, in mature patients, HA had a tendency to be smaller than BA. With consideration for spinal flexibility based on maturity, in mature patients, larger BA than HA may be allowed. However, in immature patients, smaller BA than HA should be aimed.

  7. ANALYSIS ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF CENTRICALLY BRACED STEEL FRAME%轻型钢框架支撑体系振动特性与抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹昀; 张振炫; 李凯文; 王城泉

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dynamic characteristics of steel frames with different pattern of braces, three structures with X braces, V braces and inverted V braces were designed utilizing PKPM software. Finite element analyses on these structures were carried out by using ANSYS and SAP2000 to investigate the effects of brace pattern on structural stiffness. Then, time history analysis using El-Centro wave and SHW2 wave were performed. Results show that V braces and inverted V braces are close in improving dynamic characteristics of structures and more effective man X braces.%为了分析不同支撑形式对钢框架结构体系振动特性的影响,利用PKPM软件设计了X型、V型和人字型3种不同支撑形式的12层钢框架支撑结构,提供了主要构件的尺寸和结构的振动特性,再利用有限元软件ANSYS和SAP2000对3种不同支撑的自振特性分别进行了分析,探明了不同支撑形式对该结构体系的动力特性的影响;利用ANSYS软件进行了El-Centro波和上海人工二波输入下的多遇和罕遇地震的弹塑性时程分析,探讨了不同支撑形式的结构地震响应.分析结果表明,V型和人字型对结构刚度的提高比X型的支撑明显,前二种支撑效果非常接近,分析结果可供工程设计人员在结构选型时参考.

  8. 分层装配式支撑钢结构工业化建筑体系抗震性能试验研究%Experimental research on seismic performance of floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structures for prefabricated buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青; 王伟; 陈以一; 童乐为; 余亚超; 杨建行; 刘大伟; 古海贤二

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-static experiment was carried out on a full scale two-story by four-span structural system.Lateral force resisting mechanism,failure modes and hysteretic properties of the improved floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structure were investigated,as well as the evolution of the structural stiffness and strength under horizontal earthquake.Test results show that the braces are the primary members to resist the lateral load,the elastic lateral stiffness is exclusively provided by the braces.The developed new braces demonstrate good ductile behavior.The structural damage evolution under cyclic loading includes compression buckling and tension yielding of braces,partial yielding of column base,cyclic deformation of beam flange,weld cracking and plastic hinge formation at the column bases.The beam-column frame can participate in resisting horizontal seismic force under the conditions of large story drift due to the improved beam through connections.Thus,it can be viewed as the second defense of the structural system.It is recommended that a certain magnification factor for seismic action should be considered in the seismic design to compensate the low energy dissipation capacity.%对2层4跨足尺结构进行了拟静力加载试验,考察了分层装配式支撑钢结构在水平地震作用下的抗侧力机制、破坏模式与滞回特性,以及刚度和承载力的变化规律。试验结果表明,支撑是主要抗侧力构件,结构弹性阶段的抗侧刚度几乎完全由支撑提供,研制的新型支撑具有良好的延性工作性能。结构体系在往复荷载下失效演进过程表现为支撑受压失稳、支撑受拉屈服、柱脚截面部分屈服、节点处梁翼缘循环拉压变形、柱脚端板连接焊缝开裂和柱脚全截面屈服形成塑性铰。改进后的梁贯通式节点可以保证框架在塑性大变形阶段分担相当比例的水平地震力,因而可作为该结构的第2道防线。鉴于结构体系耗能能力

  9. Short QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Rainer; Wolpert, Christian; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Giustetto, Carla; Borggrefe, Martin

    2005-08-15

    The short QT syndrome constitutes a new clinical entity that is associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac death, syncope, and/or atrial fibrillation even in young patients and newborns. Patients with this congenital electrical abnormality are characterized by rate-corrected QT intervalsdelayed-rectifier current I(Kr) have been identified in the first two reported families with familial sudden cardiac death. Recently, two further gain-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the KvLQT1 (I(Ks)) channel and in the KCNJ2 gene encoding the strong inwardly rectifying channel protein Kir2.1 confirmed a genetically heterogeneous disease. The possible substrate for the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias may be a significant transmural dispersion of the repolarisation due to a heterogeneous abbreviation of the action potential duration. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the therapy of choice in patients with syncope and a positive family history of sudden cardiac death. However, ICD therapy in patients with a short QT syndrome has an increased risk for inappropriate shock therapies due to possible T wave oversensing. The impact of sotalol, ibutilide, flecainide, and quinidine on QT prolongation has been evaluated, but only quinidine effectively suppressed gain-of-function in I(Kr) with prolongation of the QT interval. In patients with a mutation in HERG, it rendered ventricular tachycardias/ventricular fibrillation non-inducible and restored the QT interval/heart rate relationship towards a normal range. It may serve as an adjunct to ICD therapy or as a possible alternative treatment, especially for children and newborns.

  10. Shaking table test and numerical analysis of a 1:12 scale model of a special concentrically braced steel frame with pinned connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haifeng; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yaochun; Sun, Yusong

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes shaking table tests of a 1:12 scale model of a special concentrically braced steel frame with pinned connections, which was fabricated according to a one-bay braced frame selected from a typical main factory building of a large thermal power plant. In order to investigate the seismic performance of this type of structure, several ground motion accelerations with different levels for seismic intensity VIII, based on the Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, were selected to excite the model. The results show that the design methods of the members and the connections are adequate and that the structural system will perform well in regions of high seismicity. In addition to the tests, numerical simulations were also conducted and the results showed good agreement with the test results. Thus, the numerical model is shown to be accurate and the beam element can be used to model this structural system.

  11. Collective action, clientelism and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shami, Mahvish

    are in short supply, the few that exist are generally pessimistic. This paper argues, however, that clientelist relations are highly context-specific, which matters a great deal for their implications for collective action. Making use of a natural experiment in rural Punjab, Pakistan, the paper finds...... that the unequal relationship between landlords and peasants does not, in and by itself, block peasant collective action. Rather, it is the interaction between clientelism and isolation that allow patrons to block community based projects. Despite still relying on powerful landlords, peasants in connected villages...

  12. Short Time Quantum Propagator and Bohmian Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    De Gosson, Maurice,; Hiley, Basil

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action; following the work of one of us and Makri--Miller. We use these estimates to derive a correct expression modulo modulo delta(t)sqr for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo delta(t)sqr for a point source. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  13. PISA's influence on thought and action in mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Alignment and some actions following are outlined. Analysis of short and extended answers to two test items by 110 Danish students in 2003 is presented.......Alignment and some actions following are outlined. Analysis of short and extended answers to two test items by 110 Danish students in 2003 is presented....

  14. 错列支撑框架结构弹性抗震性能分析%Elastic seismic analysis of staggered bracing frame structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 侯春娇; 田兴运; 苏雷; 卢雪清

    2012-01-01

    在分析钢筋混凝土斜撑框架结构和错列框架剪力墙结构的抗震性能的基础上,提出错列支撑框架结构.为研究错列支撑框架结构抗震性能,分别对5种不同类型的结构采用ANSYS软件进行结构动力特性、地震反应谱位移响应、地震时程位移响应求解.通过比较分析,得出错列支撑框架结构具有良好的抗震性能及广阔的应用前景.还比较了按反应谱分析的结果和按振幅折减典型El Centro波进行时程分析的结果,得出进行地震时程分析时选用地震波的原则.%Based on the analysis of seismic performance of bracing reinforced concrete frame structure and the staggered frame shear-wall structure, propose the staggered bracing frame structure. In order to study on seismic performance of staggered bracing frame structure, choose 5 different structural types and used ANSYS to analysis the dynamic characteristics, displacement response using spectrum method, displacement response using seismic time history solution. Through analysis and comparison, we can see the staggered bracing frame structure has good seismic performance, broad application prospects. Also compared the response spectrum analysis and amplitude reduced by a typical El Centro wave time history analysis, obtained some note for seismic time-history analysis.

  15. Outcome of intensive outpatient rehabilitation and bracing in an adult patient with Scheuermann’s disease evaluated by radiologic imaging—a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Berdishevsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies examine the efficacy of intensive specific physical therapy (PT exercises along with brace for the adult with Scheuermann’s kyphosis (SK. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of intensive PT based on the Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School (BSPTS and SpinoMed brace on a 76-year-old female with SK. Case Description A 76-year-old female, diagnosed with SK as an adolescent, presented in October 2014 with thoracic hyperkyphosis T1 to T12 Cobb angle of 85° and lumbar hyper lordosis L1 to L5 Cobb angle of 70°. Lumbar scoliosis T12-L5 with 21° Cobb and vertebral rotation 2. Trunk translation in the sagittal plan was 4.5 cm. Intermittent low back pain 6/10 at worst. Quality-of-life score was 3.8 (SRS 22 questionnaire. Method The PT regimen included one-hour Schroth exercise sessions three times per week for 6 months. In addition, a home exercise program (HEP was recommended. Patient also wore a SpinoMed brace for 2 h per day. All tests and measurements were recorded before and after treatment. Results After a six-month treatment period the kyphosis Cobb angle was reduced to 70° and the lordosis Cobb angle improved to 57°. A recent x-ray (October 2015 showed another improvement in the sagittal plane with thoracic kyphosis measuring 64° and lumbar lordosis 55°. Lumbar curvature decreased to 12° and vertebral rotation to 1. The quality-of-life score showed improvement with a score of 4.5 on the SRS 22. Pain score diminished to 2. Trunk deviation improved by 2.2 cm. Conclusion These findings suggest that intensive and specific PT and bracing were successful for the treatment of this adult patient with SK.

  16. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  17. Comparison of functional electrical stimulation to long leg braces for upright mobility for children with complete thoracic level spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaroti, D; Akers, J M; Smith, B T; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, R R

    1999-09-01

    To prospectively compare functional electrical stimulation (FES) to long leg braces (LLB) as a means of upright mobility for children with motor-complete thoracic level spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Intrasubject group comparison of two interventions. Nonprofit pediatric orthopedic rehabilitation facility specializing in SCI. Convenience sample of five children between 9 and 18 years old with motor-complete thoracic level SCI. The hip and knee extensors were excitable by electrical stimulation. The FES system consisted of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted to the hip and knee extensors and a push-button activated stimulator worn about the waist. Standing was accomplished by simultaneous stimulation of all implanted muscles. For foot and ankle stability, either ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) or supramalleolar orthoses were used. The LLB system consisted of a custom knee-ankle foot orthosis (KAFO) for four subjects and a custom reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) for one subject who required bracing at the hip. For both interventions, either a front-wheeled walker or Lofstrand crutches were used as assistive devices. Each subject was trained in the use of both FES and LLB in seven standardized upright mobility activities: stand and reach, high transfer, toilet transfer, floor to stand, 6-meter walk, stair ascent, and stair descent. For each mobility activity, five repeated measures of level of independence, using the 7-point Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, and time to completion were recorded for each intervention. Subjects were also asked which intervention they preferred. For 94% of comparisons, subjects required equal (70%) or less (24%) assistance using FES as compared with LLB. Six of the seven mobility activities required less time to complete using FES, two activities at significant levels. The FES system was preferred in 62% of the cases, LLB were desired 27% of the time, and there was no preference in 11% of the cases. The FES system

  18. The Quench Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  19. Information, uncertainty and holographic action

    CERN Document Server

    Dikken, Robbert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this short note we show through simple derivation the explicit relation between information flow and the theories of the emergence of space-time and gravity, specifically for Newton's second law of motion. Next, in a rather straightforward derivation the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is uncovered from the universal bound on information flow. A relation between the universal bound on information flow and the change in bulk action is also shown to exist.

  20. Seismic Fragility Analysis of Transfer Beam Structure with Haunch Brace%带腋撑梁式转换结构地震易损性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健; 梁伟盛; 何铭基

    2012-01-01

    To improve the poor seismic performances of the reinforced concrete(RC) transfer beam structure with problem of vertical stiffness irregularity, RC haunch brace was proposed to be installed at the transfer story to change the vertical stiffness irregularity of RC transfer beam structure. The incremental dynamic analysis of RC transfer frame structure with and without haunch brace was carried out and the seismic fragility curve equations were established. The influences of haunch brace on failure mechanism of RC transfer frame structure were investigated. The results show that the seismic responses of the transfer frame structure can be effectively alleviated by RC haunch brace. The probability of exceedance of the transfer frame structure corresponding to different damage states can be significantly decreased. The lateral drift mechanism in the first and transfer story of the structure can be avoided effectively by haunch brace under the strong ground motions. The global and local collapse of the RC transfer frame structure can be prevented.%针对钢筋混凝土梁式转换结构存在竖向刚度突变不利于抗震的问题,在转换层处设置了钢筋混凝土腋撑,以降低转换结构竖向刚度突变程度,改善其抗震性能.通过对普通与带腋撑钢筋混凝土转换框架结构进行增量动力分析,建立其地震易损性曲线方程,并且研究了腋撑对钢筋混凝土转换框架结构破坏机制的影响.分析结果表明,钢筋混凝土腋撑能有效地减缓转换框架结构地震反应,显著地降低转换框架结构在各个破坏状态下的超越慨率.在强烈地震作用下,钢筋混凝土腋撑能有效地避免结构在首层与转换层处形成“层侧移机构”的破坏机制,防止钢筋混凝土转换框架结构发生整体或局部倒塌破坏.

  1. When imitation falls short : The case of complementary actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Imitation is seen by many researchers as the driving force of human evolution and as a primary factor controlling the development of culture (Legare & Nielsen, 2015). The ontogeny of imitative behavior has been heavenly debated and has inspired a host of theoretical accounts. While an inborn mechani

  2. Synthesis of the Low Molecular Weight Polycarboxylic Superplasticizer with Short Side Chain and the Consideration of its Action Mechanism%含短侧基低分子量聚羧酸系减水剂的合成与作用机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周科利; 刘瑾; 李真

    2011-01-01

    A maleic anhydride citric acid ester (MACA) was synthesized by using an esterification reaction. A novel polycarboxylic superplasticizer with low molecular weight and short side chain was synthesized through free radical polymerization from acrylic acid (AA), sodium alkyl sulfonate (SAS) and MACA. In order to study its action mechanism, the composition of the novel polycarboxylic superplasticizer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and intrinsic viscosity measurements, and the effects of novel superplasticizer in cement paste were explored by testing the fluidity of cement grout and the ζ potential. The results show that the cement paste with novel superplasticizer had higher fluidity, less fluidity loss and homogeneousness without bleeding. In addition, it was suggested that the action mechanism of the novel superplasticizer with cement agreed with the theory model of electrostatic repulsive force and steric hindrance.%利用合成的马来酸酐柠檬酸酯类大单体(MACA)与丙烯酸(AA)、烯丙基磺酸钠(SAS)等进行自由基聚合,制备出一种含短侧基低分子量的新型聚羧酸系减水剂.通过红外光谱、黏度、水泥净浆流动度和ζ电位等方法对共聚物的结构组成和性能进行了表征,并初步探讨了新型聚羧酸系减水剂与水泥的作用机理.研究表明:该减水剂有较好的分散性,且水泥净浆流动度保持性较好,无泌水离析现象;该减水剂与水泥粒子的塑化机理符合静电斥力与空间位阻理论.

  3. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF OUTER-BRACE SCFS IN RIGHTANGLE TWO-PLANAR TUBULAR DKT-JOINTS OF OFFSHORE JACKET STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AHMADI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a set of parametric FE stress analyses is carried out for two-planar welded tubular DKT-joints under two different axial load cases. Analysis results are used to present general remarks on the effect of geometrical parameters on the stress concentration factors (SCFs at the inner saddle, outer saddle, crown toe, and crown heel positions on the main (outer brace. Based on the results of finite element analyses which are verified against the experimental data, a complete set of SCF database is constructed. Then a new set of SCF parametric equations is developed through nonlinear regression analysis for the fatigue design of two-planar DKT-joints under axial loads. An assessment study of these equations is conducted against the experimental data and the satisfaction of criteria regarding the acceptance of parametric equations is checked. Significant effort has been devoted by researchers to the study of SCFs in various uni-planar tubular connections. Nevertheless, for multi-planar joints covering the majority of practical applications, very few investigations have been reported due to the complexity and high cost involved.

  4. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with eight fractures in the vertebral column treated with kyphoplasty and bracing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacker, J; Janousek, M; Kröber, M

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition, which imposes multiple symptoms in the musculoskeletal system. Common complaints announced by patients are severe pain in the lower back, hips and the joints of the lower extremities with a reduced and less mobility status in general. Most of the patients' problems occur in the last trimester of pregnancy or postpartum and are often not diagnosed as side effects of osteoporosis but as problems associated with pregnancy. Although vertebral fractures are rare complications of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis, they should be always considered in women presenting with an acute pain syndrome in peripregnancy period. This case presents a 40-year-old primagravid woman who developed pain in hips and severe pain in the lower back causing an immobilization diagnosed with a pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with eight compression fractures in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Because of sagittal imbalance of the spine, she was treated with kyphoplasty at the four lumbar fractures and with bracing for the upper, thoracic ones, additional to the conservative anti-osteoporotic therapy. The authors discuss pregnancy-associated osteoporosis and its clinical presentation, as well as the indications of kyphoplasty, spinal alignment and the risk of single conservative treatment.

  5. Childhood Short Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or ...

  6. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of p

  7. Experimental study on seismic behavior of latticed system columns with RC bracing structure%带RC支撑格构化体系柱的抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓; 王鹏; 易楚军; 易宏伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the "strong column weak beam" seismic design principles of reinforced concrete frames, two lattice system columns with V-braces and X-braces and a test specimen without brace were designed for cyclic tests. Based on the test results, the cracking load, ultimate bearing capacity and failure modes were obtained. Hysteretic curves, skeleton curves, deformation and Ductility coefficient ability of seismic performance of the latticed system columns with RC braces were analyzed and compared with the specimens without braces. Experimental results indicate that good seismic performance can be obtained for the Latticed System Columns with RC braces, and its resistant lateral stiffness increases obviously. For lattice system columns with RC braces,the plastic hinges of braces and beams unusually appeare in advance, which makes the structure easy to realize the target of seismic design of " strong column weak beam" , however, the lattice system columns without the RC braces do not show such trend.%为探索实现钢筋混凝土框架中的“强柱弱梁”的抗震设计原则,该文设计两个支撑形式分别为人字形、交叉形的格构化体系柱和一个无支撑的格构化体系柱试件,并对其进行低周期反复荷载试验.得出格构化体系柱的开裂荷载、极限承载力和破坏形态,分析带RC支撑的格构化体系柱的滞回曲线、骨架曲线、变形能力、延性等抗震性能,并和无支撑的格构化体系柱进行对比分析.分析结果表明:带RC支撑的格构化体系柱的极限承载力、抗侧刚度等抗震性能较无支撑格构化体系柱有明显的提高.在带RC支撑的格构化体系柱中,支撑和梁往往先于柱子出现塑性铰,使结构容易实现“强柱弱梁”的抗震设计目标,而不带RC支撑的格构化体系柱却很难实现.

  8. Study on the Effect of Crossed Steel Bracing on RC Frames%后加交叉钢支撑对RC框架结构的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永河; 李胜强; 习会峰; 穆建春

    2011-01-01

    In order to discover the law of effect of crossed steel bracing on RC frames, three affecting factors such as structural layers, bracing cross-section dimension and connection method of bracing and frames were taken into account,and ETABS was used to establish structure models so as to conduct quantitative analysis of period,stiffness,foundation reaction and internal forces of beams & columns in RC frames provided with steel bracing. The result shows that, the effect laws of crossed steel bracing on RC frames of different structural layers are basically the same, the effect of bracing cross-section dimension on internal forces of members of structural units where bracing are located is great,and the calculation results of rigid or hinged connection of bracing and frames are basically the same. In addition, the steel bracing provided later bears most of the horizontal shearing force,and greatly affects foundation reactions due to gravity load or earthquake,column axial forces and beam bending moments and shearing forces due to earthquake, and beam axial forces due to gravity load.%为揭示后加交叉钢支撑对RC框架结构的影响规律,考虑结构层数、支撑截面尺寸及支撑与框架结构的连接方式三种影响因素,采用ETABS建立结构模型,对加钢支撑后RC框架结构的周期、刚度及基础反力及梁柱内力进行了定量分析.结果表明,后加交叉钢支撑对不同结构层数的RC框架的影响规律基本相同,支撑截面尺寸对支撑所在的结构单元的构件内力有较大影响,支撑与框架结构刚接或铰接连接的计算结果基本相同.此外,后加钢支撑承担了大部分的水平剪力,钢支撑对重力荷载或地震作用下的基础反力、地震作用下的柱轴力、梁弯矩及剪力,以及重力荷载作用下的梁轴力均有较大的影响.

  9. 新型抗震体系隅撑支撑框架结构研究%The research of new earthquake-resistant system:knee-braced frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金桥; 余金华; 尹卫群; 田相合; 李新

    2011-01-01

    新型抗震隅撑支撑框架(knee-braced frame,KBF)是在梁柱连接的附近设一起耗能作用的隅撑,主支撑连接在此隅撑上构成的抗震结构体系.与偏心支撑体系EBF抗震结构体系对比,具有大震时框架结构不易损坏、维修方便的优点.采用有限元考察了不同的隅撑形式、不同高宽比下KBF结构的性能.在分析总结的基础上,系统地提出了KBF框架的抗震设计要求和有关的计算公式.%A new earthquake-resistant system (knee-braced frame,KBF) was investigated,in which an energy dissipation knee brace near the beam-column joint,and the main brace is connected to the knee brace.Compared with EBF,the beams and columns in KBF will sustain limited plastic deformation in strong earthquake,and repair work in KBF after earthquake is very convenient.The elastic and elastic-plastic behavior of the KBF is parametrically investigated.Based on those researches, design requirements and corresponding formulas were suggested.

  10. Computed and Experimental Flutter/LCO Onset for the Boeing Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Funk, Christie J.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model and compares the results to linear MSC. Nastran flutter analysis and preliminary data from a recent wind-tunnel test of that model at the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The simulated conditions under consideration are zero angle of attack, so that structural nonlinearity can be neglected. It is found that, for Mach number greater than 0.78, the linear flutter analysis predicts flutter onset dynamic pressure below the wind-tunnel test and that predicted by the Navier-Stokes analysis. Furthermore, the wind-tunnel test revealed that the majority of the high structural dynamics cases were wing limit cycle oscillation (LCO) rather than flutter. Most Navier-Stokes simulated cases were also LCO rather than hard flutter. There is dip in the wind-tunnel test flutter/LCO onset in the Mach 0.76-0.80 range. Conditions tested above that Mach number exhibited no aeroelastic instability at the dynamic pressures reached in the tunnel. The linear flutter analyses do not show a flutter/LCO dip. The Navier-Stokes simulations also do not reveal a dip; however, the flutter/LCO onset is at a significantly higher dynamic pressure at Mach 0.90 than at lower Mach numbers. The Navier-Stokes simulations indicate a mild LCO onset at Mach 0.82, then a more rapidly growing instability at Mach 0.86 and 0.90. Finally, the modeling issues and their solution related to the use of a beam and pod finite element model to generate the Navier-Stokes structure mode shapes are discussed.

  11. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  12. How to improve aesthetics in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS: a SPoRT brace treatment according to SOSORT management criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Claudia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetics is a main goal of both conservative and surgical treatments in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Previously, we developed and validated a clinical scale - the Aesthetic Index (AI--in order to measure aesthetic impairment and changes during treatment. Aim To verify the efficacy of bracing on aesthetics in AIS. Study Design Prospective Cohort Study. Population Thirty-four consecutive patients, age 13.2 ± 3.7, initial Cobb Angle 32 ± 12°, ATR 10 ± 4° Bunnel, 11 males. Methods Patients with AI scores of at least 5/6 were included. Each of them had a brace prescription (18 to 23 hours per day, according to the SPoRT concept. AI was measured again after six months and at the end of treatment, and then the pre- and post-treatment scores compared. The Wilcoxon test was performed. Results Twenty-nine patients out of the 34 included completed the treatment and had six-month and final results; four patients were lost during the treatment, and one was fused. At baseline, median AI was 6 (95% IC 5-6 but the score decreased to 3 (95% IC 0-5; p Conclusion Aesthetics can be improved in a clinically significant way when the brace treatment is performed according to the SPoRT concept and by following the SOSORT management criteria. This is a relevant result for patients and a major goal of scoliosis treatment, be it conservative or surgical. The use of a more sensitive tool like TRACE could more easily detect the clinical changes; nevertheless, AI proved sensible enough that its use in everyday clinical practice can be suggested.

  13. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    % of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...... a significant association was found between hand eczema and nickel allergy. A follow-up study of this population is planned in order to assess the course and development of contact dermatitis, hand eczema and atopic diseases in adulthood and after choice of occupation....

  14. [Short lingual frenulum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    Short lingual frenulum is a common structural abnormality with unknown mechanisms of origination. The frequency of occurrence among newborn infants can be as high as 4%. Short lingual frenulum may cause problems, if it restricts the movements of the tongue. Therapeutic indications for short lingual frenulum in newborn infants are mainly breastfeeding problems, whereas in children of preschool age and older the indication is defective pronunciation.

  15. Long and short GRB

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    We report evidence from the 3B Catalogue that short (T_90 10 s) GRB represent different populations and processes: Their spectral behavior is qualitatively different, with short bursts harder in the BATSE range, but chiefly long bursts detected at higher photon energies; \\langle V/V_max \\rangle = 0.385 \\pm 0.019 for short GRB but \\langle V/V_max \\rangle = 0.282 \\pm 0.014 for long GRB, differing by 0.103 \\pm 0.024. Long GRB may be the consequence of accretion-induced collapse, but this mechanism fails for short GRB, for which we suggest colliding neutron stars.

  16. Analysis of Seismic Performance of RC Frame Structure with X-bracings%带X型支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海涛; 王志鑫; 赵黄娟; 孙爱伏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure under strong earthquake,the influences of rational arranging bracings on the seismic performances were investigated.Analysis models of 8-story RC frame without bracing,with steel tube X-bracings and with concrete-filled steel tube X-bracings were built,and Pushover analysis of mechanical behavior under strong earthquake of these models was carried out.The results show that the rational arranging bracings in RC frame structure can efficiently increase the structural lateral stiffness,energy dissipation capacity and seismic performance,and significantly decrease the top displacement and the story drift of the RC frame structure.The seismic effects for different material bracings are not the same,and to analysis models in the paper,the concretefilled steel tube bracings can provide more seismic effect than the steel tube bracings for the RC frame.%为了提高钢筋混凝土框架结构抵抗超设防烈度地震的能力,研究了在框架中合理设置支撑对结构抗震性能的影响.以某8层框架工程为背景,对3种不同的结构方案——无支撑钢筋混凝土框架、带X型钢管支撑钢筋混凝土框架和带X型钢管混凝土支撑钢筋混凝土框架结构在强震作用下的受力性能进行了Pushover分析.结果表明:在钢筋混凝土框架结构中合理设置支撑可以有效提高结构抗侧刚度,增大结构耗能能力和抗震能力,减小结构顶点侧移和层间侧移;不同材料的支撑起到的抗震效果也不相同,对于本文分析模型,合理设置钢管混凝土支撑起到的抗震效果比设置钢管支撑更加明显.

  17. 巨型型钢混凝土框撑-核心筒结构性能分析%Analysis on performance of mega SRC braced frame-core wall structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈麟; 杨航; 周云

    2012-01-01

    Mega SRC braced frame-core wall structure is a new type of structural system for super high-rise buildings,consisting of mega SRC frame,mega braces,RC core wall,and outrigger trusses.Analysis was carried out on the performance of the structures with X type of mega braces and inverted V type of mega braces,and with mega braces but the common columns under mega beams were moved away.The results indicate that the integrated stiffness can be improved more effectively by using X type of mega braces than inverted V type of mega braces,but the mutation of internal forces of some members induced by using inverted V type of mega braces is relatively small.Moving away the common columns under mega beams will induce sudden changes of internal forces of several members,but make the load transfer path more clear between main structure and substructure,and higher material utilization of mega members is obtained.In addition,architectural requirement for open space can be satisfied.%巨型型钢混凝土框撑-核心筒结构是由巨型型钢混凝土框架、巨型支撑、混凝土核心筒和伸臂桁架组成的一种具有多道抗震防线的新型超高层结构体系。对设置X形和倒V形巨型支撑以及设置巨型支撑的同时去除巨型梁下层次柱的结构体系进行了分析。结果表明:设置X形巨型支撑可以使结构的整体刚度明显增大,提高了框架作为第二道抗震防线的承载力;倒V形巨型支撑对结构刚度的贡献相对较小,但引起的局部构件内力突变也较小;设置巨型支撑的同时去除次柱会造成局部构件的内力突变,但可以使巨型框架的主、次结构受力更明确,提高主结构的效率,同时满足建筑大开间的要求。

  18. Impulsive action and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,

  19. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  2. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  3. 框架-横梁未充分加强型人字撑架的抗侧性能%Lateral resistance of moment resisting-chevron braced frames with weak beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童根树; 罗桂发; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    The elastic-plastic analyses were carried out for 50 moment resisting-chevron braced frames with weak beams for braced frame,in which the brace of out-of-plane slenderness between 30 and 150 and the moment-resisting frames with lateral resistance being respectively 25% and 50% of the total base shear are adopted.The results showed that the relative lateral force resisting capacity of the moment-resisting frames and the strength of beam of braced frame are the two key factors for behaviour of the dual lateral force resisting system.The analyses also indicated that the value of overstrength was larger for a dual system with stronger moment-resisting frame and the beam of braced frame.The solutions for the drift ratio of braced frames corresponding to the buckling of the brace in compression and the formations of plastic hinge in the beams of the braced frame and the moment-resisting frames were also derived.The results of these solutions are verified with those using finite element analyses.The study of this paper also shows that the contribution of the moment-resisting frame to the lateral force resistance of the system is limited when the buckling of the compressive brace always occurs;the tensile brace cannot reach its yielding load in the braced frame with weak beam.%为了充分了解框架-人字撑架(横梁未充分加强型)的抗侧性能,对50个算例进行静力推覆分析,其中框架分别承担基底总剪力的25%和50%.研究表明:框架分担基底剪力的比例大小和支撑架横梁的强弱是影响这种双重抗侧力体系抗侧性能的最关键因素;框架抗侧承载力占基底剪力的比例越大,支撑架横梁越强,结构体系超强系数就越大.推导了框架-支撑体系中关键点受压支撑屈曲、支撑架横梁和框架形成塑性铰时对应的层侧移角公式.分析表明在这些点中,受压支撑屈曲总是最先发生,此时框架的抗侧承载力发挥很小.此外,由于支撑架横梁没有充

  4. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  5. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H; Hoffmann, R; Sarmiento, A; Ebramzadeh, E

    1993-07-01

    A computer-linked magnetic motion transducer was used to monitor and record the six components of motion of the bone fragments in eight cadaveric tibiae in which a simulated, oblique fracture of the middle of the shaft had been stabilized with a functional brace. The limbs were mounted in a servo-hydraulic testing frame, and a cyclic load of 150 newtons was applied along the axis of the tibia. Motion sensors, attached to each side of the fracture, measured and displayed the values of the three translations (axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral), the axial rotation, and the two angulations (anterior-posterior and varus-valgus) as they occurred. Although only an axial load was applied, the off-axis motions were comparable in magnitude with the motion along the axis. The elastic (recoverable) translations of the fragments ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 millimeters, about four to ten times larger than the corresponding motions that were recorded in an earlier study of such fractures that had been stabilized with two types of external fixators. The recoverable rotation and angulations of the fragments of the limbs in the functional brace ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 degrees, about ten times those recorded when the external fixators were used.

  6. 钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构的震害预测%Earthquake Damage Prediction for R. C. Frame-braced Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成浩; 严士超

    2001-01-01

    An earthquake damage precdiction method for R. C. frame-bracedstructure is presented based on the storey ductility factor. The relationship between storey ductility factor and damage degree is established on the basis of 480 elastic-plastic responses of 6 typical R. C. frame-braced structures,as well as some related experimental data. At last,a calculating example for earthquake damage predication of a 8-storey R. C. frame-braced structure by using the presented method is given. It is proved that the presented method is reasonable.%通过对钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构6个典型工程的480余例结构弹塑性地震反应分析,并结合有关试验结果,确定了框架-斜撑结构由层间延伸率大小决定的破坏程度,建立了一个以层间延伸率为判据的钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构房屋的震害预测方法。最后,通过对一栋8层框架-斜撑结构试验工程的弹塑性时程分析,验证了方法的正确合理性。

  7. 柔性连接的弱支撑框架结构的稳定性%Stability of Partially Braced Frames with Flexible Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓强; 童根树

    2001-01-01

    Considering the flexible connection of joints, the stability of frames with braces has been studied in this paper. Meanwhile, the formulas for the brace threshold stiffness and the effective length factor under these conditions are also given. According to these results, the sway frames and frames without sway can be distinguished more rationally. In comparison with the condition of rigid connection, the influence of flexible connection has been analyzed quantitatively.%本文对于设置了支撑的框架结构,并且节点是柔性连接时的稳定性问题进行了研究。同时给出了在此种条件下的阅值刚度和柱子的计算长度系数的表达形式。这样可以更加合理地区分有侧移和无侧移框架。通过与刚性连接情况的比较,定量地分析了柔性连接的影响。

  8. On Seismic Performance of Irregular Torsion Frame Structure with Buckling-restrained Braces%带屈曲约束支撑的扭转不规则框架结构抗震性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺强; 艳芳; 苏三庆

    2016-01-01

    The floor mass center and stiffness center are deviated about irregular frame structure, lead to struc-ture’ s torsion under seismic performance.For high intensity area, the torsion effect more apparent in the irregular reinforced concrete structure.The practical engineering model use response spectrum analysis and time history anal-ysis under severe earthquake action, and the results show that the RBR-RC ( buckling-restrained braced frame) can improve the structure torsion.The structure of torsion period ratio, inter-story displacement angle and torsional dis-placement ratio can conform to the requirements of the specification.Under rare earthquake action, adding BRB between pillars of frame have the uniform torsional displacement ratio, the maximum of 1.17, and inter-story tor-sion deformation is controlled.The BRBs have full hysteretic curve in frame bottom, and dissipative damping effect is obvious.%不规则框架结构楼层的质量中心和刚度中心偏离,导致结构在地震作用下容易发生扭转。对于高烈度设防区的不规则钢筋混凝土结构,产生的扭转效应更加明显。结合实际工程案例对计算模型进行反应谱分析和罕遇地震作用下的时程分析。结果表明:屈曲约束支撑能够改善结构整体的扭转效应,结构的扭转周期比、层间位移角和扭转位移比均能符合规范要求。罕遇地震作用下,在柱间增设屈曲约束支撑的框架扭转位移比变化均匀,最大值为1.17,层间扭转变形得到控制。框架底层屈曲约束支撑滞回曲线饱满,耗能减震效果明显。

  9. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  10. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  11. All in action

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, Arto

    2010-01-01

    The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...

  12. Congenital short pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan; XU Guo-qiang; XU Ping; JIN En-yun; LIU Qiong; LI You-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Congenital short pancreas, also known as partial agenesis or hypoplasia of the dorsal pancreas1 is a rare congenital abnormality consisting of the parenchyma and ductal system restricted to the head with some residual dorsal tapering and arborizing ducts communicating with the minor papill.2 Complete pancreatic agenesis is fatal, and only nine possible examples of partial agenesis have been previously reported in adults in the literature.3-10 Three of them were polysplenia syndrome associated with short pancreas,and only six patients with congenital short pancreas with normal situs. Here we present a new case associated with steatorrhoea.

  13. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  14. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, ... Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make a Donation Make an Appointment Contact ...

  15. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  16. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when climbing stairs. Allergic Reactions ... 75231 Copyright © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0009-7322. Online ISSN: 1524- ...

  17. 支撑布置对多层钢结构抗侧刚度的影响%Effects of the Bracing on Lateral Stiffness of Multistorey Steel Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦国涛; 张宏兵

    2012-01-01

    从框架支撑等效刚度和层间位移基本原理出发,以鹤壁某煤矿六层钢框架办公楼工程实例为背景工程,通过改变支撑在结构平面内的布置位置和增加支撑数量等,对结构层间位移、层间位移角进行计算对比分析.研究支撑布置对钢框架结构抗侧移性能的影响,探讨支撑布置的影响规律,为多层钢框架结构的设计提供理论参考.%Support from the basic principle of the framework of equivalent stiffness and the layer displacement instance of a Hebi coal mine six-story steel frame office building project, the displacement on the structural layer, and the layer displacement angle are calculated and comparative analysisod and then studied the influence of bracing kinds on the lateral stiffness of the multi-storey steelframes to explore the influence of the layouts of bracing by changing the layout of the bracing and increase the number of bracing. A reference for the design of multi-storey steel frame structure is provided.

  18. 基于ANSYS的支撑框架结构地震反应谱分析%Seismic response spectrum analysis of braced RC moment frame structure based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 田兴运; 苏雷; 侯春娇

    2012-01-01

    Use the large-scale structural analysis software ANSYS to make finite element model for a braced frame structure ,analyse the braced frame structure dynamic properties and the elastic response of structures under seismic load. Do structure modal analysis,find the top 5 steps of frequencies and mode shapes,coming to the dynamic characteristics of the braced frame structure. Conduct seismic response spectrum analysis and study the mechanical characteristics of each component under seismic load, offerting some suggestions about the braced frame design.%利用ANSYS对一斜支撑框架结构建立有限元模型并分析该结构的动力特性和地震荷载作用下的弹性响应.对该结构进行模态分析,求出前5阶的频率和模态振型,分析得出支撑框架结构的动力特性.进行结构地震反应谱分析考察地震作用下各个构件受力特点.为斜撑框架结构设计提出一些建议和结论.

  19. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price......), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than...

  20. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  1. Various Actions for Pregeometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazawa, H.

    1991-08-01

    Various actions for pregeometry are presented and compared. The ``space-field identity'' which equates the n-beins to the derivatives of fundamental scalars is derived from a simple action but seems to be too restrictive to be practical.

  2. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  3. Proposal for non-BPS D-brane action

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2000-01-01

    In this short note we would like to propose a form for the action of a non-BPS D-brane, which will be manifestly supersymmetric invariant and T-duality covariant. We also explicitly show that tachyon condensation on the world-volume of this brane leads to the Dirac-Born-Infeld action for BPS D(p-1)-brane.

  4. On Action Theory Change

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan José

    2014-01-01

    As historically acknowledged in the Reasoning about Actions and Change community, intuitiveness of a logical domain description cannot be fully automated. Moreover, like any other logical theory, action theories may also evolve, and thus knowledge engineers need revision methods to help in accommodating new incoming information about the behavior of actions in an adequate manner. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in multimodal logic. Its contribution is threefold: ...

  5. Action Theory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of dis...

  6. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...... to actual action research/interactive research....

  7. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...

  8. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  9. Putting Action in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  10. The influence of action effects in task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eLukas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to ideomotor theories, intended effects caused by a certain action are anticipated before action execution. In the present study, we examined the question of whether action effects play a role in cued task switching. In our study, the participants practiced task-response-effect mappings in an acquisition phase, in which action effects occur after a response in a certain task context. In the ensuing transfer phase, the previously practiced mappings were changed in a random, unpredictable task-response-effect mapping. When changed into unpredictable action effects, RT as well as switch costs increased, but this occurred mainly in trials with short preparation time and not with long preparation time. Moreover, switch costs were generally smaller with predictable action effects than with unpredictable action effects. This suggests that anticipated task-specific action effects help to activate the relevant task set before task execution when the task is not yet already prepared based on the cue.

  11. Bracing for 'Brexit'?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... answers, because just what any "Brexit" will mean is too hard to predict on current knowledge. Not just too many known unknowns, but too many unknown unknowns, Donald Rumsfeld would have said. But that doesn't mean the questions can't be asked. (And for anyone who wants a refresher of how we got into this quandary, look further ahead for a quick s...

  12. Knee braces - unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  13. 钢筋混凝土框架屈曲约束支撑试验研究%Experimental study on buckling-restrained brace of reinforced concrete frame structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彦涛; 金林飞; 韩雪; 程小燕; 佟道林

    2013-01-01

    When buckling-restrained brace(BRB) is applied into structure system, it can strengthen lateral stiffness and shear strength of the structure, thus cut down the layer displacement and overall displacement of the structure. After brace is applied into the frame structure, its hysteretic curve has an essential change comparing with the traditional structure. For the influence of brace, the shape is full of energy. Furthermore, the capacity of energy consumption is improved to a large degree. The declined part of skeleton line of brace structure will not decline dramatically due to the increase of displacement like the common structure. Instead, the pace of decline slows down. The data show that it can be considered in design to adopt brace instead of shear wall in concrete structure system.%将屈曲约束支撑用于结构体系,增强了整体结构的抗侧刚度和抗剪强度,有利于减小结构的层间位移和总体位移.将支撑应用到框架中后,结构的滞回曲线较传统的框架形状更加饱满,说明结构耗能能力得到了大幅度提高.支撑框架的骨架线的下降段也不像普通框架那样随着位移的增加加速下降,而是有下降减缓的趋势.本文试图通过试验数据说明可以考虑用支撑代替混凝土剪力墙应用于混凝土结构体系中.

  14. 自恢复耗能支撑框架结构滞回特性模拟分析%Simulation of Hysteretic Behavior of Self-Centering Energy Dissipation Braced Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙河; 代长顺; 逯登成; 樊晓伟

    2016-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior of a new type of pre-pressed spring self-centering energy dissipation(PS-SCED)brace under the low cyclic reversed loading is described,and,taking a single-story single-span frame struc-ture as a numerical example,comparisons of the seismic performances between structure with PS-SCED bracesand structure with common braces are conducted.Results indicate that the PS-SCED braced frame structure exhibitsstable flag-shaped hysteretic performances with good energy dissipation capacity and self-centering behavior under dynamic load.The load-bearing capacity has increased by 44%,,the accumulated energy dissipation capacity has increased by 20%, and the residual drift ratio has dropped by 64%, as compared with the common braced structure.The overall seismic performance of structure has been improved effectively by PS-SCED braces.%介绍了新型预压弹簧自恢复耗能(PS-SCED)支撑在低周反复荷载作用下的滞回特性,并对采用新型PS-SCED支撑与普通支撑的单层单榀框架结构的抗震性能进行了对比分析.结果表明,PS-SCED支撑框架结构在动力荷载作用下可展现出稳定的旗形滞回曲线,具备良好的耗能能力及自恢复性能.与普通支撑框架结构相比,PS-SCED支撑框架结构承载能力至少提高44%,,累积滞回耗能能力提高20%,,残余变形角减小64%,,故PS-SCED支撑可有效提高结构的整体抗震性能.

  15. Duality group actions on fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, Tony; Sharpe, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2 , ℤ) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by ℤ2, to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial ℤ2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.

  16. Duality group actions on fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Pantev, T

    2016-01-01

    In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2,Z) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by Z_2, to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial Z_2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.

  17. Understanding affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.

  18. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  19. Long-Short Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Shubert

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-short strategies are one of the most successful tools, applied by hedge funds manager. One under-evaluated stock is bought (long position and an over-evaluated stock is sold (short position at the same time. After a short term, when the values of the stocks are as expected, profit can be realized by a closing transaction. The possibility to find first obvious over- and under-evaluated stocks depends on the number of participants in this markets. While the hedge funds strategies become more popular, the chance to achieve profit by this strategies is shrinking.Therefore two models to generate long-short portfolios are proposed. By this approaches a portfolio A for the long- and a portfolio B for the short position were computed. The difference of the values of A and B is designed to oscillate from negative to positive and reverse. This behavior of oscillating or mean reverting stock prices was stated by e.g. E. Fama and K. R. French (1988. Mean reversion of portfolios can offer the possibility of statistical arbitrage. The proposed linear models were tested by stocks of the Tokyo stock exchange. The results seem to be applicable and show an additional advantage of low systematic risk.

  20. Action Theory Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we state postulates for action theory contraction and assess the behavior of our operators w.r.t. them. Moreover, we also address the revision counterpart of action theory change, showing that it benefits from our semantics for contraction.

  1. Idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Albanese, A; Bozzola, M; Butler, G E; Buzi, F; Cherubini, V; Chiarelli, F; Cavallo, L; Drop, S L; Stanhope, R; Kelnar, C J

    2001-07-01

    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is a term used to describe the status of children with short stature that cannot be attributed to a specific cause. Many children diagnosed as having ISS have partial GH insensitivity, which can result from disturbances at various points of the GH-IGF-I axis. Several clinical studies on spontaneous growth in ISS showed that adult height was almost in the range of target height. GH treatment led to adult height not significantly higher than the pretreatment predicted adult height in most reports. No metabolic side effects have been observed, even when the dose was higher than in GH deficiency. Manipulation of puberty with gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues reported by a few authors in a small number of children has shown conflicting results. Long-term psychological benefits of GH therapy for short normal children have not been demonstrated to date.

  2. The TVT Glass Pavilion: Theoretical Study on a Highly Transparent Building Made with Long-Spanned TVT Portals Braced with Hybrid Glass-Steel Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Froli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid glass-steel systems is mandatory. Glass, fragile but highly compressive resistant, is associated with steel, ductile and tensile resistant. The present research shows the feasibility study for a fully glazed pavilion made of six TVT (Travi Vitree Tensegrity portal frames longitudinally braced by pre-stressed hybrid glass panels. The frames are about 20 m in span and 8 m in height. Appropriate multiscalar FEM numerical analyses, calibrated on the collapse tests performed on previous TVT large-scale prototypes, stated that the structural performance would be able to withstand heavy static and dynamic loads and stated the observance of the Fail-Safe Design principles.

  3. 双支架Nuss手术治疗青少年漏斗胸%Nuss procedure for the correction of pectus excavatum by using double braces in adolescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全; 王建军; 赵峰; 翟伟; 严会智

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the indication, feasibility and technique of minimally invasive nuss procedure with thoracoscope by using double braces in the treatment of wide-scope pectus excavatum repairing in adolescence. Methods 31 patients including 24 boys and 7 girls, suffered from pectus excavtum were corrected by nuss procedure under thoracoscope.The average age was (15.32 ± 3.89)years (ranged, 14 years and 18 years). All cases were moderate to severe degree according to Hallar index with depression scope of 4 ribs or more. A couple of braces of two-point or multipoint fixation for thoracoscopic-assisted nuss procedure were used. Results The procedure was successfully completed under thoracoscopy in all patients. Double braces were utilized in 27 cases, double are bars were required in 4 cases, and multipoint fixations were in 6 patients. The postoperative hospital stay was 5-11 days [average, ( 7.48 ± 1.95 ) days]. The duration of following up was one month to three years. The perioperative complications included intraoperative hemorrhage in 2 patients, bar invertion with displacement in 1, and interrupted pain for two months in 1. All patients recovered after expectant treatment. Conclusion Nuss procedure with double braces for the correction of a large area of asymmetric pectus excavatum under thoracoscopy is safe and effective technique for adolescence.%目的 探讨使用双支架治疗青少年大范围漏斗胸微创Nuss手术的适应证、可行性和手术方法及效果.方法 31例中男24例,女7例;年龄14~18岁,平均(15.32±3.12)岁.根据Hallar指数均评价为中到重度,凹陷范围为4个肋间以上.选择胸腔镜辅助Nuss手术两点或者多点双支架支撑固定法手术.结果 均采用双支架在胸腔镜辅助下顺利完成Nuss手术.术后住院5~10天,平均(7.48±1.95)天;随访4个月到5年.术中发生出血2例,支架滑动移位和间断疼痛2个月各1例,均治愈.结论 胸腔镜辅助双支架矫正大面

  4. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace® Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Study design: Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Methods: Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. Results: The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation (p = .001), paretic limb health (p = .04), sounds (p = .02), and well-being (p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. Conclusion: The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis

  5. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace(®) Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2017-02-01

    There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation ( p = .001), paretic limb health ( p = .04), sounds ( p = .02), and well-being ( p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis devices. The C-Brace offers new functions including controlled

  6. Aeroelastic Analysis of SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model Using FUN3D and a Nonlinear Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the design of highly flexible aircraft. The results of numerous studies demonstrate the significant performance benefits of strut-braced wing (SBW) and trussbraced wing (TBW) configurations. Critical aspects of the TBW configuration are its larger aspect ratio, wing span and thinner wings. These aspects increase the importance of considering fluid/structure and control system coupling. This paper presents high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the dynamic response of the flexible Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model. The latest version of the SUGAR TBW finite element model (FEM), v.20, is used in the present simulations. Limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of the TBW wing/strut/nacelle are simulated at angle-of-attack (AoA) values of -1, 0 and +1 degree. The modal data derived from nonlinear static aeroelastic MSC.Nastran solutions are used at AoAs of -1 and +1 degrees. The LCO amplitude is observed to be dependent on AoA. LCO amplitudes at -1 degree are larger than those at +1 degree. The LCO amplitude at zero degrees is larger than either -1 or +1 degrees. These results correlate well with both wind-tunnel data and the behavior observed in previous studies using linear aerodynamics. The LCO onset at zero degrees AoA has also been computed using unloaded v.20 FEM modes. While the v.20 model increases the dynamic pressure at which LCO onset is observed, it is found that the LCO onset at and above Mach 0.82 is much different than that produced by an earlier version of the FEM, v. 19.

  7. All in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Annila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.

  8. SHORT RIB POLYDACTYLY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Moinfar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS is a very rare congenital anomaly that is classified into four subtypes. It is an autosomal recessive inherited disease. We report a case of this syndrome without a previous family history of congenital defects.

  9. Short-rotation plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip E. Pope; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1989-01-01

    Short-rotation plantations offer several advantages over longer, more traditional rotations. They enhance the natural productivity of better sites and of tree species with rapid juvenile growth. Returns on investment are realized in a shorter period and the risk of loss is reduced compared with long term investments. Production of wood and fiber can be maximized by...

  10. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  11. Antisymmetric string actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  12. Action in Introductory Physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinness, Lachlan P

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of classical physics in a first-year university class. Instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics through to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Student learning and misconceptions were studied with quantitative and qualitative techniques. In particular, an action concept inventory was developed through a process of expert consultation and student feedback. Students reported action physics to be accessible, interesting and valuable.

  13. Çelik Çapraz Elemanlarla Güçlendirilen Betonarme Yapıların Deprem Davranışlarının İncelenmesi = Earthquake Behavior Evaluation of R/C Structures Strengthened with Steel Bracings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Armağan KORKMAZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (R/C frame structures strengthened with eccentric steel bracing is examined. In this aim, a R/C frame structure is designed and then strengthened with different eccentric steel bracings. The existing and the strengthened structures are analyzed using nonlinear static pushover analysis. Their structural behavior under earthquake effect is compared with each other. In the analyses, 10- story R/C frame structure is designed and this structure is strengthened with different types of strengthening bracings. Thus, the earthquake behavior is defined for the strengthened and existing structures. It is also aimed to determine the best strengthening way with steel bracings.

  14. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk......-action relationships. While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  15. Action principles in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action