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Sample records for actinosynnema mirum type

  1. Complete genome sequence of Actinosynnema mirum type strain (101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Chen, Feng; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Tindall, Brian; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Actinosynnema mirum Hasegawa et al. 1978 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its central phylogenetic location in the Actino-synnemataceae, a rapidly growing family within the actinobacterial suborder Pseudo-nocardineae. A. mirum is characterized by its motile spores borne on synnemata and as a producer of nocardicin antibiotics. It is capable of growing aerobically and under a moderate CO2 atmosphere. The strain is a Gram-positive, aerial and substrate mycelium producing bacterium, originally isolated from a grass blade collected from the Raritan River, New Jersey. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Actinosynnemataceae, and only the second sequence from the actinobacterial suborder Pseudonocardineae. The 8,248,144 bp long single replicon genome with its 7100 protein-coding and 77 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  2. Effects of modulation of pentose-phosphate pathway on biosynthesis of ansamitocins in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxiang; Hu, Fengxian; Wei, Liujing; Bai, Linquan; Hua, Qiang

    2016-07-20

    Ansamitocins, produced by Actinosynnema pretiosum, are a group of maytansinoid antibiotics that block the assembly of tubulin into functional microtubules. The precursors of ansamitocin biosynthesis are generally derived from the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In this study, central carbon flux distributions were analyzed by (13)C-based flux analysis to reveal the contribution of individual central carbon metabolism pathways. To direct more carbon flux into ansamitocin biosynthesis, pentose phosphate (PP) pathway only and the combination of PP pathway and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway were weakened, respectively. Ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3) productions by both kinds of pathways weakened mutant strains were significantly enhanced in chemically defined medium. In order to draw metabolic flux to the biosynthesis of ansamitocins more efficiently, heterologous phosphoglucomutase was subsequently overexpressed based on a mutant strain with combinational regulation of PP pathway and ED pathway. More fluxes were successfully directed into the UDP-glucose synthetic pathway and the AP-3 production was further improved in this case, reaching approximately 185mg/L in fermentation medium. It was demonstrated that eliminating the bypass pathways and favoring the precursor synthetic pathway could effectively improve ansamitocin production by A. pretiosum, suggesting a promising role of metabolic strategy in improving secondary metabolite production. PMID:27173582

  3. Genome sequencing and annotation of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 9.0-Mb draft genome of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T, isolated from Indian soil sample; produces antibiotic vancoresmycin. Draft genome of strain DSM44592T consists of 9,037,069 bp with a G+C content of 71.79% and 8340 predicted protein coding genes and 57 RNAs. RAST annotation indicates that strains Streptomyces sp. AA4 (score 521, Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 (score 400 and Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 (score 372 are the closest neighbors of the strain DSM 44592T.

  4. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  5. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  6. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  7. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  8. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  9. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  10. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald;

    2015-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ... Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  13. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with...... coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  14. Types and Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees......A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...

  15. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...... of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both...

  16. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    We propose a novel and uniform approach to type systems for (process) calculi, which roughly pushes the challenge of designing type systems and proving properties about them to the meta-model of bigraphs. Concretely, we propose to define type systems for the term language for bigraphs, which...... of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models......; and the possibility of modularly adapting the type systems to extensions of the BRS (with new controls). As proof of concept we present a model of a pi-calculus, develop an i/o-type system with subtyping on this model, prove crucial properties (including subject reduction) for this type system, and transfer...

  17. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  18. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual;

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an......; and we give a novel, decidable, sound, and complete algorithm to solve it, together with some practically-important variants. Our system is implemented in GHC, and is already in active use....

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ... glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  2. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  3. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sign up for Tour de Cure! More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ... 1? - 2016-08-type-1.html Living w/ Diabetes Is Someone You Love New to Type 1? ...

  5. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About ... more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type ... Someone You Love New to Type 1? Even kids can learn to manage for a long, healthy ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes ... Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non- ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ... 1? - 2016-08-type-1.html Living w/ Diabetes Is Someone You Love New to Type 1? ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today for trusted info, recipes & more! More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ... 1? - 2016-08-type-1.html Living w/ Diabetes Is Someone You Love New to Type 1? ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your ... of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for ...

  13. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  16. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  17. Examining Office Type Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfö, Linda; Eklund, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Office types and their environmental features influence performance and job satisfaction. Yet employees’ opinions are seldom considered when choosing office type. This paper suggests a method that investigates employees’ office type preferences and motives behind the preferences. The method proved to be quick and simple and provided a flow of current to preferred office type. A majority preferred the quiet cell office for its privacy while the open office was considered having a noisy and dis...

  18. Topologies on types: connections

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Xiong, Siyang

    2008-01-01

    For different purposes, economists may use different topologies on types. We char- acterize the relationship among these various topologies. First, we show that for any general types, convergence in the uniform-weak topology implies convergence in both the strategic topology and the uniform strategic topology. Second, we explicitly con- struct a type which is not the limit of any finite types under the uniform strategic topology, showing that the uniform strategic topology is strictly fi ner ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Donate Today - 2016-08-donation-en.html Donate Today Diabetes touches ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Need Type 2 Tips? - 2016-08-lwt2d-en.html Need Type 2 Tips? ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Donate Today - 2016- ...

  2. Type Has Many Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ralph J.

    1996-01-01

    Affirms that taking time to learn type classification, terminology, and use will be a major step in producing more effective high school newspapers. Considers that desktop publishing is both a blessing and a curse when it comes to type use. Provides type use definitions. (PA)

  3. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  4. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira;

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our...

  5. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Nielsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Processes using the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient implementation of a prototypical tool for CPGs which automatically translates the original CPG specifications from a representation called the Process Matrix to symmetric sum types, type checks programs and executes them.

  6. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  7. Interactions between Child Types and Classroom Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; Kendall, Arthur J.

    Research is described which explores the hypothesis that different classroom situations may be optimal for different individuals. The approach used cluster analysis to identify student and classroom "types" whose interactions were then examined in an analysis of variance framework. About 1,300 fourth graders from 50 classrooms were involved in the…

  8. Mastering TypeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  9. Type II universal spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  10. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  11. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  12. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M;

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  13. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like many parents, you may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  14. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Blood Transfusion » Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  15. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  16. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models...

  17. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.

  18. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo....... Experiments indicate that the implementation type checks as much as 100 lines pr. second. This results in a mature product, on which a number of tools can be based, for example a safety tool, an image compression tool, a code optimization tool, and an annotation tool. This may make type inference for object...

  19. P-type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Michael G; Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    P-type ATPases form a large superfamily of cation and lipid pumps. They are remarkably simple with only a single catalytic subunit and carry out large domain motions during transport. The atomic structure of P-type ATPases in different conformations, together with ample mutagenesis evidence, has provided detailed insights into the pumping mechanism by these biological nanomachines. Phylogenetically, P-type ATPases are divided into five subfamilies, P1-P5. These subfamilies differ with respect to transported ligands and the way they are regulated. PMID:21351879

  20. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  1. Type-II Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  2. Parametric Compositional Data Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...

  3. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  4. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  5. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

  10. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diabetes. But, you are the most important person in managing your diabetes. You should know the basic steps ... to your doctor before starting any exercise program. People with type 1 ... MANAGING YOUR BLOOD SUGAR Checking your blood sugar level ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  12. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Diabetes Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Apply for Camp ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donate en -- Donate Today - 2016-08-donation-en.html Donate Today Diabetes touches everyone, and finding a ... urgent. Donate We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Need Type ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Stop Diabetes Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  20. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Types of Diabetes Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of ... to take care of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How Grant Money is ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  3. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  5. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Diabetes Camp Learning at ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success ... Congress The Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Volunteer Center American Diabetes ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... prediabetes, and no one is excused. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out to patients. You can also download the Spanish version. Last Reviewed: August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  14. Are You Still Typing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene; Yoder, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Discusses word processing and desktop publishing and offers suggestions for creating documents that look more professional, including proportional type size, spacing, the use of punctuation marks, italics, tabs and margins, and paragraph styles. (LRW)

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Stop Diabetes Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  19. Types Of Christian Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-01-01

    Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large nu...

  20. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  1. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions...

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  3. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  4. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  5. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  6. Standardized molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F M; Lischewski, A; Harmsen, D; Hacker, J

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are useful tools in molecular mycology. The results of these biotyping procedures may help to identify pathogenic strains in order to detect sources of nosocomial infection and for the investigation of epidemiological relationships. With respect to the facultative pathogen, Candida albicans, various methods such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), DNA fingerprinting methods and hybridization with repetitive DNA elements have been described as useful tools in molecular epidemiology. The previously described hybridization method with the Candida albicans specific CARE-2 probe and subsequent rehybridization with a molecular size marker is a standardized reproducible typing method for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In a larger epidemiological study conducted at the University Hospital of Würzburg analysing clinical C. albicans isolates, we were able to describe relationships between sequential patient isolates. These findings demonstrate that standardized molecular typing methods are a powerful tool in molecular mycology studies. PMID:10865907

  7. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...... the benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....

  8. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding cond...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  9. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Wahl, Sebastian;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  10. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    -cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office ...

  12. TWO TYPES OF EDUCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫子辰

    2015-01-01

    <正>The education has a significant impact not only on individuals but also on the nation.There are two types of education,one is student-central,and the other keeps a watchful eye on the marks.Which one is better on earth?The following is my viewpoint.

  13. A Hilbert type inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Handley

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we obtain a new inequality of Hilbert type for a finite number of nonnegative sequences of real numbers from which we can recover as a special case an inequality due to Pachpatte. We also obtain an integral variant of the inequality.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif;

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  15. TypeScript essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  16. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals ... and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation-en.html Diabetes Must ...

  1. Types of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... function, increase peak bone mass, and develop muscle strength. Physical therapy, early intervention programs, and as much exercise ... and function, increase peak bone mass and muscle strength, and employ as much exercise and physical activity as possible. Type IV: People with OI ...

  2. Simply—typed Underdeterminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EwenDenney

    1998-01-01

    An extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with constructs for expressing a notion called underdeterminism is studied.This allows us to interpret notions of stud and skeleton used in top-down program development.We axionatise a simple notion of program refinement,and give a semantics,for which the calculus is proved sound and complete.

  3. Modular Session Types for Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Simon J; Ravara, António; Vasconcelos, Vasco Thudichum

    2012-01-01

    Session types allow communication protocols to be specified type-theoretically so that protocol implementations can be verified by static type checking. We extend previous work on session types for distributed object-oriented languages in three ways. (1) We attach a session type to a class definition, to specify the possible sequences of method calls. (2) We allow a session type implementation to be modularized, i.e. partitioned into separately-callable methods. (3) We treat session-typed communication channels as objects, integrating their session types with the session types of classes. The result is an elegant unification of communication channels and their session types, distributed OO programming, and a form of typestate supporting non-uniform objects, i.e. objects that dynamically change the set of available methods. We define syntax, operational semantics, a sound type system, and a sound and complete type checking algorithm for a small distributed OO language with structural subtyping. Static typing g...

  4. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles. PMID:11753724

  5. FS CMa type binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Miroshnichenko, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    FS CMa type stars is a group of ~70 objects formerly known as unclassified stars with the B[e] phenomenon. Their very strong emission-line spectra in combination with a nearly main-sequence luminosity suggest the binary nature for them. They possess strong IR excesses due to radiation of circumstellar dust that implies a compact distribution probably in a circumbinary disk. Our long-term spectroscopic monitoring revealed neutral metal lines, which always include that of Li I 6708 \\AA, in the spectra of some FS CMa objects indicating the presence of a cool star. We present a summary of our results with a first overview of FS CMa type binaries and review possible implications for the nature and evolutionary status of the entire group.

  6. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  7. Human adenovirus type identification

    OpenAIRE

    Banik U; Adhikary AK

    2015-01-01

    Urmila Banik,1 Arun Kumar Adhikary21Unit of Pathology, 2Unit of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, MalaysiaThe published paper in your journal entitling “Human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment: an endemic outbreak with uncommon manifestations” has come into our attention.1 The article provides interesting clinical presentation of corneal epithelial layer detachment among 25%...

  8. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  9. Unobscured Type 2 AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Smith, Paul; Rigby, Jane; Hines, Dean; Donley, Jennifer; Schmidt, Gary; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; 10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/115

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 AGNs with intrinsically weak broad emission lines (BELs) would be exceptions to the unified model. After examining a number of proposed candidates critically, we find that the sample is contaminated significantly by objects with BELs of strengths indicating that they actually contain intermediate-type AGNs, plus a few Compton-thick sources as revealed by extremely low ratios of X-ray to nuclear IR luminosities. We develop quantitative metrics that show two (NGC 3147 and NGC 4594) of the remaining candidates to have BELs 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those of typical type-1 AGNs. Several more galaxies remain as candidates to have anomalously weak BELs, but this status cannot be confirmed with the existing information. Although the parent sample is poorly defined, the two confirmed objects are well under 1% of its total number of members, showing that the absence of a BEL is possible, but very uncommon in AGN. We evaluate these two objects in detail using multi-wavelength measurements. They have li...

  10. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  11. Square Source Type Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  12. Mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christine; Schaffer, Julie V

    2008-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with numerous lentigines and multiple cafe-au-lait macules on both sides of the face, neck, and trunk as well as on the proximal area of the upper extremities and in the axillae. The pigmented lesions had a Blaschko-linear distribution on the upper trunk and were limited to the left side of the abdomen, with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Multiple, cutaneous neurofibromas were found on the trunk, and ophthalmologic examination showed a Lisch nodule in the left iris. The clinical findings and their widespread but segmental distribution were consistent with a diagnosis of mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18627742

  13. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Trydal, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Hvert år får rundt 300 barn og 600 voksne diabetes mellitus type 1, og til sammen har rundt 28 000 personer denne sykdommen i Norge i dag. Det er en kronisk metabolsk sykdom, med en absolutt insulinmangel. Gjennom litteratur og forskning er det vist, at for å forebygge senkomplikasjoner, trenger pasienten informasjon, undervisning og praktisk veiledning når det gjelder medisinering, kosthold og fysisk aktivitet, og motivering til å mestre sykdommen. I praksis vil sykepleier spille en aktiv ro...

  14. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  15. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L;

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  16. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. PMID:26196088

  17. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  18. Type Inference for Bimorphic Recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsuta, Makoto; 10.4204/EPTCS.54.8

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes bimorphic recursion, which is restricted polymorphic recursion such that every recursive call in the body of a function definition has the same type. Bimorphic recursion allows us to assign two different types to a recursively defined function: one is for its recursive calls and the other is for its calls outside its definition. Bimorphic recursion in this paper can be nested. This paper shows bimorphic recursion has principal types and decidable type inference. Hence bimorphic recursion gives us flexible typing for recursion with decidable type inference. This paper also shows that its typability becomes undecidable because of nesting of recursions when one removes the instantiation property from the bimorphic recursion.

  19. Calderon type reproducing formula on spaces of homogeneous type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓东皋; 韩永生

    1995-01-01

    By using the Calderon-Zygmund operator theory, a continuous version of the Calderon type reproducing formula associated to a para-accretive function on spaces of homogeneous type is proved. A new characterization of the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces on spaces of homogeneous type is also obtained.

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  1. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  2. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a coolant circulation in BWR type reactors, since the mixed stream of steam fluid undergoes a great resistance, the pressure loss due to the flow rate distribution when the coolants flow from the upper plenum into the stand pipe is increased upon passing stand pipe. Also in the spontaneous recycling reactor, pressure loss is still left upon passing the swirling blade of a gas-liquid separator. In view of the above, a plurality of vertical members each having a lower end opened to a gas-liquid two phase boundary and an upper end directly suspended from a steam dryer to the gas-liquid separator. The liquid droplets from the 2-phase boundary heated in the reactor core and formed into a mixed gas-liquid 2-phase stream is directed in the vertical direction accompanied with the steam. The liquid droplets spontaneously fallen by gravity from greater ones successively and the droplets in the steam abutted against the vertical member are fallen as a liquid membrane. Thus, the gas-liquid separation is conducted, the dry steam is directly flown into the steam dryer, thereby capable of providing a gas-liquid separator having gas-liquid separation performance with lower loss than usual. (N.H.)

  3. Natural convection type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, recycling flow rate of coolants is increased and the amount of entrained bubbles are increased as the driving force is increased, so that bubbles are not separated completely even if a stagnation region is disposed. Then, a space opened only at the upper portion is disposed at the outer circumference of the upper end of a riser for storing overflown coolants temporarily. The flow of coolants incorporating steam bubbles uprising in the riser turns into the horizontal direction at the upper end of the riser wall and flows into the coolant reservoir. In the coolant reservoir, since the momentum of the coolants is lost and the flow is stagnated, the bubbles are easily released to the upper space. Coolants, after releasing the bubbles, further overflow and descend in the downcomer. Then, the bubbles can be separated undergoing no influence of the driving force caused as the sum of the uprising force in the riser and the water head pressure in the downcomer, to prevent increase of carry under due to increase of the driving force. (N.H.)

  4. BWR type nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of an emergency core cooling system while suppressing the flow out of coolants upon rapture accidents in a coolant recycling device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: Recirculation pumps are located at a position higher than the reactor core in a pressure vessel, and the lower plenum is bisected vertically by a partition plate. Further, a gas-liquid separator is surrounded with a wall and the water level at the outer side of the wall is made higher than the water level in the inside of the wall. In this structure, coolants are introduced from the upper chamber in the lower plenum into the reactor core, and the steams generated in the reactor core are separated in the gas-liquid separator, whereby the separated liquid is introduced as coolants by way of the inner chamber into the lower chamber of the lower plenum and further sent by way of the outer chamber into the reactor core. Consequently, idle rotation of the recycling pumps due to the flow-in of saturated water is prevented and loss of coolants in the reactor core can also be prevented upon raptures in the pipeway and the driving section of the pump connected to the pressure vessel and in the bottom of the pressure vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G R

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene NF2 on chromosome 22. Around 1 in 33000 people are born with an NF2 mutation although more than one-third of the 60% of de novo cases are not conceived with the mutation but this develops later in embryogenesis (mosaics). NF2 has a substantial effect on life expectancy and individuals with a constitutional truncating mutation have the worst prognosis. The vast majority of people with NF2 will develop bilateral vestibular schwannomas with many developing schwannomas on other cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Cranial and spinal meningiomas and intraspinal low grade indolent ependymomas are the other major tumor features. Cutaneous features can be subtle with only 70% having evidence of intracutaneous plaque-like schwannomas or subcutaneous lesions on peripheral nerves. Café-au-lait patches are more frequent than in the general population but in only around 1% will meet NIH criteria for NF1. PMID:26564072

  6. Pressure tube type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  7. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Type and Waiting Time Most candidates, except those with living donors, wait ... organ needed How does organ type affect waiting times? Heart Allocation Physicians assign a status code to ...

  8. COMPRESSOR TYPE OZONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyaev P. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a compressor type ozonator. It describes the design of a high-productivity compressor ozone generator, which can be used for industrial decontamination of mixed feeds, water, milk, and in the system of presowing treatment of seeds. This construction allows generating ozone with high concentration to 5 g/m3 at high feed air or oxygen from the compressor station (up to 2000 l/min. The article describes the design of the basic elements of tubular ozone generator, examines the factors influencing the productivity of the ozonator. The proposed mathematical model allows calculating the productivity of the ozonator when considering multiple influencing factors. These factors take into account: the parameters of supply voltage, such as the magnitude and frequency of the supply voltage; the configuration and geometrical parameters of electrodes such as, the area of the electrodes, the configuration of the surface of the electrodes and distance between electrodes; parameters dielectric barrier; and the transported gas parameters such as volume, temperature, pressure and composition. Special attention is paid to the design of the electrodes made of woven wire mesh with mesh sizes from 1.5×1.5 to 2.0×2.0 mm. It is noted, that such electrodes allow obtaining the maximum productivity of an ozonator, and they do not lead to overheating of the dielectric barrier, and do not output down the generator. In the same way, the article presents the results of the mathematical modeling of ozone generator productivity while changing various factors

  9. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  10. Computing effects for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraith, J E; Jones, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase a-L-Iduronidase leading to accumulation of the GAGs, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulphate, The disease spectrum includes a disorder with severe involvement and CNS disease Hurler disease (HPS I H) a chronic disease without CNS disease Scheie disease (HPS I S5) and the intermediate Hurler/Scheie disease(HPS I HIS).The urine GAGs pattern. confirmed by Iduronidase enzyme assay is diagnostic. Over 200 mutations exist. Genotype / phenotype correlation is poor but two nonsense mutations results in Hurler disease.The skeletal disease dysostosis multiplex (DM) is seen in severe variants of MPS I. The hypoplastic odontoid putting these patients at high risk of cervical cord damage. MPS IH (Hurler Disease) affected infants develop a spinal 'gibbus' deformity, persistent nasal discharge, middle ear effusions and frequent upper respiratory infection. They have "coarse", facial features, and an enlarged tongue. . Progressive upper airway disease leads to obstructive sleep apnoea. Corneal clouding and cognitive impairment appears, growth ceases. Joint stiffness and contractures limit mobility. Cardiac disease is universal. Death occurs before 10 years. SCHEIE patients are diagnosed as teenagers with hepatomegaly, joint contractures, cardiac valve abnormalities and corneal clouding . Prolonged survival with considerable disability without cognitive impairment is usual. MPS IH/S Hurler/Scheie. is diagnosed by 6.5 years, with variable skeletal and visceral manifestations without cognitive involvement. Joint stiffness, corneal clouding, , umbilical hernia, abnormal facies, hepatomegaly, joint contractures, and cervical myelopathy occur. Patients die in their 20s .Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) the standard treatment of MPS IH for 30 years is unpredictable .When performed before 2 years it can stabilize cognitive impairment. Hepatosplenomegaly, urine GAGs excretion, upper

  12. Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We establish Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces. These inequalities can be applied to some important operators in Fourier analysis, such as the Bochner-Riesz multiplier over the critical index, the generalized Bochner-Riesz mean and the generalized Able-Poisson operator.

  13. Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE LinSen; LAN JiaCheng; LAN SenHua; YAN DunYan

    2009-01-01

    We establish Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces.These inequalities can be applied to some important operators in Fourier analysis,such as the Bochner-Riesz multiplier over the critical index,the generalized Bochner-Riesz mean and the generalized Able-Poisson operator.

  14. Some Characteristic Quantities Associated with Homogeneous -Type and -Type Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yeol Je

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristic quantities associated with homogeneous -type and -type functions are introduced and studied in this paper. Further, the concepts of -property and -property for a couple of functions are introduced and some quantities for a pair of homogeneous functions having -property and -property are obtained, respectively. As an application, a bound for the solution of the homogeneous complementarity problem with a -type function is derived.

  15. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  16. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  17. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; ZHANG Xingyuan; LIN Dong; XIE Xiren

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming lan guage. This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language. It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the oc currence of execution error during the running of programs. So, it can be said that, on the one hand, type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language; on the other hand, it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language. In this paper, some basic concepts of type system are discussed first. And then, the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language - SClean's type system is given in details. It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  18. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 林东; 等

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming language,This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language.It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the occurrence of execution error during the running of programs.So,it can be said that,on the one hand.type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language;on the other hand,it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language.In this paper,some basic concepts of type system are discussed first.And then,the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language-SClean's type system is given in details,It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  19. Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    OpenAIRE

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Fermions in nature come in several types: Dirac, Majorana and Weyl are theoretically thought to form a complete list. Even though Majorana and Weyl fermions have for decades remained experimentally elusive, condensed matter has recently emerged as fertile ground for their discovery as low energy excitations of realistic materials. Here we show the existence of yet another particle - a new type of Weyl fermion - that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new type of We...

  20. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  1. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  2. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  3. A Minimal Propositional Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Propositional type theory, first studied by Henkin, is the restriction of simple type theory to a single base type that is interpreted as the set of the two truth values. We show that two constants (falsity and implication) suffice for denotational and deductive completeness. Denotational completeness means that every value of the full set-theoretic type hierarchy can be described by a closed term. Deductive completeness is shown for a sequent-based proof system that extends a propositional natural deduction system with lambda conversion and Boolean replacement.

  4. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  5. Bilateral Hardy-type Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Fa CHEN

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the Hardy-type inequalities on the intervals (may be infinite) with two weights,either vanishing at two endpoints of the interval or having mean zero.For the first type of inequalities,in terms of new isoperimetric constants,the factor of upper and lower bounds becomes smaller than the known ones.The second type of the inequalities is motivated from probability theory and is new in the analytic context.The proofs are now rather elementary.Similar improvements are made for Nash inequality,Sobolev-type inequality,and the logarithmic Sobolev inequality on the intervals.

  6. Management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hidenori; Ishibashi, Shun; Bujo, Hideaki; Hayashi, Toshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Junji; Shirai, Kohji; Ota, Takao; Yamashita, Shizuya; Gotoda, Takanari; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Sone, Hirohito; Eto, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Although the Japan Atherosclerosis Society guideline for the diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerosis cardiovascular diseases for the Japanese population provides targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with dyslipidemia, there is no guideline specifically targeting the treatment of type IIb dyslipidemia, which is one of the most common types of dyslipidemia, along with type IIa and type IV dyslipidemia. Type IIb dyslipidemia is important because it sometimes accompanies atherogenic lipid profiles, such as small, dense LDL, remnants, low HDL cholesterolemia. It is also associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and most patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) show this phenotype; therefore, it is assumed that patients with type IIb dyslipidemia have a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Thus, the management of type IIb dyslipidemia is very important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, so we have attempted to provide a guideline for the management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

  7. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  8. Safety Analysis versus Type Inference with Partial Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Safety analysis is an algorithm for determining if a term in an untyped lambda calculus with constants is safe, i.e., if it does not cause an error during evaluation. This ambition is also shared by algorithms for type inference. Safety analysis and type inference are based on rather different...... perspectives, however. Safety analysis is global in that it can only analyze a complete program. In contrast, type inference is local in that it can analyze pieces of a program in isolation. In this paper we prove that safety analysis is sound, relative to both a strict and a lazy operational semantics. We...... also prove that safety analysis accepts strictly more safe lambda terms than does type inference for simple types. The latter result demonstrates that global program analysis can be more precise than local ones....

  9. Typed combinators for generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lämmel, R.; Vonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    Lacking support for generic traversal, functional programming languages suffer from a scalability problem when applied to large-scale program transformation problems. As a solution, we introduce emph{functional strategies: typeful generic functions that not only can be applied to terms of any type,

  10. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  11. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  12. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  13. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  14. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  15. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...... and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types....

  16. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  17. Drug Evaluations: Type I vs. Type II Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Intriligator, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Drug testing in the United States is currently biased toward the minimization of "Type I" error, that is, toward minimizing the chance of approving drugs that are unsafe or ineffective. This regulatory focus of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ignores the potential for committing the alternative "Type II" error, that is, the error of not approving drugs that are, in fact, safe and effective. Such Type II errors can result in the loss of significant benefits to society when the sale of d...

  18. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  20. Neutrophils in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Aimin; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2016-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. It occurs as the consequence of destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells triggered by genetic and environmental factors. The initiation and progression of the disease involves a complicated interaction between β-cells and immune cells of both innate and adaptive systems. Immune cells, such as T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, have been well documented to play crucial roles in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. However, the particular actions of neutrophils, which are the most plentiful immune cell type and the first immune cells responding to inflammation, in the etiology of this disease might indeed be unfairly ignored. Progress over the past decades shows that neutrophils might have essential effects on the onset and perpetuation of type 1 diabetes. Neutrophil-derived cytotoxic substances, including degranulation products, cytokines, reactive oxygen species and extracellular traps that are released during the process of neutrophil maturation or activation, could cause destruction to islet cells. In addition, these cells can initiate diabetogenic T cell response and promote type 1 diabetes development through cell-cell interactions with other immune and non-immune cells. Furthermore, relevant antineutrophil therapies have been shown to delay and dampen the progression of insulitis and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we discuss the relationship between neutrophils and autoimmune type 1 diabetes from the aforementioned aspects to better understand the roles of these cells in the initiation and development of type 1 diabetes. PMID:27181374

  1. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation I present my thesis: A high-level type system is a good aid for developing signal processing programs in handwritten Digital Signal Processor (DSP) assembler code. The problem behind the thesis is that it if often necessary to programing software for embedded systems in assem......In this dissertation I present my thesis: A high-level type system is a good aid for developing signal processing programs in handwritten Digital Signal Processor (DSP) assembler code. The problem behind the thesis is that it if often necessary to programing software for embedded systems...... hearing aids. I present a baseline type system which is the type system of DTAL adapted to Featherweight DSP. I then explain two classes of programs that uncovers some shortcomings of the baseline type systesm. The classes of problematic programs are exemplified by a procedure that initialises an array...... for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out...

  2. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  3. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  4. Types and Forms of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For the study of tourism, the most suitable method from the geographic point of view is typify it, because it allows the delimitation oftourist areas. Tourist areas are characterized by a specific type of travel or by a reunion of some types that may vary dynamically over time. Thetypes of tourism result mainly from the different motivations of the journey, i.e. the purpose of doing. Each type of tourism is distinguished by suchspecific purpose and it is specific to those regions where fixed purpose can be achieved by the existence of some specific facilities.

  5. The simply typed rewriting calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a rule construction and application framework. As such it embeds in a uniform way term rewriting and lambda-calculus. Since rule application is an explicit object of the calculus, it allows us also to handle the set of results explicitly. We present a simply typed version of the rewriting calculus. With a good choice of the type system, we show that the calculus is type preserving and terminating, i.e. verifies the subject reduction and strong normalization properties.

  6. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  7. Types and qualities of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the general importance of the concepts of type and quality of knowledge for theory, research and practice in the field of learning and instruction. Declarative and procedural knowledge as popular examples; Characteristics; Levels.

  8. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for an organ due to the shortage of donor organs. Because each candidate's situation is unique, waiting times ... distance between donor and recipient size of the donor organ in relation to the recipient type of organ ...

  9. [Surgery for diabetes type 2?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus K; Nocito, A; Schiesser, M

    2010-02-17

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence in western society. Obesity represents a well established risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2. Several studies on surgical procedures for the treatment of obesity have shown a postoperative reduction of obesity-related co-morbidities. Thus, diabetes mellitus type 2 was shown to resolve or improve in more than 75% of morbidly obese patients (BMI >35) after bariatric surgery. These insights paved the way for the advent of metabolic surgery - a novel field with the goal to improve glucose metabolism in patients with a BMI of less than 35. Encouraging results from mostly observational studies have sparked the interest in the surgical management of diabetes mellitus type 2.

  10. HRD in "Z" Type Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert; Anderson, Kathleen

    1982-01-01

    Describes the "Z" type training methods used in Japan. This training emphasizes interpersonal relations, long-term development, participative relationships, ability to perform several jobs, and individual patience and tolerance. (CT)

  11. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  12. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  13. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  14. Definitions and Types of Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Definitions and Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical research during ...

  15. Hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel, S A; Dixon, T.; Mann, R.; Jameson, K

    2008-01-01

    The primary cause of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes is diabetes medication—in particular, those which raise insulin levels independently of blood glucose, such as sulphonylureas (SUs) and exogenous insulin. The risk of hypoglycaemia is increased in older patients, those with longer diabetes duration, lesser insulin reserve and perhaps in the drive for strict glycaemic control. Differing definitions, data collection methods, drug type/regimen and patient populations make comparing rates of h...

  16. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    -type distributions. We construct representations for moment distributions based on a general matrix-exponential distribution which turns out to be a generalization of the moment distributions based on exponential distributions. For moment distributions based on phase{type distributions we find an appropriate...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....

  17. Osteoarthropathy in mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS type II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare (~ 1/1500.000), X-linked inherited disorder (affects boys) due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate sulfatase (Xq.28). The complex clinical picture includes osteoarthropathy with a tendency to flexion stiffness and disability. In our country, the specific diagnosis and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), are recently available in the Center for Genetic Pathology Cluj. Objectives Assessment of clinical...

  18. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...... moment distributions are of special interest in areas like demography and economics, and we calculate explicit formulas for the Lorenz curve and Gini index used in these disciplines....

  19. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-01-01

    Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hype...

  20. Mucolipidosis Type IV: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyo; Gustafson, Ann Marie; Sidransky, Ellen; Goldin, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodevelopmental as well as neurodegenerative disorder with severe psychomotor developmental delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorydria. It is characterized by the presence of lysosomal inclusions in many cell types in patients. MLIV is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in MCOLN1, which encodes for mucolipin-1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family. Although approximately 70-80% of patients iden...

  1. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  2. Typed combinators for generic traversal

    OpenAIRE

    Lämmel, Ralf; Vonk, J

    2001-01-01

    Lacking support for generic traversal, functional programming languages suffer from a scalability problem when applied to large-scale program transformation problems. As a solution, we introduce emph{functional strategies: typeful generic functions that not only can be applied to terms of any type, but which also allow generic traversal into subterms. We show how strategies are modelled inside a functional language, and we present a combinator library including generic traversal combinators. ...

  3. Computational semantics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Aarne

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show how Montague-style grammars can be completely formalized and thereby declaratively implemented by using the Grammatical Framework GF. The implementation covers the fundamental operations of Montague’s PTQ model: the construction of analysis trees, the linearization of trees into strings, and the interpretation of trees as logical formulas. Moreover, a parsing algorithm is derived from the grammar. Given that GF is a constructive type theory with dependent types, the te...

  4. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  5. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Diabetes Statistics Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, ... for some, taking aspirin daily. Can type 2 diabetes be delayed or prevented? Yes. The results of ...

  6. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(

    2001-01-01

    [1] Kawamoto, N., Generalizations of Witt algebras over a field of characteristic zero, Hiroshima Math. J., 1986, 16: 417.[2] Osborn, J. M., New simple infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of characteristic 0, J. Alg., 1996, 185: 820.[3] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Derivations, isomorphisms, and second cohomology of generalized Witt algebras, Trans. of Amer. Math. Soc., 1998, 350(2): 643.[4] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, J. Alg., 1997, 195: 170.[5] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Poisson bracket and Lie algebras of type H in characteristic 0, Math. Z., 1999, 230: 107.[6] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type K Lie algebras in characteristic 0, Comm. Alg., 1997, 25: 3325.[7] Zhao, K., Isomorphisms between generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, Canadian J. Math., 1998, 50: 210.[8] Passman, D. P., Simple Lie algebras of Witt type, J. Algebra, 1998, 206: 682.[9] Jordan, D. A., On the simplicity of Lie algebras of derivations of commutative algebras, J. Alg., 2000, 206: 682.[10] Xu, X., New generalized simple Lie algebras of Cartan type over a field with characteristic 0, J. Alg., 2000, 244: 23.[11] Su, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, H., Derivation-simple algebras and the structures of Lie algebras of generalized Witt type, J. Alg., 2000, 233: 642.[12] Dixmer, J., Enveloping Algebras, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977.

  7. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  8. Pomegranate and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem; Swedan, Samer; Alguraan, Ziyad

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, various studies have linked pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn), a fruit native to the Middle East, with type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment. This review focuses on current laboratory and clinical research related to the effects of pomegranate fractions (peels, flowers, and seeds) and some of their active components on biochemical and metabolic variables associated with the pathologic markers of type 2 diabetes. This review systematically presents findings from cell culture and animal studies as well as clinical human research. One key mechanism by which pomegranate fractions affect the type 2 diabetic condition is by reducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. This reduction may occur by directly neutralizing the generated reactive oxygen species, increasing certain antioxidant enzyme activities, inducing metal chelation activity, reducing resistin formation, and inhibiting or activating certain transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased significantly by punicic acid, methanolic seed extract, and pomegranate peel extract. Known compounds in pomegranate, such as punicalagin and ellagic, gallic, oleanolic, ursolic, and uallic acids, have been identified as having anti-diabetic actions. Furthermore, the juice sugar fraction was found to have unique antioxidant polyphenols (tannins and anthocyanins), which could be beneficial to control conditions in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide evidence for the anti-diabetic activity of pomegranate fruit; however, before pomegranate or any of its extracts can be medically recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, controlled, clinical studies, are needed. PMID:23684435

  9. Ionization box type radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  10. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R.; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  11. Quantization via Linear homotopy types

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In the foundational logical framework of homotopy-type theory we discuss a natural formalization of secondary integral transforms in stable geometric homotopy theory. We observe that this yields a process of non-perturbative cohomological quantization of local pre-quantum field theory; and show that quantum anomaly cancellation amounts to realizing this as the boundary of a field theory that is given by genuine (primary) integral transforms, hence by linear polynomial functors. Recalling that traditional linear logic has semantics in symmetric monoidal categories and serves to formalize quantum mechanics, what we consider is its refinement to linear homotopy-type theory with semantics in stable infinity-categories of bundles of stable homotopy types (generalized cohomology theories) formalizing Lagrangian quantum field theory, following Nuiten and closely related to recent work by Haugseng and Hopkins-Lurie. For the reader interested in technical problems of quantization we provide non-perturbative quantizati...

  12. On Simulating Type Ia Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type Ia supernovae are bright stellar explosions distinguished by standardizable light curves that allow for their use as distance indicators for cosmological studies. Despite their highly successful use in this capacity, the progenitors of these events are incompletely understood. We describe simulating type Ia supernovae in the paradigm of a thermonuclear runaway occurring in a massive white dwarf star. We describe the multi-scale physical processes that realistic models must incorporate and the numerical models for these that we employ. In particular, we describe a flame-capturing scheme that addresses the problem of turbulent thermonuclear combustion on unresolved scales. We present the results of our study of the systematics of type Ia supernovae including trends in brightness following from properties of the host galaxy that agree with observations. We also present performance results from simulations on leadership-class architectures.

  13. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel;

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  14. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  15. Bounds for Hardy Type Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neven ELEZOVI(C); Kristina KRULI(C); Josip PE(C)ARI(C)

    2011-01-01

    Let Ak be an integral operator defined by Akf(x) := 1/K(x)∫Ω2 k(x,y)f(y)dμ2(y),where k: Ω1 ×Ω2 → R is a general nonnegative kernel, (Ω1,∑1,μ1), (Ω2, ∑2,μ2) are measure spaces with σ-finite measures and K(x) :=∫Ω2 k(x,y)dμ2(y), x ∈Ω1. 2In this paper improvements and reverses of new weighted Hardy type inequalities with integral operators of such type are stated and proved. New Cauchy type mean is introduced and monotonicity property of this mean is proved.

  16. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  17. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE I: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Neurofibromatosis (NF is a term that has been applied to a variety of related syndromes, characterized by neuro ectodermal tumors arising within multiple organs and autosomal-dominant inheritance. Neurofibromatosis type I(NF-1, known as well as Recklinghausen’s disease, we have presented a case report of 10 year old boy with complain of scalp swelling on right postero-lateral aspect of scalp with multiple flat, hypo pigmented macule on back, neck. On radiology work up including MRI there were multiple plexiform neuroibromas, multiple non-neoplastic hamartomatous lesion suggestive of neurofibromatosis type.

  18. Models for Type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rather disjoint scenarios for Type I supernovae are presented. One is based upon mass accretion by a white dwarf in a binary system. The second involves a star having some 8 to 10 times the mass of the sun which may or may not be a solitary star. Despite the apparent dissimilarities in the models it may be that each occurs to some extent in nature for they both share the possibility of producing substantial quantities of 56Ni and explosions in stars devoid of hydrogen envelopes. These are believed to be two properties that must be shared by any viable Type I model

  19. Discrete Hilbert-Type Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Bicheng

    2011-01-01

    Discrete Hilbert-type inequalities including Hilbert's inequality are important in mathematical analysis and its applications. In 1998, the author presented an extension of Hilbert's integral inequality with an independent parameter. In 2004, some new extensions of Hilbert's inequality were presented by introducing two pairs of conjugate exponents and additional independent parameters. Since then, a number of new discrete Hilbert-type inequalities have arisen. In this book, the author explains how to use the way of weight coefficients and introduce specific parameters to build new discrete Hil

  20. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...... based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing...

  1. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....

  2. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects. PMID:24222606

  3. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting...

  4. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    Type inference is generally thought of as being an exclusive property of the functional programming paradigm. We argue that such a feature may be of significant benefit for also standard imperative languages. We present a working tool (available by WWW) providing these benefits for a full version...

  5. Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    The clause in Southeastern Tepehuan consists of a predicate, its associated arguments, and other modifying elements. This paper seeks to show the various types of semantic and surface clauses and the relation between them. The semantic clause consists of various semantic components, both nuclear and peripheral, semantic prosodies, and certain…

  6. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario; Barbagallo; Ligia; J; Dominguez

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular magnesium(Mg) deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulinand glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake and vascular tone. Reduced intracellular Mg concentrations result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity, postreceptorial impairment in insulin action and worsening of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. A low Mg intake and an increased Mg urinary loss appear the most important mechanisms that may favor Mg depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Low dietary Mg intake has been related to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Benefits of Mg supplementation on metabolic profiles in diabetic patients have been found in most, but not all clinical studies and larger prospective studies are needed to support the potential role of dietary Mg supplementation as a possible public health strategy in diabetes risk. The aim of this review is to revise current evidence on the mechanisms of Mg deficiency in diabetes and on the possible role of Mg supplementation in the prevention and management of the disease.

  7. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK) with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  8. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  9. What causes type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T ...

  10. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  11. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  12. On the internal structures of inductive types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the internal structures of hereditary inductive types in logical type theory. By defining a bisimulation equality on the inhabitants of each hereditary inductive type, one is able to show that the inhabitants of a hereditary inductive type satisfy the basic properties of sets. A hereditary inductive type can therefore be conceived as a universe of sets.

  13. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    residents. In MS I, the physiological status of potamodromous and anadromous fish was examined and it was found that these strategies were generally very similar. It was indicated that both potamodromous and anadromous fish were smoltified and in lower nutritional status relative to resident fish. Moreover...... strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...

  14. [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatiya, A I; Bouayed, M A; Touiza, E; Daoudi, K; Bhalil, S; Elmesbahi, I; Tahri, H

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The dosage of the serum level of tyrosine is meaningfully raised to 1236 micromol/l. A dietary treatment restraining tyrosine and phenylalanine is started with favorable results after an evolution of 6 months. Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase. The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites. This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.

  15. Introducing inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2005-04-01

    Inulin is a generic term to cover all beta(2-->1) linear fructans. Chicory inulin is a linear beta(2-->1) fructan (degree of polymerisation (DP) 2 to 60; DPav=12), its partial enzymatic hydrolysis product is oligofructose (DP 2 to 8; DPav=4), and by applying specific separation technologies a long-chain inulin known as inulin HP (DP 10 to 60; DPav=25) can be produced. Finally, a specific product known as oligofructose-enriched inulin is obtained by combining chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose. Because of the beta-configuration of the anomeric C2 in their fructose monomers, inulin-type fructans resist hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, they classify as 'non-digestible' carbohydrates, and they are dietary fibres. By increasing faecal biomass and water content of the stools, they improve bowel habits, but they have characteristic features different from other fibres. They affect gastrointestinal functions not because of their physico-chemical properties but rather because of their biochemical and physiological attributes. In the colon, they are rapidly fermented to produce SCFA that are good candidates to explain some of the systemic effects of inulin-type fructans. Fermentation of inulin-type fructans in the large bowel is a selective process; bifidobacteria (and possibly a few other genera) are preferentially stimulated to grow, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora by increasing the number of potentially health-promoting bacteria and reducing the number of potentially harmful species. Both oligofructose and inulin are prebiotic. They also induce changes in colonic epithelium stimulating proliferation in the crypts, increasing the concentration of polyamines, changing the profile of mucins, and modulating endocrine as well as immune functions. From a nutrition labelling perspective, inulin-type fructans are not only prebiotic dietary fibres; they are also low-calorie carbohydrates [6.3 kJ/g (1.5 kcal

  16. [Hypophysitis : Types and differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammatory findings in the pituitary glands account for approximately 1 % of operations in the sellar region. Primary inflammation (e.g. lymphocytic and idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis) have to be differentiated from secondary types (e.g. concomittant inflammation with Rathke's cleft cysts, craniopharyngiomas and germinomas) and involvement of the pituitary in generalized inflammation (IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis and septicopyemia). Langerhans cell histiocytosis also has to be considered for the differential diagnostics. Lymphocytic hypophysitis shows lymphocytic infiltrations of varying density, predominantly of the T‑cell type. Granulomatous hypophysitis has the features of sarcoidosis and can only be diagnosed by exclusion of generalized sarcoidosis. Secondary hypophysitis has a mixed cell infiltration, especially by histiocytic infiltration and predominantly originates from ruptures or bleeding from Rathke's cleft cysts. The frequently very sparse remnants of cyst epithelium should be confirmed by pankeratin immunostaining. PMID:27103256

  17. Holographic Type II Goldstone bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, Irene; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Landsteiner, Karl; Melgar, Luis; Landea, Ignacio Salazar

    2013-01-01

    The Goldstone theorem implies the appearance of an ungapped mode whenever a continuous global symmetry is spontaneously broken. In general it does not say anything about the precise form of the dispersion relation nor does it imply that there is one massless mode for each broken symmetry generator. It is a well-established fact that even for relativistic field theories in the presence of a chemical potential Goldstone modes with quadratic dispersion relation, the type II Goldstone bosons, appear in the spectrum. We develop two holographic models that feature type II Goldstone modes as part of the quasinormal mode spectrum. The models are based on simple generalizations with U(2) symmetry of the well-studied holographic s-wave superfluid. Our results include Goldstone modes without broken generators but with unusual realization of symmetries and a frequency dependent conductivity of striking resemblance to the one of Graphene.

  18. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  19. DNA typing from cigarette butts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hirata, Keiji; Yamada, Sadao; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo; Ohya, Isao

    2003-03-01

    We performed DNA typing for D1S80, HLADQA1, TH01 and PM using the butts of 100 cigarettes that were smoked by ten different individuals (ten cigarettes per individual). The results obtained from DNA typing for D1S80 agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 76 cigarette butt samples. Sixteen samples produced false results, showing the loss of the longer allelic hetero-band. When examined using agarose gel electrophoresis, high-molecular weight DNA was not observed in these samples. The same results were also observed for buccal swab samples and saliva stains obtained from the same individuals. In the remaining eight cigarette butt samples, PCR products were not detected. The results obtained from DNA typing for TH01, HLADQA1 and PM agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 90 samples. In the remaining ten samples of a specific kind of cigarette (Marlboro), the PCR products were not detected. The extracts from the ends of the Marlboro cigarettes were stained yellow. When the DNA extracted from Marlboro cigarette butts was treated with Microcon-100 (amicon) or SizeSep 400 Span Columns (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), PCR products could be detected. When PCR amplification was performed after adding extracts from the ends of unsmoked Marlboro cigarettes to DNA extracted from bloodstains, PCR products could not be detected. The present data indicate that the degradation of high-molecular weight DNA and the inhibition of PCR by dyes of the cigarette end should be kept in mind when performing DNA typing using cigarette ends.

  20. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  1. Three types of Counterfactual History

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Pessoa Junior

    2015-01-01

    The paper starts out by presenting the approach to the history of science based on causal models, discussing the postulation of counterfactual histories of science. Three different types of counterfactual analyses may be done in the historical sciences, all of which have the benefit of hindsight. Economic history and history of technology are characterized by their reasonable predictability; history of science and mathematics by their objectivity; and the third class, which includes “virtual ...

  2. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  3. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  4. Gastaut type idiopathic occipital epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic occipital epilepsy is a rare epileptic syndrome. Its incidence in a Novosibirsk cohort of patients with idiopathic focal epilepsy is 0.9%. Objective: to present a clinical description of new cases of Gastaut syndrome, the types of its course, and treatment options in these patients. Patients and methods. The study covers 17 cases of Gastaut type idiopathic occipital epilepsy in 13 women and 4 men aged 11–53 years. Results. Among 17 cases we present 4 family cases with the disease. Three generations in 2 families were observed to have epilepsy, including Gastaut syndrome concurrent with childhood absence epilepsy. The adolescent onset of the disease was seen in most cases. Its main symptoms were focal visual seizures (100%, focal sensory seizures (58.9%, cephalalgia (47.1%, speech disorders (41.2%, and secondarily generalized convulsive seizures (35.3%. According to the frequency of seizures, the investigators identified 5 types of the course: single focal seizures, rare focal seizures with or without convulsions, frequent focal seizures with or without convulsions. The identity of the course of epilepsy was found in familial cases. 76.5% of the patients had a good quality of life: 41.2% of them were untreated while 35.3% were treated; no seizures were noted. 

  5. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mucopolysaccharidosis type VI Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), also known as Maroteaux- ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type II mucopolysaccharidosis type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type IV mucopolysaccharidosis type IV Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type III mucopolysaccharidosis type III Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), also known as Sanfilippo ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mucopolysaccharidosis type VII Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), also known as Sly syndrome, is ...

  10. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for making a protein that forms type II collagen. This type of collagen is found mostly in the clear gel that ... is present in the nose and external ears. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type I mucopolysaccharidosis type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a condition that affects many ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions glutaric acidemia type I glutaric acidemia type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited disorder in which the body ...

  14. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  15. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A[D]=A[D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra [D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D-simple and A[D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.

  16. PARENTING AND TYPE ONE DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, Sarah Louise

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers parental psychological well-being and the acceptability of parenting support for those who have an adolescent with type one diabetes (T1D). Within the literature it is acknowledged that T1D diagnosis and management can have an effect on all family members. Furthermore poor parental well-being can impact negatively on adolescent well-being. It is therefore important to understand parental well-being in the context of adolescent T1D. Paper one presents a literature review ...

  17. Type 2-diabetes i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2012-01-01

    Our vision is that the opportunistic screening system will be improved in order to find patients with occult type 2 diabetes (T2D), since an early treatment based on a correct phenotyping is the goal. Individual goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids must be set up, and the number of drugs used...... must fit with the patient's phenotype to avoid polypharmacy. A new flow chart for the organisation of T2D has been formulated giving the general practitioners the role as co-ordinators....

  18. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Muralidhara Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis", culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ′patchy′ or ′lobular′ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow′s milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies

  19. Nuclear Zpif-Type Plots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Yu-Gang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129Xe.Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, I.e. There exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  20. Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia, wormian bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, J M; Hall, C M; García-Miñaur, S; Delgado, A

    1998-05-18

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CMDD), wormian bone type. Component manifestations include a large head with prominent forehead, skull changes showing multiple wormian bones, wide long tubular bones without the usual metaphyseal flare, wide and short tubular bones without the normal diaphyseal constriction, and wide ribs and clavicles. In addition to these findings, the propositus, his brother, his father, and a paternal aunt all have parietal protuberances, which seem not related to CMDD. Parental consanguineity supports the autosomal recessive transmission of the condition. PMID:9605592

  1. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Pant; Sanjay Oli

    2003-03-01

    By making use of Letelier’s form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic field equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi’s equation of state whereas a class of models exhibits inflation in the initial stage. Two of the classes presented here have Kasner’s space-time as past asymptote.

  2. Mobile Balkans: Temporality, types, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to scrutunize the Balkan migration phenomenon, highlightening the alloy between continuity and discontinuity in the explanation of migrations; the former expressed in the trends, the latter - in breakthroughs, ruptures, changes. Four periods are articulated and characterized through the major trends. The typology of Balkan migrations identifies ten types, classified in three larger categories. The article distinguishes and compares the national migration models and draws a panoramic picture of the major trends during the last quarter of a century.

  3. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles....... Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. A classifier is defined based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. The overall recognition rate is 88.2% on a large and diverse test set. The recognition rate is better than...

  4. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  5. [Specific types of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Hartmann, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Gaisa, N T

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer shows rare variants and special subtypes with diverse prognostic importance and therefore may necessitate different therapeutic approaches. For pathologists it is important to histologically diagnose and specify such variants. Nested variants of urothelial carcinoma with inconspicuous, well-formed tumor cell nests present with an aggressive course. The plasmacytoid variant, which morphologically resembles plasma cells is associated with a shorter survival time and a high frequency of peritoneal metastasis. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma with small papillary tumor cell islands within artificial tissue retraction spaces and frequent lymphovascular invasion also has a poor prognosis. Other important rare differential variants listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification are microcystic, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid, giant cell and undifferentiated urothelial carcinomas. Additionally, there are three special types of bladder cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. These tumors are characterized by pure squamous cell or glandular differentiation and are sometimes less responsive to adjuvant (chemo)therapy. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder mimics the neuroendocrine features of its pulmonary counterpart, shows an aggressive course but is sensitive to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. The morphology and histology of the most important variants and special types are discussed in this review. PMID:26782034

  6. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of...

  7. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  9. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  10. Type Soundness in the Dart Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strocco, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    the design of a type safety analysis for the full Dart language, and experimental evaluations showing that the algorithm can be successfully applied to real-world programs. Our third main contribution consists of experimentally evaluating the benefits provided by each source of unsoundness in the Dart type...... languages. We investigate the trade-off, focusing on the area of optional typing, which allows programmers to choose when to use static type checking in parts of pro- grams. Our primary focus is Dart, an optionally typed programming language with a type system that is unsound by design. What makes Dart...... interesting from a research point of view is that the static type system combines optional typing with nominal typing using subtyping rules that make the type system unsound even for fully annotated programs. This dissertation contains three main contributions. We first show a for- mal model in Coq...

  11. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ara, Ignacio;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...... vastus lateralis across all groups. No significant differences between groups were observed in ceramide content in either of the two substudies. In human skeletal muscle, ceramide content was higher in type I than in type II fibers in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese subjects, but overall...

  12. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Reis, Ribamar R R; Siffert, Beatriz B

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to its great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae. This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fi?tter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  13. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...

  14. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Natures of progenitors of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) have not yet been clarified. There has been long and intensive discussion on whether the so-called single degenerate (SD) scenario or the double degenerate (DD) scenario, or anything else, could explain a major population of SNe Ia, but the conclusion has not yet been reached. With rapidly increasing observational data and new theoretical ideas, the field of studying the SN Ia progenitors has been quickly developing, and various new insights have been obtained in recent years. This article aims at providing a summary of the current situation regarding the SN Ia progenitors, both in theory and observations. It seems difficult to explain the emerging diversity seen in observations of SNe Ia by a single population, and we emphasize that it is important to clarify links between different progenitor scenarios and different sub-classes of SNe Ia.

  15. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina;

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologi...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention.......Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...

  16. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Calvão, Maurício O.; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Siffert, Beatriz B.

    2015-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to their great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded ‘for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.’ This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here, we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fitter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  17. Forensic DNA typing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y P

    2009-04-01

    In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China also contributed to the progress of DNA analysis by the validation of numerous test methods and by optimization of these methods. During these years, forensic DNA analysis in China has experienced tremendous progress towards development of robust, efficient and precise protocols, including the development of short tandem repeat analysis, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome analysis. Forensic scientists are constantly looking for new methods to further improve DNA typing. Therefore, this paper also focuses on emerging new technologies in China, which represent an interest for forensic genetics.

  18. Complex Regional Pain Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph; Barnett, Peter Leslie John

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. Owing to the nature of presentation with pain, many of these children present to the emergency setting at different stages of the syndrome with or without numerous prior interactions with health professionals. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical syndrome characterized by amplified musculoskeletal limb pain that is out of proportion to the history and physical findings, or pain due to non-noxious stimuli (allodynia/hyperalgesia), and accompanied by one or more signs of autonomic dysfunction. Differential diagnosis may include significant trauma (eg, fractures), inflammatory conditions, malignancies, and systemic illness. The diagnosis is clinical. The treatment goals for CRPS1 are restoration of function and relief of pain. Education, physical, and occupational therapy with psychotherapy and defined goals of achievement with reward are the mainstay of treatment for this population. Most children with CRPS1 will have a favorable outcome. PMID:26928099

  19. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. PMID:26614552

  20. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water......-friendly and have flexible data needs. They can easily be implemented in new regions using expert information or different types of local data. Furthermore, they are easily presentable to stakeholders and have the potential to be applied over large spatial scales. Integral care must be taken in the use...... of appropriate HSIs as these are the most sensitive part of the modelling and inaccurate results will be gained if not correctly formulated. If representative HSIs are not available, fuzzy rule-based modelling is recommended, but care must also be taken in the designing of the rule sets. For larger-scale...

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  2. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections.

  3. Types, structures and theories in NKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoru ZHANG; Zaiyue ZHANG; Yuefei SUI

    2008-01-01

    The National Knowledge,Infrastructure (NKI)is a multi-domain knowledge base. The classical type the-ory is no longer appropriate to describe every kind of object in multi-domains, such as artifacts, natural or micro objects. Three different kinds of type theories are defined: the classical, atomic and pseudo type theories; in the classical type theory, two new type constructors are defined: setm and ∨, to describe the types of sets of all the elements of the types and unions of two sets of different types, respectively. The structures and categories in the type theory are defined, and the sub-structures and homo-morphic structures are used to describe the part-of rela-tions that give the algebraic specifications for the natural objects and the part-of relations between the natural objects, micro objects and artifacts.

  4. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  5. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  6. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type...

  7. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation stems from the residualization of static values in dynamic contexts, given their type and the type of their free variables. Its algorithm coincides with the algorithm for coercing a subtype value into a supertype value, which itself coincides with Berger and Schwi......Type-directed partial evaluation stems from the residualization of static values in dynamic contexts, given their type and the type of their free variables. Its algorithm coincides with the algorithm for coercing a subtype value into a supertype value, which itself coincides with Berger...

  8. Associations between dru Types and SCCmec Cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette D; Boye, Kit; Oliveira, Duarte C;

    2013-01-01

    repeat units (dru). The dru region has been suggested as a supplementary typing method for MRSA and an international nomenclature exists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity and variability of the dru region in a diverse collection of MRSA. We studied 302 MRSA isolates harbouring...... isolates with dru type variants indicating that dru typing is not useful as a first line epidemiological typing tool. However, MRSA isolates cultured from a single patient over a three year period exhibited a single dru type. The finding of dt10a in most SCCmec types suggests that dru and mecA originate...

  9. Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena; Kloska, Anna; Malinowska, Marcelina; Piotrowska, Ewa; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Banecki, Bogdan; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease in which heparan sulfate is accumulated in lysosomes, as well as outside of cells, as the primary storage material. This disease is a complex of four conditions caused by dysfunctions of one of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes involved in degradation of heparan sulfate: SGSH (coding for heparan N-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIIA, NAGLU (coding for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase) - causing MPS IIIB, HGSNAT (coding for acetyl CoA alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase) - causing MPS IIIC), and GNS (coding for N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIID. The primary storage is responsible for some disease symptoms, but other arise as a result of secondary storage, including glycosphingolipids, and subsequent processes, like oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Central nervous system is predominantly affected in all subtypes of MPS III. Heparan sulfate and its derivatives are the most commonly used biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction procedures. Currently, there is no therapy for Sanfilippo syndrome, however, clinical trials are ongoing for enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy (particularly gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy). PMID:27100513

  10. Industrial Electron Accelerators Type ILU

    CERN Document Server

    Auslender, Vadim; Cheskidov, Vladimir; Faktorovich, Boris; Gorbunov, Vladimir; Gornakov, Igor; Nekhaev, V E; Panfilov, Alexander; Sidorov, Alexander; Tkachenko, Vadim; Tuvik, Alfred; Voronin, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    The report describes the electron accelerators of ILU series covering the energy range from 0.5 to 5 MeV with beam power up to 50 kW. The pulse linear accelerators type ILU are developed since 1970 in Budker institute of Nuclear Physics and are supplied to the industry. The ILU machines are purposed for wide application in various technological processes and designed for long continuous and round-the-clock work in industrial conditions. A principle of acceleration of electrons in the gap of HF resonator is used in the ILU machines. The HF resonator has toroidal form. The electron gun is placed in one of the protruding electrodes forming the accelerating gap of the resonator. The resonator is fed from HF autogenerator realized on the industrial triode, the feedback signal is given from the resonator. The absence of outer beam injection and usage of self-excited HF generator simplify the design of accelerator and ensure its reliable operation.

  11. Type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Hansen, Martin P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. Genetic background may affect the risk for autoimmune disease and patients with T1D exhibit an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease, autoimmune gastritis, coeliac disease and vitiligo. Approximately 20%-25% of patients with T1D have thyroid antibodies, and up to 50% of such patients progress to clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. Approximately 0.5% of diabetic patients have concomitant Addison's disease and 4% have coeliac disease. The prevalence of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia is 5% to 10% and 2.6% to 4%, respectively. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Patients and family members should be educated to be able to recognize signs and symptoms of underlying disease.

  12. Radiosurgery for type II neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias; Kemeny, Andras

    2008-01-01

    A summary of our radiosurgical experience treating type II neurofibromatosis (NF2) vestibular schwannomas (VSs), based on a retrospective consecutive series of 122 tumours in 92 patients, with an extended series of a further 22 patients (906 patient-years of follow-up) to investigate the risk of malignancy after radiosurgery. With current techniques, we estimate that 8 years after radiosurgery for NF2 VS, 20% of patients will have required further treatment, 50% will be well controlled, and in 30% there will have been some concern about control, but they will have been managed conservatively. Three years after treatment, approximately 40% retain their functional hearing, 40% have some deterioration, 20% becoming deaf in that ear. The risk of facial palsy was 5%. Two malignancies were recorded after radiosurgery, in one the malignant behaviour preceded treatment. This is less than the previously reported rate of spontaneously developing malignant gliomas in NF2. Whilst the clinical results are far worse than those achieved treating sporadic tumours, this applies equally to the results of surgery or observation when treating NF2 tumours. It is important therefore that these patients are given advice specific for NF2. Considering this, we believe that radiosurgery remains a valuable minimally invasive treatment option for selected NF2 patients.

  13. Coriolis-type mass flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass flowmeter of the Coriolis type is described comprising: A. a single turn flow loop formed by a pipe having a pair of arcuate legs the loop is supported on a frame whereby the loop is free to vibrate at its natural resonance frequency; B. a self-sufficient electromagnetic ballistic vibrator mounted on the loop at the vertex. The vibrator has a mass that oscillates to cause the loop to vibrate at its resonance frequency; C. means to feed a fluid to be metered through the vibrating loop to cause the loop to undergo tortional oscillation as a function of mass flow: D. a pair of strain gauges mounted on the respective legs of the loop whereby in the absence of flow, the gauges yield equal signals and during flow they yield signals of different magnitude as a function of mass flow; E. means to apply the signals from the gauges to a differential amplifier whose output is substantially proportional to the mass flow rate; and F. means responsive to the differential amplifier output to provide a mass flow rate reading

  14. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R C; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Rubin, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C; Brown, P J; Milne, P A

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of 5 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 d relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II 6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the 5 SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibits high-velocity (v > 20,000 km/s) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broad band light curve/color behavior: Three of the 5 have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors, and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal-to-noise and phase, we ...

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Thakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.

  16. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  17. Structures, Mixed Types - Oil & Gas Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Oil and Gas Location is a DEP primary facility type related to the Oil & Gas Program. The sub-facility types related to Oil and Gas that are included in this...

  18. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type 2 Diabetes? be treated promptly because elevated blood sugars can Also called adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabet , es damage the kidneys, heart, and eyes; and predispose type 2 diabetes is a chronic ...

  19. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  20. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 1 ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  1. Type 2 diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000328.htm Type 2 diabetes - self-care To use the sharing features on ... seeing a diabetes educator. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes You may not have any symptoms. If you ...

  2. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 2 ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  3. What Are the Types of Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the types of muscular dystrophy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Content There are more than 30 forms of muscular dystrophy (MD), with information on the primary types included ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: neurofibromatosis type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2 are called vestibular schwannomas or acoustic neuromas. These growths develop along the nerve that carries ... Testing Registry: Neurofibromatosis, type 2 MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Acoustic Neuroma MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Neurofibromatosis 2 Neurofibromatosis Clinic, Massachusetts General ...

  5. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Type A Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  6. BERGMAN TYPE PROJECTIONS ON Lp SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehe Zhu

    2005-01-01

    The paper is a survey on the action of Bergman type projections on various Lp spaces. The focus is on three types of holomorphic function spaces: weighted Bergman spaces, the Bloch space, and diagonal Besov spaces.

  7. Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs (Thiazolidinediones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA2 spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 ( SCA2 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA3 spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 ( SCA3 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA6 spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 ( SCA6 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA1 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 ( SCA1 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  12. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  13. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of {approximately} 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for {gamma}-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of {approximately} 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches {approximately} 60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  15. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  16. Japanese Small Type Coastal Whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fisher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2016 marks the 70th anniversary of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW as well as the 30th anniversary of the International Whaling Commission’s (IWC moratorium on commercial whaling. It also marks three decades of effort by Japan to overturn this ban. Its strategy to circumvent the moratorium by issuing permits to kill protected whales for scientific research is famous—even the subject of a 2014 lawsuit at the International Court of Justice. Less well known is Japan’s strategy to overturn the ban by persuading the Commission to authorise a category of commercial whaling known as Small Type Coastal Whaling (STCW that is conducted on minke and other small whales in Japanese waters but has never been regulated, or even formally recognised, by the IWC. For three decades Japan has sought STCW catch limits for four communities which it claims are still suffering distress as a result of the moratorium. While the Commission has rejected each proposal, mainly citing concerns that the commercial nature and purpose of STCW violates the moratorium, Japan has persisted, exhibiting great flexibility in its approach. Its tactics changed significantly in 2014; it no longer denied (or defended the commerciality of the hunt, but argued that it is irrelevant since it sought only a small exemption to the moratorium which would remain intact for all other populations. This is a perspective on Japan’s evolving STCW strategy and the risk that lifting, or modifying, the moratorium would pose to the conservation of whales.

  17. Autoimmune diseases associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Arti

    2008-01-01

    Associations of autoimmune diseases with neurofibromatosis type 1 have been rarely described. In the present report, we describe two patients of neurofibromatosis type 1 having an association with vitiligo in one, and alopecia areata and autoimmune thyroiditis in another. The associations of neurofibromatosis type 1 with vitiligo, alopecia areata, and autoimmune thyroiditis have not been reported earlier. Whether these associations reflect a causal relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1 or are coincidental needs to be settled.

  18. Brand Objects for Nominal Typing (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy; Homer, Michael; Noble, James

    2015-01-01

    In Brand Objects for Nominal Typing, we describe an implementation of a branding system for both runtime and static types. This artifact provides the extended form of Hopper, an interpreter for the Grace programming language, and extra modules which define both the dynamic objects and the modular static type checker. The extra modules extend the existing structural type checker in the provided version of Hopper, and are capable of statically checking code which interacts with statically deter...

  19. IL-10 dependent suppression of type 1, type 2 and type 17 cytokines in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathella Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Type 1 cytokine responses are considered protective in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, their role as well as those of Type 2, 17 and immunoregulatory cytokines in tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL and latent tuberculosis (LTB have not been well studied. AIM AND METHODS: To identify cytokine responses associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, TB lymphadenitits and latent TB, we examined mycobacterial antigen-specific immune responses of PTB, TBL and LTB individuals. More specifically, we examined ESAT-6 and CFP-10 induced Type 1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokine production and their regulation using multiplex ELISA. RESULTS: PTB individuals exhibited a significantly lower baseline as well as antigen-specific production of Type 1 (IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2; Type 2 (IL-4 and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines in comparison to both TBL and LTB individuals. TBL individuals exhibited significantly lower antigen-specific IFNγ responses alone in comparison to LTB individuals. Although, IL-10 levels were not significantly higher, neutralization of IL-10 during antigen stimulation resulted in significantly enhanced production of IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-17A in PTB individuals, indicating that IL-10 mediates (at least partially the suppression of cytokine responses in PTB. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary TB is characterized by an IL-10 dependent antigen-specific suppression of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokines, reflecting an important association of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of active TB.

  20. Brauer algebra of type F4

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shoumin

    2012-01-01

    We present an algebra related to the Coxeter group of type F4 which can be viewed as the Brauer algebra of type F4 and is obtained as a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type E6. We also describe some properties of this algebra.

  1. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Cowan, Susan; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    strain typing was based on characterization of 3 variable treponemal genes, arp, tpr and tp0548. A total of 278 specimens from 269 patients were included. Among the fully typeable specimens (n = 197), 22 strain types were identified, with 1 type, 14d/g, accounting for 54%. The majority (93...

  2. Pure Type Systems for Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, J.-W.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a functional programming language based on Pure Type Systems PTSs. We show how we can define such a language by extending the PTS framework with algebraic data types case expressions and definitions. Furthermore we present an efficient type checking algorithm and an interpreter for this l

  3. Band-type microelectrodes for amperometric immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga-Yeon; Chang, Young Wook; Ko, Hyuk; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2016-07-20

    A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. A circular-type, mm-scale electrode with the same diameter as the band-type microelectrode was also made with an electrode area that was 5000 times larger than the band-type microelectrode. By comparing the amperometric signals of 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) samples at different optical density (OD) values, the band-type microelectrode was determined to be 9 times more sensitive than the circular-type electrode. The properties of the circular-type and the band-type electrodes (e.g., the shape of their cyclic voltammograms, the type of diffusion layer used, and the diffusion layer thickness per unit electrode area) were characterized according to their electrode area using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. From these simulations, the band-type electrode was estimated to have the conventional microelectrode properties, even when the electrode area was 100 times larger than a conventional circular-type electrode. These results show that both the geometry and the area of an electrode can influence the properties of the electrode. Finally, amperometric analysis based on a band-type electrode was applied to commercial ELISA kits to analyze human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. PMID:27251855

  4. Hoare type theory, polymorphism and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanevski, Alexandar; Morrisett, J. Gregory; Birkedal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    with higher-order functions and type polymorphism. We further show that in the presence of type polymorphism, it becomes possible to interpret the Hoare types in the “small footprint” manner, as advocated by separation logic, whereby specifications tightly describe the state required by the computation. We...

  5. Binary progenitor models of type IIb supernovae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeys, J.S.W.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Pols, O.R.; Eldridge, J.J.; Baes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Massive stars that lose their hydrogen-rich envelope down to a few tenths of a solar mass explode as extended type IIb supernovae, an intriguing subtype that links the hydrogen-rich type II supernovae with the hydrogen-poor type Ib and Ic. The progenitors may be very massive single stars that lose t

  6. MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION TYPE 2. MYTH OR REALITY?

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Zhelnov; N. V. Dyatlov; L. I. Dvoretsky

    2016-01-01

    According to The Third Definition of Myocardial Infarction there are five types of myocardial infarction depending on pathogenesis. This review provides actual data about myocardial infarction type 2 mechanism including diagnosis management, epidemiological characteristic and patient prognosis. Previously published data shows discordant information about myocardial infarction type 2 frequency, treatment and diagnostic options. Our clinical observation illustrates these severities in diagnosis...

  7. Type Ⅱ codes over finite rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUGHERTY; Steven; T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the concept of Type Ⅱ codes to arbitrary finite rings. We focus on Type Ⅱ codes over finite chain rings and use the Chinese Remainder Theorem on these codes to study Type Ⅱ codes over principal ideal rings.

  8. Cosmology with type-Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    I review the use of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) for cosmological studies. After briefly recalling the main features of type-Ia SNe that lead to their use as cosmological probes, I briefly describe current and planned type-Ia SNe surveys, with special emphasis on their physics reach in the presence of systematic uncertainties, which will be dominant in nearly all cases.

  9. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  10. SOME LIOUVILLE TYPE THEOREMS FOR THE P-SUB-LAPLACIAN ON THE GROUP OF HEISENBERG TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zixia; Niu Pengcheng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we prove some Liouville type results for the p-sub-Laplacian on the group of Heisenberg type. A strong maximum principle and a Hopf type principle concerning p-sub-Laplacian are established.

  11. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  12. GATE TYPE SELECTION BASED ON FUZZY MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Gate type selection is very important for mould design. Improper gate type may lead to poor product quality and low production efficiency. Although numerical simulation approach could be used to optimize gate location, the determination of gate type is still up to designers' experience. A novel method for selecting gate type based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The proposed methodology follows three steps:Design requirements for gate is extracted and generalized; Possible gate types (design schemes) are presented; The fuzzy mapping relationship between gate design requirements and gate design scheme is established based on fuzzy composition and fuzzy relation transition matrices that are assigned by domain experts.

  13. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: Impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper Bratz;

    2015-01-01

    /or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared to type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4......-responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared to lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I...

  14. Differences in emotional distress among inpatients with type 1, obese type 2, and non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yoshiko; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Okauchi, Yukiyoshi; Sudo, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Omote, Yayoko; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in emotional distress among three groups of inpatients with type 1, obese type 2, and non-obese type 2 diabetes during hospitalization. Methods The 42 participating inpatients were divided into three groups: type 1 diabetes (n=11), obese type 2 diabetes [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); n=24], and non-obese type 2 diabetes (BMI emotional distress in the patients with diabetes, was performed at admission and discharge. Results The total PAID score was similar and tended to improve during hospitalization in all three groups, although there were differences among the groups in the scores of particular questions. At admission, the score of the question "worrying about low blood sugar reactions?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with type 1 diabetes. At discharge, the score of "not accepting diabetes?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with non-obese type 2 diabetes, while that of "feeling unsatisfied with your diabetes physician?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with obese type 2 diabetes. The score of "feelings of deprivation regarding food and meals?" significantly worsened in the patients with obese type 2 diabetes during hospitalization compared with the patients in with non-obese type 2 diabetes. Conclusion The characteristics of emotional distress during hospitalization varied among the patients with the three types of diabetes, thus emphasizing the importance of tailoring support according to the type of diabetes. PMID:26466689

  15. Comparing the Host Galaxies of Type Ia, Type II, and Type Ibc Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Hammer, F.; Deng, L. C.; Flores, H.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D n (4000), Hδ A , stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D n (4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D n (4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  16. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters Dn(4000), HδA, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low Dn(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high Dn(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  17. INVARIANTS UNDER STABLE EQUIVALENCES OF MORITA TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Sun Longgang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study some invariants of associative algebras under stable equivalences of Morita type.First of all,we show that,if two finite-dimensional selfinjective k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,then their orbit algebras are isomorphic.Secondly,it is verified that the quasitilted property of an algebra is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type.As an application of this result,it is obtained that if an algebra is of finite representation type,then its tilted property is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type; the other application to partial tilting modules is given in Section 4. Finally,we prove that when two finite-dimensional k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,their repetitive algebras are also stably equivalent of Morita type under certain conditions.

  18. A Kantorovich-Stancu Type Generalization of Szasz Operators including Brenke Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Aktaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Kantorovich-Stancu type modification of a generalization of Szasz operators defined by means of the Brenke type polynomials and obtain approximation properties of these operators. Also, we give a Voronovskaya type theorem for Kantorovich-Stancu type operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials.

  19. Increased vital exhaustion among type-D patients with ischemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, SS; Middel, B

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the "distressed personality" (type-D) in cardiac patients and to explore the relationships between type-D, gender, vital exhaustion and angina pectoris. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 171 patients scheduled for coronary angiography (CAG) at base

  20. Analysis of the Influence of Type of Diabetes Mellitus on the Development and Type of Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Ljaljevic, Sanida; Alimanovic, Ilda; Mavija, Milka; Oros, Ana; Nisic, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Main the goal of the research is to analyze the occurrence of glaucoma in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM type 1) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM type 2). Patients and methods: The study involved 140 patients, 34 with DM type 1 and 106 with DM type2. In relation to the type of glaucoma to the patients are divided into two groups: Primary and Secondary glaucoma. According to the stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients were analyzed in three groups: non-proliferative, prepr...

  1. Odontoma and Analysis of 57 different types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghaei-e- Naeini F

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontoma is an odontogenic lesion with epithelial and mesenchymal origin and is composed"nof differentiated dental parts. Than because of abnormal organization of mature tissues. It seems that it is"na hamartoma rather than real tumor. Odontoma is seen in two types of compound & complex."nOut of 57 studied cases, 31 cases (54.2% were of complex type; 12 cases (21 % were compound & 8"ncases were of cystic. The age of incidence ranged from 5.5 to 68 years. The mean age in complex"nodontoma was 27 years & compound type was 19 years. There was no significant difference regarding the"nsex in the complex type. In compound odontoma women were affected 2 times more than means."nComplex type are found in mandibular posterior era ereas more and compound type in anterior regions .In"nthis studied found 12 cases impaction teeth.

  2. Evolving A-Type Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Ewan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Turing's notion of an A-type artificial neural network. We study a refinement of Turing's original idea, motivated by work of Teuscher, Bull, Preen and Copeland. Our A-types can process binary data by accepting and outputting sequences of binary vectors; hence we can associate a function to an A-type, and we say the A-type {\\em represents} the function. There are two modes of data processing: clamped and sequential. We describe an evolutionary algorithm, involving graph-theoretic manipulations of A-types, which searches for A-types representing a given function. The algorithm uses both mutation and crossover operators. We implemented the algorithm and applied it to three benchmark tasks. We found that the algorithm performed much better than a random search. For two out of the three tasks, the algorithm with crossover performed better than a mutation-only version.

  3. Type Ibn Supernovae: Not a Single Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet diverse class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. However, unlike the more common Type IIn supernovae, whose interaction with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material has been shown to generate a wide variety of light curve shapes, we find that light curves of Type Ibn supernovae are more homogeneous and faster evolving. Spectroscopically, we find that Type Ibn supernovae divide cleanly into two classes, only one of which resembles the archetypal Type Ibn SN 2006jc. We explore various photometric and spectroscopic parameter spaces in order to characterize these two classes. We consider the possibility that not all objects classified as Type Ibn have the same physical origin.

  4. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...... of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural...... manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types; finally...

  5. Mixed Type Masturbation : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tezcan, Dr. A. Ertan; Namlı, Dr. Mustafa; Semerciöz, Dr. Atilla

    1997-01-01

    Rarely epilepsy and masturbation may coexist. ^s mixed type masturbation, a clinical presentation requiries two different treatments at the same time, it has been stated that while diagnosing, one should be attentive. In this article, a 4-year-old girl with mixed type of masturbation was presented and, diagnosis and treatment have been discussed. [Journal of Turgut Özal Medical Center 1997;4(3):306-307] Key words: Masturbation, epilepsy, mixed type

  6. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Adam Daniel; Baynes, Kevin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-03-17

    We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.

  7. Types in Logic and Mathematics before 1940

    OpenAIRE

    Kamareddine, Fairouz; Laan, Twan; Nederpelt, Rob

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we study the prehistory of type theory up to 1910 and its development between Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica ([71], 1910-1912) and Church's simply typed $\\lambda$-calculus of 1940. We first argue that the concept of types has always been present in mathematics, though nobody was incorporating them explicitly as such, before the end of the 19th century. Then we proceed by describing how the logical paradoxes entered the formal systems of Frege, Cantor and Peano ...

  8. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, LF

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between thinking styles and personality types is investigated within the contexts of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and Holland's theory of personality types. A total of 600 university students from Hong Kong responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS) that was specially designed for the present study. A major finding of this study is that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. A seconda...

  9. Pathogenesis of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Imagawa, Akihisa; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a new subtype of type 1 diabetes. The term was established in 2000. It is a syndrome characterized by a markedly rapid and almost complete destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that both genetic factors, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and environmental factors, such as viral infection, contribute to the development of this disease. It is also suggested that autoimmune processes contribute less critically to fulminant type 1 d...

  10. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  11. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  12. Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity to Succinylated Corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Annett Isabel; Raewer, Helen-Caroline; Sieber, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite their frequent use, systemic corticosteroids have rarely elicited immediate-type reactions. Objective: We report two male patients, aged 26 and 70 years, respectively, with severe immediate-type hypersensitivity secondary to the administration of corticosteroids esterified with succinate. Methods: Skin tests, basophil activation tests and challenge tests were performed for diagnostic evaluation. Results: In both patients, immediate-type skin test reactions were found to me...

  13. [Modern treatment of type B dissections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, L.; Baekgaard, N.; Just, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Rapid classification is essential in the management of aortic dissections, as Type A dissections require surgery, while the optimal treatment of Type B dissections is controversial. Medical treatment with antihypertensive medication and analgesics has so far been the main treatment of uncomplicated...... Type B dissections, while surgery has been reserved for complications and persistent pain in spite of medical treatment. Endovascular techniques are less invasive than open repair and show promising early results Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/8...

  14. Molecular genetics of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Luosheng, Li

    2002-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common and chronic disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a well-established genetic model of type 2 diabetes. Since several aspects of the pathophysiology of diabetes are shared between human and GK rats, we used this model to perform the first genome-wide scan for quantitative trait locus (QTL) of type 2 diabetes. A genetic linkage map with 530 microsatellite markers was constructed in ...

  15. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  16. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  17. Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Ahsani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen that provokes numerous different diseases. This bacterium is classified into five different types, each of which capable of causing a different disease. There are various methods for the bacterial identification, many are labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive and also present low sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this research was to identify the different types of C. perfringens using PCR molecular method. In this study, 130 sheep-dung samples were randomly collected from areas around the city of Kerman, southeastern Iran. After processing and culturing of samples, the produced colonies were morphologically studied, gram stain test was also carried out and the genera of these bacteria were identified through biochemical tests. DNA extracted from isolated bacteria for genotyping was tested by multiplex PCR with specific primers. Based on length of synthesized fragments by PCR, toxin types and bacterial strains were detected. C. perfringens isolated types were divided as follows: 17.39% type A, 21.74% type B, 34.78% type C and 26.09% type D. It should be emphasized that, up to the present moment, C. perfringens type A has not been reported in Iran.

  18. Types of Cost in Inductive Concept Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2002-01-01

    Inductive concept learning is the task of learning to assign cases to a discrete set of classes. In real-world applications of concept learning, there are many different types of cost involved. The majority of the machine learning literature ignores all types of cost (unless accuracy is interpreted as a type of cost measure). A few papers have investigated the cost of misclassification errors. Very few papers have examined the many other types of cost. In this paper, we attempt to create a ta...

  19. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Sharma, Rajan; Neupane, Dinesh;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal can help in planning for health services and recognising risk factors. This review aims to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, to summarise the findings, and to explore...... populations was 8.1% (95% CI: 7.3-8.9%) and 1.0% (95% CI: 0.7-1.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first study to systematically evaluate the literature of prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal. Results showed that type 2 diabetes is currently a high-burden disease in Nepal...

  20. Two unusual types of syndactyly in the same family; Cenani-Lenz type and "new" type versus severe type I syndactyly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, E F; Percin, S

    2003-01-01

    Cenani-Lenz syndactyly is a very rare syndrome where the syndactyly is totally disorganized with abnormal development of pattern formation of the hand. We report here an additional case of Cenani-Lenz syndactylism in a woman who has congenital cataract and an unusual type of duplication of big toes not described so far. She had a half cousin who had an unusual new type or severe type I syndactyly. It is not clear whether these two types of syndactyly present in this family may be coincidental or not.

  1. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  2. Compactly Supported Curvelet-Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We study a flexible method for constructing curvelet-type frames. These curvelet-type systems have the same sparse representation properties as curvelets for appropriate classes of smooth functions, and the flexibility of the method allows us to give a constructive description of how to construct...... curvelet-type systems with a prescribed nature such as compact support in direct space. The method consists of using the machinery of almost diagonal matrices to show that a system of curvelet molecules which is sufficiently close to curvelets constitutes a frame for curvelet-type spaces. Such a system...

  3. Working with Spatio-Temporal Data Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, A.

    2012-07-01

    Several aspects of spatiotemporal databases have been explored in past decades, ranging from basic data structure to query processing and indexing. But today, operational temporal GIS does not exist. The key impediments have been the complexity of integrating space and time and the lack of standards. OpenGIS standards for simple feature access (spatial type) do exist, but unlike the spatial type, standards for spatiotemporal data type do not exist. This paper explores a new approach to modeling space and time to provide the basis for implementing a temporal GIS. This approach is based on the concept of data types in databases. A data type provides constructors, accessors, and operators. Most commercial and open source databases provide data types to deal with the spatial component of a GIS, called spatial type. Oracle Spatial, DB2 Spatial Extender and Informix Spatial DataBlade, ST_Geometry for PostgreSQL and Oracle from Esri, PostGIS for PostgreSQL, etc., are some examples. This new spatiotemporal data type is called spatiotemporal type (STT). This STT is implemented in PostgreSQL, an open source relational database management system. The STT is an extension of Esri's ST_Geometry type for PostgreSQL, in which each spatial object has a life span. Constructors, accessors, and relational functions are provided to create STT and support spatial, spatiotemporal, and temporal queries. Some functions are extended based on OpenGIS standards for the spatial type. Examples are provided to demonstrate the application of these functions. The paper concludes with limitations and challenges of implementing STT.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JM, Mayer-Davis EJ. Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;39(3):481-97. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.011. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed ... G. Insights into type 1 diabetes provided by genetic analyses. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes ...

  5. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...

  6. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...

  7. WEIGHTED APPROXIMATION ON SZASZ-TYPE OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Guo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use weighted modules ω2φλ (f,t)w to study the pointwise approximation on Szász-type operators, and obtain the direct and converse theorem, as well as characterizations of the pointwise approxi- mation of Jacobi-weighted Szász-type operators.

  8. Three Types of Network Complexity Pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong; LIU; Qiang

    2012-01-01

    <正>Exploring the complexity and diversity of complex networks have been very challenging issues in network science and engineering. Among them exploring the network complexity pyramids (NCP) are one of important expressions in network complexity. So far as we have proposed the three types of the network complexity pyramid (NCP). The first type of NCP is the network model complexity pyramid with

  9. Some Types of Recurrence in Finsler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Soleiman, A

    2016-01-01

    The pullback approach to global Finsler geometry is adopted. Three classes of recurrence in Finsler geometry are introduced and investigated: simple recurrence, Ricci recurrence and concircular recurrence. Each of these classes consists of four types of recurrence. The interrelationships between the different types of recurrence are studied. The generalized concircular recurrence, as a new concept, is singled out.

  10. Type II Cepheids as Extragalactic Distance Candles

    OpenAIRE

    Majaess, Daniel J.; Turner, David G.; Lane, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Extragalactic Type II Cepheids are tentatively identified in photometric surveys of IC 1613, M33, M101, M106, M31, NGC 4603, and the SMC. Preliminary results suggest that Type II Cepheids may play an important role as standard candles, in constraining the effects of metallicity on Cepheid parameters, and in mapping extinction.

  11. Moderne behandling af type B-aortadissektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, L.; Baekgaard, N.; Just, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Rapid classification is essential in the management of aortic dissections, as Type A dissections require surgery, while the optimal treatment of Type B dissections is controversial. Medical treatment with antihypertensive medication and analgesics has so far been the main treatment of uncomplicat...

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarry-Horn, Jill L.; Evans, Barbara J.; Kerrigan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and adolescents has been increasing at an alarming rate. Early recognition and intervention can delay the onset of type 2 DM and prevent the long-term complications. School nurses have an essential role in implementing the American Diabetes Association (ADA)…

  13. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  14. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... round type shall not be mixed with those of the long type in the same container....

  15. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.;

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...

  16. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2853 - One type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... type. One type means that the onions are within the same general color category. Metric...

  18. Lie bialgebras of generalized Witt type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, all Lie bialgebra structures on the Lie algebras of generalized Witt type are considered. It is proved that, for any Lie algebra W of generalized Witt type, all Lie bialgebras on W are the coboundary triangular Lie bialgebras. As a by-product, it is also proved that the first cohomology group H1(W, W (x) W) is trivial.

  19. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...

  20. Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool for Cyclospora cayetanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Roellig, Dawn M.; Li, Na; Tang, Kevin; Frace, Michael; Ortega, Ynes; Arrowood, Michael J.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Wang, Lin; Moss, Delynn M.; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Because the lack of typing tools for Cyclospora cayetanensis has hampered outbreak investigations, we sequenced its genome and developed a genotyping tool. We observed 2 to 10 geographically segregated sequence types at each of 5 selected loci. This new tool could be useful for case linkage and infection/contamination source tracking. PMID:27433881

  1. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  2. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Skodol; D.S. Bender; L.C. Morey; L.A. Clark; J.M. Oldham; R.D. Alarcon; R.F. Krueger; R. Verheul; C.C. Bell; L.J. Siever

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  3. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and in

  4. Wavelet transform element of SAW type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wenke; ZHU Changchun; LIU Qinghong; LIU Junhua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes to use substrate materials of small electromechanical coupling coefficient k2 (such as X-112YLiTaO3) to manufacture wavelet transform element of SAW type so as to reduce finger reflections, i.e. to reduce the error of wavelet transform element of SAW type. And it is concluded that the smaller the center frequency of the transmitting IDT of wavelet type, the smaller the error. We suggest to choose substrate material with electromechanical coupling coefficient smaller than that of X-112Y LiTaO3 in the manufacture of the transmitting IDTs of wavelet type and the receiving IDTs at center frequencies above 100MHZ, so as to reduce the errors of the transmitting IDTs of wavelet type and the receiving IDTs at center frequencies above 100MHZ.

  5. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  6. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion

  7. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author)

  8. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author).

  9. Determinants of preclinical atherosclerosis are different in type 1 and type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťhová, P; Štechová, K; Piťha, J; Lánská, V; Kvapil, M

    2016-06-20

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 ranks among the strongest predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) while the association of type 1 diabetes with CVD is more complex. We studied differences between type 1 and 2 diabetic women regarding association of cardiovascular risk factors with preclinical atherosclerosis expressed as intima-media thickness of common carotid (IMT CCA) and femoral arteries (IMT CFA) measured by high resolution ultrasound. Women with type 1 (n=203) and type 2 diabetes (n=123) were examined with regard to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. In type 1 diabetic women strong association between IMT CCA and body mass index, waist circumference, and total body fat was found in contrast to type 2 diabetic women. In type 2 diabetic women strong association between IMT CCA and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and atherogenic index of plasma (log TG/HDL cholesterol) was observed in contrast to type 1 diabetic women. In type 1 diabetic women, IMT CFA was associated with body fat in contrast to type 2 diabetic women. Preclinical atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetic women was strongly associated with factors reflecting body fat and its distribution, while in type 2 diabetic women preclinical atherosclerosis was associated with markers reflecting glucose and lipid metabolic disorders. PMID:26447509

  10. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, José Luis; Redondo, Natalia; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Cantos, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%), moderate (27.8%) and high (7.1%). This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types. PMID:25329828

  11. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  12. [Chronic nicotinamide overload and type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Sun, Wu-Ping; Liu, Xing-Xing; Lun, Yong-Zhi

    2010-02-25

    Type 2 diabetes is a major global health problem. It is generally accepted that type 2 diabetes is the result of gene-environmental interaction. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction is unclear. Diet change is known to play an important role in type 2 diabetes. The fact that the global high prevalence of type 2 diabetes has occurred following the spread of food fortification worldwide suggests a possible involvement of excess niacin intake. Our recent study found that nicotinamide overload and low nicotinamide detoxification may induce oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance. Based on the relevant facts, this review briefly summarized the relationship between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the nicotinamide metabolism changes induced by excess niacin intake, aldehyde oxidase inhibitors, liver diseases and functional defects of skin. We speculate that the gene-environmental interaction in type 2 diabetes may be a reflection of the outcome of the association of chronic nicotinamide overload-induced toxicity and the relatively low detoxification/excretion capacity of the body. Reducing the content of niacin in foods may be a promising strategy for the control of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  14. Simulation of a Novel Bipolar-FET Type-S, Negative Resistance Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new circuit which uses FET and bipolar transistor is given. It exhibits Type-S differential negative resistance and a theoretical explanation is appended along with PSPICE simulation.

  15. Type inference, principal typings, and let-polymorphism for first-class mixin modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makholm, Henning; Wells, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    A mixin module is a programming abstraction that simultaneously generalizes lambda-abstractions, records, and mutually recursive definitions. Although various mixin module type systems have been developed, no one has investigated principal typings or developed type inference for first-class mixin...... modules, nor has anyone added Milner's let-polymorphism to such a system. This paper proves that typability is NP-complete for the naive approach followed by previous mixin module type systems. Because a lambda-calculus extended with record concatenation is a simple restriction of our mixin module...... calculus, we also prove the folk belief that typability is NP-complete for the naive early type systems for record concatenation. To allow feasible type inference, we present Martini, a new system of simple types for mixin modules with principal typings. Martini is conceptually simple, with no subtyping...

  16. Hardy-Type Inequalities on H-Type Groups and Anisotropic Heisenberg Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyang JIN

    2008-01-01

    The author obtains some weighted Hardy-type inequalities on H-type groups and anisotropic Heisenberg groups.These inequalities generalize some recent results due to N.Garofalo,E.Lanconelli,I.Kombe and P.Niu et al.

  17. PSO type-reduction method for geometric interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xian-zhang; GAO Yi-bo; ZENG Jun-fang; YANG Yi-ping

    2008-01-01

    In a special case of type-2 fuzzy logic systems (FLS), i.e. geometric interval type-2 fuzzy logic sys-tems (GIT-2FLS), the crisp output is obtained by computing the geometric center of footprint of uncertainty (FOU) without type-reduction, but the defuzzifying method acts against the corner concepts of type-2 fuzzy sets in some cases. In this paper, a PSO type-reduction method for GIT-2FLS based on the particle swarm optimiza-tion (PSO) algorithm is presented. With the PSO type-reduction, the inference principle of geometric interval FLS operating on the continuous domain is consistent with that of traditional interval type-2 FLS operating on the discrete domain. With comparative experiments, it is proved that the PSO type-reduction exhibits good perform-ance, and is a satisfactory complement for the theory of GIT-2FLS.

  18. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Korean Women with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hee-Sook Kim; Hye-Jung Jang; Jeong-Eun Park; Moon-Young Kim; Sun-Young Ko; Sung-Hoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a retrospective survey of 163 pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes (n=13) and type 2 diabetes (n=150) treated from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups. Results Differences in glycosylated hemoglob...

  19. Web-Based Depression Treatment for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    van Bastelaar, Kim M.P.; Pouwer, François; Cuijpers, Pim; Riper, Heleen; Snoek, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Comorbid depression is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, adversely affecting quality of life, diabetes outcomes, and mortality. Depression can be effectively treated with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The Internet is a new and attractive method for delivering CBT intervention on a large scale at relatively low costs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Web-based CBT for depression treatment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, with minimal guidance. ...

  20. Strategies for improving patient safety: linking task type to error type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the connection between task type (skill based, rule based and knowledge based) and human error. Using real-life examples, each task type and error type is described in detail. Understanding how task type contributes to medical error enhances the ability of nurses to make meaningful changes in health care systems. Through error wisdom, nurses and other health care providers can more successfully navigate health care delivery and ultimately provide safer care to patients.

  1. Suppression of type II collagen-induced arthritis by intragastric administration of soluble type II collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    NAGLER-ANDERSON, C; Bober, L A; Robinson, M E; Siskind, G W; Thorbecke, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although oral administration of protein antigens may lead to specific immunologic unresponsiveness, this method of immunoregulation has not been applied to models of autoimmune disease. Type II collagen-induced arthritis is an animal model of polyarthritis induced in susceptible mice and rats by immunization with type II collagen, a major component of cartilage. Intragastric administration of soluble type II collagen, prior to immunization with type II collagen in adjuvant, suppresses the inc...

  2. Measures for Optimization of Aromatic-type and Gasoline-type CCR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Wei

    2006-01-01

    This article based on the target products manufactured by the gasoline-type and aromatic-type continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) units makes an assessment on the technical indicators of these catalytic reforming units. This article also explores the technical measures for maximizing the target products delivered by the gasoline-type and aromatic-type CCR units with respect to the selection of catalysts, the optimization of feedstock and the optimized operating regime.

  3. Efficient Session Type Guided Distributed Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K. C.; Nagaraj, Karthik; Ziarek, Lukasz; Eugster, Patrick

    Recently, there has been much interest in multi-party session types (MPSTs) as a means of rigorously specifying protocols for interaction among multiple distributed participants. By capturing distributed interaction as series of typed interactions, MPSTs allow for the static verification of compliance of corresponding distributed object programs. We observe that explicit control flow information manifested by MPST opens intriguing avenues also for performance enhancements. In this paper, we present a session type assisted performance enhancement framework for distributed object interaction in Java. Experimental evaluation within our distributed runtime infrastructure illustrates the costs and benefits of our composable enhancement strategies.

  4. Type A behavior pattern and escalating commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, J; Williams, S

    1993-10-01

    Subjects (N = 98) were randomly assigned to high- and low-responsibility conditions in a commitment-escalation experiment. Global Type A behavior pattern and the underlying dimension of achievement strivings were positively related to the desire to continue the same course of action in the high prior-responsibility condition but not in the low prior-responsibility condition. These findings are discussed in terms of future research into the judgment processes of people with Type A personality and the possible role of escalating commitment in disorders experienced by people with Type A personality.

  5. Piezoresistance in p-type silicon revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Pedersen, Jesper; Brandbyge, Mads;

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type Si with a 6×6 k·p Hamiltonian model using the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation. Furthermore, we fabricate and characterize p-type silicon piezoresistors embedded in a (001) silicon substrate. We find...... to experiments. Finally, we present a fitting function of temperature and acceptor density to the 6×6 model that can be used to predict the piezoresistance effect in p-type silicon. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  6. Somatotype in Elderly Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Buffa, Roberto; Floris, Giovanni; F. Putzu, Paolo; Carboni, Luciano; Marini, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    Somatotyping is a practical technique for the description of physique. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes are characterized by physical peculiarities, such as overweight, obesity and a central pattern of body fat distribution. Somatotype applications to diabetes are limited. The objective of this study is to describe the somatotype of elderly type 2 diabetes patients. The sample consisted of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes (45 men, mean age 69.4±7.0 years; 65 women, mean age 72.9±...

  7. Alternative types of roundabouts an informational guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tollazzi, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.

  8. Democratic-type neutrino mass matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, T; Yoshimura, M; Miura, Takahiro; Takasugi, Eiichi; Yoshimura, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    We consider the democratic-type neutrino mass matrix and show that this matrix predicts the atmospheric neutrino mixing to be almost maximal, $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{atm}>0.999$ as well as the large CP violation (the CP violation phase in the standard form is maximal $\\delta=\\pi/2$). We construct the $Z_3$ symmetric dimension five effective Lagrangian with two up-type Higgs doublets and show that this Lagrangian leads to the democratic neutrino mass matrix. Furthermore, we consider the restricted model with one up-type Higgs doublet and obtain the prediction, $0.87<\\sin^2 2\\theta_{sol}<8/9$.

  9. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  10. Scalar dark matter with type II seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the possibility of generating tiny neutrino mass through a combination of type I and type II seesaw mechanism within the framework of an abelian extension of standard model. The model also provides a naturally stable dark matter candidate in terms of the lightest neutral component of a scalar doublet. We compute the relic abundance of such a dark matter candidate and also point out how the strength of type II seesaw term can affect the relic abundance of dark matter. Such a model which connects neutrino mass and dark matter abundance has the potential of being verified or ruled out in the ongoing neutrino, dark matter, as well as accelerator experiments

  11. Detectors for LIDAR type Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on the capability of the microchannel plate photomultiplier type (ITT F4128) presently used at the JET LIDAR Thomson Scattering System is given. Detailed investigation on time response, low noise amplification, shutter ratio, gating behaviour, linear mode of operation and saturation pulse recovery carried out during the design phase for LIDAR are presented. New investigation with respect to dc- and gated operation showed no measurable changes in sensitivity of this MCP photomultiplier. Comparing this type of detector with other MCP photomultipliers and with streak cameras some detection schemes for future LIDAR type diagnostic are proposed. (orig.)

  12. Further Bounds for Hardy Type Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kristina KRULI(C); Josip PE(C)ARI(C); Dora POKAZ

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we define a functional as a difference between the right-hand side and lefthand side of the refined Boas type inequality using the notation of superquadratic and subquadratic functions and study its properties,such as exponential and logarithmic convexity.We also,state and prove improvements and reverses of new weighted Boas type inequalities.As a special case of our result we obtain improvements and reverses of the Hardy inequality and its dual inequality.We introduce new Cauchy type mean and prove monotonicity property of this mean.

  13. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  14. Intensional Type Theory with Guarded Recursive Types qua Fixed Points on Universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Mogelberg, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions...

  15. Role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krogfelt Karen A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important gram-negative opportunistic pathogen causing primarily urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and bacteraemia. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on medical devices, e.g. catheters, has a major role in development of many nosocomial infections. Most clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express two types of fimbrial adhesins, type 1 fimbriae and type 3 fimbriae. In this study, we characterized the role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in K. pneumoniae biofilm formation. Results Isogenic fimbriae mutants of the clinical K. pneumoniae isolate C3091 were constructed, and their ability to form biofilm was investigated in a flow cell system by confocal scanning laser microscopy. The wild type strain was found to form characteristic biofilm and development of K. pneumoniae biofilm occurred primarily by clonal growth, not by recruitment of planktonic cells. Type 1 fimbriae did not influence biofilm formation and the expression of type 1 fimbriae was found to be down-regulated in biofilm forming cells. In contrast, expression of type 3 fimbriae was found to strongly promote biofilm formation. Conclusion By use of well defined isogenic mutants we found that type 3 fimbriae, but not type 1 fimbriae, strongly promote biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae C3091. As the vast majority of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express type 3 fimbriae, this fimbrial adhesin may play a significant role in development of catheter associated K. pneumoniae infections.

  16. Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Ashmore, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. worka

  17. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  18. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S; Pieterman, Carolina R C; de Laat, Joanne M; Hermus, Ad R; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Herder, Wouter W; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N; Drent, Madeleine L; Bisschop, Peter H; Havekes, Bas; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R; Valk, Gerlof D; Valk, GD

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  19. Type inference, principal typings, and let-polymorphism for first-class mixin modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makholm, Henning; Wells, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    A mixin module is a programming abstraction that simultaneously generalizes lambda-abstractions, records, and mutually recursive definitions. Although various mixin module type systems have been developed, no one has investigated principal typings or developed type inference for first-class mixin...

  20. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Heydorn, Arne; Ragas, Paula Cornelia;

    2003-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat image analysis. Flagella and type IV pili were not necessary...

  1. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  2. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn;

    2012-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...... is a valid personality construct in Iceland, and is associated with health-related risk markers, but not cardiac disease severity....

  3. ADPKD: Prototype of Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Maria Virzì

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome is characterized by a condition of primary chronic kidney disease (CKD that leads to an impairment of the cardiac function, ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Clinically, it is very difficult to distinguish between CRS type 2 (Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome and CRS type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome because often it is not clear whether the primary cause of the syndrome depends on the heart or the kidney. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, a genetic disease that causes CKD, could be viewed as an ideal prototype of CRS type 4 because it is certain that the primary cause of cardiorenal syndrome is the kidney disease. In this paper, we will briefly review the epidemiology of ADPKD, conventional and novel biomarkers which may be useful in following the disease process, and prevention and treatment strategies.

  4. Types of Multi-Level Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Marks

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The reallocation of authority upwards, downwards, and sideways from central states has drawn attention from a growing number of scholars in the social sciences. Yet beyond the bedrock agreement that governance has become (and should be multi-level, there is no convergence about how it should be organized. This paper draws on various literatures in distinguishing two types of multi-level governance. One type conceives of dispersion of authority to multi-task, territorially mutually exclusive jurisdictions in a relatively stable system with limited jurisdictional levels and a limited number of units. A second type of governance pictures specialized, territorially overlapping jurisdictions in a relatively flexible, non-tiered system with a large number of jurisdictions. We find that both types co-exist in different locations, and we explain some facets of this co-existence.

  5. What Are Some Types of Rehabilitative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications What are some types of rehabilitative technologies? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rehabilitative technologies are any technologies that help people recover function ...

  6. Critical Wave Forms in Dry Type Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns critical wave forms in dry type transformers under transient voltage application. A very general approach has been applied, meaning that many of the results will be applicable to various types of power transformers. The results can be very useful if they are combined with know......This paper concerns critical wave forms in dry type transformers under transient voltage application. A very general approach has been applied, meaning that many of the results will be applicable to various types of power transformers. The results can be very useful if they are combined...... and distortion of incoming transients is required. Thus, in this paper it is illustrated how the resulting internal wave forms are affected by different transformer characteristics....

  7. A review of type Ia supernova spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Parrent, J; Parthasarathy, M

    2014-01-01

    SN 2011fe was the nearest and best-observed type Ia supernova in a generation, and brought previous incomplete datasets into sharp contrast with the detailed new data. In retrospect, documenting spectroscopic behaviors of type Ia supernovae has been more often limited by sparse and incomplete temporal sampling than by consequences of signal-to-noise ratios, telluric features, or small sample sizes. As a result, type Ia supernovae have been primarily studied insofar as parameters discretized by relative epochs and incomplete temporal snapshots near maximum light. Here we discuss a necessary next step toward consistently modeling and directly measuring spectroscopic observables of type Ia supernova spectra. In addition, we analyze current spectroscopic data in the parameter space defined by empirical metrics, which will be relevant even after progenitors are observed and detailed models are refined.

  8. Type B Aortic Dissection: Management Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Moshtaghi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection (AAD is the most frequent catastrophic event of the aorta; it occurs nearly three times as frequently as the rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Sixty percent of dissection cases are classified as proximal or type A and 40% as distal or type B, according to the Stanford Classification. The most frequent causes of death in acute type B dissection are aortic rupture and malperfusion syndrome.We herein review recent data suggesting different management modalities of type B aortic dissection, including medical, surgical, and endovascular treatments. Although medical therapy is still the standard approach in uncomplicated cases, there are subgroups of patients who may benefit from endovascular management. Endovascular techniques or surgery are valuable options for complicated cases. Hybrid suites, multidisciplinary approaches, and good imaging techniques can be considered as the key to success in this regard.

  9. Earth Abundant Element Type I Clathrate Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earth abundant element clathrate phases are of interest for a number of applications ranging from photovoltaics to thermoelectrics. Silicon-containing type I clathrate is a framework structure with the stoichiometry A8-xSi46 (A = guest atom such as alkali metal that can be tuned by alloying and doping with other elements. The type I clathrate framework can be described as being composed of two types of polyhedral cages made up of tetrahedrally coordinated Si: pentagonal dodecahedra with 20 atoms and tetrakaidecahedra with 24 atoms in the ratio of 2:6. The cation sites, A, are found in the center of each polyhedral cage. This review focuses on the newest discoveries in the group 13-silicon type I clathrate family: A8E8Si38 (A = alkali metal; E = Al, Ga and their properties. Possible approaches to new phases based on earth abundant elements and their potential applications will be discussed.

  10. Liraglutide for treating type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many persons with type 1 diabetes do not achieve glycemic targets, why new treatments, complementary to insulin, are of interest. Liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist could be a potential pharmacological supplement to insulin. This review discusses...... the mechanism of actions, efficacy and safety of liraglutide as add-on to insulin in persons with type 1 diabetes. AREAS COVERED: Physiological and clinical data on liraglutide in type 1 diabetes were reviewed. We searched the Cochrane library, MEDLINE and EMBASE, with the final search performed February 16...... there was no clinically relevant effect on HbA1c. Adverse events were mostly transient gastrointestinal side effects, primarily nausea. Based on the available data, liraglutide cannot be recommended as add-on therapy to insulin in persons with type 1 diabetes with the aim to improve glycemic control. Ongoing trials...

  11. Intensive integrated therapy of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The macro- and microvascular burden of type 2 diabetes is well established. A number of recent single risk factor intervention trials targeting hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulation, microalbumuria, and existing cardiovascular disorders have, however, shown major beneficial...... effects on long-term outcome. The results from these studies are anticipated to change the future management of type 2 diabetes, and most of the updated national guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes recommend a multipronged approach driven by ambitious treatment targets. The outcome...... of this intensive integrated therapy has, however, only been investigated in a few studies of patients with type 2 diabetes. One of these trials, the Steno-2 Study, showed that intensive intervention for an average of 7.8 years cuts cardiovascular events as well as nephropathy, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy...

  12. Simplifying Negative Goals Using Typed Existence Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Lunjin

    2010-01-01

    A method for extracting positive information from negative goals is proposed. It makes use of typed existence properties between arguments of a predicate to rewrite negative goals in a logic program. A typed existence property is a generalization of functional dependencies in that an input value maps to a fixed number of output values. Types are used to specify the domains of the input and output values. An implementation of the simplification method is presented and its complexity is analyzed. A key algorithm of the implementation checks if an atom in a negative goal can be extracted using a given typed existence property. A digraph links an atom to the quantified variables occurring in the atom and is used to quickly retrieve atoms in the negative goal that may become extractable after some other atom is extracted.

  13. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    with phase-type distributions. For the first order distribution we present an explicit formula for the related Lorenz curve and Gini index. Moment distributions of orders one, two and three have been extensively used in areas such as economy, physics, demography and civil engineering.......Both matrix-exponential and phase-type distributions have a number of important closure properties. Among those are the distributions of the age and residual life-time of a stationary renewal process with inter-arrivals of either type. In this talk we show that the spread, which is the sum...... of the age an residual life-time, is also phase-type distributed. Moreover, we give some explicit representations. The spread is known to have a first order moment distribution. If X is a positive random variable and ?i is its i'th moment, then the function fi(x) = xif(x)/?i is a density function...

  14. Ophthalmological manifestations in segmental neurofibromatosis type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggieri, M; Pavone, P; Polizzi, A; Pietro, M Di; Scuderi, A; A GABRIELE; Spalice, A; IANNETTI, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the ophthalmological manifestations in individuals with the typical features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) circumscribed to one or more body segments, usually referred to as segmental NF1.

  15. Approximation by max-product type operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bede, Barnabás; Gal, Sorin G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a broad treatment of developments in an area of constructive approximation involving the so-called "max-product" type operators. The exposition highlights the max-product operators as those which allow one to obtain, in many cases, more valuable estimates than those obtained by classical approaches. The text considers a wide variety of operators which are studied for a number of interesting problems such as quantitative estimates, convergence, saturation results, localization, to name several. Additionally, the book discusses the perfect analogies between the probabilistic approaches of the classical Bernstein type operators and of the classical convolution operators (non-periodic and periodic cases), and the possibilistic approaches of the max-product variants of these operators. These approaches allow for two natural interpretations of the max-product Bernstein type operators and convolution type operators: firstly, as possibilistic expectations of some fuzzy variables, and secondly,...

  16. Exercise therapy in Type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); L.J.C. van Loon (Luc)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractStructured exercise is considered an important cornerstone to achieve good glycemic control and improve cardiovascular risk profile in Type 2 diabetes. Current clinical guidelines acknowledge the therapeutic strength of exercise intervention. This paper reviews the wide pathophysiologica

  17. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood and tissues to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). Glutaric acidemia type II usually appears in infancy ... sudden episode called a metabolic crisis, in which acidosis and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) cause weakness, behavior ...

  18. Healthcare Facility Bed Types And Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), Center for Health Care Quality, Licensing and Certification (L&C) Program licenses more than 30 types of...

  19. Innovation Type, Radicalness, and the Adoption Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanpour, Fariborz

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies on the impact of organizational factors on the adoption of innovations along three dimensions (innovation type, innovation radicalness, and stages of adoption), finding considerable agreement. Proposes a research agenda for future studies. (SR)

  20. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During a 1-year period......, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality...... as the end point. RESULTS: A total of 3762 consecutive patients were studied, of whom 488 (13%) had a myocardial infarction. In 119 patients a type 2 myocardial infarction was diagnosed. After a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-2.5 years), 150 patients had died, with a mortality rate of 49% (58...

  1. [Clinical psychopathological types associated with smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, M

    1992-06-01

    Dependence and withdraw syndromes related with tobacco are mentioned. Clinical forms and types associated to tabagism considered are: psychopathic, borderline, neurotic, narcisic, psychotic, depressive, hedonic, and bulimic. Psychopathological and etiopathogenic factors of tabagism are listed. PMID:1308399

  2. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O. [Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  3. Practical Reflection and Metaprogramming for Dependent Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Embedded domain-specific languages are special-purpose programming languages that are implemented within existing generalpurpose programming languages. Dependent type systems allow strong invariants to be encoded in representations of domain-specific languages, but it can also make it difficult...... to program in these embedded languages. Interpreters and compilers must always take these invariants into account at each stage, and authors of embedded languages must work hard to relieve users of the burden of proving these properties. Idris is a dependently typed functional programming language whose...... semantics are given by elaboration to a core dependent type theory through a tactic language. This dissertation introduces elaborator reflection, in which the core operators of the elaborator are realized as a type of computations that are executed during the elaboration process of Idris itself, along...

  4. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  5. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 14 (SCA14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SCA14) is one of those types of hereditary cerebellar ataxias. The involved gene, discovered in 2003, is located ... evaluation by a physician makes the diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. A CT or MRI scan of the brain ...

  6. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    . Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being...... used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73...... available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence...

  7. Echocardiographic abnormalities in type IV mucopolysaccharidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    John, R. M.; Hunter, D; Swanton, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is well recognised in most forms of the mucopolysaccharidoses but there is poor documentation of abnormalities specific to Morquio's syndrome (type IV mucopolysaccharidosis). Ten patients with the classic form or type A Morquio's syndrome with a median age of 12.5 years underwent echocardiographic assessment. Abnormalities were detected in six (60%) cases with mitral valve involvement in five patients and aortic valve disease in four. One patient had severe mitral leaflet ...

  8. Hydrological drought types in cold climates

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, van, R.R.; S. W. Ploum; Parajka, J.; A. K. Fleig; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Lanen, van, H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced ba...

  9. Black holes and groups of type 7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sergio Ferrara; Alessio Marrani

    2012-06-01

    We report some results on the relation between extremal black holes in locally supersymmetric theories of gravity and groups of type 7, appearing as generalized electric-magnetic duality symmetries in such theories. Some basics on the covariant approach to the stratification of the relevant symplectic representation are reviewed, along with a connection between special Kähler geometry and a ‘generalization’ of groups of type 7.

  10. Diabetes in young: Beyond type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Virmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although majority of diabetes in children is type1 diabetes, childhood type2 diabetes prevalence is rapidly increasing due to changing lifestyle. Most patients can be definitely grouped into either of the two but some present diagnostic difficulty due to overlapping and non specific clinical features and laboratory findings. MODY and several other diseases affecting the pancreas also result in childhood diabetes. Treatment of diabetes in children presents unique challenges and primary prevention is of prime importance.

  11. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity...... mechanism arises as an order-theoretic complement. This mechanism, called class substitution, is pragmatically useful and can be implemented efficiently....

  12. Landau and Kolmogoroff type polynomial inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Claudia RR; Dimitrov Dimitar K

    1999-01-01

    Let be integers. Denote by the norm . For various positive values of and we establish Kolmogoroff type inequalities with certain constants , which hold for every ( denotes the space of real algebraic polynomials of degree not exceeding ). For the particular case and , we provide a complete characterisation of the positive constants and , for which the corresponding Landau type polynomial inequalities hold. In each case we determine the corresponding extremal polynomials for which e...

  13. Symmetric Lévy Type Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian WANG

    2009-01-01

    The study of symmetric property in the L2-sense for the non-positive definite operator is motivated by the theory of probability and analysis. This paper presents some sufficient conditions for the existence of symmetric measure for Lévy type operator. Some new examples are illustrated. The present study is an important step for considering various ergodic properties and functional inequalities of Lévy type operator.

  14. Operator Inequalities of Ostrowski and Trapezoidal Type

    CERN Document Server

    Dragomir, Silvestru Sever

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities of Ostrowski and Trapezoidal Type for Functions of Selfadjoint Operators on Hilbert Spaces presents recent results concerning Ostrowski and Trapezoidal type inequalities for continuous functions of bounded Selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. The first chapter recalls some fundamental facts concerning bounded Selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. The generalized Schwarz's inequality for positive Selfadjoint operators as well as some results for the spectrum of this class of operators are presented. The author also introduces and explores the fundamental resu

  15. Niemann Pick type A, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    M. Qasemi; F. Mojtahedzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Niemann Pick type A is a very rare hereditary disease with an incidence 1 in 20000-40000 live birth, which is calassified as a shingolipidoses.The disease is marked by the abnormal accumulation of sphingomyelin in most tissues, secondary to sphingomylinase deficiency.The most clinical manifestations are:Splenohepatomegaly–cherry red maculae-neuropathologic findings .This is a case report of an infant with clinical manifestation of Niemann Pick disease type A.

  16. TRAINING CENTERS OF A NEW TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Roza Rakhmanbaeva

    2010-01-01

    Necessity for innovative production development sets the new requirements for content, organization, forms and methods of management activity. Non-traditional tasks faced by the present system of human resources management require the similar type of non-traditional methodological approaches and tools for social diagnosis, training and management of people in new situations. Therefore special attention should be also given to development of new type training centers that act as concentration ...

  17. Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic Rodent Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-wei Wang; Guang-dong Sun; Jing Sun; Shu-jun Liu; Ji Wang; Xiao-hong Xu; Li-ning Miao

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is one of the most common chronic diseases and continues to increase in numbers with large proportion of health care budget being used. Many animal models have been established in order to investigate the mechanisms and pathophysiologic progress of T2DM and find effective treatments for its complications. On the basis of their strains, features, advantages, and disadvantages, various types of animal models of T2DM can be divided into spont...

  18. Efficient Password-Typed Key Agreement Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Aboud, Sattar J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we will study Lee, Kim and Yoo, a verifier password typed key agreement scheme and demonstrate that the scheme is not secure. Then, the authors will propose an enhanced verifier typed key agreement scheme relied on Lee, Kim and Yoo scheme and demonstrate that the propose scheme resists against password guessing attack and stolen verifier attack. The authors are claimed that the proposed scheme is more secure and efficient compare with Lee, Kim and Yoo.

  19. Types of Open Access Publishers in Scopus

    OpenAIRE

    David Solomon

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed characteristics of publishers who published 2010 open access (OA) journals indexed in Scopus. Publishers were categorized into six types; professional, society, university, scholar/researcher, government, and other organizations. Type of publisher was broken down by number of journals/articles published in 2010, funding model, location, discipline and whether the journal was born or converted to OA. Universities and societies accounted for 50% of the journals and 43% of th...

  20. Enriching an effect calculus with linear types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending  a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, w....... In particular, the involution property amounts to the  self-duality of the free (syntactic) model....

  1. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Functional Hypoparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Atmaca; İsmail Acar; Engin Gönültaş; İsmet Seven; Rıfkı Üçler; Senar Ebinç; Murat Alay; Zehra Candan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effect of blood sugar regulation and vitamin D levels on calcium metabolism and parathormone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Method: We included 132 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to our outpatient clinic for regular check up between August 2013 and October 2013. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, creatinine, parathormone, 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D...

  2. Innovation in Nigerian SMEs: types and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Egbetokun, A.; Siyanbola, W; Olamade, O; Adeniyi, A; Irefin, I

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the types of innovation that are predominant in SMEs in developing countries and to investigate the impact of these innovations on different dimensions of firm performance based on an industry-wide innovation survey carried out in Nigeria in 2007. Although innovation is important for superior firm performance, our result found that the type of innovation that SMEs pursue is not a critical consideration in their performance. While there was no difference found in th...

  3. Categorization of Sentence Types in Medical Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    McKnight, Larry; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of machine learning techniques in the classification of sentence type. 7253 structured abstracts and 204 unstructured abstracts of Randomized Controlled Trials from MedLINE were parsed into sentences and each sentence was labeled as one of four types (Introduction, Method, Result, or Conclusion). Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Classifier models were generated and evaluated on cross-validated data. Treating sentences as a simple "bag of words", the SVM mod...

  4. Typing quantum superpositions and projective measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Caro, Alejandro; Dowek, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We study a purely functional quantum extension of lambda calculus, that is, an extension of lambda calculus to express some quantum features, where the quantum memory is abstracted out. This calculus is a typed extension of the first-order linear-algebraic lambda-calculus. The type is linear on superpositions, so to forbid from cloning them, while allows to clone basis vectors. We provide examples of the Deutsch algorithm and the Teleportation, and prove the subject reduction of the calculus....

  5. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells and acquired (Th2 cells allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.

  6. Role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, C.; Barken, Kim Bundvig; Krogfelt, K.A.;

    2010-01-01

    nosocomial infections. Most clinical K. pneumoniae isolates express two types of fimbrial adhesins, type 1 fimbriae and type 3 fimbriae. In this study, we characterized the role of type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in K. pneumoniae biofilm formation. Results: Isogenic fimbriae mutants of the clinical K. pneumoniae......Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important gram-negative opportunistic pathogen causing primarily urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and bacteraemia. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on medical devices, e. g. catheters, has a major role in development of many...... infections....

  7. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Kazufumi Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells) and acquired (Th2 cells) allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy',...

  8. Beyond PrP9res) type 1/type 2 dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Uro-coste, Emmanuelle; Cassard, Hervé; Simon, Stéphanie; Lugan, Séverine; Bilheude, Jean-Marc; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Ironside, James,; Haik, Stéphane; Basset-Leobon, Christelle; Lacroux, Caroline; Peoch, Katell; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Langeveld, Jan; Head, Mark,; Grassi, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    International audience Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrP(res)) identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrP(res) types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrP(res) in the b...

  9. Beyond PrPres type 1/Type 2 dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    OpenAIRE

    Uro-Coste, E.; Cassard, H.; SIMON S.; Lugan, S.; Bilheude, J.M.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Ironside, J.E.; Haik, S; Basset-Leobon, C.; Lacroux, C.; Peoch, K.; Streichenberger, N.; Langeveld, J. P. M.; Head, M. W.; Grassi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrPres) identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrPres types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrPres in the brain, the basis of this classifi...

  10. Beyond PrPres type 1/type 2 dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    OpenAIRE

    Uro-coste, Emmanuelle; Cassard, Hervé; Simon, Stéphanie; Lugan, Séverine; Bilheude, Jean-Marc; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Ironside, James,; Haik, Stéphane; Basset-Leobon, Christelle; Lacroux, Caroline; Peoch, Katell; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Langeveld, Jan; Head, Mark,; Grassi, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrP(res)) identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrP(res) types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrP(res) in the brain, the basis of this cl...

  11. Beyond PrPres Type 1/Type 2 Dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Uro-coste, Emmanuelle; Cassard, Hervé; Simon, Stéphanie; Lugan, Séverine; Bilheude, Jean-Marc; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Ironside, James W.; Haik, Stéphane; Basset-Leobon, Christelle; Lacroux, Caroline; Peoch, Katell; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Langeveld, Jan; Mark W Head; Grassi, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrPres) identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrPres types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrPres in the brain, the basis of this classifi...

  12. Beyond PrP res type 1/type 2 dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    OpenAIRE

    Uro-coste, Emmanuelle; Cassard, Hervé; Simon, Stéphanie; Lugan, Séverine; Bilheude, Jean-Marc; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Ironside, James W.; Haik, Stéphane; Basset-Leobon, Christelle; Lacroux, Caroline; Peoch, Katell; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Langeveld, Jan; Mark W Head; Grassi, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrPres)identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrPres types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrPres in the brain, the basis of this classific...

  13. Beyond PrP9res) type 1/type 2 dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Uro-Coste; Hervé Cassard; Stéphanie Simon; Séverine Lugan; Jean-Marc Bilheude; Armand Perret-Liaudet; Ironside, James W.; Stéphane Haik; Christelle Basset-Leobon; Caroline Lacroux; Katell Peoch'; Nathalie Streichenberger; Jan Langeveld; Mark W Head; Jacques Grassi

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrP(res)) identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrP(res) types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrP(res) in the brain, the basis of this cl...

  14. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  15. Descending endografts for type A dissections: con.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Sandhu, Harleen K; Estrera, Anthony L

    2016-05-01

    An important goal of surgical repair of type A aortic dissection is to resect the intimal tear. Studies on the fate of residual dissection after acute type A aortic dissection repair in the past decade have driven surgeons to seek procedures to avoid distal reoperation. Aggressive surgical approach with total arch replacement in acute type A dissection has demonstrated lower incidence of distal reoperation and slower aortic growth rate compared to less aggressive ascending/hemiarch repair. Recently, successful results of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in type B aortic dissection have encouraged surgeons to further attack acute type A aortic dissection with hybrid approach: antegrade endografting in the descending thoracic true lumen as an adjunct to hemiarch or total arch repair. However, is the hybrid approach with simultaneous descending endografting justified in all the acute type A aortic dissection cases? The outcomes of the hybrid approach reported by the several groups have demonstrated 80-100% of false lumen thrombus formation in the proximal descending aorta (stented segment); however, the complete obliteration of the false lumen is only 17-50%. The incidence of distal reoperation/reintervention after hybrid approach is as high as 14% and an adjunctive procedure is often performed. Moreover, there are concerns about additional risks associated with the hybrid procedures, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), stent graft induced new entry and stroke. The data on this new approach are still very limited. Hence, further study is warranted to prove its safety and durability. PMID:27386411

  16. Differences in Halo-Scale Environments between Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs at Low Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Ning; Mo, Houjun; Dong, Xiaobo; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Using samples of AGNs, normal galaxies and groups of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we study the environments of type 1 and type 2 AGNs both on small and large scales. Comparisons are made for samples matched in redshift, r-band luminosity, and [OIII] luminosity, and separately for central and satellite galaxies. We find that type 2 AGNs and normal galaxies reside in similar environments. Type 1 and type 2 AGNs have similar clustering properties on large scales, but at scales smaller than 100 kpc, type 2s have 3 times more neighbors than type 1s. These results suggest that type 1 and type 2 AGNs are hosted by halos of similar masses, as is also seen directly from the mass distributions of their host groups. Type 2s have significantly more satellites around them, and the distribution of their satellites is also more centrally concentrated. The host galaxies of both types of AGNs have similar optical properties, but their infrared colors are significantly different. Our results sugg...

  17. A Probable Short Decimetric Type I-like Noise Storm: Associated with Type III Bursts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Xiang Xie; Min Wang; Yi-Hua Yan

    2005-01-01

    A rare Type I-like noise storm was observed with the solar radio spectrometers (1.0-2.0 GHz and 2.60-3.8 GHz) at National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) on September 23, 1998. We concentrate on checking the Type I-like noise storm occurred in the decay phase of a Type IV radio burst. This noise storm consists of many Type I bursts and isolated Type III or Type III pair bursts.It has a bandwidth of ≤ 0.5 GHz. The duration of each Type I burst is of the order of 100-300ms. The total duration is greater than 11 minutes. The circular polarization degree of the components of Type I and associated Type III bursts are about 40%-100% and almost 100%, respectively, which is greater than that of the background continuum (nearly the precision of our instrument). This short decimetric Type I-like storm may be another kind or the extension of the kind of metric Type I storm, and may possess the duality of metric and decimetric radio emission. It may be in favor of an earlier emission mechanism of the fundamental plasma radiation due to the coalescence of Langmuir waves with low-frequency waves.

  18. The Efficacy of Red Ginseng in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Na Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most modern chronic metabolic diseases in the world. Moreover, DM is one of the major causes of modern neurological diseases. In the present study, the therapeutic actions of Korean red ginseng were evaluated in type 1 and type 2 diabetic mouse models using auditory electrophysiological measurement. The comprehensive results from auditory brainstem response (ABR, auditory middle latency response (AMLR, and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE demonstrate auditory functional damage caused by type 1 or 2 DM. Korean red ginseng improved the hearing threshold shift, delayed latencies and signal intensity decrease in type 2 diabetic mice. Type 1 diabetic mice showed a partial improvement in decreasing amplitude and signal intensity, not significantly. We suggest that the Korean red ginseng has a more potent efficacy in hearing loss in insulin resistance type 2 diabetes than in type 1 diabetes.

  19. Capital cost evaluation of liquid metal reactor by plant type - comparison of modular type with monolithic type -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary economic comparison study was performed for KALIMER(Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor)between a modular plant type with 8 150MWe modules and a 1200MWe monolithic plant type. In both cases of FOAK (First-Of-A-Kind) Plant and NOAK (Nth-Of-A-Kind) Plant, the result says that the economics of monolithic plant is superior to its modular plant. In case of NOAK plant comparison, however, the cost difference is not significant. It means that modular plant can compete with monolithic plant in capital cost if it makes efforts of cost reduction and technical progress on the assumption that the same type of NOAK plant will be constructed continuously

  20. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular

  1. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Korean Women with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sook Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe performed a retrospective survey of 163 pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes (n=13 and type 2 diabetes (n=150 treated from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups.ResultsDifferences in glycosylated hemoglobin between type 1 and type 2 diabetes were not significant. Birth weight (3,501±689.6 g vs. 3,366±531.4 g and rate of major congenital malformations (7.7% vs. 5.6% were not significantly different. However, women with type 1 diabetes had higher rates of preeclampsia (38.5% vs. 8.2%, P=0.006, large for gestational age (LGA; 46.2% vs. 20.4%, P=0.004, macrosomia (38.5% vs. 13.4%, P=0.032, and admission for neonatal care (41.7% vs. 14.8%, P=0.03 than women with type 2 diabetes.ConclusionMaternal and neonatal outcomes for women with type 1 diabetes were poorer than for women with type 2 diabetes, especially preeclampsia, LGA, macrosomia and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.

  2. Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates by Opa-Typing and Ribotyping in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejvak Khaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Control and preventive measures for gonococcal infections are based on precise epidemiological characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates. In the present study the potential utility of opa-typing and ribotyping for molecular epidemiological study of consecutive gonococcal strains was determined. Sixty gonococcal isolates were subjected to ribotyping with two restriction enzymes, AvaII and HincII, and opa-typing with TaqI and HpaII for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal population. Ribotyping with AvaII yielded 6 ribotype patterns while twelve RFLP patterns were observed with HincII. Opa-typing of the 60 isolates revealed a total 54 opa-types, which 48 were unique and 6 formed clusters. Fifty-two opa-types were observed with TaqI-digested PCR product while opa-typing with HpaII demonstrated 54 opa-types. The opa-types from isolates that were epidemiologically unrelated were distinct, whereas those from the sexual contacts were identical. The results showed that opa-typing is highly useful for characterizing gonococcal strains from sexual contacts and has more discriminatory than ribotyping that could differentiate between gonococci of the same ribotype. The technique even with a single restriction enzyme has a high level of discrimination (99.9% between epidemiologically unrelated isolates. In conclusion, the molecular methods such as opa-typing and ribotyping can be used for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal strains.

  3. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  4. Comparison between type-2 and type-1 myocardial infarction:clinical features, treatment strategies and outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angel Lpez-Cuenca; Sergio Manzano-Fernndez; Miriam Gmez-Molina; Pedro J Flores-Blanco; Marianela Snchez-Martnez; Andrea Garca-Narbon; Ignacio De Las Heras-Gmez; Mara J Snchez-Galian; Esther Guerrero-Prez; Mariano Valds

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the differences in incidence, clinical features, current treatment strategies and outcome in patients with type-2vs. type-1 acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods We included 824 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of type-1 or type-2 AMI. Dur-ing index hospitalization, clinical features and treatment strategies were collected in detail. At 1-year follow-up, mortality, stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and major bleeding were recorded.ResultsType-1 AMI was present in 707 (86%) of the cases while 117 (14%) were classified as type-2. Patients with type-2 AMI were more frequently female and had higher co-morbidities such as diabetes, previous non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, impaired renal function, anaemia, atrial fibrillation and malignancy. However, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal coronary arteries were more frequently seen, an invasive treatment was less common, and anti-platelet medications, statins and beta-blockers were less prescribed in patients with type-2 AMI. At 1-year follow-up, type-2 AMI was associated with a higher crude mortality risk (HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.68;P = 0.001), but this association did not remain significant after multivariable adjustment (P = 0.785). Furthermore, we did not find type-2 AMI to be associated with other clinical outcomes.Conclusions In this real-life population, compared with type-1, type-2 AMI were predominantly women and had more co-morbidities. Invasive treatment strategies and cardioprotective medications were less used in type-2, while the 1-year clinical outcomes were similar.

  5. Type D Einstein spacetimes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that all static spacetimes in higher dimensions n > 4 are necessarily of Weyl types G, Ii, D or O. This also applies to stationary spacetimes provided additional conditions are fulfilled, as for most known black hole/ring solutions. (The conclusions change when the Killing generator becomes null, such as at Killing horizons, on which we briefly comment.) Next we demonstrate that the same Weyl types characterize warped product spacetimes with a one-dimensional Lorentzian (timelike) factor, whereas warped spacetimes with a two-dimensional Lorentzian factor are restricted to the types D or O. By exploring algebraic consequences of the Bianchi identities, we then analyze the simplest non-trivial case from the above classes-type D vacuum spacetimes, possibly with a cosmological constant, dropping, however, the assumptions that the spacetime is static, stationary or warped. It is shown that for 'generic' type D vacuum spacetimes (as defined in the text) the corresponding principal null directions are geodetic in arbitrary dimension (this in fact also applies to type II spacetimes). For n ≥ 5, however, there may exist particular cases of type D vacuum spacetimes which admit non-geodetic multiple principal null directions and we explicitly present such examples in any n ≥ 7. Further studies are restricted to five dimensions, where the type D Weyl tensor is fully described by a 3 x 3 real matrix Φij. In the case with 'twistfree' (Aij = 0) principal null geodesics we show that in a 'generic' case Φij is symmetric and eigenvectors of Φij coincide with eigenvectors of the expansion matrix Sij providing us thus in general with three preferred spacelike directions of the spacetime. Similar results are also obtained when relaxing the twistfree condition and assuming instead that Φij is symmetric. The five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole and Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics in arbitrary dimension are also briefly studied as specific illustrative examples of type D vacuum

  6. Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Gajić Milina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common genetically transmitted diseases with a high index of spontaneous mutations and extremely varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. It is diagnosed by the existence of certain clinical criteria. The presence of numerous localised cutaneous neurofibromas or a plexiform neurofibroma is virtually pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 is 0.1-5.7%. CASE OUTLINE A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT. She had previously unrecognized neurofibromatosis type 1 and a clinical picture which could remind of pheochromocytoma. None of the catecholamine samples in 24 hr urine indicated functionally active pheochromocytoma. Chromogranin A was moderately increased. Decision for operation was made after performing the image techniques. Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. After being treated with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, she was operated on. The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma. CONCLUSION Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours with fatal outcome if not duly recognized and cured.

  7. Magnetism in massive early-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    In the last five years our knowledge of magnetism in early-type stars has significantly improved because of the new gen- eration of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO). The success of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project, for example, has greatly improved our understanding of the magnetic properties of massive early-type stars; however, it was mainly focused on single stars. Summarized here is our general understanding of stellar magnetism in early-type stars and the recent findings from the MiMeS project. As recent results suggest a significant fraction of early-type stars are in binaries, this implies that the interplay between magnetic fields and binarity has yet to be investigated in any significant detail. To this end, the current analysis of the recently discovered magnetic field in the rapidly-rotating secondary star of the close, massive binary system known as Plaskett's star - a unique system that is testing our current theories of binarity and magnetism in early-type stars, and a target for investigation in the recently accepted Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars (BinaMIcS) Large Programs at CFHT and TBL - is discussed.

  8. Somatotype in elderly type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Roberto; Floris, Giovanni; Putzu, Paolo F; Carboni, Luciano; Marini, Elisabetta

    2007-09-01

    Somatotyping is a practical technique for the description of physique. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes are characterized by physical peculiarities, such as overweight, obesity and a central pattern of body fat distribution. Somatotype applications to diabetes are limited. The objective of this study is to describe the somatotype of elderly type 2 diabetes patients. The sample consisted of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes (45 men, mean age 69.4 +/- 7.0 years; 65 women, mean age 72.9 +/- 7.1 years). The pathological subjects were compared with a control group consisting of 280 healthy individuals (134 men, mean age 74.2 +/- 7.3 years; 146 women, mean age 74.9 +/- 7.4 years). The Heath-Carter somatotype was applied. Diabetic men and women (mean somatotype, respectively: 6.8-5.6-0.6 and 8.6-6.4-0.2) presented significantly higher values of endomorphy than the controls (p = 0.043 in men, p = 0.003 in women); men also had a lower mesomorphic component (p = 0.000). The somatotype method revealed physical peculiarities in type 2 diabetes patients. The marked endomorphy in the pathological individuals can be related to general fatness, which is a well known disease risk factor. The somatotype appears to be a suitable technique for the assessment of physique in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:18041381

  9. Immunological properties of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Leonie; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke; Smelt, Maaike; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; De Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggested that immunomodulation is elicited through indirect and direct mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms encompass stimulation of growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria, but can also be caused by fermentation products of these bacteria, i.e., short chain fatty acids. Evidence for direct effects on the immune system generally remains to be confirmed. It is suggested that inulin-type fructans can be detected by gut dendritic cells (DCs), through receptor ligation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins (NODs), C-type lectin receptors, and galectins, eventually inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. DCs may also exert antigen presenting capacity toward effector cells, such as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells locally, or in the spleen. Inulin-type fructans may also ligate PRRs expressed on gut epithelium, which could influence its barrier function. Inulin-type fructans are potent immunomodulating food components that hold many promises for prevention of disease. However, more studies into the mechanisms, dose-effect relations, and structure-function studies are required.

  10. Superflares on solar-type stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Takuya; Notsu, Shota; Notsu, Yuta; Nagao, Takashi; Kusaba, Satoshi; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2012-05-16

    Solar flares are caused by the sudden release of magnetic energy stored near sunspots. They release 10(29) to 10(32) ergs of energy on a timescale of hours. Similar flares have been observed on many stars, with larger 'superflares' seen on a variety of stars, some of which are rapidly rotating and some of which are of ordinary solar type. The small number of superflares observed on solar-type stars has hitherto precluded a detailed study of them. Here we report observations of 365 superflares, including some from slowly rotating solar-type stars, from about 83,000 stars observed over 120 days. Quasi-periodic brightness modulations observed in the solar-type stars suggest that they have much larger starspots than does the Sun. The maximum energy of the flare is not correlated with the stellar rotation period, but the data suggest that superflares occur more frequently on rapidly rotating stars. It has been proposed that hot Jupiters may be important in the generation of superflares on solar-type stars, but none have been discovered around the stars that we have studied, indicating that hot Jupiters associated with superflares are rare.

  11. A novel type of developmental dentin defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinmaa, P L; Waltimo, J; Hölttä, P; Risteli, L; Risteli, J; Alaluusua, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a developmental dentin disorder distinct from dentin defects characterized thus far. The proband was a 9-year-old boy who was the only family member known to be affected in five generations. The dental defect was not associated with any general disease or developmental disorder. The teeth appeared normal with the exception of the pink hue seen in some primary teeth. Radiographs showed pathological resorption of primary teeth and abnormally shaped pulp chambers and denticles in permanent teeth. Root canals were wide in developing teeth, but appeared thin in erupted teeth. Histological examination of two primary molars revealed canal-like defects in dentin. In the crown, the canals appeared as clusters, which alternated with columns of normal tubular dentin, and in the virtually atubular root dentin they were haphazardly distributed. Scanning electron microscopic examination confirmed the distribution pattern of the canals. In transmission electron microscopy, the defects were found to contain symmetrically banded, segmental collagenous structures. The canal contents immunostained with antibodies to the N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, suggesting retention of the propeptide extension in type I collagen. Whereas type III collagen reactivity was barely detectable in the canal region, staining for type V collagen and the non-fibril-forming type VI collagen was strong. The findings imply that the pathogenesis of the defect could be related to a local failure of odontoblasts to produce normal dentin matrix.

  12. Remote sensing of plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, Susan L; Gamon, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conceptually, plant functional types represent a classification scheme between species and broad vegetation types. Historically, these were based on physiological, structural and/or phenological properties, whereas recently, they have reflected plant responses to resources or environmental conditions. Often, an underlying assumption, based on an economic analogy, is that the functional role of vegetation can be identified by linked sets of morphological and physiological traits constrained by resources, based on the hypothesis of functional convergence. Using these concepts, ecologists have defined a variety of functional traits that are often context dependent, and the diversity of proposed traits demonstrates the lack of agreement on universal categories. Historically, remotely sensed data have been interpreted in ways that parallel these observations, often focused on the categorization of vegetation into discrete types, often dependent on the sampling scale. At the same time, current thinking in both ecology and remote sensing has moved towards viewing vegetation as a continuum rather than as discrete classes. The capabilities of new remote sensing instruments have led us to propose a new concept of optically distinguishable functional types ('optical types') as a unique way to address the scale dependence of this problem. This would ensure more direct relationships between ecological information and remote sensing observations. PMID:20569415

  13. Human papillomavirus type 29 (HPV-29), an HPV type cross-hybridizing with HPV-2 and with HPV-3-related types.

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, M; Croissant, O; Orth, G

    1989-01-01

    The cloning and partial characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 29 is presented. By hybridization analyses, this virus appears to be related to HPV types associated with common warts and HPV types associated with flat warts.

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    biochemical measurements of oxidative enzyme and electron transport activity, isolation of mitochondria for measurements of respiration, and ATP production and indirect measurements of ATP production using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - spectroscopy. Biochemical markers of mitochondrial content are also...... discussed. Several studies show reduced activity of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetics. The reductions are independent of muscle fiber type, and are accompanied by visual evidence of damaged mitochondria. In most studies, the reduced oxidative enzyme activity is explained by decreases...... in mitochondrial content; thus, evidence of a functional impairment in mitochondria in type 2 diabetes is not convincing. These impairments in oxidative function and mitochondrial morphology could reflect the sedentary lifestyle of the diabetic subjects, and the influence of physical activity on oxidative activity...

  15. Mathematical review on source-type diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Naofumi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A source-type diagram is a visualization tool used to display earthquake sources, including double-couples, compensated linear vector dipoles, and isotropic deformation. Together with recent observations of non-double-couple events in a variety of tectonic settings, it is important to be able to recognize the source type intuitively from a representative diagram. Since previous works have proposed diagrams created using a range of projections, we review these diagrams in the framework of the moment tensor eigenvalue space. For further applications, we also provide complete formulas for conversion between moment tensor representation and the coordinate system of each diagram style. Using both a global catalog and synthetic data, we discuss differences between types of diagrams and the relative effectiveness of each.

  16. Construction sustainability with adobe bricks type elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Hegyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a criterion defined in the 80, which is essential in all fields of current activity. At the moment, it can not talk about development without being taken into account sustainability criteria. It presents the ensuring for an harmonious development, in line with current needs, without to endanger the possibility to develop and satisfy the needs of future generations. The buildings of adobe bricks-type elements ensure successfully the conditions imposed by this criterion. This type of construction ensures the responsible use of renewable natural resources, the possibility of reuse and recycling of materials, contributes to environmental protection and to pollution reduction, to energy saving and it provides a cleaner and healthier living environment. Not least, the buildings of this type are accessible in terms of cost and can contribute to the development of other fields such as eco-tourism.

  17. Classification of sports types from tracklets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    that sports types can be classified from features extracted from short trajectories of the players. From tracklets created by a Kalman filter tracker we extract four robust features; Total distance, lifespan, distance span and mean speed. For clas- sification we use a quadratic discriminant analysis. In our...... experiments we use 30 2-minutes thermal video sequences from each of five different sports types. By applying a 10- fold cross validation we obtain a correct classification rate of 94.5 %.......Automatic analysis of video is important in order to process and exploit large amounts of data, e.g. for sports analysis. Classification of sports types is one of the first steps to- wards a fully automatic analysis of the activities performed at sports arenas. In this work we test the idea...

  18. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  19. DNA typing of epithelial cells after strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P; Kleiber, M

    1997-01-01

    DNA typing was carried out on epithelial cells which were transferred from the hands of the suspect onto the neck of the victim. In an experimental study 16 suspect-victim combinations were investigated for estimating the typing success. Alternatively to an attack against the neck, the upper arm was used for "strangulation". PCR typing was carried out using the short tandem repeat systems (STRs) HumCD4, HumVWF31A (VWA) and Hum-FIBRA (FGA) and the success rate was > 70% for all 3 systems. In most of the cases mixed patterns containing the phenotype of the suspect and the victim were obtained. In a case where strangulation was the cause of death, epithelial cells could be removed from the neck of the victim. The DNA pattern of the suspect could be successfully amplified using four STRs, demonstrating the applicability of this approach for practical casework. PMID:9274940

  20. Type II Supernovae as Probes of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Blondin, Stephane; Bloom, Joshua S; D'Andrea, Christopher B; Della Valle, Massimo; Dessart, Luc; Ellis, Richard S; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Goobar, Ariel; Hamuy, Mario; Hicken, Malcolm; Kasen, Daniel N; Krisciunas, Kevin L; Leonard, Douglas C; Li, Weidong; Livio, Mario; Marion, Howie; Matheson, Thomas; Neill, James D; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Nugent, Peter E; Quimby, Robert; Sako, Masao; Sullivan, Mark; Thomas, Rollin C; Turatto, Massimo; Van Dyk, Schuyler D; Wood-Vasey, W Michael

    2009-01-01

    - Constraining the cosmological parameters and understanding Dark Energy have tremendous implications for the nature of the Universe and its physical laws. - The pervasive limit of systematic uncertainties reached by cosmography based on Cepheids and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) warrants a search for complementary approaches. - Type II SNe have been shown to offer such a path. Their distances can be well constrained by luminosity-based or geometric methods. Competing, complementary, and concerted efforts are underway, to explore and exploit those objects that are extremely well matched to next generation facilities. Spectroscopic follow-up will be enabled by space- based and 20-40 meter class telescopes. - Some systematic uncertainties of Type II SNe, such as reddening by dust and metallicity effects, are bound to be different from those of SNe Ia. Their stellar progenitors are known, promising better leverage on cosmic evolution. In addition, their rate - which closely tracks the ongoing star formation rate -...