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Sample records for actinium 227 target

  1. Actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1977-01-01

    There are only very few investigations dealing with the chemical and physical properties of actinium, the lanthanum homologue in the actinide series, 227 Ac, the only long-lived isotope can be produced in gram amounts only by neutron irradiation of 226 Ra, the amounts occurring in nature are too low for isolation (about 1 μg 227 Ac/1 uranium ore). Experimental work with 227 Ac gives rise to a lot of problems due to the radiation characteristics of the 227 Ac daughter nuclides. Therefore, the metal and the only ten solid compounds, prepared up to now, have been isolated in the microgram scale. Due to the high specific activity of 227 Ac, the preparation of a lot of compounds, e.g. metal-organic compounds seems to be very difficult, if not impossible. The properties of actinium in aqueous solutions have been deduced from experiments in the tracer scale only. The present investigations on actinium show that only the oxidation state + 3 exists - only radiopolarographic studies indicate the possibility of a lower valancy state (Ac 2+ ). - This review will give a critical and comprehensive description on the present knowledge about this element. The presently decreasing interest in the development of thermionic batteries using 227 Ac 2 O 3 radionuclide also implies that there will be only small progress in the chemistry of this radio-element in the near future. (orig.) [de

  2. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Tarango, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  3. Separation of actinium-227 from its daughter products by cationic resins technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method for separating actinium-227 from its daughter products based on ion exchange principle is shown. Radionuclides mixture in perchloric acid 8,5 N and chloridric acid 0,5 N medium pass by a cationic resin column. Thorium-227 and actinium-227, which are retained by the resin, are eluted with nitric acid 6 N which releases actinium-227 while oxalic acid 7% is used for thorium-227 elution [pt

  4. Separation of protactinum, actinium, and other radionuclides from proton irradiated thorium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Michael E.; Radchenko, Valery

    2018-04-24

    Protactinium, actinium, radium, radiolanthanides and other radionuclide fission products were separated and recovered from a proton-irradiated thorium target. The target was dissolved in concentrated HCl, which formed anionic complexes of protactinium but not with thorium, actinium, radium, or radiolanthanides. Protactinium was separated from soluble thorium by loading a concentrated HCl solution of the target onto a column of strongly basic anion exchanger resin and eluting with concentrated HCl. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides elute with thorium. The protactinium that is retained on the column, along with other radionuclides, is eluted may subsequently treated to remove radionuclide impurities to afford a fraction of substantially pure protactinium. The eluate with the soluble thorium, actinium, radium and radiolanthanides may be subjected to treatment with citric acid to form anionic thorium, loaded onto a cationic exchanger resin, and eluted. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides that are retained can be subjected to extraction chromatography to separate the actinium from the radium and from the radio lanthanides.

  5. The marine geochemistry of actinium-227: Evidence for its migration through sediment pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    227 Ac with a half life of 21.8 years has a potential utility as a tracer of deep water circulation and mixing studies on time scales less than 100 years. Here the authors present the first measurement of 227 Ac profile in the pore water of Northwest Pacific deep-sea sediment and in the ∼10,000 m long water column of Izu-Ogasawara Trench. The results clearly show that 227 Ac is supplied from the sediment to the overlying water through migration in the pore water. The model calculation indicates that the molecular diffusion alone through sediment porewater can support only a half of the standing crop of excess 227 Ac in the water column and the enhanced supply of 227 Ac by particle mixing is necessary to account for the remainder. Thus, bioturbation in the deep sea plays an important role in controlling the flux of some short-lived radionuclides such as 227 Ac and 228 Ra across the sediment-water interface

  6. A Radium-223 microgenerator from cyclotron-produced trace Actinium-227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, Diane S.; Pickett, Juile; Mattson, John E.; Thorek, Daniel L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The alpha particle emitter Radium-223 dichloride ("2"2"3RaCl_2) has recently been approved for treatment of late-stage bone metastatic prostate cancer. There is considerable interest in studying this new agent outside of the clinical setting, however the supply of "2"2"3Ra is limited and expensive. We have engineered a "2"2"3Ra microgenerator using traces of "2"2"7Ac previously generated from cyclotron-produced "2"2"5Ac. Radiochemically pure "2"2"3RaCl_2 was made, characterized, evaluated in vivo, and the source was recovered in high yield for regeneration of the microgenerator. - Highlights: • A "2"2"3Ra microgenerator was built using residual "2"2"7Ac from cyclotron-produced "2"2"5Ac. • Following "2"2"5Ac decay, the residual "2"2"7Ac was processed into pure "2"2"3Ra. • "2"2"7Ac and "2"2"7Th were recovered in high yield for a permanent supply of "2"2"3Ra. • Clinically supplied and generator-produced "2"2"3Ra have equivalent in vivo distribution. • Microdose column provides sufficient material for research use.

  7. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of partition chromatography method for separation and analysis of actinium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsina, G.S.; Shestakova, I.A.; Shestakov, B.I.; Plyushcheva, N.A.; Malyshev, N.A.; Belyatskij, A.F.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of partition chromatography is considered with the use of different extractants for the extraction of actinium-227, actinium-225 and actinium-228. It is advisable to extract actinium-227 from the irradiated radium with the help of D2FGFK. The use of 2DEGFK allows us to separate actinium-227 from alkaline and alkaline-earth elements. Amines have a higher radiative stability. An express-method has been developed for the identification of actinium-227 with TOA by its intrinsic α-emission in nonequilibrium preparations of irradiated radium-226 of small activity. Actinium-225 is extracted from uranium-233 with due regard for the fact that U, Th, and Ac are extracted differently by TBP from HNO 3 solutions. With the help of the given procedure one can reach the purifying coefficient of 10 4 . Actinium-228 is extracted from the radiummesothorium preparations by a deposition of decay products, including polonium-210 on the iron hydroxyde. Actinium-228 extraction from the mixture of radium radionuclides is performed by the partition chromatography method on D2EGFK. All the procedures for separation of actinium isotopes by the above methods are described

  9. An eighteen-membered macrocyclic ligand for actinium-225 targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Nikki A.; MacMillan, Samantha N.; Wilson, Justin J.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The 18-membered macrocycle H 2 macropa was investigated for 225 Ac chelation in targeted alpha therapy (TAT). Radiolabeling studies showed that macropa, at submicromolar concentration, complexed all 225 Ac (26 kBq) in 5 min at RT. [ 225 Ac(macropa)] + remained intact over 7 to 8 days when challenged with either excess La 3+ ions or human serum, and did not accumulate in any organ after 5 h in healthy mice. A bifunctional analogue, macropa-NCS, was conjugated to trastuzumab as well as to the prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeting compound RPS-070. Both constructs rapidly radiolabeled 225 Ac in just minutes at RT, and macropa-Tmab retained >99 % of its 225 Ac in human serum after 7 days. In LNCaP xenograft mice, 225 Ac-macropa-RPS-070 was selectively targeted to tumors and did not release free 225 Ac over 96 h. These findings establish macropa to be a highly promising ligand for 225 Ac chelation that will facilitate the clinical development of 225 Ac TAT for the treatment of soft-tissue metastases. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. An eighteen-membered macrocyclic ligand for actinium-225 targeted alpha therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Nikki A.; MacMillan, Samantha N.; Wilson, Justin J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brown, Victoria; Jermilova, Una; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Robertson, Andrew K.H.; Schaffer, Paul; Radchenko, Valery [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Life Science Div.; Kelly, James M.; Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Ponnala, Shashikanth; Williams, Clarence Jr.; Babich, John W. [Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Centre for Comparative Medicine

    2017-11-13

    The 18-membered macrocycle H{sub 2}macropa was investigated for {sup 225}Ac chelation in targeted alpha therapy (TAT). Radiolabeling studies showed that macropa, at submicromolar concentration, complexed all {sup 225}Ac (26 kBq) in 5 min at RT. [{sup 225}Ac(macropa)]{sup +} remained intact over 7 to 8 days when challenged with either excess La{sup 3+} ions or human serum, and did not accumulate in any organ after 5 h in healthy mice. A bifunctional analogue, macropa-NCS, was conjugated to trastuzumab as well as to the prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeting compound RPS-070. Both constructs rapidly radiolabeled {sup 225}Ac in just minutes at RT, and macropa-Tmab retained >99 % of its {sup 225}Ac in human serum after 7 days. In LNCaP xenograft mice, {sup 225}Ac-macropa-RPS-070 was selectively targeted to tumors and did not release free {sup 225}Ac over 96 h. These findings establish macropa to be a highly promising ligand for {sup 225}Ac chelation that will facilitate the clinical development of {sup 225}Ac TAT for the treatment of soft-tissue metastases. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  12. Actinium-225 and Bismuth-213 Alpha Particle Immunotherapy of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinberg, D.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclides with appropriate half-lives and emission characteristics that would be potent enough to kill neoplastic cells in the small quantities that reach targets in vivo, include the high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha emitters such as Actinium-225 and Bi-213. We developed methods for the attachment of radiometals via bifunctional chelates to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) without loss of immunoreactivity. We developed alphaemitting Bi-213 lintuzumab constructs, characterized and qualified them in preclinical models, and took them into human clinical trials in patients with AML. Safety, anti-leukemic activity, and complete responses (CR’s) have been demonstrated through phase 2 trilas. Bi-213 is produced in a portable small generator device based on Ac- 225 in the hospital nuclear medicine lab. The isotope is then purified, attached to the antibody, and the product is qualified and processed. Despite this success, the major obstacle to the widespread use of these drugs remains the short 213 Bi half-life (46 minutes), which poses a large logistical hurdle before injection and limits its delivery to only the most accessible cancer cells after injection

  13. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Ilett, D.J.; McCrohon, R.; Tweed, C.J.; Yui, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  14. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Ilett, D.J.; McCrohon, R.; Tweed, C.J.; Yui, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results.

  15. Short history of radioactivity. No. XIII. The actinium and thorium series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmers, T W

    1950-06-16

    Discussions of the actinium disintegration series (about 1905), the /sup 235/U or actinium series (as it is accepted today), the disintegration of thorium (about 1905), the thorium series in the modern form, and the 4n, 4n + 1, 4n + 2, and 4n + 3 series are presented.

  16. Fractionated therapy of HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts in mice with targeted alpha emitting 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Heyerdahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic efficacy and normal tissue toxicity of single dosage and fractionated targeted alpha therapy (TAT in mice with HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts using the low dose rate radioimmunoconjugate (227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nude mice carrying HER2-overexpressing subcutaneous SKOV-3 or SKBR-3 xenografts were treated with 1000 kBq/kg (227Th-trastuzumab as single injection or four injections of 250 kBq/kg with intervals of 4-5 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks. Control animals were treated with normal saline or unlabeled trastuzumab. In SKOV-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed (p<0.01 and survival with tumor diameter less than 16 mm was prolonged (p<0.05 in all TAT groups compared to the control groups. No statistically significant differences were seen among the treated groups. In SKBR-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed in the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.001 and all except the 4 weeks interval TAT group showed improved survival to the control groups (p<0.05. Toxicity was assessed by blood cell counts, clinical chemistry measurements and body weight. Transient reduction in white blood cells was seen for the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05. No significant changes were seen in red blood cells, platelets or clinical chemistry parameters. Survival without life threatening loss of body weight was significantly prolonged in 4 weeks interval group compared to single injection group (p<0.05 for SKOV-3 animals and in 2 weeks interval group compared with the 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05 for SKBR-3 animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The same concentration of radioactivity split into several fractions may improve toxicity of (227Th-radioimmunotherapy while the therapeutic effect is maintained. Thus, it might be possible to increase the cumulative absorbed radiation dose

  17. Amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent, their manufacturing process and their use to draw out selectively Actinium series (III) and to separate them in particular from Lanthanides (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.

    1993-01-01

    Present invention is concerned with new amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent utilizable to separate trivalent actinium series from trivalent lanthanides. In these molecules, it is possible to obtain particularly covalent liaison which has more affinity with 5f series, that is to say actinium series; included a manufacturing process for these amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent

  18. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  19. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, R.A.; Vasilyev, A.N.; Ostapenko, V.; Kalmykov, S.N.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Ermolaev, S.V.; Lapshina, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-emitters ( 211 At, 212 Bi, 213 Bi, 223 Ra, 225 Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225 Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213 Bi isotope generator. Production of 225 Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225 Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225 Ac production is separation from mother 229 Th or irradiation of 226 Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225 Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225 Ac, 227 Ac, 227 Th, 228 Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO 3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO 3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO 3 media. About 6 mCi 225 Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227 Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225 Ac from being used for medical 225 Ac/ 213 Bi generators. (author)

  20. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.

    2016-01-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  1. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  2. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    tests of GR, and performing predictive GRMHD simulations hydrodynamics simulations that include magnetic fields and full GR treatment. Ozel pointed out that one of the recent theoretical advancements in GRMHD simulations is harnessing the power of GPUs to render images in simulations; check out the tweet below for the awesome video she showed us!Watch C. Chan manipulate black hole simulation with hand motions https://t.co/O5BgaltYAu (more on the code: https://t.co/9GC46ReMGs) #aas227 Sarah Scoles (@ScolesSarah) January 6, 2016Deployment of the full EHT array is planned for early 2017, and theyve already got 10 targets selected black holes that are near enough and large enough that the EHT should be able to image their shadows. I, for one, cant wait to see the first results!Grad School and Postdocs as a Means to a Job (by Meredith Rawls)This morning session was presented by Karen Kelsky of The Professor Is In. She presented a very practical overview of the advice in her book (which this job-searching Astrobiter highly recommends). Her target audience is postdocs and graduate students who are finishing their PhDs and applying for tenure-track jobs. Karens background is in the social sciences, but she has worked with many scientists and her expertise easily transferred. Much of her writing advice also applies for undergraduates who are writing research statements and proposals to apply to graduate school. For example:What not to do, with @ProfessorIsIn #aas227 pic.twitter.com/afGAsSuPwN Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016One of Karens main takeaways is that academia is not automatically good preparation for a job search. Writing documents like cover letters, resumes, and research statements will be harder and take more time than you think, and it is important to make them top-notch. Karen was also surprised that the majority of professional astronomers at the AAS meeting carry backpacks, because she typically advises against bringing a backpack to a job interview or

  3. Preparation of 227Ac by neutron irradiation of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukleva, E.; Kozempel, J.; Vlk, M.; Micolova, P.; Vopalka, D.

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 is prospective alpha-emitting therapeutic radionuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy. Although 223 Ra is formed naturally by the decay of 235 U, for practical reasons its preparation involves neutron irradiation of 226 Ra. The α-decay of the 227 Ra (T 12 = 43 min.) produced via 226 Ra(n,γ) 227 Ra reaction leads to 227 Ac, a mother nuclide of 227 Th and 223 Ra subsequently. Irradiation target radium material is generally available in multi-gram quantities from historical stock. Main aim of this study was to experimentally and theoretically evaluate and verify available literature data on production of 223 Ra. According to data obtained from γ-spectra, the approximate yield values were determined and effective cross-section for the 223 Ra production was calculated. (authors)

  4. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  5. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  6. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  7. Preparation of 227Ac/223Ra by neutron irradiation of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekaterina Kukleva; Jan Kozempel; Martin Vlk; Petra Micolova; Dusan Vopalka

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 is a prospective alpha-emitter for targeted radionuclide therapy. Although 223 Ra is formed naturally by the decay of 235 U, for practical reasons its preparation involves neutron irradiation of 226 Ra. The β - decay of the 227 Ra (T ½ = 43 min) produced via 226 Ra(n,γ) 227 Ra reaction leads to 227 Ac, a mother nuclide of 227 Th and subsequently 223 Ra. Radium target material is generally available in multigram quantities from historical stock. The main aim of this study was to experimentally as well as theoretically evaluate and verify the available literature data on production of 227 Ac/ 223 Ra. According to the data obtained from the γ-spectra, the approximate yield values were determined and effective cross section value for the 227 Ac production was calculated to 14 ± 4 b. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 227.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 227.3 Section 227.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program. (b...

  9. 49 CFR 227.7 - Preemptive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect. 227.7 Section 227.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE General § 227.7 Preemptive effect. Under 49 U.S.C...

  10. 20 CFR 227.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 227.1 Section 227.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.1 Introduction. This part explains how to compute a supplemental annuity. A supplemental...

  11. 227

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-01

    , the ... care workers in addition to immunization hospital safety practices are encouraged(4,5). ... observed, anaesthetists, circulating nursing personnel and others ..... after percutaneous injuries caused by hollow injection.

  12. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised value...

  13. 49 CFR 227.3 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the general railroad system of transportation; (2) A rapid transit operation in an urban area that is... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 227.3 Section 227.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.227 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information furnished by any person... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.227 Section 1280.227 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  15. 40 CFR 227.21 - Uses considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uses considered. 227.21 Section 227.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE... living marine resources; (k) Actual or anticipated exploitation of non-living resources, including...

  16. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Factors considered. 227.18 Section 227.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... in the material of any constituents which might significantly affect living marine resources of...

  17. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the customs...

  18. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  19. 48 CFR 227.304-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracts 227.304-1 General. Interim and final invention reports and notification of all subcontracts for... of Inventions and Subcontracts. [56 FR 36389, July 31, 1991, as amended at 57 FR 53600, Nov. 12, 1992] ...

  20. 12 CFR 227.2 - Consumer complaint procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 227.2 Consumer-complaint procedure. (a... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer complaint procedure. 227.2 Section 227... SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) General Provisions § 227.2 Consumer...

  1. 48 CFR 252.227-7020 - Rights in special works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in special works... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7020 Rights in special works. As prescribed in 227.7105-3, 227.7106(a) or 227.7205(a), use the following clause: Rights in Special Works (JUN 1995) (a) Applicability...

  2. 48 CFR 227.7207 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7207 Section 227.7207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7207 Contractor data repositories. Follow 227.7108 when it is in the Government's interests to have a data repository include computer software or to...

  3. 7 CFR 227.5 - Program funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.5 Program funding. (a... related support personnel costs including fringe benefits and travel expenses, (ii) Undertaking a needs...

  4. 25 CFR 227.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING § 227.1 Definitions. (a) The term “superintendent” in this part... may have jurisdiction over the Shoshone or Wind River Reservation. (b) The term “supervisor” in this... gas mining leases, to furnish scientific and technical information and advice, to ascertain and record...

  5. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers using the criteria of applicable sections of parts 227 and 228... material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2...

  6. 48 CFR 227.672 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... holds a royalty-free license or charges for data which it has a right to use and disclose to others, or which is in the public domain, or which the Government has acquired without restriction upon its use and...) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (see 227.675). ...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7203-9 - Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-9 Copyright. (a) Copyright license. (1) The clause at... rights licenses obtained under the clause. When non-standard license rights in computer software or computer software documentation will be negotiated, negotiate the extent of the copyright license...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7202-1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202-1 Policy. (a) Commercial computer software or commercial computer software documentation shall be acquired under the licenses customarily provided to the public...

  9. 49 CFR 227.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., otolaryngologist, or a physician with experience and expertise in hearing and hearing loss. Qualified Technician is a person who is certified by the Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation or... TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE General § 227.5 Definitions. As used in this part— Action level means...

  10. 25 CFR 227.22 - Diligence and prevention of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diligence and prevention of waste. 227.22 Section 227.22... IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.22 Diligence and prevention of waste. The lessee shall exercise diligence in drilling and operating wells for oil and gas on...

  11. 7 CFR 227.41 - Recovery of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recovery of funds. 227.41 Section 227.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.41 Recovery of...

  12. 47 CFR 25.227-25.249 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.227-25.249 Section 25.227-25.249 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards §§ 25.227-25.249 [Reserved] ...

  13. 48 CFR 52.227-19 - Commercial Computer Software License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software License. 52.227-19 Section 52.227-19 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.227-19 Commercial Computer Software License. As prescribed in 27.409(g), insert the following clause: Commercial Computer Software License (DEC 2007) (a) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions...

  14. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... software or computer software documentation (see 227.72), commercial items (see 227.7102-3), existing works...-engineer and construction contracts. (b)(1) Use the clause at 252.227-7013 with its Alternate I in research... Software Previously Delivered to the Government, in solicitations when the resulting contract will require...

  15. 20 CFR 227.5 - Employer tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer tax credits. 227.5 Section 227.5... SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.5 Employer tax credits. Employers are entitled to tax credits if they pay non.... The tax credits for each month equal the sum of the reductions for employer pensions in the...

  16. 18 CFR 284.227 - Certain transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain transportation by intrastate pipelines. 284.227 Section 284.227 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.227 Certain...

  17. 48 CFR 252.227-7000 - Non-estoppel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-estoppel. 252.227-7000... Clauses 252.227-7000 Non-estoppel. As prescribed at 227.7009-1, insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: Non-Estoppel (OCT 1966) The Government reserves the right at...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7108 - Contractor data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repositories. 227.7108 Section 227.7108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Technical Data 227.7108 Contractor data repositories. (a) Contractor data repositories may be established when permitted by agency procedures. The contractual instrument establishing the data repository must...

  19. Evaluation of the separation and purification of 227Th from its decay progeny by anion exchange and extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.I.; Collins, S.M.; Es, E.M. van; García-Miranda, M.; Jerome, S.M.; Russell, B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium-227 is currently undergoing evaluation as a potential radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy, and as such a high chemical purity of the material is required. To establish a reliable procedure for radiochemical isolation of 227 Th from the parent 227 Ac and decay progeny, which includes the radiotherapeutic 223 Ra, the performance of three different separation schemes based on ion-exchange and extraction chromatography have been evaluated. The results suggest that both ion exchange and extraction chromatographic techniques can be successfully used for the separation of 227 Th from its decay progeny, however extraction chromatographic resins demonstrate favourable performance in terms of Th recovery and purification from radionuclide impurities. - Highlights: • Development of a radiochemical separation of 227 Th from residual 227Ac as well as from decay progeny. • Evaluation of ion-exchange and extraction chromatography techniques. • TEVA resin demonstrates favourable performance in terms of Th recovery and purification. • Developed method is applicable to both nuclear medicine and environmental analysis.

  20. 22 CFR 227.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., drafting of a legal document accompanying a bid or proposal by a lawyer is allowable. Similarly, technical... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional and technical services. 227.205... Activities by Own Employees § 227.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use of...

  1. 22 CFR 227.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and analysis directly applying any professional or technical discipline. For example, drafting or a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional and technical services. 227.300... Activities by Other Than Own Employees § 227.300 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on...

  2. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... balance at the previously disclosed variable rate determined using a 5-point margin (pursuant to § 227.24... purchase balance (which remains at the variable rate determined using the 6-point margin) or the $200... points and applies that rate to any remaining portion of the $3,000 purchase balance (pursuant to § 227...

  3. 48 CFR 227.7102-2 - Rights in technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in technical data... Technical Data 227.7102-2 Rights in technical data. (a) The clause at 252.227-7015, Technical Data—Commercial Items, provides the Government specific license rights in technical data pertaining to commercial...

  4. 48 CFR 252.227-7033 - Rights in shop drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in shop drawings... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7033 Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 227.7107-(1)(c), use the following clause: Rights in Shop Drawings (APR 1966) (a) Shop drawings for construction means...

  5. 40 CFR 98.227 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records that must be retained. 98.227 Section 98.227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... significant changes to process. (b) Documentation of how process knowledge was used to estimate abatement...

  6. 40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other uses... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.22 Section...

  7. 20 CFR 227.4 - Reduction for employer pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for employer pension. 227.4 Section... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.4 Reduction for employer pension. (a) General. The supplemental annuity for each month is reduced by the amount of any private pension the employee is receiving for that...

  8. 40 CFR 227.17 - Basis for determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis for determination. 227.17 Section 227.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING... living marine resources. (b) For all proposed dumping, full consideration will be given to such...

  9. 40 CFR 86.227-94 - Test procedures; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures; overview. 86.227-94 Section 86.227-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  10. 25 CFR 227.16 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equal such advance payment; nor will any part of the moneys so paid be refunded to the lessee because of... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crediting advance annual payments. 227.16 Section 227.16... Crediting advance annual payments. In the event of discovery of minerals in paying quantities all advance...

  11. 42 CFR 93.227 - Secretary or HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary or HHS. 93.227 Section 93.227 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  12. 48 CFR 227.7102-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 227.7102..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7102-3 Contract clause. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, use the...

  13. 20 CFR 227.2 - Initial supplemental annuity rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial supplemental annuity rate. 227.2... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.2 Initial supplemental annuity rate. The supplemental annuity rate... supplemental annuity rate is $43 for an employee with 30 or more years of service. ...

  14. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed. (orig.)

  15. 48 CFR 227.7107 - Contracts for architect-engineer services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-engineer services. 227.7107 Section 227.7107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Rights in Technical Data 227.7107 Contracts for architect-engineer services. This section sets forth... of construction and architect-engineer services. ...

  16. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovative Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovative Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  17. 48 CFR 227.7206 - Contracts for architect-engineer services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7206 Contracts for architect-engineer services. Follow 227.7107 when contracting for architect-engineer services. ...-engineer services. 227.7206 Section 227.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  18. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the Alpha-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, Jostein; Krogh, Cecilie; Melhus, Katrine B.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Roy H.; Kvinnsland, Yngve

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate α-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227 Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 10 5 to 10 7 cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy α-particle radiation from 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate 227 Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.

  19. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  20. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of technical... Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-2 Acquisition of technical data. (a) Contracting officers shall work... personnel are responsible for identifying the Government's minimum needs for technical data. Data needs must...

  1. 49 CFR 227.101 - Scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.101 Scope and applicability. (a) This subpart shall apply to the noise-related working... service laws governing “train employees” (see 49 U.S.C. 21101(5) and 21103), but, subject to a railroad's...

  2. 48 CFR 227.7103-5 - Government rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance of a contract when the study, analysis, test, or similar work was specified as an element of..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data... 252.227-7013, Rights in Technical Data—Noncommercial Items. In unusual situations, the standards...

  3. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of this...

  4. 48 CFR 52.227-6 - Royalty Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the response relating to each separate item of royalty or license fee: (1) Name and address of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Royalty Information. 52....227-6 Royalty Information. As prescribed in 27.202-5(a)(1), insert the following provision: Royalty...

  5. 7 CFR 227.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management training of school foodservice personnel, and (c) the conduct of nutrition education activities in... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.1 General purpose...

  6. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-70 - New technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true New technology. 1852.227-70... New technology. As prescribed in 1827.303-70(b), insert the following clause: New Technology (NOV 1998... administration of this New Technology clause within six months of conception and/or first actual reduction to...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7203-5 - Government rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-5 Government rights. The standard license rights in..., or restricted rights. The standard license in computer software documentation conveys unlimited...) Unlimited rights. The Government obtains an unlimited rights license in— (1) Computer software developed...

  9. 48 CFR 227.7203-4 - License rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-4 License rights. (a) Grant of license. The... license, under an irrevocable license granted or obtained by the contractor which developed the software... granted to the Government. The scope of a computer software license is generally determined by the source...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.227-72 - Advertising of awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Clauses 3452.227-72 Advertising of awards. As prescribed in 3427.472, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders: Advertising of Awards (AUG 1987) The contractor agrees...

  11. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  12. 48 CFR 352.227-70 - Publications and publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... article the Contractor submits for publication shall be promptly sent to the Contracting Officer's... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications and publicity... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.227-70...

  13. 48 CFR 252.227-7005 - License term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term. 252.227-7005..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And... referred to in the “License Grant” clause of this contract and any and all patents hereafter issued on...

  14. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., reduction in use days of recreational areas, or dollars lost in commercial fishery profits or the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section... FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed...

  15. 40 CFR 227.6 - Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trace contaminants. 227.6 Section 227.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.6 Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants. (a) Subject to the..., of materials containing the following constituents as other than trace contaminants will not be...

  16. 30 CFR 227.101 - What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? 227.101 Section 227.101 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 227.101 What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? (a) If there are oil and gas...

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-13 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic subsidiaries and affiliates within the corporate structure of which the Contractor is a part, and... the Government. 52.227-13 Section 52.227-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.227-13 Patent Rights—Ownership by the Government. As prescribed at 27.303(e), insert the...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small Business...

  19. 48 CFR 227.7107-2 - Contracts for construction supplies and research and development work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts for construction supplies and research and development work. 227.7107-2 Section 227.7107-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7107-2 Contracts for construction supplies and...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.227-17 - Rights in data-Special works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.227-17 Rights in data—Special works. As prescribed in 1827.409(i), add the following... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in data-Special works. 1852.227-17 Section 1852.227-17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND...

  1. 48 CFR 52.227-18 - Rights in Data-Existing Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....227-18 Rights in Data—Existing Works. As prescribed in 27.409(f), insert the following clause: Rights... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in Data-Existing Works. 52.227-18 Section 52.227-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  2. 48 CFR 52.227-17 - Rights in Data-Special Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....227-17 Rights in Data—Special Works. As prescribed in 27.409(e), insert the following clause: Rights... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in Data-Special Works. 52.227-17 Section 52.227-17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  3. 20 CFR 725.227 - Time of determination of relationship and dependency of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of determination of relationship and dependency of survivors. 725.227 Section 725.227 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.227 Time of determination of relationship and dependency of survivors. The determination as...

  4. 48 CFR 252.227-7027 - Deferred ordering of technical data or computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data or computer software. 252.227-7027 Section 252.227-7027 Federal Acquisition Regulations... data or computer software. As prescribed at 227.7103-8(b), use the following clause: Deferred Ordering of Technical Data or Computer Software (APR 1988) In addition to technical data or computer software...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7026 - Deferred delivery of technical data or computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data or computer software. 252.227-7026 Section 252.227-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... data or computer software. As prescribed at 227.7103-8(a), use the following clause: Deferred Delivery of Technical Data or Computer Software (APR 1988) The Government shall have the right to require, at...

  6. Levels in 223Th populated by α decay of 227U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaninová, Z.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Andel, B.; Kindler, B.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lommel, B.; Maurer, J.

    2015-07-01

    Levels in 223Th populated by the α decay of 227U were investigated using α -γ decay spectroscopy. The 227U isotope was produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction 22Ne +208Pb at the velocity filter separator for heavy-ion reaction products at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (Germany). Several new excited levels and γ transitions were identified in 223Th . An improved α -decay scheme of 227U was suggested. The experimental α -decay energy spectrum of 227U was compared with the Monte Carlo simulation performed using the toolkit geant4.

  7. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, W. S.; Zevenbergen, L. A.; Adair, H. L.

    1985-06-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of a minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity actinides in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed.

  8. 48 CFR 252.227-7007 - License term-running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License term-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7007 License term—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(b), insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: License Term—Running...

  9. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a running...

  10. 48 CFR 252.227-7006 - License grant-running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License grant-running... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7006 License grant—running royalty. As prescribed at 227.7009-4(a...—Running Royalty (AUG 1984) (a) The Contractor hereby grants to the Government, as represented by the...

  11. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been leased...

  12. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and methods of disposal or recycling available, including without limitation, storage until treatment facilities are completed, which have less adverse environmental impact or potential risk to other parts of... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  13. 48 CFR 227.7203-2 - Acquisition of noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at one site or multiple site licenses, and the format and media in which the software or... noncommercial computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-2 Section 227.7203-2 Federal... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software...

  14. 25 CFR 227.14 - Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas. 227.14... § 227.14 Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas. In time of war or other public emergency any... posted market price on the date of sale all or any part of the minerals produced under any lease. Rents...

  15. 48 CFR 952.227-84 - Notice of right to request patent waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent waiver. 952.227-84 Section 952.227-84 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Notice of right to request patent waiver. Include this provision in all appropriate solicitations in accordance with 48 CFR 927.409(t). Right To Request Patent Waiver (FEB 1998) Offerors have the right to...

  16. 48 CFR 252.227-7021 - Rights in data-existing works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7021 Rights in data—existing works. As prescribed at 227.7105-2(a), use the following clause: Rights in Data—Existing Works (MAR 1979) (a) The term works as used herein... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in data-existing...

  17. 48 CFR 252.227-7012 - Patent license and release contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent license and release contract. 252.227-7012 Section 252.227-7012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text...

  18. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  19. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Doh-ura, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [ 11 C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [ 11 C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  20. The eclipsing AM Herculis star 2A 0311 - 227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.; Wright, A.E.; Ward, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared photometry and optical spectrophotometry of the AM Herculis star 2A 0311 - 227 are described. In its 81-min orbit there are two eclipses at infrared wavelengths and a third, intermittent eclipse of the optical emission lines. One of these eclipses is caused by an M dwarf which orbits a magnetic white dwarf. Much of the geometry of the system can be specified. An inclination near 80 0 is found, and a mass of the M dwarf which corresponds to a spectral type of M7 or M8. Accretion appears to occur on to two magnetic poles of the white dwarf, but the field strengths differ so that one pole emits preferentially at optical wavelengths and the other mostly in the infrared. The location of the redder-emitting magnetic pole can be specified because of its eclipse by the white dwarf, but there remains some uncertainty in the location of the bluer pole. All interpretations seem to require that the magnetic poles are not symmetrically disposed about the white dwarf, and some evidence suggests that like poles are less than 60 0 apart. (author)

  1. 29 CFR 779.227 - Conditions which must be met for exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.227 Conditions which must be...

  2. Measurements of multipolarities in 227Ra as tests of evidence for stable octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borge, M.J.G.; Burke, D.G.; Gietz, H.; Hill, P.; Kaffrell, N.

    1987-01-01

    Multipolarities of ∝30 transitions in 227 Ra have been established by measuring conversion electrons following the β - decay of 227 Fr. For this purpose a 'mini-orange'-type electron spectrometer has been constructed. The 227 Fr isotopes were produced by the ISOLDE on-line separator at the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. Internal conversion coefficients were obtained from singles spectra and also from simultaneous γe - and γγ coincidence measurements. The new results support the placement of levels and transitions in the earlier level scheme but require changes in the previously assigned parities for four of the levels. Also, one E0 transition was identified. The results are consistent with previous interpretations for most of the levels that have been used to argue in favour of a small permanent octupole deformation for 227 Ra. (orig.)

  3. J. Genet. classic 227 NOTE: The pagination in the original included ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , December 2005. 227. NOTE: The pagination in the original included the reverse of plate 1 on p. 445, which was a blank. The blank is not included here, but the original page numbers have been retained.

  4. 25 CFR 1000.227 - What happens if the Secretary denies the waiver request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.227 What happens if the Secretary denies the waiver...

  5. 5 CFR 591.227 - What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.227 What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price...

  6. Extraction and purification of {sup 227}Ac and development of solid {sup 219}Rn source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Quan; Qiu, Shoukang; Xiao, Detao; Zhou, Yaohui; An, Xiaogang [University of South China, Hengyang (China). Radon Key Laboratory of Hunan Province/School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2014-04-01

    The method of {sup 227}Ac extraction and purification from high-grade uranium ore and the test results of solid {sup 219}Rn source made from {sup 227}Ac are reported in this paper. With five years of follow-up monitoring, radiochemical purity of {sup 227}Ac and the emanation power of solid {sup 219}Rn source has been checked by emanation method and γ-spectrometry, the results showed that {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa and {sup 226}Ra have been effectively removed and the emanation power of {sup 219}Rn source is about 80%. The long-term test results also showed that the {sup 219}Rn emanation rate remains stable in a wide air humidity range (40% ∝ 90%). Though the {sup 219}Rn source has not been accurately calibrated yet, it has been applied in the research for delay coincidence measurement of {sup 223}Ra. (orig.)

  7. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty. (a...

  8. 30 CFR 227.401 - What are a State's responsibilities if it processes production reports or royalty reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Reports, the MMS Minerals Production Reporter Handbook, any interagency memorandum of... processes production reports or royalty reports? 227.401 Section 227.401 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES States...

  9. 30 CFR 227.103 - What must a State's delegation proposal contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the delegation: (1) Personnel, including hiring, employee salaries and benefits, travel and training... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must a State's delegation proposal contain... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation Proposals § 227.103 What must a State's...

  10. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State program; (iii) criteria and procedure for selection of such representatives; (6) Plans to solicit....37 Section 227.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND... evaluation of the previous years' State plans for: (i) Inservice training of food service personnel, (ii...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-72 Designation of new technology representative... of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative (JUL 1997) (a) For purposes of administration of the clause of this contract entitled “New Technology” or “Patent Rights—Retention by the...

  12. 48 CFR 252.227-7019 - Validation of asserted restrictions-Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., creates or implies privity of contract between the Government and the Contractor's subcontractors or... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7019 Validation of asserted restrictions..., unless otherwise specifically indicated, the term “Contractor” means the Contractor and its...

  13. 48 CFR 252.227-7037 - Validation of restrictive markings on technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... However, this clause neither creates nor implies privity of contract between the Government and... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7037 Validation of restrictive markings on... following clause: Validation of Restrictive Markings on Technical Data (SEP 1999) (a) Definitions. The terms...

  14. 27 CFR 24.227 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline for immediate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.227 Transfer of spirits... wine in a spirits addition tank and has determined the quantity of spirits to be added, the spirits may... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by...

  15. Simultaneous IR and optical light curves of 2A0311-227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Hough, J.H.; Axon, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is reported that the optical and IR flickering of the AM Herculis type binary 2A0311 - 227 are highly correlated indicating that in this object the dominant source of cyclotron radiation at both wavelengths is the same accretion column. (U.K.)

  16. 30 CFR 227.800 - How will MMS monitor a State's performance of delegated functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... visits and Office of the Inspector General, General Accounting Office, and MMS audits of your performance... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS monitor a State's performance of... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.800 How will...

  17. The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

  18. Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 van Johann Sebastian Bach : een praedicatio sonora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the oeuvre of Johann Sebastian Bach the motets take only a modest position. According to Bach's early biographers he must have written many motets, but only few have been preserved. Among these motets Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 occupies a special position. It is the only one which combines a

  19. 21 CFR 1.227 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Pesticides as defined in 7 U.S.C. 136(u). (ii) Examples of food include fruits, vegetables, fish, dairy... (including pet food), food and feed ingredients, food and feed additives, dietary supplements and dietary... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What definitions apply to this subpart? 1.227...

  20. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25... Inspection of premises, books and accounts. Lessee shall agree to allow the lessor and his agents or any... Department; and their books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open...

  1. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA... requirements. Your EIA must: (1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

  2. 37 CFR 2.27 - Pending trademark application index; access to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pending trademark application... Registration § 2.27 Pending trademark application index; access to applications. (a) An index of pending... particular pending application will be permitted prior to publication under § 2.80 upon written request. (c...

  3. CSAR 81-001 addendum 2: Use of a plexiglass contamination barrier in HC-227-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) Engineering requested a criticality safety evaluation (Appendix 1) to support a revision of Criticality Prevention Specification CPS-Z-165-80601 allowing a plexiglass enclosure (PGE) to be placed inside the HC-227T hood as a contamination barrier. The HC-227T hood is the receiving/transfer enclosure for Pu nitrate solution contained in Product Removal containers (PR Cans), L10 Containers (L10, Fl-10, 10 L) or L-3 Containers. Within the HC-227T, a 1.349 square meter (15 square foot) enclosure, PGE, has been created to provide contamination control around the weighing scale. Two or more standard criticality drains shall be installed on this enclosure prior to beneficial usage. The evaluation considered the normal process, spillage scenarios, waste/container accumulations within the enclosure, and interactions of Pu within the enclosure as well as other containers external to the enclosure. The results from the criticality safety analysis by CRA shows that such as contamination barrier can be placed inside the HC-227T Hood if the PGE is equipped with adequate criticality drains. In addition, other limits as well as administrative controls listed in CPS-Z-165-80601 Rev./Mod. B/0 and CPS-Z-165-80010 Rev./Mod. C/1 shall also apply

  4. 30 CFR 227.108 - How will MMS notify a State of its decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS notify a State of its decision... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation Process § 227.108 How will MMS notify a State of its decision? MMS will notify you in writing of its decision on your delegation proposal. If MMS...

  5. 30 CFR 227.802 - How will MMS terminate a State's delegation agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS terminate a State's delegation... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.802 How will MMS terminate a State's delegation agreement? This section explains the procedures MMS will use to terminate all or a...

  6. 30 CFR 227.301 - What are a State's responsibilities if it performs audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are a State's responsibilities if it... Functions § 227.301 What are a State's responsibilities if it performs audits? If you perform audits you must: (a) Comply with the MMS Audit Procedures Manual and the Government Auditing Standards issued by...

  7. 48 CFR 52.227-4 - Patent Indemnity-Construction Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity... Clauses 52.227-4 Patent Indemnity—Construction Contracts. As prescribed in 27.201-2(d)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity—Construction Contracts (DEC 2007) Except as otherwise provided, the...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7009 - Patent releases, license agreements, and assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent releases, license... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7009 Patent releases, license agreements, and...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 1 1 3 3 d. The difference represents the amount of hearing loss that may be attributed to aging in...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F... the contribution of aging to the change in hearing level by adjusting the most recent audiogram. If...

  10. 48 CFR 52.227-14 - Rights in Data-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or technical nature (including computer... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in Data-General. 52....227-14 Rights in Data—General. As prescribed in 27.409(b)(1), insert the following clause with any...

  11. 48 CFR 52.227-20 - Rights in Data-SBIR Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means recorded information (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in Data-SBIR....227-20 Rights in Data—SBIR Program. As prescribed in 27.409(h), insert the following clause: Rights in...

  12. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    will be a huge first step.Gender in Astronomy Conferences: Jim Davenport (WWU), Ben Nelson (Northwestern), Mehmet Alpsalan (NASA Ames), and Erin Maier (University of Iowa) analyzed data collected during the conference on the gender breakdown of who asks questions after oral presentations. Now in its third year, one new finding from the study is that women dont ask questions as much as men do, but they tend to ask questions more when the speaker is a woman or the first question-asker is a woman.More from #hackaas at #aas227: Gender of speaker vs. 1st to ask a question for all 3 years of Gender in Astro survey pic.twitter.com/l74D3rSUOD Erin Maier (@fallelujah) January 9, 2016The Early Reference Project: Many pre-1950 publications lack up-to-date citation information because the text is digitally archived as an image. Brendan Wells (UC Santa Cruz) worked with representatives from ADS and Zooniverse to set up a crowd-sourced platform to identify references in these old papers.Glassdome: Ellie Schwab (CUNY) and colleagues Paige Godfrey, Munazza Alam, and Cam Buzzard began work on a website modeled after glassdoor for safely sharing experiences throughout their astronomy careers. Glassdome will feature career path stories, department reviews, and salaries, all optionally anonymous. The site is hosted by ScienceBetter and is under development.Observing Run Sharing: Sometimes near the end of a long night at the telescope you have observed everything you need but still have time left. Short of choosing randomly or hoping a colleague is online in the middle of the night, there is currently no good solution. To address this, Brooke Simmons (UC San Diego) designed a web app that would allow astronomers to submit their favorite night sky targets. The project is still a work in progress.ArXiv Podcast: Ruth Angus (Oxford) started a podcast featuring astronomers summarizing their new papers submitted to astro-ph in one minute. Its like audio astrobites! If youve recently published a

  13. Force health protection support following a natural disaster: the 227th Medical Detachment's role in response to Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott E; Faulkenberry, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    On 3 November 2012, in the wake of Superstorm Sandy, the 227th Preventive Medicine Medical Detachment deployed to support relief operations in New Jersey and New York State. The unit was on the severe weather support mission (SWRF) and ordered to provide preventive medicine support to relief personnel within the affected area. In addition, teams from the 227th conducted environmental surveillance in the two-state region where Army Corps of Engineers were pumping floodwaters from affected neighborhoods. The 227th rapid deployment highlights the complexities associated with defense support to civil authorities and provides excellent teaching points that may enhance units expeditionary posture, regardless of mission. 2014.

  14. MUC1 (CD227) interacts with lck tyrosine kinase in Jurkat lymphoma cells and normal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Gendler, S J

    2005-01-01

    MUC1 (CD227) is a large transmembrane epithelial mucin glycoprotein, which is aberrantly overexpressed in most adenocarcinomas and is a target for immune therapy for epithelial tumors. Recently, MUC1 has been detected in a variety of hematopoietic cell malignancies including T and B cell lymphomas and myelomas; however, its function in these cells is not clearly defined. Using the Jurkat T cell lymphoma cell line and normal human T cells, we demonstrate that MUC1 is not only expressed in these cells but is also phosphorylated upon T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and associates with the Src-related T cell tyrosine kinase, p56lck. Upon TCR-mediated activation of Jurkat cells, MUC1 is found in the low-density membrane fractions, where linker of T cell activation is contained. Abrogation of MUC1 expression in Jurkat cells by MUC1-specific small interfering RNA resulted in defects in TCR-mediated downstream signaling events associated with T cell activation. These include reduction in Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in CD69 expression, proliferation, and interleukin-2 production. These results suggest a regulatory role of MUC1 in modulating proximal signal transduction events through its interaction with proteins of the activation complex.

  15. Application of the 227Th/230Th method to dating Pleistocene carbonates and comparison with other dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.

    1985-01-01

    The 227 Th/ 230 Th dating method is described in detail and its usefulness investigated by comparing ages of sixteen Pleistocene carbonates (mainly cave deposits) with those determined by the 231 Pa/ 235 U and 230 Th/ 234 U methods. The 227 Th/ 230 Th ages are found to be critically dependent on corrections for decay of 227 Th prior to alpha counting and ingrowth of daughter isotopes of 232 Th derived from clastic detritus. Of nineteen sets of ages determined for the sixteen samples, good agreement is found for only seven sets. Differences are attributed to low U content of some samples and the possibility of excess 227 Th in the calcite of samples younger than approx. 50 ky, possibly due to the coprecipitation of 231 Pa during formation. Calculated 'negative' 227 Th/ 230 Th ages may be a direct result of this process and the fact that unlike the other methods, the activity ratio is non-zero at zero age. Nevertheless, the 227 Th/ 230 Th is found to be a useful alternative dating technique for carbonates which are between approx. 50 and 300 ky, because no spiking is required. It also serves as a check for partial concordancy with ages dated by the other methods. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that may cause lead-based paint exposure to one or more children age 6 years and under shall be... residential dwelling or child-occupied facility and occupant use patterns that may cause lead-based paint..., child-occupied facilities) on/in which abatement work will be performed. (F) Property name (if...

  17. The half-life of 227Th by direct and indirect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.M.; Pommé, S.; Jerome, S.M.; Ferreira, K.M.; Regan, P.H.; Pearce, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Utilising a chemically purified solution the radioactive half-life of 227 Th has been determined indirectly by observation of the ingrowth of 223 Ra using an ionisation chamber (IC) and for the first time by direct observation of the change in activity with time using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray spectrometer. The radioactive decay was observed for ~104 days (~5.6 half-lives) by γ-ray spectrometry and approximately 63 days and 72 days (~3.4 and ~3.9 half-lives) using an ionisation chamber (IC). The resulting half-life values – 18.695 (4) days (IC) and 18.683 (20) days (HPGe) – are consistent and detailed uncertainty budgets are presented for the two measurement techniques. A weighted mean of our results of 18.695 (4) days is inconsistent with the most precise published half-life value of 18.7176 (52) days (Jordan and Blanke, 1967). A critical evaluation of literature data has been performed, indicating a paucity of reliable and independent measurements. Selected independent published values have been used to determine a recommended half-life of 18.697 (7) days. A method has been introduced in the course of this work so that the recommended half-life of 227 Th as determined by ingrowth can be modified if a different 223 Ra half-life has been determined, evaluated and adopted. - Highlights: • First direct measurement of 227 Th half-life by HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. • Precision half-life measurement by ionisation chamber. • New half-life of 18.695 (4) days determined. • Critical evaluation of published half-lives and recommended value determined

  18. ITER Task T227 (1995): Solubility, diffusion, and desorption of hydrogen isotopes in beryllium and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.A.; Macauley-Newcombe, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains results of thermal absorption and ion-beam analysis experiments performed in 1995 for ITER task T227. The materials studies were Be, BeO and W. The Be samples used are single crystals provided by Dr. H. Kawamura of J.A.E.R.I.; the BeO samples are polycrystalline semiconductor substrates provided by the Brush Wellman Company (USA); and the W samples are single crystals and are-melted polycrystals from the Johnson-Matthey Company (USA). All samples are very high purity and 100% density. (author) 16 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  19. MRP-227 Reactor vessel internals inspection planning and initial results at the Oconee nuclear station unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsaver, S.B.; Fyfitch, S.; Whitaker, D.E.; Doss, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. PWR industry has pro-actively developed generic inspection requirements and standards for reactor vessel (RV) internals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Materials Reliability Program (MRP) has issued MRP-227-A and MRP-228 with mandatory and needed requirements based on the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) document NEI 03-08. The inspection and evaluation guidelines contained in MRP-227-A consider eight age-related degradation mechanisms: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), wear, fatigue, thermal aging embrittlement, irradiation embrittlement, void swelling and irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation-enhanced stress relaxation or irradiation-enhanced creep. This paper will discuss the decision planning efforts required for implementing the MRP-227-A and MRP-228 requirements and the results of these initial inspections at the Oconee Nuclear power station (ONS) units. Duke Energy and AREVA overcame a significant technology and NDE challenge by successfully completing the first-of-a-kind MRP-227-A scope requirements at ONS-1 in one outage below the estimated dose and with zero safety issues or events. This performance was repeated at ONS-2 a year later. The remote NDE tooling and processes developed to examine the MRP-227-A scope for ONS-1 and ONS-2 are transferable to other PWRs

  20. Interactions between nitrogen fixation and osmoregulation in the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabban, A.D.; Orcutt, E.N.; Zinder, S.H. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Section of Microbiology

    1999-03-01

    The nitrogenase enzyme complex of Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was found to be more sensitive to NaCl than previously studied molybdenum nitrogenases are, with total inhibition of activity occurring at 190 mM NaCl, compared with >600 mM NaCl for Azotobacter vinelandii and Clostridium pasteurianum nitrogenases. Na{sup +} and K{sup +} had equivalent effects, whereas Mg{sup 2+} was more inhibitory than either monovalent cation, even on a per-charge basis. The anion Cl{sup {minus}} was more inhibitory than acetate was. Because M. barkeri 227 is a facultative halophile, the authors examined the effects of external salt on growth and diazotrophy and found that inhibition of growth was not greater with N{sub 2} than with NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Cells grown with N{sub 2} and cells grown with NH{sub 4}{sup +} produced equal concentrations of {alpha}-glutamate at low salt concentrations and equal concentrations of N{sup {var_epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine at NaCl concentrations greater than 500 mM. Despite the high energetic cost of fixing nitrogen for these osmolytes, the authors obtained no evidence that there is a shift towards nonnitrogenous osmolytes during diazotrophic growth. In vitro nitrogenase enzyme assays showed that at a low concentration potassium glutamate enhanced activity but at higher concentrations this compound inhibited activity; 50% inhibition occurred at a potassium glutamate concentration of approximately 400 mM.

  1. Levels in {sup 227}Ac populated in the {sup 230}Th(p,{alpha}) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D.G. E-mail: dgb@physics.mcmaster.ca; Garrett, P.E.; Qu, Tao

    2003-09-08

    The {sup 230,232}Th(p,{alpha}){sup 227,229}Ac reactions were studied using 20 MeV protons and a magnetic spectrograph to analyze the reaction products. Relative populations of levels in {sup 229}Ac correlated well with previously published (t,{alpha}) results for the same final levels, showing that the similarity of the two reactions observed empirically in the deformed rare earth region extends to actinides. The most strongly populated level in {sup 227}Ac is at 639 keV, and is assigned as the 1/2{sup +}[4 0 0] bandhead. The 435 keV level, previously adopted as the 1/2{sup +}[6 6 0] bandhead, also has a significant intensity that is attributed to {delta}N=2 mixing between these two K=1/2 proton orbitals. The {delta}N=2 matrix element estimated from these data is {approx}80 keV, similar to values observed for the same two Nilsson states as neutron orbitals in the dysprosium isotopes.

  2. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  3. Early injuries on the tibia and vertebrae of the mouse after incorporation of thorium 227 and radium 224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poemsl, H

    1974-08-06

    After incorporation of 5 and 50 ..mu..Ci/kg thorium 227 as well as 25 ..mu..Ci/kg radium 224, the tibia and lumbar vertebrae of the mouse were histologically and, using cell counting, morphometrically investigated within a period of 12 weeks. Osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells proved to be the most sensitive to radiation. They were temporarily decimated after 25 ..mu..Ci/kg radium 224 in the tibial metaphysis, but soon regenerated. After 5 ..mu..Ci/kg thorium 227, osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells were only slightly reduced, but more so in the lumbar vertebrae than in the tibia. The cells of osteogenic tissue were almost completely killed by 50 ..mu..Ci/kg thorium 227. In the subsequent regeneration phase, larger regions of atypical bone occured in the tibia metaphysis which was pushed off in the further course by newly formed compact substance of epiphysial cartilage.

  4. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  5. HEU age determination by the activity ratio {sup 227}Th/{sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junjie; Zeng, Lina; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Chun; Li, Jiansheng, E-mail: lastljj@hotmail.com

    2014-02-15

    It is important to measure the age of a highly enriched uranium (HEU) assembly for authentication of the material in the frame of arms control inspections. A new non-destructive gamma spectrometric method for HEU age-dating is reported. This method relies on measuring the daughter/parent activity ratio {sup 227}Th/{sup 235}U by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Only a narrow gamma range of energy of uranium from 230 keV to 242 keV will be used for analysis. The relative efficiency of every characteristic gamma ray changes in a small range because it has a near energy, which makes the results more accurate in theory. It provides a quick and reliable method for HEU age determination. Several gamma spectra of the same HEU assembly have been measured with different conditions (gain settings, distance and measurement time). When a branching ratio of 12.6% was chosen for the 235.96 keV line of {sup 227}Th, we obtained the activity ratios of (5.61 ± 0.40) × 10{sup −4}, (5.17 ± 0.39) × 10{sup −4}, (5.26 ± 0.39) × 10{sup −4}, (5.10 ± 0.35) × 10{sup −4}, (5.50 ± 0.44) × 10{sup −4} and (5.47 ± 0.42) × 10{sup −4}, respectively. These ratios correspond to ages of 52.2 ± 2.4 years, 49.7 ± 2.3 years, 50.1 ± 2.3 years, 49.3 ± 2.2 years, 51.6 ± 2.5 years and 51.5 ± 2.4 years, respectively, which are consistent with the known age of this material and the results of the U–Bi method.

  6. Transit Timing Variation analysis with Kepler light curves of KOI 227 and Kepler 93b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulz, Shannon; Reed, Mike

    2017-01-01

    By searching for transit signals in approximately 150,000 stars, NASA’s Kepler Space telescope found thousands of exoplanets over its primary mission from 2009 to 2013 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014, ApJS, 211, 6). Yet, a detailed follow-up examination of Kepler light curves may contribute more evidence on system dynamics and planetary atmospheres of these objects. Kepler’s continuous observing of these systems over the mission duration produced light curves of sufficient duration to allow for the search for transit timing variations. Transit timing variations over the course of many orbits may indicate a precessing orbit or the existence of a non-transiting third body such as another exoplanet. Flux contributions of the planet just prior to secondary eclipse may provide a measurement of bond albedo from the day-side of the transiting planet. Any asymmetries of the transit shape may indicate thermal asymmetries which can measure upper atmosphere motion of the planet. These two factors can constrain atmospheric models of close orbiting exoplanets. We first establish our procedure with the well-documented TTV system, KOI 227 (Nesvorny et al. 2014, ApJ, 790, 31). Using the test case of KOI 227, we analyze Kepler-93b for TTVs and day-side flux contributions. Kepler-93b is likely a rocky planet with R = 1.50 ± 0.03 Earth Radii and M = 2.59 ± 2.0 Earth Masses (Marcy et al. 2014, ApJS, 210, 20). This research is funded by a NASA EPSCoR grant.

  7. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  8. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  9. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architectural designs and... construction involving architect-engineer services, is to obtain a unique architectural design of a building, a... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7107-1 Architectural...

  10. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26 U.S.C...

  11. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a person...

  12. Beliefs about Bilingualism, Bilingual Education, and Dual Language Development of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers Raised in a Prop 227 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Sarah; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian R.; Van Liew, Charles; Day, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of bilingualism, current educational practices in the United States reflect the deeply held belief that because the United States is an English speaking country, English should be the language of instruction. This belief was codified into law in California via the 1998 passage of Proposition 227, which banned…

  13. 48 CFR 227.7203-10 - Contractor identification and marking of computer software or computer software documentation to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of the software to display a restrictive rights legend or other license notice; and (2) Requires a... and marking of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished with restrictive... Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-10 Contractor identification and...

  14. The Implementation of Proposition 227 in California Schools: A Critical Analysis of the Effect on Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Anita Tijerina; Asato, Jolynn

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between race and language as related to bilingual students' educational experiences. Used Latino/a critical theory, Asian American legal scholarship, and critical race theory as frameworks to examine the aftermath of California's Proposition 227. Data from teachers and administrators highlighted significant variance in…

  15. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conformity, acceptance... Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer...) Conformity and acceptance. Solicitations and contracts requiring the delivery of computer software shall...

  16. Rheumatologic complications in a cohort of 227 patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, G; Kiaee, F; Hedayat, E; Yazdani, R; Dolatshahi, E; Alinia, T; Sharifi, L; Mohammadi, H; Kavosi, H; Jadidi-Niaragh, F; Ziaee, V; Abolhassani, H; Aghamohammadi, A

    2018-05-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic type of human primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Clinically, CVID is characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a wide variety of autoimmune and rheumatologic disorders. All patients with CVID registered in Iranian PID Registry (IPIDR) were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We investigated the frequency of rheumatologic diseases and its association with immunological and clinical phenotypes in patients with CVID. A total of 227 patients with CVID were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of rheumatologic disorders was 10.1% with a higher frequency in women than men. Most common rheumatologic manifestations were juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed by juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) and undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis (UIA). Septic arthritis in patients with CVID with a history of RA and JIA was higher than patients without rheumatologic complication. Patients with CVID with a history of autoimmunity (both rheumatologic and non-rheumatologic autoimmunity) had lower regulatory T cells counts in comparison with patients without autoimmune disorders. There was an association between defect in specific antibody responses and negative serologic test results in patients with rheumatologic manifestations. JIA, RA, JSpA and UIA are the most frequent rheumatologic disorders in patients with CVID. Due to antibody deficiency, serologic tests may be negative in these patients. Therefore, these conditions pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for immunologists and rheumatologists in charge of the care for these patients. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  18. Hispanic immigrants and bilingual education after proposition 227 : a case study of attitudes about language and culture in American Society

    OpenAIRE

    小林, ひろみ

    2009-01-01

    Public criticism of bilingual education or bilingualism in the United States has been growing since the early 1990s. As part of the argument against bilingual education, Hispanic immigrants have been portrayed as a monolithic group clinging to their own language and culture and reluctant to assimilate into American society. Proposition 227, which officially ended bilingual education programs in California public schools, was passed on June 2, 1998. Race and ethnicity were reflected in the ...

  19. Addendum 4 to CSAR 81-001, Installation of an Official Critical Drain on the Plexiglass Contamination Barrier in HC-227T Hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report defines the maximum space allowed between the floor surface and the lower edge of an official criticality drain which is to be installed on the plexiglas contamination barrier in HC-227T Hood

  20. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [¹¹C]BF-227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Minoshima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Furumoto, Shozo; Iwata, Ren; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze (11)C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy)benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p SSP analysis of amyloid PET imaging possible. This new method of 3D-SSP analysis for BF-227 PET could prove useful for detecting differences between normal groups and AD and MCI groups, and between converters and non-converters.

  1. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  2. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  3. Contribution to the study of disintegration schemes of "2"2"7Th and of "2"1"9Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluzeau, Serge

    1965-01-01

    After some theoretical recalls on the unified model, notably for regions of complete layers, for regions far from these layers, and for intermediate regions, and on angular correlations (γ ray shower, α-γ ray shower), this research thesis reports the study of total angular moments and of nucleus parities for some excitation states, for some elements of the "2"2"7Ac family. For this purpose, an alpha-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer has been developed. The author reports the study of the spectrometer performance, and discusses experimental results [fr

  4. Autoradiography Imaging in Targeted Alpha Therapy with Timepix Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya AL Darwish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data related to activity uptake and particle track distribution in targeted alpha therapy. These data are required to estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level as alpha particles have a limited range and traverse only a few cells. Tracking of individual alpha particles is possible using the Timepix semiconductor radiation detector. We investigated the feasibility of imaging alpha particle emissions in tumour sections from mice treated with Thorium-227 (using APOMAB, with and without prior chemotherapy and Timepix detector. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Timepix detector to monitor variations in tumour uptake based on the necrotic tissue volume was also studied. Compartmental analysis model was used, based on the obtained imaging data, to assess the Th-227 uptake. Results show that alpha particle, photon, electron, and muon tracks were detected and resolved by Timepix detector. The current study demonstrated that individual alpha particle emissions, resulting from targeted alpha therapy, can be visualised and quantified using Timepix detector. Furthermore, the variations in the uptake based on the tumour necrotic volume have been observed with four times higher uptake for tumours pretreated with chemotherapy than for those without chemotherapy.

  5. Genetic background and 227Thorium as risk factors in biologically based models for induction of bone cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, W.F.; Rosemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the potential for the biologically based two-stage clonal expansion model to make statements about the influence of genetic factors on the steps in the model. We find evidence that the different susceptibility of BALB/C and CBA/Ca mice to bone cancer after 227 Thorium injection may be mostly due to different promotional responses to radiation. In BALB/C x CBA/Ca back-crossed mice, we analyzed the specific contribution of two individual loci in the carcinogenic process. This analysis suggests that the two high- or low-risk alleles are acting on promotion or on the background parameters, but not on radiation-induced initiation. Taken together with the comparison of CBA/Ca and BALB/C mice, this hints at the possibility that the two loci are candidates for modifying radiation-induced promotion. (orig.)

  6. Targeting of Breast Cancer through MT1-MMP/Tetraspanin Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    182, 765-776. Gordon- Alonso , M., Yanez-Mo, M., Barreiro, O., Alvarez, S., Munoz- Fernandez , M. A., Valenzuela- Fernandez , A. and Sanchez-Madrid, F...Diaz, R., Megias, D., Genis, L., Garcia -Grande, A., Garcia , M. A., Arroyo, A. G., and Montoya, M. C. (2007). MT1-MMP proinvasive activity is regulated by...metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 227–239. Penas, P. F., Garcia -Diez, A., Sanchez-Madrid, F

  7. CSRL-V ENDF/B-V 227-group neutron cross-section library and its application to thermal-reactor and criticality safety benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Diggs, B.R.; Knight, J.R.; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.; Williams, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics and contents of the CSRL-V (Criticality Safety Reference Library based on ENDF/B-V data) 227-neutron-group AMPX master and pointwise cross-section libraries are described. Results obtained in using CSRL-V to calculate performance parameters of selected thermal reactor and criticality safety benchmarks are discussed

  8. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyerdahl, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Heyerdahl@rr-research.no [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital - The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Røe, Kathrine [Department of Oncology, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog (Norway); Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel [Department of Research and Development, Algeta ASA, Oslo (Norway); Dahle, Jostein [Nordic Nanovector AS, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

  9. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  10. Insight into the substrate specificity change caused by the Y227H mutation of α-glucosidase III from the European honeybee (Apis mellifera through molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratchaya Pramoj Na Ayutthaya

    Full Text Available Honey from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is produced by α-glucosidases (HBGases and is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Categorized by their substrate specificities, HBGases have three isoforms: HBGase I, II and III. Previous experimental investigations showed that wild-type HBGase III from Apis mellifera (WT preferred sucrose to maltose as a substrate, while the Y227H mutant (MT preferred maltose to sucrose. This mutant can potentially be used for malt hydrolysis because it can efficiently hydrolyze maltose. In this work, to elucidate important factors contributing to substrate specificity of this enzyme and gain insight into how the Y227H mutation causes substrate specificity change, WT and MT homology models were constructed, and sucrose/maltose was docked into active sites of the WT and MT. AMBER14 was employed to perform three independent molecular dynamics runs for these four complexes. Based on the relative binding free energies calculated by the MM-GBSA method, sucrose is better than maltose for WT binding, while maltose is better than sucrose for MT binding. These rankings support the experimentally observed substrate specificity that WT preferred sucrose to maltose as a substrate, while MT preferred maltose to sucrose, suggesting the importance of binding affinity for substrate specificity. We also found that the Y227H mutation caused changes in the proximities between the atoms necessary for sucrose/maltose hydrolysis that may affect enzyme efficiency in the hydrolysis of sucrose/maltose. Moreover, the per-residue binding free energy decomposition results show that Y227/H227 may be a key residue for preference binding of sucrose/maltose in the WT/MT active site. Our study provides important and novel insight into the binding of sucrose/maltose in the active site of Apis mellifera HBGase III and into how the Y227H mutation leads to the substrate specificity change at the molecular level. This

  11. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [D2 lymph node dissection in gastric cancer surgery: long term results--analysis of an experience with 227 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Herlea, V; Tidor, S; Ivanov, B; Stănciulea, Oana; Mănuc, M; Gheorghe, C; Ionescu, M; Diculescu, M; Popescu, I

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate the postoperative mortality and 5 year survival in gastric cancer patients undergoing a minimum of D2 lymphadenectomy. A retrospective study was conducted on 1170 patients operated for gastric adenocarcinoma in the Department of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation of Fundeni Clinical Institute, between 1997 and April 2005. Only 443 patients underwent a curative resection, from which 216 patients had D1 resection and in 227 cases a D2 or D3/D4 lymphadenectomy was performed. Information about survival was available for 189 patients of those who had a D1 resection and for 210 of those who underwent a D2 or D3/D4 lymphadenectomy. Postoperative mortality was 6.5% in the group of curative resection, with 9.2% for D1 and 3.9% for D2/D3 D4. Five year survival according to Kaplan Meier curves was 32 % in the D1 group vs. 51,8% in D2/D3-D4 (p <0.0001). Significant differences were noted in the median survival-- D2/D3-D4 group 63 months vs. 28 months in D1 group. Our data support the gastric resection with a minimum of D2 lymphadenectomy in the radical surgery of gastric cancer. However, an accurate interpretation of the statistical interpretation between the different groups of patients is difficult, mainly because of the retrospective character of the study.

  13. Are Elias 2-27's Spiral Arms Driven by Self-gravity, or by a Companion? A Comparative Spiral Morphology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.; Ilee, John D.; Meru, Farzana

    2018-06-01

    The spiral waves detected in the protostellar disk surrounding Elias 2-27 have been suggested as evidence of the disk being gravitationally unstable. However, previous work has shown that a massive, stable disk undergoing an encounter with a massive companion are also consistent with the observations. We compare the spiral morphology of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations modeling both cases. The gravitationally unstable disk produces symmetric, tightly wound spiral arms with constant pitch angle, as predicted by the literature. The companion disk’s arms are asymmetric, with pitch angles that increase with radius. However, these arms are not well-fitted by standard analytic expressions, due to the high disk mass and relatively low companion mass. We note that differences (or indeed similarities) in morphology between pairs of spirals is a crucial discriminant between scenarios for Elias 2-27, and hence future studies must fit spiral arms individually. If Elias 2-27 continues to show symmetric tightly wound spiral arms in future observations, then we posit that it is the first observed example of a gravitationally unstable protostellar disk.

  14. Systematic identification of non-coding RNA 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structures in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogerbø Geir

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG cap structure is an important functional characteristic of ncRNAs with critical cellular roles, such as some snRNAs. Here we used immunoprecipitation with both K121 and R1131 anti-TMG antibodies to systematically identify the TMG cap structures for all presently characterized ncRNAs in C. elegans. Results The two anti-TMG antibodies precipitated a similar group of the C. elegans ncRNAs. All snRNAs known to have a TMG cap structure were found in the precipitate, indicating that our identification system was efficient. Other ncRNA families related to splicing, such as SL RNAs and Sm Y RNAs, were also found in the precipitate, as were 7 C/D box snoRNAs. Further analysis showed that the SL RNAs and the Sm Y RNAs shared a very similar Sm binding site element (AAU4–5GGA, which sequence composition differed somewhat from those of other U snRNAs. There were also 16 ncRNAs without an Sm binding site element in the precipitate, suggesting that for these ncRNAs, TMG formation may occur independently of Sm proteins. Conclusion Our results showed that most ncRNAs predicted to be transcribed by RNA polymerase II had a TMG cap, while those predicted to be transcribed by RNA plymerase III or located in introns did not have a TMG cap structure. Compared to ncRNAs without a TMG cap, TMG-capped ncRNAs tended to have higher expression levels. Five functionally non-annotated ncRNAs also have a TMG cap structure, which might be helpful for identifying the cellular roles of these ncRNAs.

  15. Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Watanuki, Shoichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arakawa, Yuma; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Gonda, Kohsuke; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT (derivative from [ 11 C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [ 11 C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [ 18 F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [ 11 C]BF227, there were no significant difference of V T (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [ 18 F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the

  16. Organelle targeting: third level of drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrani NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Niraj M Sakhrani, Harish PadhDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD Centre, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Drug discovery and drug delivery are two main aspects for treatment of a variety of disorders. However, the real bottleneck associated with systemic drug administration is the lack of target-specific affinity toward a pathological site, resulting in systemic toxicity and innumerable other side effects as well as higher dosage requirement for efficacy. An attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic index of a drug is to specifically deliver the therapeutic molecule in its active form, not only into target tissue, nor even to target cells, but more importantly, into the targeted organelle, ie, to its intracellular therapeutic active site. This would ensure improved efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cancer chemotherapy today faces the major challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs exclusively to tumor cells, while sparing normal proliferating cells. Nanoparticles play a crucial role by acting as a vehicle for delivery of drugs to target sites inside tumor cells. In this review, we spotlight active and passive targeting, followed by discussion of the importance of targeting to specific cell organelles and the potential role of cell-penetrating peptides. Finally, the discussion will address the strategies for drug/DNA targeting to lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum.Keywords: intracellular drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, therapeutic index, cell penetrating peptides

  17. Deuterium pass through target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron emitting target is described for use in neutron generating apparatus including a deuteron source and an accelerator vacuum chamber. The target consists of a tritium-containing target layer, a deuteron accumulation layer, and a target support containing passages providing communication between the accumulation layer and portions of the surface of the support exposed to the accelerator vacuum chamber. With this arrangement, deuterons passing through the target layer and implanting in and diffusing through the accumulation layer, diffuse into the communicating passages and are returned to the accelerator vacuum chamber. The invention allows the continuous removal of deuterons from the target in conventional water cooled neutron generating apparatus. Preferably, the target is provided with thin barrier layers to prevent undesirable tritium diffusion out of the target layer, as well as deuteron diffusion into the target layer

  18. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  19. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  20. Global emissions of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa based on atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M. K.; Miller, B. R.; Rigby, M. L.; Reimann, S.; Muhle, J.; Agage, Soge, Snu Members, Kopri Members

    2010-12-01

    We report on the atmospheric measurements and global emissions of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH3CH2CF2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), HFC-245fa (CHF2CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane), HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (CF3CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). These measurements are from in-situ observations at stations of AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and SOGE (System for Observations of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe), and from the Korean station Gosan. We also report on flask sample measurements from the Antarctic stations King Sejong and Troll, and extend our records back to the 1970s using archived air samples of both hemispheres. All data are used in a global 12-box 2-dimensional atmospheric transport model to derive global abundances and emission estimates. All four HFCs have strongly increased in the atmosphere in recent years with growth rates at nearly 10 %, resulting in dry air mole fractions at the end of 2009 of 0.49 ppt for HFC-365mfc, 1.00 ppt for HFC-245fa, and 0.51 ppt for HFC-227ea. HFC-236fa, for which we report the first atmospheric measurements, is less abundant and has grown to 0.069 ppt at the end of 2009. Our model results show rapidly growing emissions of HFC-365mfc and HFC-245fa after 2002 but surprisingly these have now started to decline to globally 2.7 kt/yr (HFC-365mfc) and 6.1 kt/yr (HFC-245fa). On the other hand HFC-227ea and HFC-236fa show uninterrupted growth in their emissions of 2.5 kt/yr and 0.2 kt/yr at the end of 2009.

  1. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  2. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  3. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  4. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  5. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  6. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  7. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  8. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN gene in different horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic. The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81 and in the Thoroughbred (0.51, whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  9. Trends in annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow characteristics at 227 streamgages in the Missouri River watershed, water years 1960-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Parker A.; Anderson, Mark T.; Stamm, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The Missouri River and its tributaries are an important resource that serve multiple uses including agriculture, energy, recreation, and municipal water supply. Understanding historical streamflow characteristics provides relevant guidance to adaptive management of these water resources. Streamflow records in the Missouri River watershed were examined for trends in time series of annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow. A total of 227 streamgages having continuous observational records for water years 1960–2011 were examined. Kendall’s tau nonparametric test was used to determine statistical significance of trends in annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow. A trend was considered statistically significant for a probability value less than or equal to 0.10 that the Kendall’s tau value equals zero. Significant trends in annual streamflow were indicated for 101 out of a total of 227 streamgages. The Missouri River watershed was divided into six watershed regions and trends within regions were examined. The western and the southern parts of the Missouri River watershed had downward trends in annual streamflow (56 streamgages), whereas the eastern part of the watershed had upward trends in streamflow (45 streamgages). Seasonal and monthly streamflow trends reflected prevailing annual streamflow trends within each watershed region.

  10. Nova target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser

  11. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  12. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  13. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  14. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  15. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  16. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  17. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  18. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  19. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  20. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  1. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target for which a speci c treatment/drug is intended (Fig. 1). eranostics .... Using an anti-CD20 antibody as a delivery device to target the follicular ... systems combine diagnostic imaging (Ga-68-DOTATATE PET/CT) .... Intra-articular injected ...

  2. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  3. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  4. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  5. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  6. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  7. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  8. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Rigby, Matthew; Reimann, Stefan; Mühle, Jens; Krummel, Paul B.; O'Doherty, Simon; Kim, Jooil; Rhee, Tae Siek; Weiss, Ray F.; Fraser, Paul J.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Salameh, Peter K.; Harth, Christina M.; Wang, Ray H. J.; Steele, L. Paul; Young, Dickon; Lunder, Chris R.; Hermansen, Ove; Ivy, Diane; Arnold, Tim; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Greally, Brian R.; Hill, Matthias; Leist, Michael; Wenger, Angelina; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2011-04-01

    We report on ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates of the four anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH3CF2CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), HFC-245fa (CHF2CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane), HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (CF3CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). In situ measurements are from the global monitoring sites of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), the System for Observations of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe (SOGE), and Gosan (South Korea). We include the first halocarbon flask sample measurements from the Antarctic research stations King Sejong and Troll. We also present measurements of archived air samples from both hemispheres back to the 1970s. We use a two-dimensional atmospheric transport model to simulate global atmospheric abundances and to estimate global emissions. HFC-365mfc and HFC-245fa first appeared in the atmosphere only ˜1 decade ago; they have grown rapidly to globally averaged dry air mole fractions of 0.53 ppt (in parts per trillion, 10-12) and 1.1 ppt, respectively, by the end of 2010. In contrast, HFC-227ea first appeared in the global atmosphere in the 1980s and has since grown to ˜0.58 ppt. We report the first measurements of HFC-236fa in the atmosphere. This long-lived compound was present in the atmosphere at only 0.074 ppt in 2010. All four substances exhibit yearly growth rates of >8% yr-1 at the end of 2010. We find rapidly increasing emissions for the foam-blowing compounds HFC-365mfc and HFC-245fa starting in ˜2002. After peaking in 2006 (HFC-365mfc: 3.2 kt yr-1, HFC-245fa: 6.5 kt yr-1), emissions began to decline. Our results for these two compounds suggest that recent estimates from long-term projections (to the late 21st century) have strongly overestimated emissions for the early years of the projections (˜2005-2010). Global HFC-227ea and HFC-236fa emissions have grown to average values of 2.4 kt yr-1

  9. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragavan, Anpalaki J.

    2006-01-01

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M 2 O 3 and, M(OH) 3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔG f,MvX 0 =a MvX ΔG n,M 3+ 0 +b MvX +β MvX r M 3+ , where the coefficients a MvX , b MvX , and β MvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, r M 3+ is the ionic radius of M 3+ cation, ΔG f,MvX 0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔG n,M 3+ 0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: a MvX =0.2705, b MvX =-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and β MvX =197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: a MvX =0.1587, b MvX =-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and β MvX =791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  10. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  11. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  12. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  13. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  14. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  15. STANFORD: Internal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-05-15

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field.

  16. TARGET Research Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARGET researchers use various sequencing and array-based methods to examine the genomes, transcriptomes, and for some diseases epigenomes of select childhood cancers. This “multi-omic” approach generates a comprehensive profile of molecular alterations for each cancer type. Alterations are changes in DNA or RNA, such as rearrangements in chromosome structure or variations in gene expression, respectively. Through computational analyses and assays to validate biological function, TARGET researchers predict which alterations disrupt the function of a gene or pathway and promote cancer growth, progression, and/or survival. Researchers identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers from the cancer-associated alterations.

  17. Application of the 226Ra-230Th-234U and 227Ac-231Pa-235U radiochronometers to uranium certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolison, J.M.; Treinen, K.C.; McHugh, K.C.; Gaffney, A.M.; Williams, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium certified reference materials (CRM) issued by New Brunswick Laboratory were subjected to dating using four independent uranium-series radiochronometers. In all cases, there was acceptable agreement between the model ages calculated using the 231 Pa- 235 U, 230 Th- 234 U, 227 Ac- 235 U or 226 Ra- 234 U radiochronometers and either the certified 230 Th- 234 U model date (CRM 125-A and CRM U630), or the known purification date (CRM U050 and CRM U100). The agreement between the four independent radiochronometers establishes these uranium certified reference materials as ideal informal standards for validating dating techniques utilized in nuclear forensic investigations in the absence of standards with certified model ages for multiple radiochronometers. (author)

  18. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  19. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  20. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  1. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  2. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes referred to as the product of "rational" drug design.) One approach to identify potential targets ... molecules that stimulate new blood vessel growth. Immunotherapies trigger the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Some ...

  3. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  4. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...

  5. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Lange, Karin S.; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    differences in mean HbA1c between centers ranging from 7.3±0.8% (53mmol/mol±8.7) to 8.9±1.1% (74mmol/mol±12.0). Centers with lower mean HbA1c had (1) parents who reported lower targets for their children, (2) health-care professionals that reported lower targets and more frequent testing, and (3) teams...

  6. Targets and special materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  7. The ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.; Broome, T.A.; Hogston, J.R.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation discusses the two target failures that have occurred, gives the understanding of the causes and indicates the steps being taken to alleviate the problems. At the outset of the design it was understood that the target would have a finite lifetime, due to radiation damage effects, exacerbated by mechanical damage due to thermal cycling and fatigue. Estimates of target lifetime at full intensity are about 2 years for radiation damage swelling and about 10E4 gross thermal excursions. The latter number is the one which gives uncertainty in defining the life of the target, since it is dependent on the reliability of the accelerator and quality of the proton beam. The commissioning of an accelerator system and bringing it up to high beam intensities have their own special problems. There must be protection of components against uncontrolled beam loss, which produces thermal damage, prompt radiation and induced activity. Fast beam trips for beam loss protection, or equipment failures, result in quenches from high temperature in the target which get bigger with increasing beam intensity. But the target itself is a difficult device to make, taking about 12 months to manufacture. Further, changing one is a complex and time consuming task, not without its hazards. There is thus something of a balancing act to bring the accelerator towards specification before the target fails due to thermal cycling fatigue. In the early days of ISIS beam loss protection was the dominant consideration and the target was regarded somewhat as a sacrificial lamb to the goddess of machine reliability. 2 refs., 6 figs

  8. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  9. Laser targets: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The laser target design group was engaged in three main tasks in 1984: (1) analyzing Novette implosion and hohlraum-scaling data, (2) planning for the first experiments on Nova, and (3) designing laboratory x-ray laser targets and experiments. The Novette implosion and hohlraum scaling data are mostly classified and are therefore not discussed in detail here. The authors achieved average final/initial pusher pr ratios of about 50, some 3 times higher than the value achieved in the best Shiva shots. These pr values imply a fuel compression to 100 times liquid density, although this figure and other aspects of the experiments are subject to further interpretation because of detailed questions of target symmetry and stability. Their main long-term goal for Nova is to produce a so-called hydrodynamically equivalent target (HET) - that is, a target whose hydrodynamic behavior (implosion velocity, convergence ratio, symmetry and stability requirements, etc.) is very much like that of a high-gain target, but one that is scaled down in size to match the energy available from Nova and is too small to achieve enough hot-spot pr to ignite the cold, near-Fermi-degenerate fuel around it. Their goal for Nova's first year is to do experiments that will teach them how to achieve the symmetry and stability conditions required by an HET

  10. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  11. Investigation of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family noticed in excess around the EL4 experimental nuclear reactor during its dismantling. Site of the Monts d'Arree - Brennilis (29) power plant. Years 2007-2008. Report and appendices with results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The presence of actinium-227 has been noticed in the Mont d'Arree region (Finistere district) and such a presence in the environment had never been reported before. Thus, a study has been performed to investigate the origin of this element: about 300 samples have been analysed. After an indication of the investigation chronology, the report outlines that there is no relationship between the excess of actinium-227 and land amendment or embankments, that there is no obvious relationship between this presence and radioactive liquid effluents or atmospheric effluents from the Brennilis nuclear site. It shows that there is an obvious relationship with the radiological quality. It states that this excess of actinium 227 is related to the management of rain waters about the Brennilis site. An appendix specifies the location, nature and agenda of samplings (bio-indicators, samplings in sludge, soils, food and tap water, aquatic foams and sediments, ponds, wet lands, and at the vicinity of the power plant channel), presents detailed results obtained by gamma spectrometry, and measurement equipment and methods

  12. Nopcsa, Baron Franz. 2014. Traveler, Scholar, Politician, Adventurer – A Transylvanian Baron at the Birth of Albanian Independence (ed. and trans. from German Robert Elsie. Budapest: Central European University Press. 227 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nopcsa, Baron Franz. 2014. Traveler, Scholar, Politician, Adventurer – A Transylvanian Baron at the Birth of Albanian Independence (ed. and trans. from German Robert Elsie. Budapest: Central European University Press. 227 pp.  Reviewed by David Mandler, Independent Scholar

  13. Human safety and pharmacokinetics of the CFC alternative propellants HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) following whole-body exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Muijser, H.; Duistermaat, E.; Ravensberg, J.C.; Alexander, D.J.; Borkhataria, D.; Rusch, G.M.; Schmit, B.

    2000-01-01

    HFC 134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC 227 (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigerant and aerosol applications, including medical use in metered-dose inhalers. Production and consumption of CFCs are being phased out under the Montreal

  14. Beta blockers and chronic heart failure patients: prognostic impact of a dose targeted beta blocker therapy vs. heart rate targeted strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletto, Anna; Fröhlich, Hanna; Täger, Tobias; Hochadel, Matthias; Zahn, Ralf; Kilkowski, Caroline; Winkler, Ralph; Senges, Jochen; Katus, Hugo A; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2018-05-17

    Beta blockers improve survival in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (CHF). Whether physicians should aim for target dose, target heart rate (HR), or both is still under debate. We identified 1,669 patients with systolic CHF due to ischemic heart disease or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy from the University Hospital Heidelberg and the Clinic of Ludwigshafen, Germany. All patients were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and had a history of CHF known for at least 6 months. Target dose was defined as treatment with ≥ 95% of the respective published guideline-recommended dose. Target HR was defined as 51-69 bpm. All-cause mortality during the median follow-up of 42.8 months was analysed with respect to beta blocker dosing and resting HR. 201 (12%) patients met the dose target (group A), 285 (17.1%) met the HR target (group B), 627 (37.6%) met no target (group C), and 556 (33.3%) did not receive beta blockers (Group D). 5-year mortality was 23.7, 22.7, 37.6, and 55.6% for group A, B, C, and D, respectively (p <  0.001). Survival for group A patients with a HR ≥ 70 bpm was 28.8% but 14.8% if HR was 50-70 bpm (p = 0.054). Achieving guidelines recommended beta blocker dose or to HR control has a similar positive impact on survival. When on target dose, supplemental HR control additionally improves survival.

  15. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  16. LANSCE target system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. (author)

  17. Monte Carlo Simulations of Necrotic Cell Targeted Alpha Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, S.N.; Brown, M.P.; Bezak, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Hypoxic tumour cells are radioresistant and are significant contributors to the locoregional recurrences and distant metastases that mark treatment failure. Due to restricted circulatory supply, hypoxic tumor cells frequently become necrotic and thus necrotic areas often lie near hypoxic tumour areas. In this study we investigate the feasibility of binding an alpha-emitting conjugate to necrotic cells located in the proximity of hypoxic, viable tumour cells. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations were performed to investigate the dose distribution resulting from the thorium 227 (Th227) decay chain in a representative tumour geometry. The Geant4 software toolkit was used to simulate the decay and interactions of the Th227 decay chain. The distribution of Th227 was based on a study by Thomlinson and Gray of human lung cancer histological samples (Thomlinson RH, Gray LH. Br J Cancer 1955; 9:539). The normalized dose distribution obtained with Geant4 from a cylindrical Th227 source in water is illustrated in Fig. I. The relative contribution of the different decay channels is displayed, together with a profile through the centre of the accumulated dose map. The results support the hypothesis that significant α-particle doses will be deposited in the hypoxic tumor tissue immediately surrounding the necrotic core (where the majority of Th227 will be located). As an internal a-particle generator, the Th227-radioimmunoconjugate shows potential as an efficient hypoxic tumour sterilizer.

  18. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  19. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  20. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  1. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  2. Targeting the right journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterman, L; McCall, L

    1999-07-01

    While research is scientific, publication is a mixture of science and political pragmatism. Targeting the right journal is influenced by the following factors: the discipline that best represents the subject; the purpose of the message; the audience who are to be recipients of the message; the realities of geographic parochialism; the desire of authors to maximise personal and professional opportunities. If the originally targeted journal rejects the article, authors should have alternative publication strategies that give them professional recognition without requiring them to compromise the message or their ethics.

  3. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  4. Targets and tactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woo, V; Shestakova, M V; Ørskov, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro-vascular ......BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is reaching pandemic proportions, impacting patients and healthcare systems across the globe. Evidence suggests that a majority of patients are not achieving recommended blood glucose targets resulting in an increased risk of micro- and macro...... diabetes has never been more compelling; with a clear focus on strategies for glycaemic control, the impact of the diabetes pandemic can be limited....

  5. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  6. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  7. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  8. Targets of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  9. Target-Rich Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Target marketing is defining school enrollment goals and then developing a strategic plan to accomplish those goals through the use of specific communication vehicles and community focus. It is critical to reach the right audience, with the right message, at the right time, for the right cost. In this brief article, the author describes several…

  10. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  11. Targeting trichothecene biosynthetic genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Songhong; Lee, van der Theo; Verstappen, Els; Gent, van Marga; Waalwijk, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of trichothecenes requires the involvement of at least 15 genes, most of which have been targeted for PCR. Qualitative PCRs are used to assign chemotypes to individual isolates, e.g., the capacity to produce type A and/or type B trichothecenes. Many regions in the core cluster

  12. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  13. The targets of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here.

  14. SU-E-J-227: Breathing Pattern Consistency and Reproducibility: Comparative Analysis for Supine and Prone Body Positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugeman, E; Weiss, E; Chen, S; Hugo, G; Rosu, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate and compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of breathing patterns and their reproducibility over the course of treatment, for supine and prone positioning. Methods: Respiratory traces from 25 patients were recorded for sequential supine/prone 4DCT scans acquired prior to treatment, and during the course of the treatment (weekly or bi-weekly). For each breathing cycle, the average(AVE), end-of-exhale(EoE) and end-of-inhale( EoI) locations were identified using in-house developed software. In addition, the mean values and variations for the above quantities were computed for each breathing trace. F-tests were used to compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of all pairs of sequential supine and prone scans. Analysis of variances was also performed using population means for AVE, EoE and EoI to quantify differences between the reproducibility of prone and supine respiration traces over the treatment course. Results: Consistency: Cycle-to-cycle variations are less in prone than supine in the pre-treatment and during-treatment scans for AVE, EoE and EoI points, for the majority of patients (differences significant at p<0.05). The few cases where the respiratory pattern had more variability in prone appeared to be random events. Reproducibility: The reproducibility of breathing patterns (supine and prone) improved as treatment progressed, perhaps due to patients becoming more comfortable with the procedure. However, variability in supine position continued to remain significantly larger than in prone (p<0.05), as indicated by the variance analysis of population means for the pretreatment and subsequent during-treatment scans. Conclusions: Prone positioning stabilizes breathing patterns in most subjects investigated in this study. Importantly, a parallel analysis of the same group of patients revealed a tendency towards increasing motion amplitude of tumor targets in prone position regardless of their size or location; thus, the choice for body positioning

  15. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  16. Guilty Feelings, Targeted Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Cynthia E.; Springer, Stephen; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Early investigations of guilt cast it as an emotion that prompts broad reparative behaviors that help guilty individuals feel better about themselves or about their transgressions. The current investigation found support for a more recent representation of guilt as an emotion designed to identify and correct specific social offenses. Across five experiments, guilt influenced behavior in a targeted and strategic way. Guilt prompted participants to share resources more generously with others, but only did so when those others were persons whom the participant had wronged and only when those wronged individuals could notice the gesture. Rather than trigger broad reparative behaviors that remediate one’s general reputation or self-perception, guilt triggers targeted behaviors intended to remediate specific social transgressions. PMID:22337764

  17. Inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  18. Hohlraum targets for HIDIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramis, R.; Ramirez, J.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2000-01-01

    An optimized high gain IFE indirect target design is presented. Beam parameters (5 MJ of 5 GeV Bi + ions in 10-20 ns and focal spot of 3 mm radius) are in agreement to the ones considered recently for the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF). The energy yield is close to 530 MJ, giving a large enough gain appropriate for industrial energy production. Numerical and analytical modeling are described and discussed. (authors)

  19. Target Glint Suppression Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rayleigh for either horizontal or vertical polarization). 2.1.2 Spatial Characterization. Before the effects of diversity on target detection can be...ncs) dRCS T If the lower intergration limit is taken as zero for the Rayleigh targct model of interest, then this quantity is unbounded. In...port wing, inner section Trailing edge of starboard .:ing, inner section Leading edge of horizontal stabilizer, inner section, port side TLeal, -g

  20. Conditional targeting for communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Anselmo; Caldas, Ibere L.; Baptista, Murilo S.; Piqueira, Jose Roberto C.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of a targeting method applied to chaotic systems in order to reach special trajectories that encode arbitrary sources of messages. One advantage of this procedure is to overcome dynamical constraints which impose limits in the amount of information that the chaotic trajectories can encode. Another advantage is the message decoding, practically instantaneous and independent of any special technique or algorithm. Furthermore, with this procedure, information can be transmitted with no errors due to bounded noise

  1. Heterogeneous chromatin target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    The higher order structure of the entangled chromatin fibers in a chromosome plays a key role in molecular control mechanism involved in chromosome mutation due to ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. The condensed superstructure of chromatin is not so rigid and regular as has been postulated in general. We have proposed a rheological explanation for the flexible network system ('chromatin network') that consists of the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters linked with supertwisting DNA in a chromatin fiber ('Supertwisting Particulate Model'). We have proposed a 'Heterosensitive Target Model' for cellular radiosensitivity that is a modification of 'Heterogeneous Target Model'. The heterogeneity of chromatin target is derived from the highly condensed organization of chromatin segments consist of unstable and fragile sites in the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters, namely 'supranucleosomal particles' or 'superbeads'. The models have been principally supported by our electron microscopic experiments employing 'surface - spreading whole - mount technique' since 1967. However, some deformation and artifacts in the chromatin structure are inevitable with these electron microscopic procedures. On the contrary, the 'atomic force microscope (AFM)' can be operated in liquid as well as in the air. A living specimen can be examined without any preparative procedures. Micromanipulation of the isolated chromosome is also possible by the precise positional control of a cantilever on the nanometer scale. The living human chromosomes were submerged in a solution of culture medium and observed by AFM using a liquid immersion cell. The surface - spreading whole - mount technique was applicable for this observation. The particulate chromatin segments of nucleosome clusters were clearly observed within mitotic human chromosomes in a living hydrated condition. These findings support the heterogeneity of chromatin target in a living cell. (J.P.N.)

  2. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  3. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  4. CSRL-V: processed ENDF/B-V 227-neutron-group and pointwise cross-section libraries for criticality safety, reactor, and shielding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Diggs, B.R.; Petrie, L.M.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    A P 3 227-neutron-group cross-section library has been processed for the subsequent generation of problem-dependent fine- or broad-group cross sections for a broad range of applications, including shipping cask calculations, general criticality safety analyses, and reactor core and shielding analyses. The energy group structure covers the range 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV, including 79 thermal groups below 3 eV. The 129-material library includes processed data for all materials in the ENDF/B-V General Purpose File, several data sets prepared from LENDL data, hydrogen with water- and polyethyelene-bound thermal kernels, deuterium with C 2 O-bound thermal kernels, carbon with a graphite thermal kernel, a special 1/V data set, and a dose factor data set. The library, which is in AMPX master format, is designated CSRL-V (Criticality Safety Reference Library based on ENDF/B-V data). Also included in CSRL-V is a pointwise total, fission, elastic scattering, and (n,γ) cross-section library containing data sets for all ENDF/B-V resonance materials. Data in the pointwise library were processed with the infinite dilute approximation at a temperature of 296 0 K

  5. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  6. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  7. Targeted mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Aloria, Kerman; Omaetxebarria, Miren J.

    2017-01-01

    Following the rapid expansion of the proteomics field, the investigation of post translational modifications (PTM) has become extremely popular changing our perspective of how proteins constantly fine tune cellular functions. Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in virtually all...... for becoming the method of choice to study with high precision and sensitivity already known site-specific phosphorylation events. This review summarizes the contribution of large-scale unbiased MS analyses and highlights the need of targeted MS-based approaches for follow-up investigation. Additionally...

  8. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  9. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...... of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct (CD) principal cells (10, 20). This process is mainly regulated by the actions of AVP on the type 2 AVP receptor (V2R), although the V1a receptor may also play a minor role (26). The V2R is classified within the group of 7-transmembrane....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  10. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  11. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  12. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  13. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  14. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  15. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  16. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  17. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  18. Targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the basic principles of fusion target implosions, using some simple targets designed for irradiation by ion beams. Present estimates are that ion beams with 1-5 MJ, and 100-500 TW will be required to ignite high gain targets. (orig.) [de

  19. Beam heating of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    A target rotator, built to reduce the effects of beam spot heating, is fully adjustable, holds three targets, is chamber independent, and takes up limited space. The expected temperature rise in the target is calculated from the Stefan--Boltzmann law

  20. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  1. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  2. 227 - 233_Yahaya_Antimicrobial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    PREVALENCE OF PATHOGENIC MICR ... hygiene, it serves as an abrasive that aids in remov the dental plaque and food ... plaque, dental caries and periodontal disease (Clar. 1924). ...... dental caries in children and adolescents. (Review).

  3. China Report, Agriculture, Number 227

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-20

    cannot be sold at once for various subjective reasons unrelated to sales promotion work. These include lack of convenient transportation, shortage...are overproduction, encumbered channels, and lack of vigorous sales promotion . Between January and May this year, Pork sales in the province

  4. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, M.; Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.

    1961-01-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [fr

  5. Isomeric Targets and Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main topics of modern nuclear physics is the investigation of exotic nuclei including hyper-nuclei, trans fermium elements, proton and neutron rich isotopes near drip lines as well as high-spin excited states and states with anomalous deformation. The isomerism of nuclei is closely related with such phenomena as the alignment of single-particle orbitals, the coexistence of various deformations and the manifestation of intruder-levels from neighbouring shells. The investigation of electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of isomers could give important information on their shell structure and its role in the mechanism of nuclear reactions. For such experiments one can either make isomeric targets (sufficiently long-lived) or use the methods of acceleration of isomeric nuclei. Recently, an exotic 16 + four-quasiparticle isomer of 178 Hf m 2 was produced in a micro weight quantity and the first nuclear reactions on it were successfully observed. The talk describes these experiments as well as new ideas for the continuation of the studies and some advantageous ways for the isomeric beams production by the method of direct acceleration or by the secondary beam method. 35 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs

  6. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  7. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  8. New type of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharov, A.V.; Ankudinov, V.B.; Ogorodnikov, V.P.; Marukhin, Y.A.

    2014-01-01

    Now the technologies based on interaction of high-intensity beams with substance of a target are being intensively developed. As a target it is possible to use the new type of monodisperse metal targets. The principal advantages of new targets type are: target cooling isn't required; there is no induced activity: the target can be used many times; small dispersion on the speed, the size and interaction points with a beam. The basis of a target is the jet of molten metal, following in the vacuum chamber .Under the influence of the special disturbance superimposed on the liquid jet, the jet disintegrated into identical drops. In the vacuum chamber the drops freeze and form into the solid granules. It is possible to receive monodisperse targets from different metals, alloys and salts (diameter of targets is from 30 .m to 1.5 mm). Dispersion by the sizes and speed is less than 1%. The technique allows to receive not only continuous targets, but also hollow targets with dispersion on thickness of wall within 1...2%.

  9. Using the Nova target chamber for high-yield targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The existing 2.2-m-radius Nova aluminum target chamber, coated and lined with boron-seeded carbon shields, is proposed for use with 1000-MJ-yield targets in the next laser facility. The laser beam and diagnostic holes in the target chamber are left open and the desired 10 -2 Torr vacuum is maintained both inside and outside the target chamber; a larger target chamber room is the vacuum barrier to the atmosphere. The hole area available is three times that necessary to maintain a maximum fluence below 12 J/cm 2 on optics placed at a radius of 10 m. Maximum stress in the target chamber wall is 73 MPa, which complies with the intent of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. However, shock waves passing through the inner carbon shield could cause it to comminute. We propose tests and analyses to ensure that the inner carbon shield survives the environment. 13 refs

  10. The target effect: visual memory for unnamed search targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark D; Williams, Carrick C

    2014-01-01

    Search targets are typically remembered much better than other objects even when they are viewed for less time. However, targets have two advantages that other objects in search displays do not have: They are identified categorically before the search, and finding them represents the goal of the search task. The current research investigated the contributions of both of these types of information to the long-term visual memory representations of search targets. Participants completed either a predefined search or a unique-object search in which targets were not defined with specific categorical labels before searching. Subsequent memory results indicated that search target memory was better than distractor memory even following ambiguously defined searches and when the distractors were viewed significantly longer. Superior target memory appears to result from a qualitatively different representation from those of distractor objects, indicating that decision processes influence visual memory.

  11. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal, E-mail: rimas.orentas@nih.gov, E-mail: mackallc@mail.nih.gov [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  12. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  13. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  15. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  16. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  17. Target imaging and backlighting diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Shvarts, D.; Marshall, F.J.; Epstein, R.; Su, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The expected backlighting and self-emission images of a particular CH target to be imploded on the Omega Upgrade are calculated for a variety of experimental parameters. It is shown that to overcome the problem of target self-emission, the image has to be monochromatized with a diffracting crystal. For the target studied, the two image components are then comparable in intensity and both provide useful information on target behavior. A particularly interesting feature is the appearance in the self-emission of a circular spike which closely delineates the fuel-shell interface, but requires high spatial resolution to be observed

  18. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  19. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  1. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  2. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  3. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  4. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this t...

  5. Spinning targets for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    Several techniques for spinning the ICF targets up prior to or in the course of their compression are suggested. Interference of the rotational shear flow with Rayleigh-Taylor instability is briefly discussed and possible consequences for the target performance are pointed out

  6. Multiple Target Laser Designator (MTLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Optimized Liquid Crystal Scanning Element Optimize the Nonimaging Predictive Algorithm for Target Ranging, Tracking, and Position Estimation...commercial potential. 3.0 PROGRESS THIS QUARTER 3.1 Optimization of Nonimaging Holographic Antenna for Target Tracking and Position Estimation (Task 6) In

  7. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  8. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  9. Target-Searching on Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijie

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p ∼> 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  10. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  11. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  12. Legal Issues in Cyber Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    Imagine this scenario: Two states are in armed conflict with each other. In order to gain an advantage, one side launches a cyber-attack against the opponent’s computer network. The malicious malware paralyze the military computer network, as intended, but the malware spreads into the civilian...... system with physical damage to follow. This can happen and the natural question arises: What must be considered lawful targeting according to the international humanitarian law in cyber warfare? What steps must an attacker take to minimize the damage done to unlawful targets when conducting an offensive...... operation? How can the attacker separate military targets from civilian targets in cyber space? This paper addresses these questions and argues that a network (civilian or military) consist of several software components and that it is the individual components that is the target. If the components are used...

  13. Gas target neutron generator studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)

  14. Comparative Study on Theoretical and Machine Learning Methods for Acquiring Compressed Liquid Densities of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (R227ea via Song and Mason Equation, Support Vector Machine, and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (R227ea is a good refrigerant that reduces greenhouse effects and ozone depletion. In practical applications, we usually have to know the compressed liquid densities at different temperatures and pressures. However, the measurement requires a series of complex apparatus and operations, wasting too much manpower and resources. To solve these problems, here, Song and Mason equation, support vector machine (SVM, and artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to develop theoretical and machine learning models, respectively, in order to predict the compressed liquid densities of R227ea with only the inputs of temperatures and pressures. Results show that compared with the Song and Mason equation, appropriate machine learning models trained with precise experimental samples have better predicted results, with lower root mean square errors (RMSEs (e.g., the RMSE of the SVM trained with data provided by Fedele et al. [1] is 0.11, while the RMSE of the Song and Mason equation is 196.26. Compared to advanced conventional measurements, knowledge-based machine learning models are proved to be more time-saving and user-friendly.

  15. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1979-03-01

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  16. Spallation source neutron target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.; Brown, R.; Collier, M.; Donahue, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report for a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to design a next-generation spallation source neutron target system for the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos. It has been recognized for some time that new advanced neutron sources are needed in the US if the country is to maintain a competitive position in several important scientific and technological areas. A recent DOE panel concluded that the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (a nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and a high-power pulsed spallation source are both needed in the near future. One of the most technically challenging designs for a spallation source is the target station itself and, more specifically, the target-moderator-reflector arrangement. Los Alamos has demonstrated capabilities in designing, building, and operating high-power spallation-neutron-source target stations. Most of the new design ideas proposed worldwide for target system design for the next generation pulsed spallation source have either been conceived and implemented at LANSCE or proposed by LANSCE target system designers. These concepts include split targets, flux-trap moderators, back scattering and composite moderators, and composite reflectors

  17. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  18. Defining internal target volume (ITV) for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X, Mian; Liu Mengzhong; Deng Xiaowu; Zhang Li; Huang Xiaoyan; Liu Hui; Li Qiaoqiao; Hu Yonghong; Cai Ling; Cui Nianji

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To define individualized internal target volume (ITV) for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Materials and methods: Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) and clinical target volumes (CTVs) were contoured on all 10 respiratory phases of 4DCT scans in 10 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The 3D and 4D treatment plans were performed for each patient using two different planning target volumes (PTVs): (1) PTV 3D was derived from a single CTV plus conventional margins; (2) PTV 4D was derived from ITV 4D , which encompassed all 10 CTVs plus setup margins (SMs). The volumes of PTVs and dose distribution were compared between the two plans. Results: The average PTV volume of the 4D plans (328.4 ± 152.2 cm 3 ) was less than 3D plans (407.0 ± 165.6 cm 3 ). The 4D plans spared more surrounding normal tissues than 3D plans, especially normal liver. Compared with 3D plans, the mean dose to normal liver (MDTNL) decreased from 22.7 to 20.3 Gy. Without increasing the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the 4D plans allowed for increasing the calculated dose from 50.4 ± 1.3 to 54.2 ± 2.6 Gy, an average increase of 7.5% (range 4.0-16.0%). Conclusions: The conventional 3D plans can result in geometric miss and include excess normal tissues. The 4DCT-based plans can reduce the target volumes to spare more normal tissues and allow dose escalation compared with 3D plans

  19. PENETAPAN TARGET TERHADAP STICKINESS COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windyastuti Windyastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of manager targeting to the stickiness cost. The research data was amanufacturing company’s financial statements during 1999-2011 published at BEI. The research data includedcost of sales, administration and general, net sales and Price Earnings Ratio (PER. This study used adynamic panel data regression analysis. The results showed that cost of sales, administration and general weresticky. Furthermore, manager targeting caused the stickiness degree of sales, administration and general costlower. Manager targeting changed the manager’s behavior. When the net sales declined, manager reduced theresource use drastically so the cost of sales, administration and general also decreased drastically.

  20. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  1. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS....... Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. RESULTS: The treat-to-target activity resulted in 10 recommendations. The treatment aim was defined as remission with low disease activity being an alternative goal in patients with long-standing disease. Regular follow...

  2. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  3. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  4. Obstacles to Effective Joint Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patch, John

    2007-01-01

    .... Notwithstanding the most precise and capable weaponry ever, any targeting effort absent coherent strategy or executed outside the art and rules of war can spell campaign defeat even amidst tactical successes...

  5. Immunotherapy Targets Common Cancer Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of an immune therapy for colorectal cancer that involved a single patient, researchers identified a method for targeting the cancer-causing protein produced by a mutant form of the KRAS gene.

  6. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov......–Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl are presented. Moving target and spiral foci are found, and the speed and direction of movement of single as well as double spiral foci are investigated. For the experiments analyzed in this paper it is found that the movement of a focus correlates with foci...

  7. Obstacles to Effective Joint Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patch, John

    2007-01-01

    No foe can beat the modern-day American military machine in combined arms warfare, yet this machine is subject to strategic targeting vulnerabilities that military and policy leaders would do well to appreciate...

  8. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  9. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADVERTISING : TARGETING GENERATION Z December......study recommends improvements for Navy advertising efficiency by examining characteristics of recruits defined as Generation Z. Data gathered from five

  10. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  11. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  12. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  13. Special hydrogen target (Prop. 210)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, C.E.

    1979-11-01

    This guide contains a description of the electrical control and automatic vacuum systems for the Special Hydrogen Target (Prop. 210) together with the flow diagram and the mimic control panel layout for the system. (U.K.)

  14. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  15. Theoretical aspects of inflation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting is one of the possible strategies used by central banks during conducting monetary policy. The basic characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of inflation targeting will be presented in this paper. The focus is on the the presentation and interpretation of the understanding of this strategy from the perspective of monetarist and Keynesian theory, the theory of rational expectations, and methodological analysis of the strategy in light of the game theory using payoff matrix.

  16. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  17. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  18. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  19. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  20. Gas target with thin wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenchenko, A.S.; Korenchenko, S.M.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Filippov, A.I.; Fursov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of targets manufacture with thin wall diameter 100 mm and lengthwise 700 mm from composition kevlar + epoxy resin is described. The test's results on pressure and vacuum are reported. The created targets are supposed to be used on the installation ARES for an investigation of muons and pions interactions with light nuclei and rare pions decay 'on flying'. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  2. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  3. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  4. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  5. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Knapp DW. Targeting folate receptors to treat invasive urinary bladder cancer . Cancer Res 2013;73(2):875–884. 71. Holm J, Hansen SI, Hoier-Madsen M...purpose of this review, active targeting in cancer research encompasses strategies wherein a ligand for a cell surface receptor expressed on tumor...trafficking, thus impacting the efficacy of receptor -mediated drug delivery for cancer therapy. These factors include the following: (i) the rate of ligand

  6. Target-oriented chaos control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattani, Justine; Blake, Jack C.H.; Hilker, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Designing intervention methods to control chaotic behavior in dynamical systems remains a challenging problem, in particular for systems that are difficult to access or to measure. We propose a simple, intuitive technique that modifies the values of the state variables directly toward a certain target. The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value, and is a combination of traditional proportional feedback and constant feedback methods. It proves particularly useful when the target corresponds to the equilibrium of the uncontrolled system, and is available or can be estimated from expert knowledge (e.g. in biology and economy). -- Highlights: → We propose a chaos control method that forces the system to a certain target. → The intervention takes into account the difference to the target value. → It can be seen as a combination of proportional and constant feedback methods. → The method is very robust and highly efficient in the long-term. → It is particularly applicable when suitable target values are known or available.

  7. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessner, W

    2003-07-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  8. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  9. Target assignment for security officers to K targets (TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.R.; Shelton, K.W.; Stunkel, C.B.

    1983-02-01

    A probabilistic algorithm is developed to provide an optimal Target Assignment for Security officers to K targets (TASK) using a maximin criterion. Under the assumption of only a limited number (N) of security officers, the TASK computer model determines deployment assignments which maximize the system protection against sabotage by an adversary who may select any link in the system, including the weakest, for the point of attack. Applying the TASK model to a hypothetical nuclear facility containing a nine-level building reveals that aggregate targets covering multiple vital areas should be utilized to reduce the number of possible target assignments to a value equal to or only slightly larger than N. The increased probability that a given aggregate target is covered by one or more security officers offsets the slight decrease in interruption probability due to its occurring earlier in the adversary's path. In brief, the TASK model determines the optimal maximin deployment strategy for limited numbers of security officers and calculates a quantitative measure of the resulting system protection

  10. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  11. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  12. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  13. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  14. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  15. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  17. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  18. A triple axes multiple target holder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Narvekar, S.D.; Pillay, R.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a rotatable target holder assembly capable of accommodating 27 targets. The target foils are mounted along two concentric circles on a ss wheel. On the outer circle 18 targets can be mounted each 20deg apart, and on the inner circle the remaining targets are positioned each 40deg apart. The self supporting or carbon backed targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the target position on the wheel. Three degrees of freedom are provided to the target holder assembly. (author). 1 fig

  19. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate: targets and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Maria C

    2012-02-01

    The pyruvate mimetic 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is generally presented as an inhibitor of glycolysis and has shown remarkable efficacy in not only preventing tumor growth, but even eradicating existant tumors in animal studies. We here review reported molecular targets of 3-BP and suggest that the very range of possible targets, which pertain to the altered energy metabolism of tumor cells, contributes both to the efficacy and the tumor specificity of the drug. Its in vivo efficacy is suggested to be due to a combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, as well as to secondary effects affecting the tumor microenvironment. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP is less due to pyruvate mimicry than to alkylation of, e.g., key thiols. Alkylation of DNA/RNA has not been reported. More research is warranted to better understand the pharmacokinetics of 3-BP, and its potential toxic effects to normal cells, in particular those that are highly ATP-/mitochondrion-dependent.

  1. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs...... and account for a global sales volume of over 180 billion US dollars annually, the prevalence of genetic variation among GPCRs targeted by drugs is unknown. By analyzing data from 68,496 individuals, we find that GPCRs targeted by drugs show genetic variation within functional regions such as drug......- and effector-binding sites in the human population. We experimentally show that certain variants of μ-opioid and Cholecystokinin-A receptors could lead to altered or adverse drug response. By analyzing UK National Health Service drug prescription and sales data, we suggest that characterizing GPCR variants...

  2. Voyager 2 Neptune targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.; Matousek, S. E.; Cesarone, R. J.; Gray, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The success of the Voyager 2 flybys of Neptune and Triton depends upon the ability to correct the spacecraft's trajectory. Accurate spacecraft delivery to the desired encounter conditions will promote the maximum science return. However, Neptune's great distance causes large a priori uncertainties in Neptune and Triton ephemerides and planetary system parameters. Consequently, the 'ideal' trajectory is unknown beforehand. The targeting challenge is to utilize the gradually improving knowledge as the spacecraft approaches Neptune to meet the science objectives, but with an overriding concern for spacecraft safety and a desire to limit propellant expenditure. A unique targeting strategy has been developed in response to this challenge. Through the use of a Monte Carlo simulation, candidate strategies are evaluated by the degree to which they meet these objectives and are compared against each other in determining the targeting strategy to be adopted.

  3. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  4. INFLATION TARGETING IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Lungu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the inflation targeting approach in three transition economies, namely Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic with the use of Taylor rules as benchmarks. The three economies considered have been successful at achieving disinflation, but deviations of inflation from its target have been persistent in all cases. Except for the Czech Republic, deviations from the Taylor rule are large and persistent, with Hungary displaying the largest fluctuations. Polish interest rates have consistently exceeded those suggested by the Taylor rule and given the prevalence of high unemployment, these undershootings do not augur well for the stability of monetary policy. Finally, the behaviour of Czech interest rates can be remarkably captured by the simple Taylor rule proposed in this paper, suggesting that the Czech National Bank has been the most successful at stabilising inflation and output around their target levels.

  5. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  7. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  8. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  9. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  10. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....... to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC...

  11. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)

  12. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  13. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  14. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis-rev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bultz, Garl A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand target identification, including roll-up and protracted theft; evaluate target identification in the SNRI; recognize the target characteristics and consequence levels; and understand graded safeguards.

  15. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  16. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of

  17. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  18. Targeted drugs in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.; Hennequin, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2004-01-01

    New drugs aiming at the development of targeted therapies have been assayed in combination with ionizing radiation over the past few years. The rationale of this concept comes from the fact that the cytotoxic potential of targeted drugs is limited, thus requiring concomitant association with a cytotoxic agent for the eradication of tumor cells. Conversely a low level of cumulative toxicity is expected from targeted drugs. Most targeted drugs act through inhibition of post-translational modifications of proteins, such as dimerization of growth factor receptors, prenylation reactions, or phosphorylation of tyrosine or serine-threonine residues. Many systems involving the proteasome, neo-angiogenesis promoters, TGF-β, cyclooxygenase or the transcription factor NF-κB, are currently under investigation in hopes they will allow a control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. A few drugs have demonstrated an antitumor potential in particular phenotypes. In most instances, however, radiation-drug interactions proved to be strictly additive in terms of cell growth inhibition or induced cell death. Strong potentiation of the response to radiotherapy is expected to require interaction with DNA repair mechanisms. (authors)

  19. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  20. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  1. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  2. Ion backscattering from layered targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.; Robinson, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The present work investigated the reflection of hydrogen atoms, whose incident energy ranged from 0.01 to 1 keV, from layered targets. The calculations used the binary collisions computer program MARLOWE modified to treat layered target structures. Briefly, the projectile ion strikes the surface normally and is followed collision-by-collision until it leaves the surface again or until its energy falls below a present value (1 eV). Each collision consists of an elastic and an inelastic part. The elastic part is treated by classical scattering mechanics using the Moliere approximation to the Thomas-Fermi interatomic potential with the screening lengths proposed by Firsov. The inelastic part is described by the (nonlocal) electronic stopping theory of Lindhard et al. The calculations were made using MARLOWE to simulate amorphous solids, and a typical run consisted of following the motions of 1000-2000 incident particles. The targets studied were chosen to have large differences between the atomic numbers of the overlayer and the substrate in order to emphasize possible reflection differences from that of monoatomic targets

  3. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  4. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and a...

  5. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  6. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce 99 Mo- 99m Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl x dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of 235 U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  7. How are inflation targets set?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Matějů, Jakub

    -, č. 426 (2010), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : inflation targeting * central bank * credibility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp426.pdf

  8. Harnessing off-target effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saginc, Gaye; Voellmy, Franziska; Linding, Rune

    2017-01-01

    The 'off-targets' of a drug are often poorly characterized yet could be harnessed in the treatment of complex diseases. A recent study used a small-molecule screening in non-small-cell lung cancer to repurpose an FDA-approved ALK/IGF1R inhibitor and uncover its mechanism of action....

  9. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  10. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  11. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of

  12. Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2018-04-04

    Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH + ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na + channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

  13. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  14. Journal of Naval Science. Volume 2. Number 3. July 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    supplementary food to the beakers containing stage VI nauplii: cyprids do not feed. The larvae in each beaker were con- fined within a close-fitting plastic...99-274% of Natural U) Uranium-234 (234U) (0-006% of Natural U) 2-48 X 10"’yrs Thorium-230 (230Th) Polonium -218(2I8Po) /through short lived...Natural U) Actinium-227 (--7Ac) FIG. 1. Nuclide chart. 4-51 X 10’Yrs 7 hours P 8 X 10’ Yrs 4 days Lead- 210 (210Pb) (22 yrs,/3"). 1-39 X 10

  15. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  16. Exploiting target amplitude information to improve multi-target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.; Blair, W. Dale

    2006-05-01

    Closely-spaced (but resolved) targets pose a challenge for measurement-to-track data association algorithms. Since the Mahalanobis distances between measurements collected on closely-spaced targets and tracks are similar, several elements of the corresponding kinematic measurement-to-track cost matrix are also similar. Lacking any other information on which to base assignments, it is not surprising that data association algorithms make mistakes. One ad hoc approach for mitigating this problem is to multiply the kinematic measurement-to-track likelihoods by amplitude likelihoods. However, this can actually be detrimental to the measurement-to-track association process. With that in mind, this paper pursues a rigorous treatment of the hypothesis probabilities for kinematic measurements and features. Three simple scenarios are used to demonstrate the impact of basing data association decisions on these hypothesis probabilities for Rayleigh, fixed-amplitude, and Rician targets. The first scenario assumes that the tracker carries two tracks but only one measurement is collected. This provides insight into more complex scenarios in which there are fewer measurements than tracks. The second scenario includes two measurements and one track. This extends naturally to the case with more measurements than tracks. Two measurements and two tracks are present in the third scenario, which provides insight into the performance of this method when the number of measurements equals the number of tracks. In all cases, basing data association decisions on the hypothesis probabilities leads to good results.

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, Fleur; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-02-10

    Since in most tumors multiple signaling pathways are involved, many of the inhibitors in clinical development are designed to affect a wide range of targeted kinases. The most important tyrosine kinase families in the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the ABL, SCR, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families. Both multi-kinase inhibitors and single-kinase inhibitors have advantages and disadvantages, which are related to potential resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, selectivity and tumor environment. In different malignancies various tyrosine kinases are mutated or overexpressed and several resistance mechanisms exist. Pharmacokinetics is influenced by interindividual differences and differs for two single targeted inhibitors or between patients treated by the same tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have various mechanisms to achieve selectivity, while differences in gene expression exist between tumor and stromal cells. Considering these aspects, one type of inhibitor can generally not be preferred above the other, but will depend on the specific genetic constitution of the patient and the tumor, allowing personalized therapy. The most effective way of cancer treatment by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors is to consider each patient/tumor individually and to determine the strategy that specifically targets the consequences of altered (epi)genetics of the tumor. This strategy might result in treatment by a single multi kinase inhibitor for one patient, but in treatment by a couple of single kinase inhibitors for other patients.

  18. Measurement of "pretzelosity" asymmetry of charged pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a polarized 3He target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Qian, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Huang, J.; Katich, J.; Wang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries of semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target was performed at Jefferson Laboratory in the kinematic region of 0.16 2<2.7 GeV2. Pretzelosity asymmetries on 3He, which are expressed as the convolution of the h1T ⊥ transverse-momentum-dependent distribution functions and the Collins fragmentation functions in the leading order, were measured for the first time. Under the effective polarization approximation, we extracted the corresponding neutron asymmetries from the measured 3He asymmetries and cross-section ratios between the proton and 3He. Our results show that both π± on 3He and on neutron pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  19. Targeting an efficient target-to-target interval for P300 speller brain–computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Eric W.; Wang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    Longer target-to-target intervals (TTI) produce greater P300 event-related potential amplitude, which can increase brain–computer interface (BCI) classification accuracy and decrease the number of flashes needed for accurate character classification. However, longer TTIs requires more time for each trial, which will decrease the information transfer rate of BCI. In this paper, a P300 BCI using a 7 × 12 matrix explored new flash patterns (16-, 18- and 21-flash pattern) with different TTIs to assess the effects of TTI on P300 BCI performance. The new flash patterns were designed to minimize TTI, decrease repetition blindness, and examine the temporal relationship between each flash of a given stimulus by placing a minimum of one (16-flash pattern), two (18-flash pattern), or three (21-flash pattern) non-target flashes between each target flashes. Online results showed that the 16-flash pattern yielded the lowest classification accuracy among the three patterns. The results also showed that the 18-flash pattern provides a significantly higher information transfer rate (ITR) than the 21-flash pattern; both patterns provide high ITR and high accuracy for all subjects. PMID:22350331

  20. A blow-in windowless gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, K.; Motoshima, A.; Fujita, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Nishimori, N.

    1996-01-01

    A new-type windowless gas target has been developed to realize a dense target with a low gas flow rate. The target is similar to the conventional differentially pumped windowless gas target except that the target gas is blown into the target region from both the side holes of the beam entrance and exit. Due to the gas-confining action caused by the blown-in gas, the target thickness is about twice increased and the target density sharply falls in the holes. Most of the target gas is at rest and the density is uniform. The gas flow rate is the same as that of the conventional target and is about an order of magnitude lower than that of the dense gas-jet target. (orig.)

  1. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  2. Cryogenic polarized target facility: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.; Nash, H.K.; Roberson, N.; Schneider, M.; Seagondollar, W.; Soderstrum, J.

    1985-01-01

    The TUNL cryogenically polarized target facility consists of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator and a superconducting magnet, together capable of maintaining samples at between 10 and 20 mK in magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla. At these temperatures and magnetic fields brute-force nuclear orientation occurs. Polarizations from 20 to 60% are attainable in about twenty nonzero spin nuclei. Most are metals, ranging in mass from 6 Li to 209 Bi, but the nuclei 1 H and 3 He are also polarizable via this method. The main effort is directed towards a better determination of the effective spin-spin force in nuclei. These experiments are briefly described and the beam stabilization system, cryostat and polarized 3 He targets are discussed

  3. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection....... Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  4. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research.

  5. Targeting Wnt Pathways in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Zachary F.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt-mediated signal transduction pathways have long been recognized for their roles in regulating embryonic development, and have more recently been linked to cancer, neurologic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and disorders of endocrine function and bone metabolism in adults. Although therapies targeting Wnt signaling are attractive in theory, in practice it has been difficult to obtain specific therapeutics because many components of Wnt signaling pathways are also involved in other cellular processes, thereby reducing the specificity of candidate therapeutics. New technologies, and advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, have improved our understanding of the nuances of Wnt signaling and are leading to promising new strategies to target Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:23001988

  6. Voyager 2 Uranus targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.; Gray, D. L.; Potts, C. L.; Francis, K.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in the Voyager 2 Uranus flyby is to deliver the spacecraft to an appropriate aimpoint at the optimum time, so as to maximize the science return of the mission, while yet keeping propellant expenditure low. An unusual targeting strategy has been devised to satisfy these requirements. Its complexity arises from the great distance of the planet Uranus and the limited performance capabilities of Voyager. This selected strategy is developed in relation to a set of candidate strategies, mission requirements and shifting science objectives. The analysis of these candidates is conducted via a Monte Carlo simulation, the results of which yield data for the comparative evaluation and eventual and selection of the actual targeting strategy to be employed.

  7. Jet target intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    A jet target Intense Neutron Source (INS) is being built by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with DOE/MFE funding in order to perform radiation damage experiments on materials to be used in fusion power reactors. The jet target can be either a supersonic or a subsonic jet. Each type has its particular advantages and disadvantages, and either of the jets can be placed inside the spherical blanket converter which will be used to simulate a fusion reactor neutron environment. Preliminary mock-up experiments with a 16-mA, 115 keV, H + ion beam on a nitrogen gas supersonic jet show no serious problems in the beam formation, transport, or jet interaction

  8. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  9. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  10. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  11. CATAMARAN targeted at innovative radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N.; Aerts, A.

    2010-01-01

    In cancer therapy there is a great need for specific treatments: therapies that kill cancer cells selectively without affecting the healthy cells. In the CATAMARAN project (Cancer Targeting Molecules Attached to Radionuclides) SCK-CEN develops, in a preclinical trial, products that deliver the right radiation doses at the right place in the human body. With the new multidisciplinary expertise that has been built up in the project, SCK-CEN is contributing to new medical applications of radiation.

  12. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  13. Peptide-targeted polymer cancerostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhmová, Eliška; Pola, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S153-S164 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA copolymers * tumor targeting * peptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S153.pdf

  14. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  15. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  16. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    , the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  17. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  18. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points.

  19. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  20. Treat to target in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Moreno-Lledó, Aitana; Urionagüena, Irati; Dickson, Alastair J

    2018-01-01

    The treat-to-target (T2T) approach has been successfully implemented in a number of diseases. T2T has been proposed for rheumatic diseases such as RA, spondyloarthritis, lupus, and recently for gout. The level of evidence for such approaches differs from one condition to the other (moderate to high for hyperlipidaemia, for example). Practice is based on the best available evidence at any time, and in absence of good evidence for T2T in gout, some suggest a conservative only-treat-symptoms approach. Evidence suggests that not treating gout to target in the long term is overall associated with worsening outcomes, such as flares, tophi and structural damage, which is associated to loss of quality of life and mortality. Different targets have been proposed for hyperuricaemia in gout; lower than 6 mg/dl (0.36 mmol/l) for all patients, at least gout. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  2. Targeting the Brain with Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Felix; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we review innovative nanomedicine-based approaches for treating, preventing and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on nanoscale systems such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles and other vehicles (e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions) for targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the brain. To ensure maximum selectivity for optimal therapeutic or diagnostic results, researchers must employ delivery systems that are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. This entails: (i) use of "safe" materials, such as polymers or lipids; (ii) targeting to the brain and, specifically, to the desired active site within the brain; (iii) controlled release of the loaded agent; and (iv) use of agents that, once released into the brain, will exhibit the desired pharmacologic activity. Here, we explore the design and preclinical use of representative delivery systems that have been proposed to date. We then analyze the principal challenges that have delayed clinical application of these and other approaches. Lastly, we look at future developments in this area, addressing the needs for increased penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), enhanced targeting of specific brain sites, improved therapeutic efficacy and lower neurotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  4. Internal magnetic target of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachurin, V.V.; Kats, M.M.; Kondrat'ev, L.N.; Rogal', A.D.; Rusinov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Proton extraction from a synchrotron by means of an internal target of magnetized iron is described. The particles that are aimed at the target pass directly through it and are deflected by the internal magnetic field of the target in the extraction direction. The general properties of magnetic targets are examined theoretically and a specific devices and results of its testing are described

  5. Ice targets for use at NTOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes ice targets which were used during an experiment at the Neutron Time of Flight facility (NTOF) at LAMPF. Reasons for using the ice targets are given, and the construction, refrigeration system, and target preparation are detailed. Results of the research using these ice targets will be published at a later date

  6. A rotating target wheel system for gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A description is given for a low-mass, rotating target wheel to be used within the Gammasphere target chamber. This system was developed for experiments employing high beam currents in order to extend lifetimes of targets using low-melting point target material. The design is based on a previously successful implementation of rotating target wheels for the Argonne Positron Experiment (APEX) as well as the Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). A brief history of these rotating target wheel systems is given as well as a discussion on target preparation and performance

  7. Target for production of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  8. Target for production of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented

  9. Target for production of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S. A.

    2004-09-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  10. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  11. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  12. Targeting the GPI biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Usha; Khan, Mohd Ashraf

    2018-02-27

    The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors. Notable examples include GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) in Trypanosoma brucei, GPI-anchored merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and MSP2 in Plasmodium falciparum, protein-free GPI related molecules like lipophosphoglycans (LPGs) and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) in Leishmania spp., GPI-anchored Gal/GalNAc lectin and proteophosphoglycans in Entamoeba histolytica or the GPI-anchored mannoproteins in pathogenic fungi like Candida albicans. Research in this active area has already yielded encouraging results in Trypanosoma brucei by the development of parasite-specific inhibitors of GlcNCONH 2 -β-PI, GlcNCONH 2 -(2-O-octyl)-PI and salicylic hydroxamic acid (SHAM) targeting trypanosomal GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase as well as the development of antifungal inhibitors like BIQ/E1210/gepinacin/G365/G884 and YW3548/M743/M720 targeting the GPI specific fungal inositol acyltransferase (Gwt1) and the phosphoethanolamine transferase-I (Mcd4), respectively. These confirm the fact that the GPI pathway continues to be the focus of researchers, given its implications for the betterment of human life.

  13. Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    Targeted therapies have become standard therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with and without bevacizumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with non-squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in efficacy. In patients with NSCLC with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (defined as exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R point mutation), phase III trials of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated superior efficacy in the first-line setting. In patients with NSCLC with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, phase III trials of crizotinib have demonstrated superior efficacy compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting and standard chemotherapy in the second-line setting. A second-generation ALK inhibitor, ceritinib, is available for patients who have progressed after or were intolerant of crizotinib. Crizotinib has also demonstrated activity on patients with ROS1 rearrangements, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib, vemurafenib) have demonstrated activity in patients with NSCLC with BRAF V600E mutation. The oncogenic mutations that are susceptible to targeted therapy are mainly found in non-squamous NSCLC. The development of targeted therapy in patients with squamous NSCLC has been more challenging due to the genomic complexity observed in the squamous histology and the low prevalence of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 molecular alterations. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without necitumumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival.

  14. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  15. HPV: Molecular pathways and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Das, Bhudev C

    2018-04-05

    Infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infections are also implicated in the development of other types of carcinomas. Chronic or persistent infection of HPV is essential but HPV alone is inadequate, additional endogenous or exogenous cues are needed along with HPV to induce cervical carcinogenesis. The strategies that high-risk HPVs have developed in differentiating epithelial cells to reach a DNA-synthesis competent state leading to tumorigenic transformation are basically due to overexpression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins and the activation of diverse cellular regulatory or signaling pathways that are targeted by them. Moreover, the Wnt/β-catenin/Notch and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways are deregulated in various cancers, and have also been implicated in HPV-induced cancers. These are basically related to the "cancer hallmarks," and include sustaining proliferative signals, the evasion of growth suppression and immune destruction, replicative immortality, inflammation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as genome instability, resisting cell death, and deregulation of cellular energetics. These information could eventually aid in identifying or developing new diagnostic, prognostic biomarkers, and may contribute to design more effective targeted therapeutics and treatment strategies. Although surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cure more than 90% of women with early stage cervical cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer mortality. Numerous efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent years, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E5, E6, and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and overexpressed in most of the cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction

  16. Voyager 1 Saturn targeting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A trajectory targeting strategy for the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter has been designed to accomodate predicted uncertainties in Titan's ephemeris while maximizing spacecraft safety and science return. The encounter is characterized by a close Titan flyby 18 hours prior to Saturn periapse. Retargeting of the nominal trajectory to account for late updates in Titan's estimated position can disperse the ascending node location, which is nominally situated at a radius of low expected particle density in Saturn's ring plane. The strategy utilizes a floating Titan impact vector magnitude to minimize this dispersion. Encounter trajectory characteristics and optimal tradeoffs are presented.

  17. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  18. Biomimetic nanoparticles for inflammation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many recent exciting developments in biomimetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Inflammation, a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators directed against harmful stimuli, is closely associated with many human diseases. As a result, biomimetic nanoparticles mimicking immune cells can help achieve molecular imaging and precise drug delivery to these inflammatory sites. This review is focused on inflammation-targeting biomimetic nanoparticles and will provide an in-depth look at the design of these nanoparticles to maximize their benefits for disease diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Target raster system at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.; Adderley, P.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1995-01-01

    A fast raster (FR) system consisting of two Litz cable air-core magnets (x, y) has been installed and tested in the Hall C beam line tunnel, 21 m from the cryogenic target. The system provides a maximum deflection of 0.06 mrad at a frequency range of 15-45 kHz for a 6 GeV electron beam. The FR magnets are driven by a MOSFET bipolar switching power source with a triangle current waveform, the peak-to-peak current is 40 A. (orig.)

  20. The future of targeted peptidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Targeted MS is becoming increasingly important for sensitive and specific quantitative detection of proteins and respective PTMs. In this article, Ceglarek et al. [Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2013, 7, 794-801] present an LC-MS-based method for simultaneous quantitation of seven apolipoproteins in serum specimens. The assay fulfills many necessities of routine diagnostic applications, namely, low cost, high throughput, and good reproducibility. We anticipate that validation of new biomarkers will speed up with this technology and the palette of laboratory-based diagnostic tools will hopefully be augmented significantly in the near future. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  2. Targeted therapy of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, Nathan G; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy and the second most common hematologic cancer. MM is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow, and presents clinically with a broad range of symptoms, including hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, and lytic bone lesions. MM is a heterogeneous disease associated with genomic instability, where patients may express multiple genetic abnormalities that affect several oncogenic pathways. Commonly detected genetic aberrations are translocations involving immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions (chromosome 14q32) and oncogenes such as c-maf [t(14:16)], cyclin D1 [t(11:14)], and FGFR3/MMSET [t(4:14)]. Advances in the basic understanding of MM and the development of novel agents, such as the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide and lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, have increased therapeutic response rates and prolonged patient survival. Despite these advances MM remains incurable in the majority of patients, and it is therefore critical to identify additional therapeutic strategies and targets for its treatment. In this chapter, we review the underlying genetic components of MM and discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted agents in the management of MM. In addition, we discuss experimental therapies that are currently in clinical development along with their molecular rationale in the treatment of MM.

  3. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  4. 'Treat to Target' - Lessons Learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic management in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has significantly changed in the last decades with the advent of biological therapy resulting in new treatment targets other than clinical symptoms. Patient stratification in the early stage of the disease is an important step to identify patients with poor prognosis, who might benefit from early aggressive treatment to avoid complications in the later disease course. Recent randomized and hypothesis driven (e.g., Randomized Evaluation of an Algorithm for Crohn's Treatment, Post-Operative Crohn's Endoscopic Recurrence) clinical trials conducted in the biological era underscore the need of objective disease monitoring including assessment of biomarkers (e.g., C-reactive protein and calprotectin), mucosal healing and, for biologically treated patients, therapeutic drug monitoring beside clinical symptom assessment in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Assessing the treatment efficacy objectively has become an important element of patient monitoring besides clinical symptom assessment. Further clinical studies are needed to assess whether implementation of new therapeutic algorithms based on these targets and tight monitoring in clinical practice have the potential to further improve long-term disease outcomes in IBD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Properties of Protein Drug Target Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon C.; Doig, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate identification of drug targets is a crucial part of any drug development program. We mined the human proteome to discover properties of proteins that may be important in determining their suitability for pharmaceutical modulation. Data was gathered concerning each protein’s sequence, post-translational modifications, secondary structure, germline variants, expression profile and drug target status. The data was then analysed to determine features for which the target and non-target proteins had significantly different values. This analysis was repeated for subsets of the proteome consisting of all G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases and proteases, as well as proteins that are implicated in cancer. Machine learning was used to quantify the proteins in each dataset in terms of their potential to serve as a drug target. This was accomplished by first inducing a random forest that could distinguish between its targets and non-targets, and then using the random forest to quantify the drug target likeness of the non-targets. The properties that can best differentiate targets from non-targets were primarily those that are directly related to a protein’s sequence (e.g. secondary structure). Germline variants, expression levels and interactions between proteins had minimal discriminative power. Overall, the best indicators of drug target likeness were found to be the proteins’ hydrophobicities, in vivo half-lives, propensity for being membrane bound and the fraction of non-polar amino acids in their sequences. In terms of predicting potential targets, datasets of proteases, ion channels and cancer proteins were able to induce random forests that were highly capable of distinguishing between targets and non-targets. The non-target proteins predicted to be targets by these random forests comprise the set of the most suitable potential future drug targets, and should therefore be prioritised when building a drug development programme. PMID

  6. Temperature simulations for the SPIRAL ISOL target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, L.; Bajeat, O.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Villari, A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations of the power deposition and target temperature distributions in the SPIRAL ISOL target are presented. These simulations consider different heavy-ion beams with intensities corresponding to 2 and 6 kW on a carbon target. A new solutions, which corresponds to the splitting of the production target into two parts, where the first is cooled and the second is heated, allows keeping the overall size of the target ensemble relatively small. An extrapolation of the considered target geometry to primary beam intensities up to 1 MW is also presented. (authors)

  7. Bispecific antibodies targeting human CD73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting CD73. In particular, the present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting different epitopes on CD73 or a bispecific antibody targeting an epitope on CD73 and an epitope on a different antigen.......The present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting CD73. In particular, the present invention relates to a bispecific antibody targeting different epitopes on CD73 or a bispecific antibody targeting an epitope on CD73 and an epitope on a different antigen....

  8. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  9. QUIKVIS- CELESTIAL TARGET AVAILABILITY INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzo, C.

    1994-01-01

    QUIKVIS computes the times during an Earth orbit when geometric requirements are satisfied for observing celestial objects. The observed objects may be fixed (stars, etc.) or moving (sun, moon, planets). QUIKVIS is useful for preflight analysis by those needing information on the availability of celestial objects to be observed. Two types of analyses are performed by QUIKVIS. One is used when specific objects are known, the other when targets are unknown and potentially useful regions of the sky must be identified. The results are useful in selecting candidate targets, examining the effects of observation requirements, and doing gross assessments of the effects of the orbit's right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN). The results are not appropriate when high accuracy is needed (e.g. for scheduling actual mission operations). The observation duration is calculated as a function of date, orbit node, and geometric requirements. The orbit right ascension of the ascending node can be varied to account for the effects of an uncertain launch time of day. The orbit semimajor axis and inclination are constant throughout the run. A circular orbit is assumed, but a simple program modification will allow eccentric orbits. The geometric requirements that can be processed are: 1) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the earth's horizon; 2) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the spacecraft velocity vector; 3) maximum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the zenith direction; and 4) presence of the spacecraft in the earth's shadow. The user must supply a date or date range, the spacecraft orbit and inclination, up to 700 observation targets, and any geometric requirements to be met. The primary output is the time per orbit that conditions are satisfied, with options for sky survey maps, time since a user-specified orbit event, and bar graphs illustrating overlapping requirements. The

  10. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D.K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H 2 amounts up to 6.6 × 10 12 atoms/cm 2 . • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 10 12 atoms/cm 2 , and those of other targets are larger than 10 13 atoms/cm 2 with the background pressure of 10 −11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe 54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  11. Targeting α-synuclein oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Diggelen, Femke

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a complex disease, characterised by degeneration of neocortical, limbic and nigrostriatal neurons. It is unknown what initiates neurodegeneration, but soluble oligomers of the protein α-synuclein (αSn) seem to be particularly toxic, compared to insoluble fibrils...... unique characteristics, e.g. they were recognized by different conformational antibodies and DHA–αSOs also formed a second elongated species in addition to the dominant spherical species. Although further functional testing is needed, this suggests that each species has its own distinct toxic mechanism......+/K+ ATPase, V-type ATPase, VDAC, CaMKII and Rab-3A. The identification of these targets is a first step towards unravelling the toxic pathways which are activated upon synaptic binding of extracellularly added αSOs, and hopefully will contribute to the discovery of new disease modifying compounds, which can...

  12. Target design for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  13. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar [Blacksburg, VA; Jani, Dewal [Blacksburg, VA; Nagarkatti, Rana [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  14. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  15. Apoptosis: Targets in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalthoff Holger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis, because of late diagnosis and lack of response to chemo- and/or radiation therapies. Resistance to apoptosis mainly causes this insensitivity to conventional therapies. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a central regulator of tissue homeostasis. Certain genetic disturbances of apoptotic signaling pathways have been found in carcinomas leading to tumor development and progression. In the past few years, the knowledge about the complex pathways of apoptosis has strongly increased and new therapeutic approaches based on this knowledge are being developed. This review will focus on the role of apoptotic proteins contributing to pancreatic cancer development and progression and will demonstrate possible targets to influence this deadly disease.

  16. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  17. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  18. Nuclear spin polarization of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases

  19. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  20. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  1. Progress on the SNS target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.

    1983-01-01

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  2. Two target localization using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localization and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localizing one or two targets laying within a narrow beam centered around

  3. Study Identifies New Lymphoma Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI researchers have identified new therapeutic targets for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Drugs that hit these targets are under clinical development and the researchers hope to begin testing them in clinical trials of patients with DLBCL.

  4. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  5. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusser, O

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab

  7. Counter-Leadership Targeting and Conflict Termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Bradly

    1999-01-01

    .... Can the leader be found? And, is it legal and ethical to attack the leader? Analysis rarely has been conducted to determine whether the targeted organization is vulnerable to Counter Leadership Targeting (CLT...

  8. Targets for the APEX experiment at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.; Leonard, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Targets of lead, tantalum, thorium and uranium have been produced for experiments with the APEX (Argonne Positron Experiment) apparatus at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). APEX is a device built at Argonne National Laboratory to investigate the anomalous positrons observed in collisions of very heavy ion beams on heavy targets. Both fixed and rotating targets have been used. The rotating target system involves a 4-quadrant wheel rotating at speeds up to 700 rpm with the position encoded into the data stream. In addition to the hundreds of targets produced for the heavy-ion reactions studied, a wide variety of targets were employed for beam diagnostics, detector calibration and target wheel development. The experiment used very heavy ion beams ( 238 U, 206 Pb and 208 Pb) from ATLAS and targets of 206 Pb, 208 Pb, 232 Th and 238 U produced in the laboratory

  9. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  10. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  11. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  12. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santry, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  13. Targets development at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Hebron, D.; Derzon, M.; Olson, R.; Alberts, T.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories under contract to the Department of Energy has produced targets designed to understand complex ion beam and z-pinch plasma physics. This poster focuses on the features of target designs that make them suitable for Z-pinch plasma physics applications. Precision diagnostic targets will prove critical in understanding the plasma physics model needed for future ion beam and z-pinch design. Targets are designed to meet specific physics needs; in this case the authors have fabricated targets to maximize information about the end-on versus side-on x-ray emission and z-pinch hohlraum development. In this poster, they describe the fabrication and characterization techniques. They include discussion of current targets under development as well as target fabrication capabilities. Advanced target designs are fabricated by Sandia National Laboratories in cooperation with General Atomics of San Diego, CA and W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. of Livermore, CA

  14. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Thomas [Dresden, DE; Malekos, Steven [Reno, NV; Korgan, Grant [Reno, NV; Adams, Jesse [Reno, NV; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [Reno, NV; Le Galloudec, Nathalie [Reno, NV; Fuchs, Julien [Paris, FR

    2012-07-24

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  15. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer

  16. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  17. Design of the FMIT lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Annese, C.E.; Greenwell, R.K.; Ingham, J.G.; Miles, R.R.; Miller, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development of the liquid lithium target for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is described. The target concept, major design goals and design requirements are presented. Progress made in the research and development areas leading to detailed design of the target is discussed. This progress, including experimental and analytic results, demonstrates that the FMIT target design is capable of meeting its major design goals and requirements

  18. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  19. Targeted integration of genes in Xenopus tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhaoying; Tian, Dandan; Xin, Huhu

    2017-01-01

    With the successful establishment of both targeted gene disruption and integration methods in the true diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis, this excellent vertebrate genetic model now is making a unique contribution to modelling human diseases. Here, we summarize our efforts on establishing homologous...... recombination-mediated targeted integration in Xenopus tropicalis, the usefulness, and limitation of targeted integration via the homology-independent strategy, and future directions on how to further improve targeted gene integration in Xenopus tropicalis....

  20. Current progress in NIF target concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Thoma, D.J.; Jacobson, L.A.; Hollis, R.V.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Target concepts for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require progress in the art and science of target fabrication. Three distinct issues are addressed: beryllium fuel capsules, foam-buffered direct drive, and high-density gas-filled hohlraums. In all cases experiments on the existing Nova laser at LLNL are either in progress or planned for the near future to test the various concepts. Consequently, target fabrication must be able to deliver targets appropriate for each