WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 227 target

  1. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  2. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  3. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-08-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1- ligands (3.2+/-1.1) than AmIII (0.8+/-0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour.

  4. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than AmIII (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  5. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  6. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  7. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  8. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Fractionated therapy of HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts in mice with targeted alpha emitting 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Heyerdahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic efficacy and normal tissue toxicity of single dosage and fractionated targeted alpha therapy (TAT in mice with HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts using the low dose rate radioimmunoconjugate (227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nude mice carrying HER2-overexpressing subcutaneous SKOV-3 or SKBR-3 xenografts were treated with 1000 kBq/kg (227Th-trastuzumab as single injection or four injections of 250 kBq/kg with intervals of 4-5 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks. Control animals were treated with normal saline or unlabeled trastuzumab. In SKOV-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed (p<0.01 and survival with tumor diameter less than 16 mm was prolonged (p<0.05 in all TAT groups compared to the control groups. No statistically significant differences were seen among the treated groups. In SKBR-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed in the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.001 and all except the 4 weeks interval TAT group showed improved survival to the control groups (p<0.05. Toxicity was assessed by blood cell counts, clinical chemistry measurements and body weight. Transient reduction in white blood cells was seen for the single injection and 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05. No significant changes were seen in red blood cells, platelets or clinical chemistry parameters. Survival without life threatening loss of body weight was significantly prolonged in 4 weeks interval group compared to single injection group (p<0.05 for SKOV-3 animals and in 2 weeks interval group compared with the 4-5 days interval groups (p<0.05 for SKBR-3 animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The same concentration of radioactivity split into several fractions may improve toxicity of (227Th-radioimmunotherapy while the therapeutic effect is maintained. Thus, it might be possible to increase the cumulative absorbed radiation dose

  10. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    tests of GR, and performing predictive GRMHD simulations hydrodynamics simulations that include magnetic fields and full GR treatment. Ozel pointed out that one of the recent theoretical advancements in GRMHD simulations is harnessing the power of GPUs to render images in simulations; check out the tweet below for the awesome video she showed us!Watch C. Chan manipulate black hole simulation with hand motions https://t.co/O5BgaltYAu (more on the code: https://t.co/9GC46ReMGs) #aas227 Sarah Scoles (@ScolesSarah) January 6, 2016Deployment of the full EHT array is planned for early 2017, and theyve already got 10 targets selected black holes that are near enough and large enough that the EHT should be able to image their shadows. I, for one, cant wait to see the first results!Grad School and Postdocs as a Means to a Job (by Meredith Rawls)This morning session was presented by Karen Kelsky of The Professor Is In. She presented a very practical overview of the advice in her book (which this job-searching Astrobiter highly recommends). Her target audience is postdocs and graduate students who are finishing their PhDs and applying for tenure-track jobs. Karens background is in the social sciences, but she has worked with many scientists and her expertise easily transferred. Much of her writing advice also applies for undergraduates who are writing research statements and proposals to apply to graduate school. For example:What not to do, with @ProfessorIsIn #aas227 pic.twitter.com/afGAsSuPwN Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016One of Karens main takeaways is that academia is not automatically good preparation for a job search. Writing documents like cover letters, resumes, and research statements will be harder and take more time than you think, and it is important to make them top-notch. Karen was also surprised that the majority of professional astronomers at the AAS meeting carry backpacks, because she typically advises against bringing a backpack to a job interview or

  11. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  12. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    tests of GR, and performing predictive GRMHD simulations hydrodynamics simulations that include magnetic fields and full GR treatment. Ozel pointed out that one of the recent theoretical advancements in GRMHD simulations is harnessing the power of GPUs to render images in simulations; check out the tweet below for the awesome video she showed us!Watch C. Chan manipulate black hole simulation with hand motions https://t.co/O5BgaltYAu (more on the code: https://t.co/9GC46ReMGs) #aas227 Sarah Scoles (@ScolesSarah) January 6, 2016Deployment of the full EHT array is planned for early 2017, and theyve already got 10 targets selected black holes that are near enough and large enough that the EHT should be able to image their shadows. I, for one, cant wait to see the first results!Grad School and Postdocs as a Means to a Job (by Meredith Rawls)This morning session was presented by Karen Kelsky of The Professor Is In. She presented a very practical overview of the advice in her book (which this job-searching Astrobiter highly recommends). Her target audience is postdocs and graduate students who are finishing their PhDs and applying for tenure-track jobs. Karens background is in the social sciences, but she has worked with many scientists and her expertise easily transferred. Much of her writing advice also applies for undergraduates who are writing research statements and proposals to apply to graduate school. For example:What not to do, with @ProfessorIsIn #aas227 pic.twitter.com/afGAsSuPwN Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016One of Karens main takeaways is that academia is not automatically good preparation for a job search. Writing documents like cover letters, resumes, and research statements will be harder and take more time than you think, and it is important to make them top-notch. Karen was also surprised that the majority of professional astronomers at the AAS meeting carry backpacks, because she typically advises against bringing a backpack to a job interview or

  13. Production of actinium, thorium and radium isotopes from natural thorium irradiated with protons up to 141 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, S.V.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Matushko, V.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Kalmykov, S.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2012-07-01

    Cross sections of {sup 225}Ac, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 227}Th and {sup 228}Th in thorium-232 targets irradiated with protons in the energy range 21-141 MeV have been measured. Based on these data, production yields of {sup 225}Ac and {sup 223}Ra in thick thorium targets have been calculated. It is possible to produce in proton energy range 60-140 MeV about 96 GBq (2.6 Ci) {sup 225}Ac per 10-d irradiation with 100 {mu}A proton beam current and 10-d decay, and much higher amount of {sup 223}Ra. The impurities of {sup 227}Ac and {sup 224}Ra are important and need to be assessed for further medical applications. (orig.)

  14. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  15. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  16. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  17. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  18. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  19. AAS 227: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  20. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  1. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  2. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  3. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  4. 7 CFR 227.5 - Program funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program funding. 227.5 Section 227.5 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.5 Program funding. (a... agencies shall maintain their present level of funding for existing nutrition education and...

  5. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7103-9 - Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyright. 227.7103-9..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-9 Copyright. (a) Copyright license. (1) The clause at 252.227-7013, Rights in Technical...

  7. 7 CFR 227.40 - Program information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program information. 227.40 Section 227.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.40...

  8. 7 CFR 227.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 227.3 Section 227.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program....

  9. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  10. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  11. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  12. 49 CFR 227.115 - Hearing protectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing protectors. 227.115 Section 227.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad...

  13. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  14. 48 CFR 227.7203-9 - Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyright. 227.7203-9..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-9 Copyright. (a) Copyright license. (1) The clause...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.227 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.227 Section 1280.227 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 40 CFR 227.5 - Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 227.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.5... environmental impact criteria of this subpart B; (d) Persistent inert synthetic or natural materials which...

  17. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact....

  18. 29 CFR 553.227 - Outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.227 Outside... overtime compensation. (f) The principles in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section with respect to...

  19. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... software or computer software documentation (see 227.72), commercial items (see 227.7102-3), existing works (see 227.7105), special works (see 227.7106), or when contracting under the Small Business Innovation... Software Previously Delivered to the Government, in solicitations when the resulting contract will...

  20. AcEST: CL227Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL227Contig1 1060 9 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL227contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...27Contig1 Contig ID CL227Contig1 Length 1060 Number of clones 9 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  1. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  2. 7 CFR 227.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.2 Definitions. (a... section 17 of the National School Lunch Act, as amended. (c) Child Nutrition Programs means any or all of... of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as amended. (n) School means: (1) An educational unit of...

  3. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.19 Division orders. (a... it to the supervisor for his consideration. The right is reserved for the supervisor to cancel...

  4. Initial evaluation of {sup 227}Th-p-benzyl-DOTA-rituximab for low-dose rate {alpha}-particle radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Jostein [Department of Radiation Biology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet HE, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: jostein.dahle@labmed.uio.no; Borrebaek, Jorgen [Algeta ASA, Kjelsasveien 172 A, 0411 Oslo (Norway); Melhus, Katrine B. [Department of Radiation Biology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet HE, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Bruland, Oyvind S. [Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Oncology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet HE, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Salberg, Gro [Algeta ASA, Kjelsasveien 172 A, 0411 Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Dag Rune [Department of Radiation Biology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet HE, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Roy H. [Algeta ASA, Kjelsasveien 172 A, 0411 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-02-15

    Radioimmunotherapy has proven clinically effective in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radioimmunotherapy trials have so far been performed with {beta}-emitting isotopes. In contrast to {beta}-emitters, the shorter range and high linear energy transfer (LET) of {alpha} particles allow for more efficient and selective killing of individually targeted tumor cells. However, there are several obstacles to the use of {alpha}-particle immunotherapy, including problems with chelation chemistry and nontarget tissue toxicity. The {alpha}-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab is a new potential anti-lymphoma agent that might overcome some of these difficulties. The present study explores the immunoreactivity, in vivo stability and biodistribution, as well as the effect on in vitro cell growth, of this novel radioimmunoconjugate. To evaluate in vivo stability, uptake in balb/c mice of the {alpha}-particle-emitting nuclide {sup 227}Th alone, the chelated form, {sup 227}Th-p-nitrobenzyl-DOTA and the radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was compared in a range of organs at increasing time points after injection. The immunoreactive fraction of {sup 227}Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was 56-65%. During the 28 days after injection of radioimmunoconjugate only, very modest amounts of the {sup 227}Th had detached from DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab, indicating a relevant stability in vivo. The half-life of {sup 227}Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab in blood was 7.4 days. Incubation of lymphoma cells with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab resulted in a significant antigen-dependent inhibition of cell growth. The data presented here warrant further studies of {sup 227}Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab.

  5. Initial evaluation of 227Th-p-benzyl-DOTA-rituximab for low-dose rate α-particle radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy has proven clinically effective in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radioimmunotherapy trials have so far been performed with β-emitting isotopes. In contrast to β-emitters, the shorter range and high linear energy transfer (LET) of α particles allow for more efficient and selective killing of individually targeted tumor cells. However, there are several obstacles to the use of α-particle immunotherapy, including problems with chelation chemistry and nontarget tissue toxicity. The α-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab is a new potential anti-lymphoma agent that might overcome some of these difficulties. The present study explores the immunoreactivity, in vivo stability and biodistribution, as well as the effect on in vitro cell growth, of this novel radioimmunoconjugate. To evaluate in vivo stability, uptake in balb/c mice of the α-particle-emitting nuclide 227Th alone, the chelated form, 227Th-p-nitrobenzyl-DOTA and the radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was compared in a range of organs at increasing time points after injection. The immunoreactive fraction of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was 56-65%. During the 28 days after injection of radioimmunoconjugate only, very modest amounts of the 227Th had detached from DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab, indicating a relevant stability in vivo. The half-life of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab in blood was 7.4 days. Incubation of lymphoma cells with 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab resulted in a significant antigen-dependent inhibition of cell growth. The data presented here warrant further studies of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab

  6. 48 CFR 2453.227 - Patents, data, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patents, data, and copyrights. 2453.227 Section 2453.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.227 Patents, data, and copyrights....

  7. 20 CFR 227.5 - Employer tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer tax credits. 227.5 Section 227.5... SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.5 Employer tax credits. Employers are entitled to tax credits if they pay non.... The tax credits for each month equal the sum of the reductions for employer pensions in...

  8. 34 CFR 300.227 - Direct services by the SEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct services by the SEA. 300.227 Section 300.227... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.227 Direct services by the SEA. (a) General. (1) An SEA must use the payments that would otherwise have been available to an LEA or to a...

  9. 7 CFR 227.42 - Grant closeout procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant closeout procedures. 227.42 Section 227.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.42...

  10. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard... hazard associated with toxic release and demonstrate compliance with the public risk criterion of §...

  12. 48 CFR 1552.227-76 - Project employee confidentiality agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Project employee confidentiality agreement. 1552.227-76 Section 1552.227-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... electrical services, provisions which shall conform substantially to the language of this clause,...

  13. 49 CFR 227.117 - Hearing protector attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.117 Hearing protector attenuation. (a) A railroad shall evaluate hearing... exposure to an 8-hour TWA of 90 decibels or lower, as required by § 227.115. (c) For employees who...

  14. 25 CFR 227.12 - Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries. 227.12 Section 227.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  15. 12 CFR 227.25 - Unfair balance computation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under 12 CFR 226.12 or 12 CFR 226.13; or (2) Adjustments to finance charges as a result of the return of... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair balance computation method. 227.25... Practices Rule § 227.25 Unfair balance computation method. (a) General rule. Except as provided in...

  16. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227 Section 121.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane...

  17. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 125.227 Section... Requirements § 125.227 Cockpit voice recorders. (a) No certificate holder may operate a large turbine engine... cockpit voice recorder is installed in that airplane and is operated continuously from the start of...

  18. 7 CFR 227.44 - Management evaluations and reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management evaluations and reviews. 227.44 Section 227.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM...

  19. 22 CFR 227.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., drafting of a legal document accompanying a bid or proposal by a lawyer is allowable. Similarly, technical... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional and technical services. 227.205... Activities by Own Employees § 227.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use...

  20. 22 CFR 227.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and analysis directly applying any professional or technical discipline. For example, drafting or a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional and technical services. 227.300... Activities by Other Than Own Employees § 227.300 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition...

  1. 25 CFR 227.22 - Diligence and prevention of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diligence and prevention of waste. 227.22 Section 227.22... prevention of waste. The lessee shall exercise diligence in drilling and operating wells for oil and gas on... prevention of waste of oil or gas developed on the land, or the entrance of water through wells drilled...

  2. 20 CFR 227.4 - Reduction for employer pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for employer pension. 227.4 Section... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.4 Reduction for employer pension. (a) General. The supplemental annuity for each month is reduced by the amount of any private pension the employee is receiving for...

  3. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7103-5 - Government rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government rights. 227..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-5 Government rights. The standard license rights that a licensor grants to the Government...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7103-4 - License rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License rights. 227.7103-4..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-4 License rights. (a) Grant of license. The Government obtains rights in technical...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7203-5 - Government rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government rights. 227..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-5 Government rights. The standard license rights...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7203-4 - License rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License rights. 227.7203-4..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-4 License rights. (a) Grant of license....

  8. 48 CFR 1952.227-77 - Rights in shop drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in shop drawings. 1952.227-77 Section 1952.227-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 1927.405(h), insert the following clause: Rights in...

  9. 12 CFR 227.13 - Unfair credit contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair credit contract provisions. 227.13... RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.13 Unfair credit contract provisions. It is an unfair act or practice for a bank to enter into a consumer...

  10. Research on Transport Properties of HFC-227ea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shi; Xiaojun Liu; Yuanyuan Duan; Lizhong Han; Mingshan Zhu

    2001-01-01

    HFC-227ea(1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) is considered as a promising refrigerant alternative, especially as a component in mixtures, to replace to CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R502. But reliable transport properties data for HFC-227ea are very limited. In this paper, experimental data of viscosity along the saturation line and gaseous thermal conductivity of HFC-227ea are given. The viscosity of HFC-227ea was measured with a capillary viscometer at temperatures between 263.15 K and 333.15 K along the saturation line and its uncertainty of the results is estimated to be no more than +3%. The thermal conductivity of gaseous HFC-227ea was also measured with a transient hot-wire instrument at temperatures between 259.28 K and 341.75 K and pressures up to 1.289MPa, and its uncertainty of the results is estimated to be less than +1%.

  11. 7 CFR 227.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.1 General purpose and scope. The purpose of these regulations is to implement section 19 of the Child Nutrition Act... child nutrition programs as a learning experience....

  12. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment... on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in this... profitability of other commercial enterprises....

  13. 48 CFR 1352.227-70 - Rights in data, assignment of copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....227-70 Rights in data, assignment of copyright. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1327.404-4(a), insert the following clause: Rights in Data, Assignment of Copyright (APR 2010) In accordance with 48 CFR 52.227-17... of copyright. 1352.227-70 Section 1352.227-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  14. 48 CFR 252.227-7019 - Validation of asserted restrictions-Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions-Computer software. 252.227-7019 Section 252.227-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...—Computer software. As prescribed in 227.7104(e)(3) or 227.7203-6(c), use the following clause: Validation of Asserted Restrictions—Computer Software (JUN 1995) (a) Definitions. (1) As used in this...

  15. The HB22.7-vcMMAE antibody-drug conjugate has efficacy against non-Hodgkin lymphoma mouse xenografts with minimal systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhay, Mastewal; Kato, Jason; Tuscano, Emily; Barisone, Gustavo A; Sidhu, Ranjit S; O'Donnell, Robert T; Tuscano, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    In this study, HB22.7, an anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, was used for specific, targeted delivery of monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). MMAE was covalently coupled to HB22.7 through a valine-citrulline peptide linker (vc). Maleimide-functionalized vcMMAE (mal-vcMMAE) was reacted with thiols of the partially reduced mAb. Approximately 4 molecules of MMAE were conjugated to HB22.7 as determined by residual thiol measurement and hydrophobic interaction chromatography-HPLC (HIC-HPLC). HB22.7-vcMMAE antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) retained its binding to Ramos NHL cells and also exhibited potent and specific in vitro cytotoxicity on a panel of B cell NHL cell lines with IC50s of 20-284 ng/ml. HB22.7-vcMMAE also showed potent efficacy in vivo against established NHL xenografts using the DoHH2 and Granta 519 cell lines. One dose of the ADC induced complete and persistent response in all DoHH2 xenografts and 90 % of Granta xenografts. Minimal toxicity was observed. In summary, HB22.7-vcMMAE is an effective ADC that should be evaluated for clinical translation. PMID:27506529

  16. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the Alpha-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate α-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with 227Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with 227Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the 227Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with 227Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL 227Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 105 to 107 cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy α-particle radiation from 227Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.

  17. The HB22.7 Anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody enhances bortezomib-mediated lymphomacidal activity in a sequence dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Shiloh M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL initially respond to chemotherapy, but relapse is common and treatment is often limited by chemotherapy-related toxicity. Bortezomib, is a highly selective proteasome inhibitor with anti-NHL activity; it is currently FDA approved for second-line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. Bortezomib exerts its activity in part through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and also by the induction of apoptosis. We previously validated CD22 as a potential target in treating NHL and have shown that the anti-CD22 ligand blocking antibody, HB22.7, has significant independent lymphomacidal properties in NHL xenograft models. We sought to determine whether or not these agents would work synergistically to enhance cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that treatment of NHL cell lines with HB22.7 six hours prior to bortezomib significantly diminished cell viability. These effects were not seen when the agents were administered alone or when bortezomib was administered prior to HB22.7. Additionally, HB22.7 treatment prior to bortezomib increased apoptosis in part through enhanced ROS generation. Finally, in a mouse xenograft model, administration of HB22.7 followed 24 hours later by bortezomib resulted in 23% smaller tumor volumes and 20% enhanced survival compared to treatment with the reverse sequence. Despite the increased efficacy of HB22.7 treatment followed by bortezomib, there was no corresponding decrease in peripheral blood cell counts, indicating no increase in toxicity. Our results suggest that pre-treatment with HB22.7 increases bortezomib cytotoxicity, in part through increased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis, and that this sequential treatment combination has robust efficacy in vivo.

  18. 7 CFR 227.35 - Responsibilities of State coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 227.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator... implementation of the State Plan, (f) Coordination of the Program with the Child Nutrition Programs at the...

  19. 22 CFR 227.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 227.200 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities... to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if the payment is for agency and legislative liaison activities not directly related...

  20. 22 CFR 227.110 - Certification and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Award of a Federal contract, grant, or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000; or (2) An award of a... such person of: (1) A Federal contract, grant, or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000; or (2) A... 227.110 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING...

  1. 48 CFR 3452.227-72 - Advertising of awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Clauses 3452.227-72 Advertising of awards. As prescribed in 3427.472, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders: Advertising of Awards (AUG 1987) The contractor...

  2. 49 CFR 227.113 - Noise operational controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.113 Noise operational controls. (a) Railroads may use noise operational controls at any sound level to reduce exposures to levels below those required by Table A-1 of appendix A...

  3. 49 CFR 227.107 - Hearing conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.107 Hearing conservation program. (a) Consistent with the requirements of the... exposure shall be computed in accordance with the tables in appendix A of this part, and without regard...

  4. 49 CFR 227.109 - Audiometric testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.109 Audiometric testing program. (a) Each railroad shall establish and maintain... requirements found in 29 CFR 1910.95(h), the railroad must use that baseline audiogram. (iii) If the...

  5. 49 CFR 227.111 - Audiometric test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.111 Audiometric test requirements. (a) Audiometric tests shall be pure tone, air... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated standard from...

  6. 49 CFR 234.227 - Train detection apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.227 Train detection apparatus. (a) Train detection apparatus shall be maintained to detect a train or railcar in any part of a train detection circuit,...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7003 - Claims for copyright infringement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims for copyright... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7003 Claims for copyright infringement. The procedures set...

  8. 7 CFR 227.31 - Audits, management reviews, and evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 227.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State... institutions of higher education and public or private nonprofit educational or research agencies,...

  9. 7 CFR 227.4 - Application and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.4 Application and... Program shall enter into a written agreement with the Department for the administration of the Program...

  10. 7 CFR 227.41 - Recovery of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.41 Recovery of... determines, through a review of the State agency's reports, program, or financial analysis, monitoring,...

  11. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  12. 48 CFR 1952.227-76 - Government rights (unlimited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Government rights... 1952.227-76 Government rights (unlimited). As prescribed in 1927.405(g), insert the following clause: Government Rights (Unlimited) (FEB 1985) The Government shall have unlimited rights, in all drawings,...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  14. 30 CFR 227.301 - What are a State's responsibilities if it performs audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are a State's responsibilities if it performs audits? 227.301 Section 227.301 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Functions § 227.301 What are a State's responsibilities if it performs audits? If you perform audits...

  15. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small...

  16. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  17. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). 227.27 Section 227.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Definitions § 227.27 Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC). (a) The limiting permissible...

  18. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  20. 48 CFR 52.227-2 - Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement. 52.227-2 Section 52.227-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-2 Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright... and Copyright Infringement (DEC 2007) (a) The Contractor shall report to the Contracting...

  1. 30 CFR 227.104 - What will MMS do when it receives a State's delegation proposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... record the receipt date. MMS will notify you in writing within 15 business days whether your proposal is... delegation proposal? 227.104 Section 227.104 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation Proposals § 227.104 What will MMS...

  2. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 227 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying B Appendix B to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. B Appendix B to Part 227—Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying EC06OC91.012...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.227-86 - Commercial computer software-Licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... software-Licensing. 1852.227-86 Section 1852.227-86 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-86 Commercial computer software—Licensing. As prescribed in 1827.409-70, insert the following clause: Commercial Computer Software—Licensing (DEC 1987) (a) Any...

  4. 48 CFR 252.227-7027 - Deferred ordering of technical data or computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data or computer software. 252.227-7027 Section 252.227-7027 Federal Acquisition Regulations... data or computer software. As prescribed at 227.7103-8(b), use the following clause: Deferred Ordering of Technical Data or Computer Software (APR 1988) In addition to technical data or computer...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7026 - Deferred delivery of technical data or computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data or computer software. 252.227-7026 Section 252.227-7026 Federal Acquisition Regulations... data or computer software. As prescribed at 227.7103-8(a), use the following clause: Deferred Delivery of Technical Data or Computer Software (APR 1988) The Government shall have the right to require,...

  6. 30 CFR 227.110 - When and for how long are delegation agreements effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effective? 227.110 Section 227.110 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation Process § 227.110 When and for how long are... Revenue Management as follows: (1) If you do not want to change the terms of your delegation agreement...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-14 - Rights in data-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in data-General. 1852.227-14 Section 1852.227-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.227-14 Rights in data—General. As prescribed in 1827.409(a), add the following subparagraph (3)...

  8. 48 CFR 252.227-7039 - Patents-reporting of subject inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-reporting of... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7039 Patents—reporting of subject inventions. As prescribed in 227.303(1), use the following clause: Patents—Reporting of Subject Inventions (APR 1990)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.227-7012 - Patent license and release contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent license and release... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7012 Patent license and release contract. As prescribed at 227.7012, insert the following clause in patent releases, license agreements, and assignments: (Contract...

  10. 42 CFR 435.227 - Individuals under age 21 who are under State adoption assistance agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determines that— (i) At the time of the adoption placement, the child had special needs for medical or rehabilitative care that made the child difficult to place; and (ii) There is in effect an adoption assistance... adoption assistance agreements. 435.227 Section 435.227 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  11. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. When contracting under the Small...

  12. 48 CFR 52.227-13 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Rights-Ownership by the Government. 52.227-13 Section 52.227-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION..., serial number and title, a copy of the patent application (including an English-language version if...

  13. 25 CFR 227.14 - Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase oil and gas. 227.14 Section 227.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  14. 30 CFR 227.108 - How will MMS notify a State of its decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS notify a State of its decision? 227.108 Section 227.108 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... of its decision? MMS will notify you in writing of its decision on your delegation proposal. If...

  15. 48 CFR 52.227-15 - Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software. 52.227-15 Section 52.227-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Computer Software. As prescribed in 27.409(c), insert the following provision: Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software (DEC 2007) (a) This solicitation sets forth the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  17. 48 CFR 252.227-7014 - Rights in noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... container and each page, or portions thereof, of printed material containing computer software for which... computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation. 252.227-7014 Section 252.227-7014... Rights in noncommercial computer software and noncommercial computer software documentation....

  18. 30 CFR 227.401 - What are a State's responsibilities if it processes production reports or royalty reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... processes production reports or royalty reports? 227.401 Section 227.401 Mineral Resources MINERALS...' Responsibilities to Perform Delegated Functions § 227.401 What are a State's responsibilities if it processes production reports or royalty reports? In processing production reports or royalty reports you must:...

  19. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  20. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [11C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [11C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  1. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  2. Surgical intervention for advanced valvular heart disease in 227 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi; ZHONG Fo-tian; XU Zhe; XU Ying-qi; WANG Zhi-ping; WU Zhong-kai; TANG Bai-yun; XIONG Mai; YAO Jian-ping; SUN Pei-wu

    2005-01-01

    Background Although the results of surgical treatment in cardiac valve disease continue to improve, the postoperative mortality rate and the rate of complications in patients with advanced valvular heart disease (AVHD) are still very high. We did this retrospective study to summarize the surgical experience of heart valve replacement for patients with AVHD and discuss effective ways to improve the surgical outcome.Results The operative mortality rate was 13.2% (30/227). The main causes of death included multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), low cardiac output syndrome and ventricular fibrillation. From the results of the binary noncounterpart multivariate logistic regression, the following statistically significant factors were found to influence the operative mortality rate: redo operation, age ≥55 years, preoperative NYHA cardiac function grading, extracorporeal circulation time ≥120 minutes and postoperative usage of GIK (glucose, insulin and potassium) solution. All factors were risk ones except postoperative application of GIK. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit coefficient of this model was 0.976.Conclusions The risk factors associated with postoperative mortality rate in the patients with AVHD were redo operation, age ≥55 years, preoperative NYHA cardiac function grading and extracorporeal circulation time ≥120 minutes. Postoperative usage of GIK acted as a kind of metabolic therapy and will improve the recovery for patients with AVHD. Active perioperative management and care will play a very important role in reducing the operative risk and improving the short term outcome of surgical treatment for the patients with AVHD.

  3. Development, integration and test of an automatic UAV recovery system for the CL227 VTOL-UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Μπώκος, Γιώργος Δ.; Ferrier, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    The CL227 autoland program was designed to operate at sea from small ship combatants. This article highlights the evolution of the automated ship recovery system being developed in support of the CL227 UAV. Test results are provided concentrating on system response and control aspects affecting the performance of the CL227 recovery activity. A brief summary of the feasibility and simulation studies is given. A description of the data link software and hardware components is presented.

  4. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from decayed thorium-227 in drug formulations. Material screening and method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2016-08-01

    Targeted thorium conjugates are currently being investigated as a new class of alpha-radiopharmaceuticals. The natural decay of thorium-227 ((227)Th) results in the ingrowth of radium-223 ((223)Ra). Consideration must, therefore, be given to define acceptable limits of (223)Ra in the drug product at the time of dose administration. By effective sequestration of (223)Ra, we aim to improve the radiochemical purity and extend the effective user window of drug products containing (227)Th. (223)Ra is the first progeny of (227)Th and the only one with a long half-life (days). We have, therefore, focused on the removal of this specific species since the progenies of (223)Ra will have a very limited lifetime in the formulation once (223)Ra is removed. In this study, we investigated a multitude of materials for their ability to reduce the (223)Ra level by: (1) passive diffusion or (2) by cartridge filtration on gravity columns. In addition, we probe the compatibility of these materials in the presence of antibody trastuzumab to assess the level of protein binding and estimate the quenching of radiolysis by binding of radionuclides. A screening matrix of organic and inorganic materials was established, i.e. strontium and calcium alginate gel beads, distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG) liposomes, ceramic hydroxyapatite, Zeolite UOP type 4A and cation exchange resins AG50W-X8 and SOURCE 30S. First, passive diffusional uptake of (223)Ra by suspended materials present in the formulation was measured as a decrease in sample radioactivity after separation. Second, selected materials were packed on gravity columns in order to evaluate the efficiency of column separation versus diffusional adsorption. The retention of (223)Ra and (227)Th were characterized by measuring the radioactivity in the eluate and on the columns. Finally, the compatibility between trastuzumab, as a selected model antibody, and suspensions of the binding materials was analyzed during storage of the drug

  5. Extraction and purification of {sup 227}Ac and development of solid {sup 219}Rn source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Quan; Qiu, Shoukang; Xiao, Detao; Zhou, Yaohui; An, Xiaogang [University of South China, Hengyang (China). Radon Key Laboratory of Hunan Province/School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2014-04-01

    The method of {sup 227}Ac extraction and purification from high-grade uranium ore and the test results of solid {sup 219}Rn source made from {sup 227}Ac are reported in this paper. With five years of follow-up monitoring, radiochemical purity of {sup 227}Ac and the emanation power of solid {sup 219}Rn source has been checked by emanation method and γ-spectrometry, the results showed that {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa and {sup 226}Ra have been effectively removed and the emanation power of {sup 219}Rn source is about 80%. The long-term test results also showed that the {sup 219}Rn emanation rate remains stable in a wide air humidity range (40% ∝ 90%). Though the {sup 219}Rn source has not been accurately calibrated yet, it has been applied in the research for delay coincidence measurement of {sup 223}Ra. (orig.)

  6. 25 CFR 900.227 - Can the awarding official change the decision after it has been made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... has been made? 900.227 Section 900.227 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... change the decision after it has been made? (a) The decision of the awarding official is final and... is timely commenced as authorized by the Contract Disputes Act. Once the decision has been made,...

  7. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. As prescribed in 227.7104(a), use the following clause: Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (JUN...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7009 - Patent releases, license agreements, and assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent releases, license... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7009 Patent releases, license agreements,...

  9. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject...

  10. 48 CFR 52.227-4 - Patent Indemnity-Construction Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity... Clauses 52.227-4 Patent Indemnity—Construction Contracts. As prescribed in 27.201-2(d)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity—Construction Contracts (DEC 2007) Except as otherwise provided,...

  11. 48 CFR 52.227-7 - Patents-Notice of Government Licensee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-Notice of... Clauses 52.227-7 Patents—Notice of Government Licensee. As prescribed at 27.202-5(b), insert the following provision: Patents—Notice of Government Licensee (APR 1984) The Government is obligated to pay a...

  12. Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 van Johann Sebastian Bach : een praedicatio sonora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, Arie

    2007-01-01

    In the oeuvre of Johann Sebastian Bach the motets take only a modest position. According to Bach's early biographers he must have written many motets, but only few have been preserved. Among these motets Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 occupies a special position. It is the only one which combines a comp

  13. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25... Inspection of premises, books and accounts. Lessee shall agree to allow the lessor and his agents or any... Department; and their books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be...

  14. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  15. 25 CFR 227.4 - Sale of oil and gas leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases § 227.4 Sale of oil and... sales of oil and gas leases shall reserve to the Secretary of the Interior the right to reject all...

  16. The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

  17. Has California's Passage of Proposition 227 Made a Difference in the Way We Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Houchin, Anna; Flamenco, Claudia; Merlos, Moises M.; Segura, Lorena

    2001-01-01

    Examined how teachers were impacted by California's Proposition 227, highlighting changes in teaching styles and beliefs about the proposition and its effectiveness. Teachers had to change their teaching strategies to accommodate the new curriculum. They were not sufficiently trained for immediate implementation of English-only education. Teaching…

  18. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of tier, for experimental, developmental, research, design, or engineering work to be performed by... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent Rights-Retention by... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-11 Patent Rights—Retention by the Contractor (Short...

  19. 30 CFR 227.102 - What royalty management functions will MMS not delegate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What royalty management functions will MMS not... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation of Mms Royalty Functions § 227.102 What royalty management functions will MMS not delegate? This section lists the principal royalty management...

  20. 30 CFR 227.101 - What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What royalty management functions may MMS... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation of Mms Royalty Functions § 227.101 What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? (a) If there are oil and...

  1. 5 CFR 591.227 - What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What adjustment factors does OPM add to...-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.227 What adjustment factors does OPM add to the price indexes? OPM adds to the price index an adjustment factor that reflects differences in need, access to...

  2. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    will be a huge first step.Gender in Astronomy Conferences: Jim Davenport (WWU), Ben Nelson (Northwestern), Mehmet Alpsalan (NASA Ames), and Erin Maier (University of Iowa) analyzed data collected during the conference on the gender breakdown of who asks questions after oral presentations. Now in its third year, one new finding from the study is that women dont ask questions as much as men do, but they tend to ask questions more when the speaker is a woman or the first question-asker is a woman.More from #hackaas at #aas227: Gender of speaker vs. 1st to ask a question for all 3 years of Gender in Astro survey pic.twitter.com/l74D3rSUOD Erin Maier (@fallelujah) January 9, 2016The Early Reference Project: Many pre-1950 publications lack up-to-date citation information because the text is digitally archived as an image. Brendan Wells (UC Santa Cruz) worked with representatives from ADS and Zooniverse to set up a crowd-sourced platform to identify references in these old papers.Glassdome: Ellie Schwab (CUNY) and colleagues Paige Godfrey, Munazza Alam, and Cam Buzzard began work on a website modeled after glassdoor for safely sharing experiences throughout their astronomy careers. Glassdome will feature career path stories, department reviews, and salaries, all optionally anonymous. The site is hosted by ScienceBetter and is under development.Observing Run Sharing: Sometimes near the end of a long night at the telescope you have observed everything you need but still have time left. Short of choosing randomly or hoping a colleague is online in the middle of the night, there is currently no good solution. To address this, Brooke Simmons (UC San Diego) designed a web app that would allow astronomers to submit their favorite night sky targets. The project is still a work in progress.ArXiv Podcast: Ruth Angus (Oxford) started a podcast featuring astronomers summarizing their new papers submitted to astro-ph in one minute. Its like audio astrobites! If youve recently published a

  3. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT PROGRAM - BENCH RUN PB-10 (HTI 227-109)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-12-30

    This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.

  4. Human Cystathionine-β-Synthase Phosphorylation on Serine227 Modulates Hydrogen Sulfide Production in Human Urothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca

    Full Text Available Urothelium, the epithelial lining the inner surface of human bladder, plays a key role in bladder physiology and pathology. It responds to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing several factors and mediators. Recently it has been shown that hydrogen sulfide contributes to human bladder homeostasis. Hydrogen sulfide is mainly produced in human bladder by the action of cystathionine-β-synthase. Here, we demonstrate that human cystathionine-β-synthase activity is regulated in a cGMP/PKG-dependent manner through phosphorylation at serine 227. Incubation of human urothelium or T24 cell line with 8-Bromo-cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP but not dibutyryl-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (d-cAMP causes an increase in hydrogen sulfide production. This result is congruous with the finding that PKG is robustly expressed but PKA only weakly present in human urothelium as well as in T24 cells. The cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation elicited by 8-Br-cGMP is selectively reverted by KT5823, a specific PKG inhibitor. Moreover, the silencing of cystathionine-β-synthase in T24 cells leads to a marked decrease in hydrogen sulfide production either in basal condition or following 8-Br-cGMP challenge. In order to identify the phosphorylation site, recombinant mutant proteins of cystathionine-β-synthase in which Ser32, Ser227 or Ser525 was mutated in Ala were generated. The Ser227Ala mutant cystathionine-β-synthase shows a notable reduction in basal biosynthesis of hydrogen sulfide becoming unresponsive to the 8-Br-cGMP challenge. A specific antibody that recognizes the phosphorylated form of cystathionine-β-synthase has been produced and validated by using T24 cells and human urothelium. In conclusion, human cystathionine-β-synthase can be phosphorylated in a PKG-dependent manner at Ser227 leading to an increased catalytic activity.

  5. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R.; Sugathan, P.; Jhingan, A.; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mukul, Ish; Mohanto, G.; Siwal, D.; Saneesh, N.; Banerjee, T.; Thakur, Meenu; Mahajan, Ruchi; Kumar, N.; Chatterjee, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19F + 206,208Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with existing data for induced fission of 224,226Th and 228U around barrier energies. Enhancement in mass variance of 225,227Pa nuclei at below-barrier energies shows evidence for presence of asymmetric fission events mixed with symmetric fission events. This is in agreement with the results of mass distributions of nearby nuclei 224,226Th and 228U where two-mode fission process was observed. Two-mode feature of fission arises due to the shell effects changing the landscape of the potential-energy surfaces at low excitation energies. The excitation-energy dependence of the mass variance gives strong evidence for survival of microscopic shell effects in fission of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa with initial excitation energy ∼30-50 MeV.

  6. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19F+206,208Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with existing data for induced fission of 224,226Th and 228U around barrier energies. Enhancement in mass variance of 225,227Pa nuclei at below-barrier energies shows evidence for presence of asymmetric fission events mixed with symmetric fission events. This is in agreement with the results of mass distributions of nearby nuclei 224,226Th and 228U where two-mode fission process was observed. Two-mode feature of fission arises due to the shell effects changing the landscape of the potential-energy surfaces at low excitation energies. The excitation-energy dependence of the mass variance gives strong evidence for survival of microscopic shell effects in fission of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa with initial excitation energy ∼30–50 MeV.

  7. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from decayed thorium-227 in drug formulations. Material screening and method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2016-08-01

    Targeted thorium conjugates are currently being investigated as a new class of alpha-radiopharmaceuticals. The natural decay of thorium-227 ((227)Th) results in the ingrowth of radium-223 ((223)Ra). Consideration must, therefore, be given to define acceptable limits of (223)Ra in the drug product at the time of dose administration. By effective sequestration of (223)Ra, we aim to improve the radiochemical purity and extend the effective user window of drug products containing (227)Th. (223)Ra is the first progeny of (227)Th and the only one with a long half-life (days). We have, therefore, focused on the removal of this specific species since the progenies of (223)Ra will have a very limited lifetime in the formulation once (223)Ra is removed. In this study, we investigated a multitude of materials for their ability to reduce the (223)Ra level by: (1) passive diffusion or (2) by cartridge filtration on gravity columns. In addition, we probe the compatibility of these materials in the presence of antibody trastuzumab to assess the level of protein binding and estimate the quenching of radiolysis by binding of radionuclides. A screening matrix of organic and inorganic materials was established, i.e. strontium and calcium alginate gel beads, distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG) liposomes, ceramic hydroxyapatite, Zeolite UOP type 4A and cation exchange resins AG50W-X8 and SOURCE 30S. First, passive diffusional uptake of (223)Ra by suspended materials present in the formulation was measured as a decrease in sample radioactivity after separation. Second, selected materials were packed on gravity columns in order to evaluate the efficiency of column separation versus diffusional adsorption. The retention of (223)Ra and (227)Th were characterized by measuring the radioactivity in the eluate and on the columns. Finally, the compatibility between trastuzumab, as a selected model antibody, and suspensions of the binding materials was analyzed during storage of the drug

  8. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control data and, if used, the serial number of any x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. (ix) Specific... that may cause lead-based paint exposure to one or more children age 6 years and under shall be... exposure to one or more children age 6 years and under shall be collected. (4) The following surfaces...

  9. Interplay of fission modes in mass distribution of light actinide nuclei 225,227Pa

    CERN Document Server

    Dubey, R; Jhingan, A; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mukul, Ish; Mohanto, G; Siwal, D; Saneesh, N; Banerjee, T; Thakur, Meenu; Mahajan, Ruchi; Kumar, N; Chatterjee, M B

    2015-01-01

    Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for 225,227Pa nuclei formed in fusion reactions of 19F + 206, 208Pb around fusion barrier energies. Mass-angle correlations do not indicate any quasi-fission like events in this bombarding energy range. Mass distributions were fitted by Gaussian distribution and mass variance extracted. At below-barrier energies, the mass variance was found to increase with decrease in energy for both nuclei. Results from present work were compared with existing data for induced fission of 224, 226Th and 228U around barrier energies. Enhancement in mass variance of 225, 227Pa nuclei at below-barrier energies shows evidence for presence of asymmetric fission events mixed with symmetric fission events. This is in agreement with the results of mass distributions of nearby nuclei 224, 226Th and 228U where two-mode fission process was observed. Two-mode feature of fission arises due to the shell effects changing the landscape of the potential energy surfaces at low excitation energ...

  10. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  11. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  12. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  13. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architectural designs and... construction involving architect-engineer services, is to obtain a unique architectural design of a building, a... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7107-1...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry. PMID:27480344

  15. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry.

  16. 78 FR 9420 - Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... 227 will begin at 9 a.m., Wednesday, March 20, 2013, at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome, 1500 Sugarbowl... to 66 FR 28002 (published May 21, 2001), 69 FR 23211 (published April 28, 2004), 72 FR 27590 (published May 16, 2007), 72 FR 35720 (published June 29, 2007), 73 FR 63505 (published October 24,...

  17. Accelerating growth of HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) in the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laube, J.C.; Martinerie, P.; Witrant, E.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Bolder, M.; Rockmann, T.; van der Veen, C; Sturges, W.T.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first measurements of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea), a substitute for ozone depleting compounds, in air samples originating from remote regions of the atmosphere and present evidence for its accelerating growth. Observed mixing ratios ranged from below 0.01 ppt in deep f

  18. Imaging and treating tumor vasculature with targeted radiolabeled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ruggiero

    2010-09-01

    imaging. Near-infrared three-dimensional fluorescent-mediated tomography was used to image the LS174T tumor model, collect antibody-alone PK data, and calculate the number of copies of VE-cad epitope per cell. All of these studies were performed as a single administration of construct and were found to be safe and well tolerated by the murine model. These data have implications that support further imaging and radiotherapy studies using a SWCNT-based platform and focusing on the tumor vessels as the target.Keywords: actinium-225 (225Ac, zirconium-89 (89Zr, angiogenesis, vascular endothelial-cadherin, radioimmunotherapy (RIT, radioimmunoPET

  19. Analysis of drug resistance for 227 strains enterococci%227株肠球菌细菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀先; 黄素荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the enterococcal distribution in clinical samples and their drug resistance to commonly use antibiotic and provide the guidance for rational administration. Methods Adopting paper diffusion method to observe the drug resistance of enterococci isolated from clinical samples in our hospital and analyzing their distribution in the samples. Results En-terococcus faecalis accounts for 44. 1 % in 227 strains and Enterococcus faeciura accounts for 37. 9% , the other kinds of enterococci were rare. There was no statistical difference between drug resistance of Enterococcus faecium and that of enterococcus faecalis. Vancomycin was the most potent antimicrobial. Penicillin,ampicillin,and nitrofurantion showed good antibacterial activity against enterococcus faecalis. Enterococcus faecium displayed high-level resistance against antibiotics in addition to glycopeptides. Conclusion Doctor should pay attention to the drug resistance about clinically common pathogenic bacterium. Continual surveillance of resistance rate of enterococcus is important to direct the treatment of enterococcus infections.%目的 了解肠球菌在临床标本中的分布及对常用的抗菌药物的耐药现状,指导临床合理用药.方法 对临床标本中分离出的细菌进行系统检验,采用纸片法对分离鉴定后的肠球菌进行药物敏感性试验.结果 肠球菌可在临床常见的多种标本中检出,粪肠球菌(44.1%)与屎肠球菌(37.9%)常见,其他肠球菌(18%)少见.对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,粪肠球菌和屎肠球菌之间的差异无统计学意义.万古霉素是敏感性最高的抗生素.青霉素、氨苄西林和呋喃妥因对粪肠球菌具有较好的抗菌活性.屎肠球菌对除糖肽类抗生素以外的所有临床常用抗菌药物显示高水平耐药.结论 临床医生应关注临床常见病原菌的耐药性研究,动态监测肠球菌的耐药状况对指导临床治疗具有重要意义.

  20. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  1. Interannual variation of the quasi-two-day wave at 22.7 S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lourivaldo; Jacobi, Christoph; Batista, Paulo; Rodrigues de Araujo, Luciana; Rodrigues, Chayenny E. S.; Lilienthal, Friederike

    2016-07-01

    In the present investigation, the mesosphere/lower thermosphere winds at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W) obtained by a VHF all sky interferometric meteor radar have been used to investigate the interannual variability of the quasi-two-day wave (QTDW) amplitudes at a low latitude in the Southern Hemisphere. The wind data were obtained from December 1999 to July 2006, from September 2007 to October 2008 and from December 2013 to April 2015. The analysis shows that meridional amplitudes for QTDW are larger than zonal amplitudes and the strongest amplitudes occur after austral summer solstice in January-February. Besides semiannual and annual oscillations, the QTDW amplitudes in the meridional winds also show weak quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The summer QTDW in the meridional winds also shows a possible correlation with solar activity. The amplitudes are nearly in phase with the 11 year solar cycle, and the solar maxima leads the QTDW maxima by one year. Finally, larger QTDW amplifications have been observed during 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2015 summers. The unusual major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event suggests a coupling between QTDW amplification and SSW during Jan-Feb 2006. The mechanistic global circulation model MUAM of the middle and upper atmosphere has been used to simulate the dynamic configuration during January major and minor SSW events.

  2. Study on the Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome and Clinical Pathology in 227 Patients with Primary Glomerular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李深; 饶向荣; 王素霞; 张改华; 李晓玫; 戴希文; 陈可冀

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the severity of Chinese medicine(CM) bloodstasis syndrome(BSS) with clinical features and renal lesion indexes of the primary glomerular disease. Methods:An epidemiological survey was conducted to collect the data of 227 patients diagnosed as chronic primary glomerular diseases,and their severity of BSS were scored three days before renal biopsies were performed.The following clinical indexes were analyzed:age,course of glomerular diseases,24-h urine protein ration...

  3. Interaction between supernova remnant G22.7–0.2 and the ambient molecular clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yang; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Xin [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    We have carried out {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0 and 2-1), {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0), and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) observations in the direction of the supernova remnant (SNR) G22.7–0.2. A filamentary molecular gas structure, which is likely part of a larger molecular complex with V {sub LSR} ∼ 75-79 km s{sup –1}, is detected and is found to surround the southern boundary of the remnant. In particular, the high-velocity wing (77-110 km s{sup –1}) in the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0 and J = 2-1) emission shows convincing evidence of the interaction between SNR G22.7–0.2 and the 75-79 km s{sup –1} molecular clouds (MCs). Spectra with redshifted profiles, a signature of shocked molecular gas, are seen in the southeastern boundary of the remnant. The association between the remnant and the 77 km s{sup –1} MCs places the remnant at the near distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, which agrees with a location on the Scutum-Crux arm. We suggest that SNR G22.7–0.2, SNR W41, and H II region G022.760-0.485 are at the same distance and are associated with GMC G23.0–0.4.

  4. Interaction between supernova remnant G22.7–0.2 and the ambient molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out 12CO (J = 1-0 and 2-1), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) observations in the direction of the supernova remnant (SNR) G22.7–0.2. A filamentary molecular gas structure, which is likely part of a larger molecular complex with V LSR ∼ 75-79 km s–1, is detected and is found to surround the southern boundary of the remnant. In particular, the high-velocity wing (77-110 km s–1) in the 12CO (J = 1-0 and J = 2-1) emission shows convincing evidence of the interaction between SNR G22.7–0.2 and the 75-79 km s–1 molecular clouds (MCs). Spectra with redshifted profiles, a signature of shocked molecular gas, are seen in the southeastern boundary of the remnant. The association between the remnant and the 77 km s–1 MCs places the remnant at the near distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, which agrees with a location on the Scutum-Crux arm. We suggest that SNR G22.7–0.2, SNR W41, and H II region G022.760-0.485 are at the same distance and are associated with GMC G23.0–0.4.

  5. Structural basis for nematode eIF4E binding an m(2,2,7)G-Cap and its implications for translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhi; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Piecyk, Karolina; Dickson, Laura; Wallace, Adam; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Kieft, Jeffrey; Zhao, Rui; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E

    2011-11-01

    Metazoan spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing generates mRNAs with an m(2,2,7)G-cap and a common downstream SL RNA sequence. The mechanism for eIF4E binding an m²²⁷G-cap is unknown. Here, we describe the first structure of an eIF4E with an m(2,2,7)G-cap and compare it to the cognate m⁷G-eIF4E complex. These structures and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data indicate that the nematode Ascaris suum eIF4E binds the two different caps in a similar manner except for the loss of a single hydrogen bond on binding the m(2,2,7)G-cap. Nematode and mammalian eIF4E both have a low affinity for m(2,2,7)G-cap compared with the m⁷G-cap. Nematode eIF4E binding to the m⁷G-cap, m(2,2,7)G-cap and the m(2,2,7)G-SL 22-nt RNA leads to distinct eIF4E conformational changes. Additional interactions occur between Ascaris eIF4E and the SL on binding the m(2,2,7)G-SL. We propose interactions between Ascaris eIF4E and the SL impact eIF4G and contribute to translation initiation, whereas these interactions do not occur when only the m(2,2,7)G-cap is present. These data have implications for the contribution of 5'-UTRs in mRNA translation and the function of different eIF4E isoforms. PMID:21965542

  6. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  7. Combined renin inhibition/(prorenin receptor blockade in diabetic retinopathy--a study in transgenic (mREN227 rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W Batenburg

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of renin-angiotensin system (RAS contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Prorenin, the precursor of renin is highly elevated in ocular fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy. Prorenin may exert local effects in the eye by binding to the so-called (prorenin receptor ((PRR. Here we investigated the combined effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the putative (PRR blocker handle-region peptide (HRP on diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen227 rats (a model with high plasma prorenin levels as well as prorenin stimulated cytokine expression in cultured Müller cells. Adult (mRen227 rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1 non-diabetic; (2 diabetic treated with vehicle; (3 diabetic treated with aliskiren (10 mg/kg per day; and (4 diabetic treated with aliskiren+HRP (1 mg/kg per day. Age-matched non-diabetic wildtype Sprague-Dawley rats were used as control. Drugs were administered by osmotic minipumps for three weeks. Transgenic (mRen227 rat retinas showed increased apoptotic cell death of both inner retinal neurons and photoreceptors, increased loss of capillaries, as well as increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. These pathological changes were further exacerbated by diabetes. Aliskiren treatment of diabetic (mRen227 rats prevented retinal gliosis, and reduced retinal apoptotic cell death, acellular capillaries and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. HRP on top of aliskiren did not provide additional protection. In cultured Müller cells, prorenin significantly increased the expression levels of IL-1α and TNF-α, and this was completely blocked by aliskiren or HRP, their combination, (PRR siRNA and the AT1R blocker losartan, suggesting that these effects entirely depended on Ang II generation by (PRR-bound prorenin. In conclusion, the lack of effect of HRP on top of aliskiren, and the Ang II-dependency of the ocular

  8. Eta' photoproduction on the proton for photon energies from 1.527 to 2.227 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, M; Ball, J P; Collins, P; Pasyuk, E; Ritchie, B G; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Credé, V; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; DeVita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; Maximon, L C; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Paterson, C; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J

    2006-02-17

    Differential cross sections for the reaction gamma p --> eta' p have been measured with the CLAS spectrometer and a tagged photon beam with energies from 1.527 to 2.227 GeV. The results reported here possess much greater accuracy than previous measurements. Analyses of these data suggest for the first time the coupling of the eta'N channel to both the S11(1535) and P11(1710) resonances, known to couple strongly to the etaN channel in photoproduction on the proton, and the importance of J = 3/2 resonances in the process. PMID:16605984

  9. Standardized, systemic phenotypic analysis of Umod(C93F and Umod(A227T mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kemter

    Full Text Available Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD summarizes different clinical features of an autosomal dominant heritable disease syndrome in humans with a proven uromodulin (UMOD mutation involved. It is often characterized by hyperuricemia, gout, alteration of urine concentrating ability, as well as a variable rate of disease progression inconstantly leading to renal failure and histological alterations of the kidneys. We recently established the two Umod mutant mouse lines Umod(C93F and Umod(A227T on the C3H inbred genetic background both showing kidney defects analogous to those found in human UAKD patients. In addition, disease symptoms were revealed that were not yet described in other published mouse models of UAKD. To examine if further organ systems and/or metabolic pathways are affected by Umod mutations as primary or secondary effects, we describe a standardized, systemic phenotypic analysis of the two mutant mouse lines Umod(A227T and Umod(C93F in the German Mouse Clinic. Different genotypes as well as different ages were tested. Beside the already published changes in body weight, body composition and bone metabolism, the influence of the Umod mutation on energy metabolism was confirmed. Hematological analysis revealed a moderate microcytic and erythropenic anemia in older Umod mutant mice. Data of the other analyses in 7-10 month-old mutant mice showed single small additional effects.

  10. Development of the method for treatment for bone metastasis by using disequilibrium-type alpha particle emitting in vivo generator: 227Th-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of an alpha emitting radiopharmaceutical, 227Th-EDTMP for treatment of bone metastasis, 1) the process of bone metastasis on rats were monitored by radiography and gamma scintigraphy, and 2) 227Th-EDTMP were administered to bone metastasis model rats and assessed its palliation effect by von Frey filament test and measured tumor size. Two weeks after tumor cell inoculation, rats showed osteolytic change on cell inoculated site and bone lesion was detected by scintigraphy. In the therapy study, the rats showed no toxic effect by 227Th-EDTMP. However, the tumor volume size was increased with time and the bone pain palliation was comparable to control groups. Further experiment was necessary. (author)

  11. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing

  12. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains, respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. Results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing. (author)

  13. Assessment of long-term radiotoxicity after treatment with the low-dose-rate alpha-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-rituximab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Jostein; Heyerdahl, Helen; Hjelmerud, Anne Kristine; Larsen, Roy H. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Jonasdottir, Thora J. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Small Animal Section, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Nesland, Jahn M. [Oslo University Hospital, Division of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Faculty Division The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Medical Faculty, Oslo (Norway); Borrebaek, Joergen [Algeta AS, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-01-15

    The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab labelled with the {alpha}-particle-emitting radionuclide {sup 227}Th is of interest as a radiotherapeutic agent for treatment of lymphoma. Complete regression of human lymphoma Raji xenografts in 60% of mice treated with 200 kBq/kg {sup 227}Th-rituximab has been observed. To evaluate possible late side effects of {sup 227}Th-rituximab, the long-term radiotoxicity of this potential radiopharmaceutical was investigated. BALB/c mice were injected with saline, cold rituximab or 50, 200 or 1,000 kBq/kg {sup 227}Th-rituximab and followed for up to 1 year. In addition, nude mice with Raji xenografts treated with various doses of {sup 227}Th-rituximab were also included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated by measurements of mouse body weight, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts, serum clinical chemistry parameters and histological examination of tissues. Only the 1,000 kBq/kg dosage resulted in decreased body weight of the BALB/c mice. There was a significant but temporary decrease in WBC and platelet count in mice treated with 400 and 1,000 kBq/kg {sup 227}Th-rituximab. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 200 kBq/kg. The maximum tolerated activity was between 600 and 1,000 kBq/kg. No significant signs of toxicity were observed in histological sections in any examined tissue. There were significantly (p < 0.05), but transiently, higher concentrations of serum bile acids and aspartate aminotransferase in mice treated with either {sup 227}Th-rituximab or non-labelled antibody when compared with control mice. The maximum tolerated dose to bone marrow was between 2.1 and 3.5 Gy. Therapeutically relevant dose levels of {sup 227}Th-rituximab were well tolerated in mice. Bone marrow suppression, as indicated by decrease in WBC count, was the dose-limiting radiotoxicity. These toxicity data together with anti-tumour activity data in a CD20-positive xenograft mouse model indicate that therapeutic effects could be

  14. A synchrotron study of Na2.27Ho7.73(SiO46O0.72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A well crystallized powder sample of sodium holmium orthosilicate oxyapatite, Na2.27Ho7.73(SiO46O0.72, was obtained after mechanical milling and thermal treatment at 1123 K. Crystal structure analysis was performed from the results of Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron diffraction data. As in other rare-earth orthosilicate apatites, sodium cations appear located sharing with holmium the 4f Wyckoff position at the center of a tricapped trigonal prism. In its turn, holmium almost fully occupies the 6h position at the center of a seven-coordinated pentagonal bipyramid. A small quantity of Na atoms was found at this site. No vacancies are present in the two independent crystallographic sites available for Ho and Na atoms.

  15. Accelerating growth of HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laube, J.C.; Martinerie, P.; Witrant, E.;

    2010-01-01

    firn air to 0.59 ppt in the current northern mid-latitudinal upper troposphere. Firn air samples collected in Greenland were used to reconstruct a history of atmospheric abundance. Year-on-year increases were deduced, with acceleration in the growth rate from 0.029 ppt per year in 2000 to 0.056 ppt per......We report the first measurements of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea), a substitute for ozone depleting compounds, in air samples originating from remote regions of the atmosphere and present evidence for its accelerating growth. Observed mixing ratios ranged from below 0.01 ppt in deep...... the reconstructed atmospheric trend and suggest that current "bottom-up" estimates of global emissions for 2005 are too high by a factor of three....

  16. A new model of diabetic nephropathy with progressive renal impairment in the transgenic (mRen-2)27 rat (TGR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, DJ; Wilkinson-Berka, JL; Allen, TJ; Cooper, ME; Skinner, SL

    1998-01-01

    Background. The tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may modulate the structural and functional changes that occur in the diabetic kidney. Methods. Hypertensive transgenic (mREN-2)27 rat (TGR) that exhibit increased tissue renin expression were administered streptozotocin (STZ, diabetic) or citrate

  17. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyerdahl, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Heyerdahl@rr-research.no [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital - The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Røe, Kathrine [Department of Oncology, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog (Norway); Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel [Department of Research and Development, Algeta ASA, Oslo (Norway); Dahle, Jostein [Nordic Nanovector AS, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

  18. Structural insights into parasite eIF4E binding specificity for m7G and m2,2,7G mRNA caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhi; Zhao, Rui; McFarland, Craig; Kieft, Jeffrey; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E

    2009-11-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E recognizes the mRNA cap, a key step in translation initiation. Here we have characterized eIF4E from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Schistosome mRNAs have either the typical monomethylguanosine (m(7)G) or a trimethylguanosine (m(2,2,7)G) cap derived from spliced leader trans-splicing. Quantitative fluorescence titration analyses demonstrated that schistosome eIF4E has similar binding specificity for both caps. We present the first crystal structure of an eIF4E with similar binding specificity for m(7)G and m(2,2,7)G caps. The eIF4E.m(7)GpppG structure demonstrates that the schistosome protein binds monomethyl cap in a manner similar to that of single specificity eIF4Es and exhibits a structure similar to other known eIF4Es. The structure suggests an alternate orientation of a conserved, key Glu-90 in the cap-binding pocket that may contribute to dual binding specificity and a position for mRNA bound to eIF4E consistent with biochemical data. Comparison of NMR chemical shift perturbations in schistosome eIF4E on binding m(7)GpppG and m(2,2,7)GpppG identified key differences between the two complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated significant thermodynamics differences for the binding process with the two caps (m(7)G versus m(2,2,7)G). Overall the NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest the importance of intrinsic conformational flexibility in the schistosome eIF4E that enables binding to m(2,2,7)G cap. PMID:19710013

  19. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. PMID:27234542

  20. A sorption study of 85Sr, 137Cs and 227Th onto glacial sand as part of an interlaboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of radionuclide batch sorption tests have been carried out on core material from boreholes on the BNFL Drigg site, Cumbria, as part of an intercomparison exercise with BNFL, Sellafield. This report describes the nature of the materials used, the method and the results of the BGS side of the interlaboratory exercise. Another report will describe the intercomparison. These experiments formed part of a wider programme of laboratory tests by BGS to ascertain the sorption properties of the Drigg sands and silts as an information base for designing artificial in-situ radionuclide migration experiments on site at Drigg. Three radionuclides were used, 85Sr, 137Cs, and 227Th. Interestingly, although sorption of strontium was about 15 times less than for thorium, the pattern of sorption as a function of borehole depth i.e. mineralogical composition, was very similar. Sorption of 137Cs was found to be non-linear, depending strongly on caesium concentration in the groundwater. Isotherm fits were used to determine the energy of sorption in the ion exchange process, the mechanism responsible for uptake. There is a need for a standard batch sorption method to be in common use. (author)

  1. Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT (derivative from [11C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [11C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [18F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [11C]BF227, there were no significant difference of VT (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [18F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the tracers

  2. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 20 - Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category 1(TBq) Category 1(Ci) Category 2(TBq) Category 2(Ci) Actinium-227 20 540 0.2 5.4 Americium-241 60... 2 54 Strontium-90 1,000 27,000 10 270 Thorium-228 20 540 0.2 5.4 Thorium-229 20 540 0.2 5.4...

  4. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  5. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  6. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  7. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  8. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  9. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  10. Planetary wave seasonality from meteor wind measurements at 7.4° S and 22.7° S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, L. R.; Lima, L. M.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Takahashi, H.

    2014-05-01

    In this study we have used wind observation data from the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region, obtained from meteor radar measurements in São João do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W) from July 2004 to December 2008 and in Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W) from January 2002 to July 2006 and from September 2007 to November 2008. From the spectral analysis it was possible to identify the presence of planetary-scale oscillations in the hourly winds for the two latitudes and to study their transient character, which allowed elaboration of a climatology of planetary oscillation signatures. Planetary waves with periods near 2-days, 6-7 days, and 16 days were focussed on in this study. The quasi-2-day waves in the meteoric winds showed a seasonal cycle, with intense amplitudes occurring after the austral summer solstice and extending until the end of the season. The vertical wavelengths of the 2-day wave over Cachoeira Paulista were larger than those at São João do Cariri. A possible modulation of the quasi-2-day wave amplitudes by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) has been observed only at São João do Cariri. The 6-7 day oscillations presented more intense amplitudes during August-November but were present with lower amplitudes during March-April at both sites. The 6-7 day vertical wavelengths over São João do Cariri were larger than at Cachoeira Paulista. The 6-7 day amplitudes exhibited intra-seasonal and annual behavior, however, there was no clear evidence of QBO modulation. The 16-day oscillations showed a seasonal cycle at São João do Cariri, with amplifications from austral spring to mid-summer and weaker amplitudes from autumn until early winter, however, there was no clear seasonality over Cachoeira Paulista. The 16-day vertical wavelengths have assumed values of λz ~ 45-85 km over both sites. 16-day wave amplitudes at the two sites showed different long-term behaviors.

  11. Absolute rate constant and O(3P yield for the O(1D+N2O reaction in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Carl

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The absolute rate constant for the reaction that is the major source of stratospheric NOx, O(1D+N2O → products, has been determined in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K, and, in the temperature range 248 K to 600 K, the fraction of the reaction that yields O(3P. Both the rate constants and product yields were determined using a recently-developed chemiluminescence technique for monitoring O(1D that allows for higher precision determinations for both rate constants, and, particularly, O(3P yields, than do other methods. We found the rate constant, kR1, to be essentially independent of temperature between 400 K and 227 K, having a value of (1.37±0.11×10−10 cm3 s−1, and for temperatures greater than 450 K a marked decrease in rate constant was observed, with a rate constant of only (0.94±0.11×10−10 cm3 s−1 at 719 K. The rate constants determined over the 227 K–400 K range show very low scatter and are significantly greater, by 20% at room temperature and 15% at 227 K, than the current recommended values. The fraction of O(3P produced in this reaction was determined to be 0.002±0.002 at 250 K rising steadily to 0.010±0.004 at 600 K, thus the channel producing O(3P can be entirely neglected in atmospheric kinetic modeling calculations. A further result of this study is an expression of the relative quantum yields as a function of temperature for the chemiluminescence reactions (kCL1C2H + O(1D → CH(A + CO and (kCL2C2H + O(3P → CH(A + CO, both followed by CH(A → CH(X + hν, as kCL1(T/kCL2(T=(32.8T−3050/(6.29T+398.

  12. Combined renin inhibition/(pro)renin receptor blockade in diabetic retinopathy--a study in transgenic (mREN2)27 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Wendy W; Verma, Amrisha; Wang, Yunyang; Zhu, Ping; van den Heuvel, Mieke; van Veghel, Richard; Danser, A H Jan; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Prorenin, the precursor of renin is highly elevated in ocular fluid of diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy. Prorenin may exert local effects in the eye by binding to the so-called (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR). Here we investigated the combined effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the putative (P)RR blocker handle-region peptide (HRP) on diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen2)27 rats (a model with high plasma prorenin levels) as well as prorenin stimulated cytokine expression in cultured Müller cells. Adult (mRen2)27 rats were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) non-diabetic; (2) diabetic treated with vehicle; (3) diabetic treated with aliskiren (10 mg/kg per day); and (4) diabetic treated with aliskiren+HRP (1 mg/kg per day). Age-matched non-diabetic wildtype Sprague-Dawley rats were used as control. Drugs were administered by osmotic minipumps for three weeks. Transgenic (mRen2)27 rat retinas showed increased apoptotic cell death of both inner retinal neurons and photoreceptors, increased loss of capillaries, as well as increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. These pathological changes were further exacerbated by diabetes. Aliskiren treatment of diabetic (mRen2)27 rats prevented retinal gliosis, and reduced retinal apoptotic cell death, acellular capillaries and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. HRP on top of aliskiren did not provide additional protection. In cultured Müller cells, prorenin significantly increased the expression levels of IL-1α and TNF-α, and this was completely blocked by aliskiren or HRP, their combination, (P)RR siRNA and the AT1R blocker losartan, suggesting that these effects entirely depended on Ang II generation by (P)RR-bound prorenin. In conclusion, the lack of effect of HRP on top of aliskiren, and the Ang II-dependency of the ocular

  13. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Y T; Zinder, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) from Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was completed in this study by cloning and sequencing a 2.7-kb BamHI fragment containing the 3' end of nifK2 and 1,390 bp of the nifE2-homologous genes. Open reading frame nifK2 is 1,371 bp long including the stop codon TAA and encodes a polypeptide of 456 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the nifK2 and nifE2 gene products from M. barke...

  14. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  15. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  16. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  17. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  18. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  19. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  20. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  1. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  3. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  4. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  5. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  6. Targeted alpha anticancer therapies: update and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen BJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Allen,1,2 Chen-Yu Huang,3 Raymond A Clarke2 1Faculty of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Ingham Institute, University of Western Sydney, Liverpool, NSW, Australia; 3Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Targeted alpha therapy (TAT is an emerging option for local and systemic cancer treatment. Preclinical research and clinical trials show that alpha-emitting radionuclides can kill targeted cancer cells while sparing normal cells, thus reducing toxicity. 223RaCl2 (Xofigo® is the first alpha emitting radioisotope to gain registration in the US for palliative therapy of prostate cancer bone metastases by indirect physiological targeting. The alpha emitting radioisotopes 211At, 213Bi, 225Ac and 227Th are being used to label targeting vectors such as monoclonal antibodies for specific cancer therapy indications. In this review, safety and tolerance aspects are considered with respect to microdosimetry, specific energy, Monte Carlo model calculations, biodosimetry, equivalent dose and mutagenesis. The clinical efficacy of TAT for solid tumors may also be enhanced by its capacity for tumor anti-vascular (TAVAT effects. This review emphasizes key aspects of TAT research with respect to the PAI2-uPAR complex and the monoclonal antibodies bevacizumab, C595 and J591. Clinical trial outcomes are reviewed for neuroendocrine tumors, leukemia, glioma, melanoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and prostate bone metastases. Recommendations and future directions are proposed.Keywords: biodosimetry, microdosimetry, mutagenesis, PAI2, bevacizumab, C595, J591, tumors, cancer, metastases

  7. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  8. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  9. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  10. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  11. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  12. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  13. STIS target acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations of Necrotic Cell Targeted Alpha Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hypoxic tumour cells are radioresistant and are significant contributors to the locoregional recurrences and distant metastases that mark treatment failure. Due to restricted circulatory supply, hypoxic tumor cells frequently become necrotic and thus necrotic areas often lie near hypoxic tumour areas. In this study we investigate the feasibility of binding an alpha-emitting conjugate to necrotic cells located in the proximity of hypoxic, viable tumour cells. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations were performed to investigate the dose distribution resulting from the thorium 227 (Th227) decay chain in a representative tumour geometry. The Geant4 software toolkit was used to simulate the decay and interactions of the Th227 decay chain. The distribution of Th227 was based on a study by Thomlinson and Gray of human lung cancer histological samples (Thomlinson RH, Gray LH. Br J Cancer 1955; 9:539). The normalized dose distribution obtained with Geant4 from a cylindrical Th227 source in water is illustrated in Fig. I. The relative contribution of the different decay channels is displayed, together with a profile through the centre of the accumulated dose map. The results support the hypothesis that significant α-particle doses will be deposited in the hypoxic tumor tissue immediately surrounding the necrotic core (where the majority of Th227 will be located). As an internal a-particle generator, the Th227-radioimmunoconjugate shows potential as an efficient hypoxic tumour sterilizer.

  15. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  16. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  17. Liposomes for cardiovascular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Tatyana S; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-04-01

    Liposome-based pharmaceuticals used within the cardiovascular system are reviewed in this article. The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by plain liposomes and liposomes with surface-attached targeting antibodies or polyethylene glycol to prolong their circulation time and accumulation at vascular injuries, ischemic zones or sites of thrombi are also discussed. An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of liposome-mediated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo targeting is presented, including discussion of the targeting of liposomes to pathological sites on the blood vessel wall and a description of liposomes that can be internalized by endothelial cells. Diagnostic liposomes used to target myocardial infarction and the relative importance of liposome size, targetability of immunoliposomes and prolonged circulation time on the efficiency of sealing hypoxia-induced plasma membrane damage to cardiocytes are discussed as a promising approach for therapy. The progress in the use of targeted liposomal plasmids for the transfection of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and myocardium is presented. Stent-mediated liposomal-based drug delivery is also reviewed briefly. PMID:22834079

  18. Radar target detection simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  19. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  20. Discussion: ´Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta' by Kalyan Rudra (2014), Geomorphology, 227, 87-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sunando; Das, Sayantan; Kar, Nabendu Sekhar

    2015-12-01

    Rudra (2014, Geomorphology, 227, 87-100) presented a review of geomorphic changes of the Indian part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) during the last ~ 240 years, emphasising deterioration of distributary channels, effects of discharge augmentation from the Farakka barrage project into the Bhagirathi-Hugli river and the patterns of coastal erosion. The work contained many inconsistencies, improper understanding, and misrepresentation of facts. The principal of these involved (1) usage of nomenclature like GBD, Bengal basin, and their delineation; (2) discussions made on evolution and current status of the deltaic distributaries; and (3) generation and presentation of data on discharge, tides, and sea level. Besides this, most figures of the work contained positional inaccuracies and/or errors in survey years. We systematically addressed all these issues in the present discussion and offered corrected and up-to-date information wherever applicable.

  1. The V227A polymorphism at the PPARA locus is associated with serum lipid concentrations and modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentrations in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edmund; Tan, Chuen Seng; Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Chia, Kee Seng; Chew, Suok Kai; Tai, E Shyong

    2006-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the transcription of several proteins involved in human lipoprotein metabolism. We screened the PPARA locus for polymorphisms in 20 unrelated subjects from each of three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians). Only the V227A polymorphism was observed. We genotyped 4248 subjects (2899 Chinese, 761 Malay and 588 Asian Indians) and found allele frequencies for the A227 allele of 0.04 in Chinese, 0.006 in Malays and 0.003 in Asian Indians. We examined the associations between this polymorphism and serum lipid concentrations in Chinese. In women, but not in men, the presence of the A227 allele was associated with lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol [5.38mmol/l (95%CI: 5.22-5.54) versus 5.21mmol/l (95%CI: 4.99-5.43), p=0.047] and triglycerides [1.19mmol/l (95%CI: 1.10-1.28) versus 1.09mmol/l (95%CI: 0.98-1.21), p=0.048]. We also found that the V227A polymorphism modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentration (p-value for interaction=0.049). Our findings implicate PPARalpha in the lipid lowering associated with diets high in PUFA and suggests that genetic variation at the PPARA locus may determine the lipid response to changes in PUFA intake. PMID:16288935

  2. Application of USP inlet extensions to the TSI impactor system 3306/3320 using HFA 227 based solution metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogalian, Erik; Myrdal, Paul Brian

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to further evaluate the need for a vertical inlet extension when testing solution metered dose inhalers using the TSI Model 3306 Impactor Inlet in conjunction with the TSI Model 3320 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The configurations tested using the TSI system were compared to baseline measurements that were performed using the Andersen Mark II 8-stage cascade impactor (ACI). Seven pressurized solution metered dose inhalers were tested using varied concentrations of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), ethanol, and HFA 227 propellant. The inhalers were tested with the cascade impactor, and with the TSI system. The TSI system had three different configurations as the manufacturer provided (0 cm) or with inlet extensions of 20 and 40 cm. The extensions were located between the USP inlet and the Model 3306 Impactor Inlet. There were no practical differences between each system for the stem, actuator, or USP inlet. The fine particle mass (aerodynamic mass < 4.7 microm) was affected by extension length and correlated well with the ACI when an extension was present. APS particle size measurements were unaffected by the extension lengths and correlated well to particle size determined from the ACI analysis. It has been confirmed that an inlet extension may be necessary for the TSI system in order to give mass results that correlate to the ACI, especially for formulations having significant concentrations of low volatility excipients. Additionally, the results generated from this study were used to evaluate the product performance of HFA 227 based solution formulations that contain varying concentrations of ethanol as a cosolvent. PMID:16316853

  3. Proton-induced cross sections relevant to production of 225Ac and 223Ra in natural thorium targets below 200 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Weidner, J W; John, K D; Hemez, F; Ballard, B; Bach, H; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Dry, D; Fassbender, M E; Gulley, M S; Jackman, K R; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-01-01

    Cross sections for 223,225Ra, 225Ac and 227Th production by the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at proton energies below 200 MeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with previously published data and offer a complete excitation function for 223,225Ra in the energy range above 90 MeV. Comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows reasonable-to-good agreement. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of 225Ac and 223Ra below 200 MeV is a viable production method.

  4. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  5. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  6. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  7. Phoenix Color Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  9. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  10. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  11. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  12. Targeting peroxiredoxins against leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Xu; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Yin, Qian-Qian; Wu, Ying-Li; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx), a family of small non-seleno peroxidases, are important regulators for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to many signaling pathways and pathogenesis of diseases. Targeting redox homeostasis is being developed as a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases such as cancers. This mini-review attempts to focus on our recent discoveries on adenanthin as the first natural molecule to specifically target the resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and thus inhibit their peroxidase activities, and its role in differentiation induction in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemic cells.

  13. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  14. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  15. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  16. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  17. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  18. Tumor-Targeted Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBayoumi, Tamer A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of drug delivery systems can be enhanced by making them target-specific via the attachment of various ligands. We attempted to enhance tumor accumulation and therapeutic effect of doxorubicin-loaded long-circulating PEGylated liposomes (Doxil®, ALZA Corp.) by coupling to their surface the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody 2C5 (mAb 2C5) with nuclesome (NS)-restricted activity, that can recognize the surface of various tumor but not normal cells and specifically targets pharmaceutical carriers to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Following earlier in vitro results with various cancer cell lines, the mAb 2C5-liposomes were studied in vivo vs. plain and non-specific IgG-liposomes. Experimental design Antibody coupling to Doxil® was performed via the “post-insertion” technique. Using 111In-labeled liposomes, the tissue biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile were studied, as well as their accumulation in tumors in mice was followed by the whole-body γ-scintigraphic imaging. Therapeutic efficacy of mAb 2C5-targeted Doxil® vs. non-specific IgG-modified and original Doxil® controls was followed by registering live tumor growth and determining tumor weights upon mice sacrifice. Results mAb2C5 antibody-targeted liposomes demonstrate enhanced accumulation in tumors, and the in vivo therapeutic activity of the mAb 2C5-Doxil® treatment was found to be significantly superior, resulting in final tumor weights of only 25-40% compared to all Doxil® control treatments, when tested against the subcutaneous primary murine tumors of 4T1 and C26 and human PC3 tumor in nude mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the remarkable capability of 2C5-targeted Doxil® to specifically deliver its cargo into various tumors significantly increasing the efficacy of therapy. PMID:19276264

  19. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  20. Evolution with Drifting Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...

  1. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  2. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  3. Gene Targeting in Neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, Michael; De Angelis, Roberto; Götz, Viktoria; Boehm, Ulrich

    2015-09-20

    Research in neuroendocrinology faces particular challenges due to the complex interactions between cells in the hypothalamus, in the pituitary gland and in peripheral tissues. Within the hypothalamus alone, attempting to target a specific neuronal cell type can be problematic due to the heterogeneous nature and level of cellular diversity of hypothalamic nuclei. Because of the inherent complexity of the reproductive axis, the use of animal models and in vivo experiments are often a prerequisite in reproductive neuroendocrinology. The advent of targeted genetic modifications, particularly in mice, has opened new avenues of neuroendocrine research. Within this review, we evaluate various mouse models used in reproductive neuroendocrinology and discuss the different approaches to generate genetically modified mice, along with their inherent advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss a variety of versatile genetic tools with a focus on their potential use in reproductive neuroendocrinology.

  4. Targeting fragile X

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, Ilse; Kooy, R. Frank

    2002-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, recent studies have revealed a list of mRNAs bound by the fragile X gene product and have identified specific sequences required for the interaction between the fragile X protein and its targets. These results are a breakthrough in understanding why absence of the fragile X protein leads to mental retardation.

  5. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  6. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  7. Discovery of Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7s Quasi Periodic Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Inam, S C; Swank, J H; Stark, M J

    2004-01-01

    XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on January 6, 2003, while RXTE was monitoring the source. Using RXTE-PCA dataset between December 3, 2002 and January 29, 2003, the spin period and spin-up rate at the date of XMM-Newton observations were found to be $\\simeq 354.794$ s and $\\simeq 7.4\\times 10^{-13}$ Hz/s, respectively. The XMM-Newton observation revealed a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) corresponding to a mean period of 22.7s, the first QPO reported for this source, enabling us to estimate the Keplerian frequency at the inner radius of the disk to be $\\simeq 4.40\\times 10^{-3}$ Hz or $\\simeq 4.12\\times 10^{-3}$ Hz using a Keplerian or a beat frequency model. Using these frequencies, and a simple accretion disk model, for which the total accretion torque is similar to the material torque, we found the magnetic field of the neutron star to be $\\sim 7\\times 10^{12}$ Gauss and and the distance to the source to be $\\sim 3.2$ kpc. We also discovered a soft component modeled as a blackbody with kT $\\sim 1.90$ ...

  8. Chronic estrogen treatment in female transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats augments endothelium-derived nitric oxide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Ferrario, C M; Ganten, D; Brosnihan, K B

    1997-06-01

    Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events in women, but the mechanisms for this protection are unclear, especially in hypertensive subjects. In this study we investigated the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) treatment on blood pressure and endothelial function of transgenic [(mRen2)27] hypertensive and normotensive rats. Thirty female transgenic negative [Tg(-)] and hypertensive positive [Tg(+)] rats were ovariectomized and received either E2 (1.5 mg/rat, subcutaneously, for 3 weeks) or placebo. Chronic 17beta-estradiol treatment lowered mean blood pressure in both Tg hypertensive (159 +/- 4 v 145 +/- 4 mm Hg, P calcium ionophore (A23187)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was less potent in Tg(+) as compared to Tg(-) rats and was enhanced by E2 treatment only in Tg(+) animals. There were no differences in the vasodilator responses elicited by sodium nitroprusside. Removal of endothelium and blockade of NO production abolished the endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The selective NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (LMMNA), was used to evaluate indirectly the basal contribution of NO in vascular rings. The response to LMMNA was attenuated in untreated Tg(+) as compared to Tg(-) rats. E2 treatment augmented the contraction response to NOS inhibition in both Tg(+) and Tg(-) rats, resulting in a response in Tg(+) rats that was no different from Tg(-) rats. These results indicate that untreated, surgically ovariectomized hypertensive rats show deficiencies in endothelial function, which can be improved by estrogen replacement.

  9. Effect of pressurized solution nitriding on phase changes and mechanical properties of ferritic Fe–22.7Cr–2.4Mo stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh, E-mail: r_mohammadzadeh@sut.ac.ir; Akbari, Alireza, E-mail: akbari@sut.ac.ir

    2014-01-13

    Pressurized solution nitriding (PSN) of ferritic Fe–22.7Cr–2.4Mo stainless steel at 1200 °C in nitrogen gas under pressure of 0.25 MPa for different times has been investigated. The structure and mechanical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. Phase transformation of ferrite to austenite starts from the sample surface and grows further into the core with increasing nitriding time. A fully austenitic structure was achieved after 9 h nitriding for plates of 2 mm thick. Strip-like chromium nitride precipitates with discontinuous morphology are found in the edges of the sample nitrided for 12 h. The average solute nitrogen content of austenite phase was estimated based on lattice parameter calculations to vary from 1.25 to 1.75 wt%. The yield strength is monotonically increased above 900 MPa with increasing the PSN time. The solution nitrided samples for 6 h exhibit high elongation to fracture (above 30%) and high tensile strength (above 1000 MPa). Solution nitriding changes the fracture mode from ductile to a mixed mode inter-granular and trans-granular brittle fracture. Formation of the planar slip bands plays a major role in brittle fracture of the austenite phase. Brittle fracture is favored with precipitation of chromium nitrides. The time of the PSN should be optimized to suppress chromium nitride precipitation.

  10. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  11. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  12. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  13. A Note on Inflation Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  14. Some Issues in Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Haldane

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to the implementation of an inflation-targeting regime. In particular it focuses on: whether inflation targeting is 'new'; whether (and how) the forward-looking nature of inflation-targeting helps to prevent instabilities in inflation; whether inflation-targeting potentially destabilises output; and whether it requires too much knowledge on the part of the authorities. The paper argues that none of these propositions is in general c...

  15. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  16. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  17. ORION laser target diagnosticsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; Wright, M. J.; Hood, B. A.; Kemshall, P.

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  18. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  19. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Missailidis, Sotiris

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  20. After treat-to-target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Naredo, Esperanza;

    2012-01-01

    rheumatologists who have recently formed a research network - the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI) group. The statement proposes that targeting therapy to PD activity provides superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone and introduces the rationale for a new randomised trial using...

  1. Anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Santos, Ana Flávia; Kangussu, Lucas M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Santos, Robson A S; Aguiar, Daniele C; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a counter-regulatory peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exerts its effects through the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas, which is expressed in different tissues, including the brain. Ang-(1-7) has a broad range of effects beyond the well-described cardiovascular and renal actions, including the modulation of emotional and behavioural responses. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Ang-(1-7) could attenuate the anxiety- and depression-like behaviours observed in transgenic hypertensive (mRen2)27 rats (TGRs). We also hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) could be involved in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) treatment in these hypertensive rats. Therefore, TGRs and Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test, Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Novelty Suppressed Feeding (NSF). TGRs presented a decreased percentage of entries in the open arms of the EPM test, a phenotype reversed by systemic treatment with enalapril or intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7). It is interesting that pre-treatment with A779, a selective Mas receptor antagonist, prevented the anxiolytic-like effect induced by the ACE inhibitor. In the NSF test, TGRs showed increased latency to eating, an indicative of a higher aversion in response to a new environment. These animals also showed increased immobility in the FST. Again, Ang-(1-7) reversed this phenotype. Thus, our data showed that Ang-(1-7) can modulate anxiety- and depression-like behaviours in TGRs and warrant further investigation as a new therapy for certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:27129185

  2. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  3. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  4. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  5. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  6. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  7. ICF target positioning robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the function analysis of target positioner for inertial confinement fusion, a kind of ICF target positioning robot system is designed to realize the adjustment and the alignment of a target. The robot system includes a target storage sub-system, a target exchange subsystem, a target transport subsystem and a 6-degree of freedom precision parallel robot subsystem, the structure and principle of every subsystem are dissertated. The system realizes micro scale position by parallel structure which is in the front of the system, and has the advantages of low mass, high stiffness, small cone angle, small volume and high precision. The robot system can position a target into a very small micro scale scope around the center of the target chamber whose diameter is several meters, the precision of the position reaches micro scale. Motion parameter of the positioning robot system has been tested. Experiment proves that the robot system has realized precision target position and target exchange on the condition of vacuum. (authors)

  8. Windowless target: Design of the XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the XT-ADS spallation target is performed within the European integrated project EUROTRANS (FP6 Contract FI6W-516520) that has started in April 2005. At the current status of the spallation target design process, the boundary conditions for the spallation target loop with respect to the XT-ADS performance requirements and the design of the subcritical core and primary system have been established. The next steps will concentrate on further development of the spallation target nozzle, the vacuum and spallation product confinement system and the pumping, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and cooling system

  9. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  10. The OLYMPUS internal hydrogen target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, J.C., E-mail: bernauer@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ihloff, E.; Kelsey, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Lenisa, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Milner, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Schmidt, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-08-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  11. The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target

    CERN Document Server

    Bernauer, J C; Ciullo, G; Henderson, B S; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Lenisa, P; Milner, R; Schmidt, A; Statera, M

    2014-01-01

    An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

  12. Oxide Fiber Targets at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Carminati, D; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Correia, J G; Crepieux, B; Dietrich, M; Elder, K; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Georg, U; Giles, T; Joinet, A; Jonsson, O C; Kirchner, R; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Maier, H J; Mishin, V I; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Rinaldi, T; Santana-Leitner, M; Wahl, U; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxyde fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxyde fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce...

  13. Targeting Nominal Income: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth D. West

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares nominal income and monetary targets in a standard aggregate demand - aggregate supply framework. If the desirability of policies is measured by their effect on the unconditional variance of output, nominal income targeting is preferable if and only if the aggregate elasticity of demand for real balances is greater than one. This is precisely the opposite of the condition that in Bean (1984) is sufficient to make nominal income targeting preferable.This points out the impor...

  14. Nominal Income and Inflation Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Arayssi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a macro- economic model in the area of monetary policy game theory is extended to one-sided dismissal rules concerning observed nominal output and inflation targets for the central banker. These rules specify firing the central banker if some observed policy targets have been exceeded. Such rules are shown to reduce inflationary bias if the central banker perceives her reappointment chances as being strong and is preferred to discretionary monetary policy. Various policy targets...

  15. Target properties and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the properties of the target on nuclear data was shown. In the case of targets consisting of fissionable material, this influence was demonstrated in experiments involving fission cross-section, average number of neutrons, and prompt fission neutron spectrum. The experimental methods for determining certain corrections were analysed. The method of tritium density determination for a solid target used as neutron source was likewise demonstrated. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  16. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  17. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  18. 'Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence'

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Bratsiotis; Jakob Madsen; Christopher Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation. We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence. We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s. We find that the persistenc...

  19. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  20. Data Mining for Target Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nissan; Zahavi, Jacob

    Targeting is the core of marketing management. It is concerned with offering the right product/service to the customer at the right time and using the proper channel. In this chapter we discuss how Data Mining modeling and analysis can support targeting applications. We focus on three types of targeting models: continuous-choice models, discrete-choice models and in-market timing models, discussing alternative modeling for each application and decision making. We also discuss a range of pitfalls that one needs to be aware of in implementing a data mining solution for a targeting problem.

  1. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  2. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  3. Limits of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Niculescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the trade-off between output volatility and the variability of the inflation rate around its target (Romanian case. The optimal choice for National Bank of Romania (NBR, in our opinion, is the flexible inflation targeting. For this purpose, NBR must explain the loss function and the optimal monetary policy rule. We then argued that this Romanian authority – NBR – can substantially improve its credibility under inflation targeting policy regime by becoming more accountable and transparent. Is the direct inflation targeting the best choice for the monetary policy regime in Romanian economy?

  4. Inflation Targeting and Inflation Persistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GEORGE; J.BRATSIOTIS; JAKOB; MADSEN; CHRISTOPHER; MARTIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the adoption of an inflation target reduces the persistence of inflation.We develop the theoretical literature on inflation persistence by introducing a Taylor Rule for monetary policy into a model of persistence and showing that inflation targets reduce inflation persistence.We investigate changes in the time series properties of inflation in seven countries that introduced inflation targets in the late 1980s or early 1990s.We find that the persistence of inflation is greatly reduced or eliminated following the introduction of inflation targets.

  5. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT, which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination

  6. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  7. Therapeutic Targeting of Telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length and cell function can be preserved by the human reverse transcriptase telomerase (hTERT), which synthesizes the new telomeric DNA from a RNA template, but is normally restricted to cells needing a high proliferative capacity, such as stem cells. Consequently, telomerase-based therapies to elongate short telomeres are developed, some of which have successfully reached the stage I in clinical trials. Telomerase is also permissive for tumorigenesis and 90% of all malignant tumors use telomerase to obtain immortality. Thus, reversal of telomerase upregulation in tumor cells is a potential strategy to treat cancer. Natural and small-molecule telomerase inhibitors, immunotherapeutic approaches, oligonucleotide inhibitors, and telomerase-directed gene therapy are useful treatment strategies. Telomerase is more widely expressed than any other tumor marker. The low expression in normal tissues, together with the longer telomeres in normal stem cells versus cancer cells, provides some degree of specificity with low risk of toxicity. However, long term telomerase inhibition may elicit negative effects in highly-proliferative cells which need telomerase for survival, and it may interfere with telomere-independent physiological functions. Moreover, only a few hTERT molecules are required to overcome senescence in cancer cells, and telomerase inhibition requires proliferating cells over a sufficient number of population doublings to induce tumor suppressive senescence. These limitations may explain the moderate success rates in many clinical studies. Despite extensive studies, only one vaccine and one telomerase antagonist are routinely used in clinical work. For complete eradication of all subpopulations of cancer cells a simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms will likely be needed. Possible technical improvements have been proposed including the development of more specific inhibitors, methods to increase the efficacy of vaccination methods, and

  8. Decay analysis of pre-actinide and trans-actinide nuclei formed using various projectiles on a 197Au target at ECN*=60 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Neha; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    The collective clusterization approach of the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM) has been applied to study the decay of odd mass nuclei 223Pa*, 215Fr*, 227Np*, and 233Am*, which are formed in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The aim of this study is to investigate the decay pattern and related behavior of these heavy mass nuclei formed in four distinct reactions involving different projectiles (with mass A =18 -36 ) induced on 197Au target nucleus. Further, in order to analyze the role of deformations, the calculations have been done by considering spherical choice of fragmentation as well as with inclusion of quadrupole (β2) deformation. For the heavy mass region, with fission being the dominant decay mode, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of projectile mass in reference to fission decay patterns of the pre-actinide 215Fr* nucleus and the trans-actinide nuclei 227Np* 223Pa*, 223Am* and formed at common excitation energy, ECN*=60 MeV . Besides this, the shell closure effects and the role of orientation have been explored, which suggest the presence of a noncompound nucleus process such as quasifission (QF) for the odd mass nuclei under consideration. For both the compound nucleus and the noncompound nucleus processes, the results obtained using DCM are found to have nice agreement with experimental observations. The isotopic and isobaric analysis is also worked out so as to have a comprehensive idea about the dynamics involved.

  9. Transverse target spin asymmetries on a proton target at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Transversity and transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are been measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) by using a transversely polarized target at the COMPASS experiment. COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline, which provides a 160GeV/c polarized m+ beam. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS has collected data with a transversely polarized deuteron 6LiD target. In 2007, COMPASS has used for the first time a proton NH3 target. To access transversity COMPASS has used three different quark polarimeters: the Collins effect, responsible for an azimuthal asymmetry in the single hadron distribution, azimuthal target spin asymmetries of charged hadron pairs and the transverse polarisation of L hyperons. Beside this also the Sivers asymmetry arising from the correlation between the transverse nucleon spin and the quark intrinsic transverse momentum was measured. European

  10. Testing nuclear forces by polarization transfer coefficients in d(p,p)d and d(p,d)p reactions at Ep=22.7 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgeny Epelbaum

    2005-05-01

    The proton to proton polarization transfer coefficients K{sub x}{sup x'}, K{sub y}{sup y'}, K{sub z}{sup x'} and the proton to deuteron polarization transfer coefficients K{sub x}{sup x'}, K{sub y}{sup y'}, K{sub z}{sup x'}, K{sub x}{sup y'z'}, K{sub y}{sup z'z'}, K{sub z}{sup y'z'}, K{sub y}{sup x'z'} and K{sub y}{sup x'x'-y'y'} have been measured in d({rvec p}, {rvec p})d and d({rvec p}, {rvec d})p reactions at E{sub p}{sup lab} = 22.7 MeV, respectively. The data have been compared to predictions of modern nuclear forces obtained by solving the three-nucleon Faddeev equations in momentum space. Realistic (semi) phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials combined with model three-nucleon forces and modern chiral nuclear forces have been used. The AV18, CD Bonn, Nijm I and II nucleon-nucleon interactions have been applied alone or combined with the Tucson-Melbourne 99 three-nucleon force, adjusted separately for each potential to reproduce the triton binding energy. For the AV18 potential also the Urbana IX three-nucleon force have been used. In addition chiral NN potentials in the next-to-leading-order and chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in the next-to-next-to-leading-order have been applied. Only when three-nucleon forces are included a satisfactory description of all data results. For the chiral approach the restriction to the forces in the next-to-leading order is insufficient. Only when going over to the next-to-next-to-leading order one gets a satisfactory description of the data, similar to the one obtained with the (semi) phenomenological forces.

  11. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Y T; Zinder, S H

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) from Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was completed in this study by cloning and sequencing a 2.7-kb BamHI fragment containing the 3' end of nifK2 and 1,390 bp of the nifE2-homologous genes. Open reading frame nifK2 is 1,371 bp long including the stop codon TAA and encodes a polypeptide of 456 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the nifK2 and nifE2 gene products from M. barkeri showed that both genes cluster most closely with the corresponding nif-1 gene products from Clostridium pasteurianum, consistent with our previous analyses of nifH2 and nifD2. The nifE gene product is known to be homologous to that of nifD, and our analysis shows that the branching pattern for the nifE proteins resembles that for the nifD product (with the exception of vnfE from Azotobacter vinelandii), suggesting that a gene duplication occurred before the divergence of nitrogenases. Primer extension showed that nifH2 had a single transcription start site located 34 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start site for nifH2, and a sequence resembling the archaeal consensus promoter sequence [TTTA(A/T)ATA] was found 32 nucleotides upstream from that transcription start site. A tract of four T's, previously identified as a transcription termination site in archaea, was found immediately downstream of the nifK2 gene, and a potential promoter was located upstream of the nifE2 gene. Hybridization with nifH2 and nifDK2 probes with M. barkeri RNA revealed a 4.6-kb transcript from N2-grown cells, large enough to harbor nifHDK genes and their internal open reading frames, while no transcript was detected from NH4(+)-grown cells. These results support a model in which the nitrogenase structural genes in M. barkeri are cotranscribed in a single NH4(+)-repressed operon. PMID:8550408

  12. Absolute rate constant and O(3P) yield for the O(1D)+N2O reaction in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, S. A.; Peeters, J.; Vranckx, S.

    2008-01-01

    The absolute rate constant for the reaction that is the major source of stratospheric NOx, O(1D)+N2O → products, has been determined in the temperature range 227 K to 719 K, and, in the temperature range 248 K to 600 K, the fraction of the reaction that yields O(3P). Both the rate constants and product yields were determined using a recently-developed chemiluminescence technique for monitoring O(1D) that allows for higher precision determinations for both rate constants, and, particularl...

  13. Nominal GDP: Target or Benchmark?

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Some observers have argued that the Federal Reserve would best fulfill its mandate by adopting a target for nominal gross domestic product (GDP). Insights from the monetarist tradition suggest that nominal GDP targeting could be destabilizing. However, adopting benchmarks for both nominal and real GDP could offer useful information about when monetary policy is too tight or too loose.

  14. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.;

    2003-01-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at so...

  15. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  16. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  17. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  18. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this t...

  19. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  20. Target-Searching on Percolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p (>~) 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  1. Type of Cancer Treatment: Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the role that targeted therapies play in cancer treatment. Includes how targeted therapies work against cancer, who receives targeted therapies, common side effects, and what to expect when having targeted therapies.

  2. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  3. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov...

  4. Targeted biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lufang; Xu, Ningning; Sun, Yan; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a complex invasive genetic disease that causes significant mortality rate worldwide. Protein-based biopharmaceuticals have significantly extended the lives of millions of cancer patients. This article reviews the biological function and application of targeted anticancer biopharmaceuticals. We first discuss the specific antigens and core pathways that are used in the development of targeted cancer therapy. The innovative monoclonal antibodies, non-antibody proteins, and small molecules targeting these antigens or pathways are then reviewed. Finally, the current challenges in anticancer biopharmaceuticals development and the potential solutions to address these challenges are discussed.

  5. Comparative Study on Theoretical and Machine Learning Methods for Acquiring Compressed Liquid Densities of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (R227ea via Song and Mason Equation, Support Vector Machine, and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (R227ea is a good refrigerant that reduces greenhouse effects and ozone depletion. In practical applications, we usually have to know the compressed liquid densities at different temperatures and pressures. However, the measurement requires a series of complex apparatus and operations, wasting too much manpower and resources. To solve these problems, here, Song and Mason equation, support vector machine (SVM, and artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to develop theoretical and machine learning models, respectively, in order to predict the compressed liquid densities of R227ea with only the inputs of temperatures and pressures. Results show that compared with the Song and Mason equation, appropriate machine learning models trained with precise experimental samples have better predicted results, with lower root mean square errors (RMSEs (e.g., the RMSE of the SVM trained with data provided by Fedele et al. [1] is 0.11, while the RMSE of the Song and Mason equation is 196.26. Compared to advanced conventional measurements, knowledge-based machine learning models are proved to be more time-saving and user-friendly.

  6. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  7. Targeted therapy for pediatric glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Olow

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses molecular underpinnings of responses to promising targeted agents for pediatric tumors of Central Nervous System (CNS), incorporating preclinical testing of novel and translatable combination therapies to define the best therapy for each tumor cell specific molecular aberration.

  8. Strategically targeting MYC in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    MYC is a major driver of cancer cell growth and mediates a transcriptional program spanning cell growth, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cell survival. Many efforts have been made to deliberately target MYC for cancer therapy. A variety of compounds have been generated to inhibit MYC function or stability, either directly or indirectly. The most direct inhibitors target the interaction between MYC and MAX, which is required for DNA binding. Unfortunately, these compounds do not have the desired pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for in vivo application. Recent studies report the indirect inhibition of MYC through the development of two compounds, JQ1 and THZ1, which target factors involved in unique stages of transcription. These compounds appear to have significant therapeutic value for cancers with high levels of MYC, although some effects are MYC-independent. These approaches serve as a foundation for developing novel compounds to pharmacologically target MYC-driven cancers. PMID:27081479

  9. Cavitation in a Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    2000-09-01

    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  10. "Cavitation in a Mercury Target"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    2000-09-06

    Recent theoretical work on the formation of bubble nucleation centers by energetic particles leads to some reasonably credible calculations of the maximum negative pressure that might be sustained without bubble formation in the mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source.

  11. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  12. Heavy flavors at fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of Heavy Flavor physics at fixed target experiments is reviewed. High statistics charm production and decay data are summarized and new results on beauty physics are presented. (author)

  13. IUCF liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid hydrogen or deuterium target system is described for use with intermediate energy light ion beams at IUCF. In its present use as a production target for polarized neutrons, the target cell is mounted within the beamline. Thus, certain safety features are required which prevent a possible hydrogen explosion inside the beamline or the cyclotron. These safety devices include an acoustical delay line which slows the hydrogen gas shock wave and a fast valve which closes before any large volume of escaping gas reaches it. Other safety interlocks to reduce the chances of target cell breakage and to quickly shut off ignition sources are discussed. A device involving a variable heat load which is coupled directly to the cryocondenser and is used to continually monitor and stabilize the pressure and temperature of the liquid hydrogen is described here

  14. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  15. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  16. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  17. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting.

  18. Proactive Steering Toward Oriented Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Boulic, R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a real-time steering controller ensuring the reach of a (possible mobile) target position and orientation, without requiring to build/update the full trajectory to that target. We name it the funnelling control. The final orientation is achieved through the continuous adjustment of the heading direction. This control mode is proactive in the sense that it anticipates the success/failure of the reach and adjusts the desired speed accordingly. Both features rely on an...

  19. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  20. Symmetric solid target transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  1. Plug Off: Target Group Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Kortbaek, Allan; Neubauer, Nathalie; Carreras, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This project is a study of how a sample of defined target group of a campaign, build meaning through their introduction to such a campaign. With ethno-methodology as a focal point within the overlying context of discourse psychology and more importantly, social constructivism, the aim is to analyze how a defined target group make sense of a proto awareness raising campaign. Proto in this case denotes a planned communication effort in the form of a campaign encouraging responsible use of wirel...

  2. A Theory of Child Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Donni, Olivier; Bargain, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    There is a large empirical literature on policy measures targeted at children but surprisingly very little theoretical foundation to ground the debate on the optimality of the different instruments. In the present paper, we examine the merit of targeting children through two general policies, namely selective commodity taxation and cash transfer to family with children. We consider a household that comprises an adult and a child. The household behavior is described by the ma...

  3. Ion stopping in heated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion stopping departs from classical, cold material values as the target material heats to appreciable ionization levels. The authors are investigating this phenomenon experimentally on the Proto I accelerator with a radial, Applied-B field ion diode. When the beam is focused to 0.5 TW/cm3 on thin aluminum foil targets the time-resolved departure from cold stopping is clear. Their observations and early interpretations will be presented. 9 references, 9 figures

  4. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  5. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting. PMID:21687833

  6. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. E-mail: ulli.koster@cern.ch; Bergmann, U.C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkaell, J.; Correia, J.G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O.C.; Kirchner, R.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Maier, H.J.; Mishin, V.I.; Oinonen, M.; Peraejaervi, K.; Ravn, H.L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Wahl, U.; Weissman, L

    2003-05-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce very intense {sup 6}He beams (order of 10{sup 13} ions per second) via the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}) reaction using spallation neutrons.

  7. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  8. Measurement of pretzelosity asymmetry of charged pion production in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering on a polarized $^3$He target

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Huang, J; Katich, J; Wang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2013-01-01

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized $^3$He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of $0.162<2.7$ ${\\rm GeV^2}$. The pretzelosity asymmetries on $^3$He, which can be expressed as the convolution of the $h^\\perp_{1T}$ transverse momentum dependent distribution functions and the Collins fragmentation functions in the leading order, were measured for the first time. Using the effective polarization approximation, we extracted the corresponding neutron asymmetries from the measured $^3$He asymmetries and cross-section ratios between the proton and $^3$He. Our results show that for both $\\pi^{\\pm}$ on $^3$He and on the neutron the pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  9. Discovery of potent anti-tuberculosis agents targeting leucyl-tRNA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzera, Olga I; Golub, Andriy G; Bdzhola, Volodymyr G; Volynets, Galyna P; Lukashov, Sergiy S; Kovalenko, Oksana P; Kriklivyi, Ivan A; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Starosyla, Sergiy A; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M; Tukalo, Michail A

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease caused by human pathogen bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacterial drug resistance is a very significant medical problem nowadays and development of novel antibiotics with different mechanisms of action is an important goal of modern medical science. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) has been recently clinically validated as antimicrobial target. Here we report the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of M. tuberculosis LeuRS. Using receptor-based virtual screening we have identified six inhibitors of M. tuberculosis LeuRS from two different chemical classes. The most active compound 4-{[4-(4-Bromo-phenyl)-thiazol-2-yl]hydrazonomethyl}-2-methoxy-6-nitro-phenol (1) inhibits LeuRS with IC50 of 6μM. A series of derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro toward M. tuberculosis LeuRS. It was revealed that the most active compound 2,6-Dibromo-4-{[4-(4-nitro-phenyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-hydrazonomethyl}-phenol inhibits LeuRS with IC50 of 2.27μM. All active compounds were tested for antimicrobial effect against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The compound 1 seems to have the best cell permeability and inhibits growth of pathogenic bacteria with IC50=10.01μM and IC90=13.53μM.

  10. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics is defined in the sense, that is, to maximize the therapeutic index of a chemotherapeutic agent by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to the site or tissue of action. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins involved in a wide range of cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM and cell-to-cell interactions. As cell surface receptors, integrins readily interact with extracellular ligands and play a vital role in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development, which sets up integrins as an excellent target for chemotherapy treatment. The peptide ligands containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD, which displays a strong binding affinity and selectivity to integrins, particularly to integrin αvβ3, have been developed to conjugate with various conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as small molecules, peptides and proteins, and nanoparticle-carried drugs for integtrin targeted therapeutic studies. This review highlights the recent advances in integrin targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with emphasis on target of integrin αvβ3, and describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD peptide-chemotherapeutics conjugates and their major applications.

  11. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    CERN Document Server

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  12. The SPES direct UCx target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Antonucci, C.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, M.; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; di Bernardo, P.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tonezzer, M.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.

    2007-11-01

    A possible solution for a target system aimed at the production of exotic nuclei as a result of high energy fissions in 238U compounds has been analyzed. The proposed configuration is constituted by a primary proton beam (40 MeV, 0.2 mA) directly impinging on uranium carbide disks inserted within a cylindrical carbon box. This system has been conceived to obtain both a high number of neutron rich atoms (originated from about 1013 fissions/s) and a low power deposition in the target. In order to extract the fission fragments, the box has to be hold at 2000○C. The thermal analysis shows the capability of the thermal radiation to cool the disks with a reasonable margin below the material melting point. Moreover, the analyses of the thermo-mechanical behaviour and of the effusion times confirm the promising features of this target configuration.

  13. Target identification by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches. PMID:26777141

  14. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  15. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  16. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  17. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il;

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...... take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective...... delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs....

  18. Cholinergic Targets in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Eliot R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancers express an autocrine cholinergic loop in which secreted acetylcholine can stimulate tumor growth through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Because activation of mAChR and nAChR stimulates growth; tumor growth can be stimulated by both locally synthesized acetylcholine as well as acetylcholine from distal sources and from nicotine in the high percentage of lung cancer patients who are smokers. The stimulation of lung cancer growth by cholinergic agonists offers many potential new targets for lung cancer therapy. Cholinergic signaling can be targeted at the level of choline transport; acetylcholine synthesis, secretion and degradation; and nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. In addition, the newly describe family of ly-6 allosteric modulators of nicotinic signaling such as lynx1 and lynx2 offers yet another new approach to novel lung cancer therapeutics. Each of these targets has their potential advantages and disadvantages for the development of new lung cancer therapies which are discussed in this review. PMID:26818857

  19. Antibiotics that target protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lisa S; Xie, Yun; Tor, Yitzhak

    2011-01-01

    The key role of the bacterial ribosome makes it an important target for antibacterial agents. Indeed, a large number of clinically useful antibiotics target this complex translational ribonucleoprotein machinery. The majority of these compounds, mostly of natural origin, bind to one of the three key ribosomal sites: the decoding (or A-site) on the 30S, the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the 50S, and the peptide exit tunnel on the 50S. Antibiotics that bind the A-site, such as the aminoglycosides, interfere with codon recognition and translocation. Peptide bond formation is inhibited when small molecules like oxazolidinones bind at the PTC. Finally, macrolides tend to block the growth of the amino acid chain at the peptide exit tunnel. In this article, the major classes of antibiotics that target the bacterial ribosome are discussed and classified according to their respective target. Notably, most antibiotics solely interact with the RNA components of the bacterial ribosome. The surge seen in the appearance of resistant bacteria has not been met by a parallel development of effective and broad-spectrum new antibiotics, as evident by the introduction of only two novel classes of antibiotics, the oxazolidinones and lipopeptides, in the past decades. Nevertheless, this significant health threat has revitalized the search for new antibacterial agents and novel targets. High resolution structural data of many ribosome-bound antibiotics provide unprecedented insight into their molecular contacts and mode of action and inspire the design and synthesis of new candidate drugs that target this fascinating molecular machine. PMID:21957007

  20. Prediction of underwater target strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongQing; Mohammad Amjad

    2001-01-01

    A model as well as its numerical method to calculate target strength of rigid body using Lighthill's acoustic analogy approach which developed from the propeller aircraft sound field study have been presented. The cases of ellipsoid target has been used to demonstrate the approach. The comparison of the numerical results with that of analytical formulation provides a satisfactory check for the validity of the approach. Some reasonable results have been discussed. The advantage of the present model is that it is suitable for any arbitrarily shaped rigid body moving with small Mach number.

  1. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  2. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  3. Radar Target Modelling Based on RCS Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Wessling, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    When simulating target seekers, there is a great need for computationally efficient, target models. This report considers a study of radar target modelling based on Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) measurements of generic aircraft. The results underlie future modelling of full-size air targets. A method is developed for two-dimensional modelling of aspect-dependent target scattering. The approach taken is to generate point-scatterer models of two targets, where each point scatterer is...

  4. Inflation Targeting at 20 - Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of inflation targeting frameworks and macroeconomic performance under inflation targeting. Inflation targeting frameworks are generally quite similar across countries, and a broad consensus has developed in favor of "flexible" inflation targeting. The evidence shows that, although inflation target ranges are missed frequently in most countries, the inflation and growth performance under inflation targeting compares very favorably with performance under alternat...

  5. Disulfide-stabilized single-chain antibody-targeted superantigen: Construction of a prokaryotic expression system and its functional analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Li Wang; Yu-Ling Zheng; Ru Ma; Bao-Li Wang; Ai-Guang Guo; Yong-Qiang Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct the expression vector of B3 (scdsFv)-SEA (D227A) and to identify its binding and cytotoxic ability to B3 antigen positive carcinoma cell lines.METHODS: This fusion protein was produced by a bacterial expression system in this study. It was expressed mainly in the inclusion body. The gene product was solubilized by guanidine hydrochloride, refolded by conventional dilution method, and purified using SP-sepharose cation chromatography.RESULTS: The expression vector B3 (scdsFv)-SEA-PETwas constructed, the expression product existed mainly in the inclusion body, the refolding product retained the binding ability of the single-chain antibody and had cytotoxic effect on HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. The stability assay showed that the resulting protein was stable at 37 ℃.CONCLUSION: This genetically engineered B3 (scdsFv)-SEA fusion protein has bifunction of tumor targeting and tumor cell killing and shows its promises as an effective reagent for tumor-targeted immunotherapy.

  6. 两种试验方法对227名乡村医生潜伏性结核感染检测的结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冬梅; 侯月云; 宋渝丹; 熊勇超; 耿梦杰; 何广学

    2014-01-01

    目的 获得乡村医生潜伏性结核感染(latent tuberculosis irnfection,LTBI)情况,比较γ干扰素释放试验中的QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube(QFT GIT)和结核菌素皮肤试验(tuberculin skin test,TST)(纯化蛋白衍生物,PPD)检测LTBI的一致性.方法 采用横断面研究,选择内蒙古自治区巴彦淖尔市临河区为研究现场,于2011年11月对临河区227名乡村医生进行问卷调查,同时采用QFT-GIT和TST两种检测方法检测乡村医生中的LTBI者.共发放227份问卷,收回有效问卷227份,回收率100.0%.采用构成比、率等统计指标描述乡村医生的基本信息和LTBI率,计算Kappa值评价QFTGIT和TST结果的一致性.结果 227名乡村医生完成QFTGIT检测,以QFT-GIT检测结果为依据(排除2名不确定结果),225名乡村医生LTBI率为44.0%(99/225).226名乡村医生完成了TST检测,以TST检测结果为依据,乡村医生LTBI率分别为59.3%(134/226)(硬结平均直径≥5 mm)、41.2%(93/226)(硬结平均直径≥10 mm)、22.6%(51/226)(硬结平均直径≥15 mm).TST以硬结平均直径5 mm为阳性临界值时,Kappa值为0.415;以10 mm为阳性临界值时,Kappa值为0.444;以15 mm为阳性临界值时,Kappa值为0.358.结论 临河区被调查的乡村医生LTBI率较高,本研究显示两种检测一致性一般,有必要开展农村结核感染控制工作,降低乡村医生的LTBI率.

  7. USING OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CHAOS TARGETING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG ZHAO-WANG; ZHONG TING-XIU

    2000-01-01

    Since the conventional open-loop optimal targeting of chaos is very sensitive to noise, a close-loop optimal targeting method is proposed to improve the targeting performance under noise. The present optimal targeting model takes into consideration both precision and speed of the targeting procedure. The parameters, rather than the output, of the targeting controller, are directly optimized to obtain optimal chaos targeting. Analysis regarding the mechanism is given from physics aspect and numerical experiment on the Hénon map is carried out to compare the targeting performance under noise between the close-loop and the open-loop methods.

  8. Exploring targeted therapies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, Constantijne Helene

    2007-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology is treatment directed at specific biological pathways and processes that play a critical role in carcinogenesis. Increased knowledge regarding the molecular changes underlying tumor progression and metastatis has resulted in the development of agents that are designed to

  9. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  10. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of cus

  11. Target-point formation control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, Shaoshuai; Cao, Ming; Morse, A. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new distributed feedback strategy is proposed for controlling a rigid, acyclic formation of kinematic point-modeled mobile autonomous agents in the plane. The strategy makes use of a new concept called a "target point" and is applicable to any two-dimensional, acyclic formation whose

  12. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, S; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest.

  13. Uranium briquettes for irradiation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Martins, Ilson Carlos; Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: saliba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Direct irradiation on targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes. Nevertheless, since the imposed limits to use LEU uranium to prevent nuclear armament production, the amount of uranium loaded in target meats has physically increased and new processes have been proposed for production. Routes using metallic uranium thin film and UAl{sub x} dispersion have been used for this purpose. Both routes have their own issues, either by bringing difficulties to disassemble the aluminum case inside hot cells or by generating great amount of alkaline radioactive liquid rejects. A potential route might be the dispersion of powders of LEU metallic uranium and nickel, which are pressed as a blend inside a die and followed by pulse electroplating of nickel. The electroplating provides more strength to the briquettes and creates a barrier for gas evolution during neutronic disintegration of {sup 235}U. A target briquette platted with nickel encapsulated in an aluminum case to be irradiated may be an alternative possibility to replace other proposed targets. This work uses pulse Ni-electroplating over iron powder briquette to simulate the covering of uranium by nickel. The following parameters were applied 10 times for each sample: 900Hz, -0.84A/square centimeters with duty cycle of 0.1 in Watts Bath. It also presented the optical microscopy analysis of plated microstructure section. (author)

  14. Cooling of the ISIS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods used to analyse and predict cooling of the uranium target of the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by means of a combination of computer models (using the PHOENICS finite difference package) and practical tests. (author)

  15. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...

  16. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  17. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  18. Targeted therapy using alpha emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    1996-10-01

    Radionuclides such as and which decay by the emission of -particles are attractive for certain applications of targeted radiotherapy. The tissue penetration of and -particles is equivalent to only a few cell diameters, offering the possibility of combining cell-specific targeting with radiation of similar range. Unlike the -particles emitted by radionuclides such as and , -particles are radiation of high linear energy transfer and thus greater biological effectiveness. Several approaches have been explored for targeted radiotherapy with - and -labelled substances including colloids, monoclonal antibodies, metabolic precursors, receptor-avid ligands and other lower molecular weight molecules. An additional agent which exemplifies the promise of -emitting radiopharmaceuticals is meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine. The toxicity of this compound under single-cell conditions, determined both by []thymidine incorporation and by limiting dilution clonogenic assays, for human neuroblastoma cells is of the order of 1000 times higher than that of meta-[]iodobenzylguanidine. For meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine, the value was equivalent to only atoms bound per cell. These results suggest that meta-[]astatobenzylguanidine might be valuable for the targeted radiotherapy of micrometastatic neuroblastomas.

  19. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  20. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio;

    2003-01-01

    autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...... are encouraging, both with respect to robustness, speed and accuracy, and demonstrates the span and range of applications of this technology....

  1. Multi beam laser target illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to compress matter to high densities by the application of intense pulses of laser energy it is necessary for the implosion of the target to be both stable and spherical. This imposes certain constraints on the uniformity of illumination of the target, and, this in turn places requirements on the illuminating optics and the laser beam quality. This report discusses the uniformity of illumination of a spherical target as provided by a variety of optical systems and for different numbers of laser beams and beam profiles. The results are compared with similar conclusions obtained by other workers. An alternative presentation of the calculations is given which is believed to be a more realistic estimate of the uniformity. Comments are made on the approximations that have been assumed and the results likely to be obtained from the full treatment are discussed. The effects of this non-uniform illumination on the target implosion are considered using the linear theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Finally, comments are made on other factors of a more practical nature which also govern the final choice of illumination system and the scope of experiments made possible by such a system. (author)

  2. Targeted Therapies in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common genital cancer in developed world. It is generally diagnosed in early stage and it has a favorable prognosis. However, advanced staged disease and recurrences are difficult to manage. There are some common genetic alterations related to endometrial carcinogenesis in similar fashion to other cancers. Personalized medicine, which means selection of best suited treatment for an individual, has gain attention in clinical care of patients in recent years. Targeted therapies were developed as a part of personalized or %u201Ctailored%u201D medicine and specifically acts on a target or biologic pathway. There are quite a number of molecular alteration points in endometrial cancer such as PTEN tumor suppressor genes, DNA mismatch repair genes, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and p53 oncogene which all might be potential candidates for tailored targeted therapy. In recent years targeted therapies has clinical application in ovarian cancer patients and in near future with the advent of new agents these %u201Ctailored%u201D drugs will be in market for routine clinical practice in endometrial cancer patients, in primary disease and recurrences as well.

  3. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branderhorst, W.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Have, F.; Blezer, E.L.A.; Bleeker, W.K.; Beekman, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific o

  4. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  5. Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Guiseppe; Contalbrigo, Marco; Lenisa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Remarks on the history of workshops on "spin tools" / E. Steffens -- Polarized proton beams in RHIC / A. Zelenski -- The COSY/Julich polarized H[symbol] and D[symbol] ion source / O. Felden -- The new source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex / V. V. Fimushkin -- Resonance effects in nuclear dichroism - an inexpensive source of tensor-polarized deuterons / H. Seyfarth -- Polarized electrons and positrons at the MESA accelerator / K. Aulenbacher -- Status report of the Darmstadt polarized electron injector / Y. Poltoratska -- The Mott polarimeter at MAMI / V. Tioukine -- Proton polarimetry at the relativistic heavy ion collider / Y. Makdisi -- Polarisation and polarimetry at HERA / B. Sobloher -- Polarisation measurement at the ILC with a Compton polarimeter / C. Bartels -- Time evolution of ground motion-dependent depolarisation at linear colliders / A. Hartin -- Electron beam polarimetry at low energies and its applications / R. Barday -- Polarized solid targets: recent progress and future prospects / C. D. Keith -- HD gas distillation and analysis for HD frozen spin targets / A. D'Angelo -- Electron spin resonance study of hydrogen and alkyl free radicals trapped in solid hydrogen aimed for dynamic nuclear polarization of solid HD / T. Kumada -- Change of ultrafast nuclear-spin polarization upon photoionization by a short laser pulse / T. Nakajima -- Radiation damage and recovery in polarized [symbol]NH[symbol] ammonia targets at Jefferson lab / J. D. Maxwell.Polarized solid proton target in low magnetic field and at high temperature / T. Uesaka -- Pulse structure dependence of the proton spin polarization rate / T. Kawahara -- Proton NMR in the large COMPASS [symbol]NH[symbol] target / J. Koivuniemi -- DNP with TEMPO and trityl radicals in deuterated polystyrene / L. Wang -- The CLIC electron and positron polarized sources / L. Rinolfi -- Status of high intensity polarized electron gun at MIT-Bates / E. Tsentalovich -- Target section for spin

  6. 人才环境感知对研发人才工作绩效、工作嵌入的影响研究——以深圳227家高新技术企业为例%An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Perceived Talent Environment on Performance and Job Embeddedness of the R & D Talents——Taking 227 High -tech Enterprises in Shenzhen as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉香; 刘军

    2009-01-01

    以深圳227家高新技术企业及其研发人才为样本,采用探索性分析方法,将研发人才环境感知分为人才政策环境感知、事业环境感知、生活环境感知三部分,并探讨研发人才环境感知对研发人才工作绩效和工作嵌入的影响.研究结果显示,企业对研发人才政策环境越满意,研发人才工作绩效越高;研发人才对事业环境越满意,其3-作绩效越高;对事业环境以及生活环境越满意,其工作嵌入越深.

  7. Nanodelivery System for Mitochondrial Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable in cellular functions such as energy production and death execution. They are emerging as intriguing therapeutic target as their dysregulation was found to be monumental in diseases such as neurodegenerative disease, obesity, and cancer etc. Despite tremendous interest being focused on therapeutically intervening mitochondrial function, few mito-active drugs were successfully developed, particularly due to challenges in delivering active compound to this organelle. In this review, effort in utilizing nanotechnology for targeted mitochondrial delivery of compound is expounded based on the nature of the nanomaterial used. The advantage and potential offered are discussed alongside the limitation. Finally the review is concluded with perspectives of the application of nanocarrier in mitochondrial medicine, given the unresolved concern on potential complications.

  8. Targeted Learning in Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of Big Data in healthcare encourages investigators to seek answers to big questions. However, nonparametric approaches to analyzing these data can suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and traditional parametric modeling does not necessarily scale. Targeted learning (TL) combines semiparametric methodology with advanced machine learning techniques to provide a sound foundation for extracting information from data. Predictive models, variable importance measures, and treatment benefits and risks can all be addressed within this framework. TL has been applied in a broad range of healthcare settings, including genomics, precision medicine, health policy, and drug safety. This article provides an introduction to the two main components of TL, targeted minimum loss-based estimation and super learning, and gives examples of applications in predictive modeling, variable importance ranking, and comparative effectiveness research. PMID:27441404

  9. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  10. Antihyperlipidemic therapies targeting PCSK9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Michael; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease despite the availability of first-line cholesterol-lowering agents such as statins. A new therapeutic approach to lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) acts by blocking LDL-receptor degradation by serum proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9). Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 and its interaction with the LDL receptor are now in clinical trials (REGN727/SAR23653, AMG145, and RN316). These agents are administered by either subcutaneous or intravenous routes, and have been shown to have major LDL-C and apolipoprotein B effects when combined with statins. A phase III clinical trial program evaluating clinical endpoints is now in progress. Other PCSK9-targeted approaches are in early stages of investigation, including natural inhibitors of PCSK9, RNA interference, and antisense inhibitors.

  11. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kozako

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7. Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that modulate sirtuins, and these modulators have enabled a greater understanding of the biological function and molecular mechanisms of sirtuins. This review highlights the possibility of sirtuins, especially SIRT1 and SIRT2, for cancer therapy targets, and focuses on the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators both in cancer prevention and treatment.

  12. Classical scattering from oscillating targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L

    2002-12-30

    We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.

  13. Downstream targets of WRKY33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2008-11-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection. Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens.

  14. Downstream targets of WRKY33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Mundy, John;

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling pathways in both animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In a recent publication we show that MPK4 and its substrate MKS1 interact with WRKY33 in vivo, and that WRKY33 is released from complexes with MPK4 upon infection....... Transcriptome analysis of a wrky33 loss-of-function mutant identified a subset of defense-related genes as putative targets of WRKY33. These genes include PAD3 and CYP71A13, which encode cytochrome P450 monoxygenases required for synthesis of the antimicrobial phytoalexin camalexin. Chromatin...... immunoprecipitation confirmed that WRKY33 bound the promoter of PAD3 when plants were inoculated with pathogens. Here we further discuss the involvement of two other targets of WRKY33, NUDT6 and ROF2 in defense responses against invading pathogens....

  15. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    , paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells......Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  16. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  17. FAST DETECTING TARGET GROUPS IN SAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Gui; Kuang Gangyao; Jiang Yongmei; Wang Baosun; Gao Sheng

    2006-01-01

    A successful algorithm for detecting target groups is presented. Firstly, A global Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector is utilized to locate the potential target regions, and then the features are computed for target discrimination based on voting mechanism. Finally, Target groups are extracted. The results of experiments show the validity of this algorithm.

  18. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  19. Aptamers and aptamer targeted delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Amy C.; Levy, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    When aptamers first emerged almost two decades ago, most were RNA species that bound and tagged or inhibited simple target ligands. Very soon after, the ‘selectionologists’ developing aptamer technology quickly realized more potential for the aptamer. In recent years, advances in aptamer techniques have enabled the use of aptamers as small molecule inhibitors, diagnostic tools and even therapeutics. Aptamers are now being employed in novel applications. We review, herein, some of the recent a...

  20. Therapeutic targeting of Janus kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Pesu, Marko; Laurence, Arian; Kishore, Nandini; Zwillich, Sam; Chan, Gary; O’Shea, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity and inflammation, and targeting cytokines and their receptors is an effective means of treating such disorders. Type I and II cytokine receptors associate with Janus family kinases (JAKs) to effect intracellular signaling. These structurally unique protein kinases play essential and specific roles in immune cell development and function. One JAK, JAK3, has particularly selective functions. Mutations of this kinase underlie severe combined immunodeficie...

  1. Cancer Immunotherapy of Targeting Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianmei Hou; Ling Tian; Yuquan Wei

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent. Anti-angiogenic therapy may be a useful approach to cancer therapy. This review discussed tumor angiogenesis and immunotherapy of targeting tumor angiogenesis from two main aspects: (1) active vaccination to induce effective anti-angiogenesis immunity; (2) passive immunotherapy with anti-pro-angiogenic molecules relevant antibody. Evidence from the recent years suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy should be one of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy.

  2. Targeted advertising in magazine markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...

  3. Targeting the lysosome in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Shengfu; Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound intracellular organelles that receive macromolecules delivered by endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy for degradation and recycling. Over the last decade, advances in lysosome research have established a broad role for the lysosome in the pathophysiology of disease. In this review, we highlight the recent discoveries in lysosome biology, with an emphasis on their implications for cancer therapy. We focus on targeting the lysosome in cancer by exploring lysoso...

  4. Toward targeted hypertension screening guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, HC; Reijneveld, SA

    2006-01-01

    Background. guidelines for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension vary widely between countries. Part Of this variation can be attributed to systematic differences between Populations, but little is known about the way in which guidelines should be targeted to the population of interest. Optimal guidelines should have high yield and low complexity. The goal is to fit procedures for screening and subsequent treatment of hypertension optimally to a specific population. Methods. Simu...

  5. Anticancer Agents Targeted to Sirtuins

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Kozako; Takayoshi Suzuki; Makoto Yoshimitsu; Naomichi Arima; Shin-ichiro Honda; Shinji Soeda

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent deacetylases of which there are seven isoforms (SIRT1–7). Sirtuin activity is linked to gene expression, lifespan extension, neurodegeneration, and age-related disorders. Numerous studies have suggested that sirtuins could be of great significance with regard to both antiaging and tumorigenesis, depending on its targets in specific signaling pathways or in specific cancers. Recent studies have identified small chemical compounds that m...

  6. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Adolfo; Steiner, Roberto; Villar, Leonardo; Pabon, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of conventional Taylor rules for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru shows that central banks increase their repo rate in response to increases in the output gap and, except in Peru, to deviations of inflation expectations from target. Using a Markov-Switching methodology, it is found that, in the presence of external shocks, Chile, Colombia and Peru temporarily abandoned their conventional reaction function. The Taylor Rule is expanded and variables are included related to exchange r...

  7. Inflation Targeting in Dollarized Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Leiderman; Rodolfo Maino; Eric Parrado

    2006-01-01

    The shift to inflation targeting has contributed to the relatively low inflation observed in some emerging market economies although, as noted by many economists, the preconditions required for a successful implementation were not in place. The existence of managed exchange rate regimes, a narrow base of domestic nominal financial assets, the lack of market instruments to hedge exchange rate risks, together with fear of floating and dollarization, have been stressed as factors that might weak...

  8. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  9. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  10. Target fragmentation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of measurements of the average target fragment momenta and energies in the interaction of 12.0 and 18.4 MeV/u 160, and 45.4 and 83.8 MeV/u 12C with 197Au. We compare these data with previously published studies of the interaction of 380 MeV/u 20Ne and 400 and 2100 MeV/u 12C with 197Au

  11. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  12. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

  13. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  14. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  15. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease. PMID:25922090

  16. Drug targeting to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2007-09-01

    The goal of brain drug targeting technology is the delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the human BBB. This is accomplished by re-engineering pharmaceuticals to cross the BBB via specific endogenous transporters localized within the brain capillary endothelium. Certain endogenous peptides, such as insulin or transferrin, undergo receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB in vivo. In addition, peptidomimetic monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may also cross the BBB via RMT on the endogenous transporters. The MAb may be used as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry across the BBB large molecule pharmaceuticals, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, RNA interference drugs, or non-viral gene medicines. Fusion proteins of the molecular Trojan horse and either neurotrophins or single chain Fv antibodies have been genetically engineered. The fusion proteins retain bi-functional properties, and both bind the BBB receptor, to trigger transport into brain, and bind the cognate receptor inside brain to induce the pharmacologic effect. Trojan horse liposome technology enables the brain targeting of non-viral plasmid DNA. Molecular Trojan horses may be formulated with fusion protein technology, avidin-biotin technology, or Trojan horse liposomes to target to brain virtually any large molecule pharmaceutical. PMID:17554607

  17. NEW DRUG TARGETING TREATMENT - GLIVEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-mei(孙雪梅); BRADY Ben

    2003-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of Glivec in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and other malignant tumors. Preclinical and clinical evidence showed that Glivec demonstrated a potent and specific inhibition on BCR-ABL positive leukemias and other malignant tumors in which overexpression of c-kit and PDGFR-β played a major role in their pathogenesis. Glivec has induced complete hematologic responses in up to 98% of patients evaluated in clinical trials. It's a very successful drug that supported the idea of targeted therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinases. Although it's still in the early stages of clinical development and the resistance to Glivec remains to be a problem needed further study, a great deal has been learned from these research and observation. And with the increasing data, molecular targeting therapy will play much more important role in the treatment of malignant tumors. With the better understanding of the pathogenesis of malignant tumors, well-designed drugs targeting the specific molecular abnormalities with higher efficacy and lower side effect will benefit numerous patients with malignant tumors.

  18. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2009-01-01

    of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental approaches...... allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  19. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  20. Three Essays on Analyst Target Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Noor

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on analyst target prices. The essays contribute to the major debate on the value of analyst target prices in the capital market by addressing the following three questions: Does a bull-bear valuation analysis increase the accuracy of analysts’ target prices? Does analyst ranking affect how informative target prices are to institutional investors? And, do analysts use their cash flow forecasts when setting target prices?In the first essay, I explore whether co...

  1. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  2. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...... that such grammatical changes have positive effects on the intelligibility of texts. The attempts to document such effects are scarce and that is one of the backgrounds for my involvement in the project. If I am able to show that the changes do have an effect, the literature on conveying professional communication...

  3. Conotoxins: Molecular and Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J.

    Marine molluscs known as cone snails produce beautiful shells and a complex array of over 50,000 venom peptides evolved for prey capture and defence. Many of these peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of conopeptides reduce pain in animal models, and several are now in pre-clinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer. Less than 1% of cone snail venom peptides are pharmacologically characterised.

  4. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  5. Zinc metalloproteins as medicinal targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzellotti, A I; Farrell, N P

    2008-08-01

    Zinc bioinorganic chemistry has emphasized the role of the metal ion on the structure and function of the protein. There is, more recently, an increasing appreciation of the role of zinc proteins in a variety of human diseases. This critical review, aimed at both bioinorganic and medicinal chemists, shows how apparently widely-diverging diseases share the common mechanistic approaches of targeting the essential function of the metal ion to inhibit activity. Protein structure and function is briefly summarized in the context of its clinical relevance. The status of current and potential inhibitors is discussed along with the prospects for future developments (162 references).

  6. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  7. Targeted therapies in gastroesophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Stefan; Schuler, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Gastroesophageal cancers comprising gastric cancer (GC), and cancers of the distal oesophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) are a global health threat. In Western populations the incidence of GC is declining which has been attributed to effective strategies of eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection. To the contrary, GEJ cancers are on the rise, with obesity and reflux disease being viewed as major risk factors. During the past decade perioperative chemotherapy, pre- or postoperative radio-chemotherapy, and, in Asian populations, adjuvant chemotherapy have been shown to improve the outcome of patients with advanced GC and GEJ cancers suited for surgery. Less progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic disease. The introduction of trastuzumab in combination with platinum/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for patients with HER2-positive disease has marked a turning point. Recently, several novel agents targeting growth factor receptors, angiogenic pathways, adhesion molecules and mediators of intracellular signal transduction have been clinically explored. Here we summarise the current status and future developments of molecularly targeted therapies in GC and GEJ cancer.

  8. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) with a remarkable ability to take up antigens and stimulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted specific immune responses. Recent discoveries have shown that their role in initiating primary immune responses seems to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC.

  9. Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón-Lagos, Milena; Villegas, Victoria E; Rangel, Nelson; Sánchez, Magda Carolina; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. However, resistance to TAM is the major obstacle in endocrine therapy. This resistance occurs either de novo or is acquired after an initial beneficial response. The underlying mechanisms for TAM resistance are probably multifactorial and remain largely unknown. Considering that breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and patients respond differently to treatment, the molecular analysis of TAM's biological activity could provide the necessary framework to understand the complex effects of this drug in target cells. Moreover, this could explain, at least in part, the development of resistance and indicate an optimal therapeutic option. This review highlights the implications of TAM in breast cancer as well as the role of receptors/signal pathways recently suggested to be involved in the development of TAM resistance. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, Androgen Receptor and Hedgehog signaling pathways are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for breast cancer, based on their ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in ERα-positive or -negative breast cancer. PMID:27548161

  10. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  11. Seismoelectric imaging of shallow targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S.S.; Pride, S.R.; Klemperer, S.L.; Biondi, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have undertaken a series of controlled field experiments to develop seismoelectric experimental methods for near-surface applications and to improve our understanding of seismoelectric phenomena. In a set of off-line geometry surveys (source separated from the receiver line), we place seismic sources and electrode array receivers on opposite sides of a man-made target (two sand-filled trenches) to record separately two previously documented seismoelectric modes: (1) the electromagnetic interface response signal created at the target and (2) the coseismic electric fields located within a compressional seismic wave. With the seismic source point in the center of a linear electrode array, we identify the previously undocumented seismoelectric direct field, and the Lorentz field of the metal hammer plate moving in the earth's magnetic field. We place the seismic source in the center of a circular array of electrodes (radial and circumferential orientations) to analyze the source-related direct and Lorentz fields and to establish that these fields can be understood in terms of simple analytical models. Using an off-line geometry, we create a multifold, 2D image of our trenches as dipping layers, and we also produce a complementary synthetic image through numerical modeling. These images demonstrate that off-line geometry (e.g., crosswell) surveys offer a particularly promising application of the seismoelectric method because they effectively separate the interface response signal from the (generally much stronger) coseismic and source-related fields. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  12. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  13. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H2 amounts up to 6.6 × 1012 atoms/cm2. • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10−11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  14. HIRFL-CSR internal target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and the design of the HIRFL-CSR internal target system is reported. The HIRFL-CSR internal target can operate in two modes: cluster target mode and polarized target mode. The cluster target may provide the gas target of H2, N2, noble gases and small molecular gases with a density of ≥ 1013 atoms/cm2, and the polarized target may provide polarized H and D beams with a density of about 2 x 1011 atoms/cm2. The target polarization is expected to be +0.90/-0.90 for hydrogen beam, and the vector polarization is expected to +0.95/-0.95 for deuterium beam

  15. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.;

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in...... different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  16. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  17. Targets and processes for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Malekos, Steven; Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Korgan, Grant; Cowan, Thomas; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-17

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

  18. Targeting Nominal Income Growth or Inflation?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behaviour of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy under consideration is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial interest rate behaviour that improves the inflation-output gap trade-o...

  19. Capacitive Sensors And Targets Would Measure Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple capacitive sensors and active targets used to measure distance between, and relative orientation of, two objects. Sensed target signals processed and used by control systems to align objects to be joined. Shapes, sizes, and layouts of sensors and targets optimized for specific application. Particular layout of targets and sensors enables determination of relative position and orientation of two objects in all six degrees of freedom.

  20. Does inflation targeting make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Yes, as inferred from panel evidence for inflation-targeting countries and a control group of high-achieving industrial countries that do not target inflation. Our evidence suggests that inflation targeting helps countries achieve lower inflation in the long run, have smaller inflation response to oil-price and exchange-rate shocks, strengthen monetary policy independence, improve monetary policy efficiency, and obtain inflation outcomes closer to target levels. Some benefits of inflation tar...

  1. Direct drive fuel target optimization in HIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, S.; Kawata, S.; Hisatomi, Y.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates a target for heavy ion fusion (HIF) using light target materials. In this study, the target structure, the heavy ion beam (HIB) input pulse shape and the HIB input pulse energy are optimized for the maximal fusion energy output. We performed two-dimensional fluid implosion simulations to obtain a high pellet gain. The optimized target shows a high yield of a gain 223. The input Pb beam energy is 1.8 MJ.

  2. Evaluation and validation of drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    Drug target is one of the key factors for discovering and developing new drugs. To find and validate drug targets is a crucial technique required in drug discovery by the strategy of high throughput screening. Based on the knowledge of molecular biology, human genomics and proteomics, it has been predicted that 5000 to 10000 drug targets exist in human. So, it is important orocedure to evaluate and validate the drug targets.

  3. Targeting Radiotherapy to Cancer by Gene Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Mairs; Boyd, M.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is an alternative method of radiation treatment which uses a tumor-seeking agent carrying a radioactive atom to deposits of tumor, wherever in the body they may be located. Recent experimental data signifies promise for the amalgamation of gene transfer with radionuclide targeting. This review encompasses aspects of the integration of gene manipulation and targeted radiotherapy, highlighting the possibilities of gene transfer to assist the targeting of cancer ...

  4. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  5. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the ex...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.......Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings......, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...

  6. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  7. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar; Jani, Dewal; Nagarkatti, Rana

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  8. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... of the ‘inside’ costs of the sub-component, technical specifications of the product, opportunistic behavior from the suppliers and cognitive limitation. These are all aspects that easily can dismantle the market mechanism and make it counter-productive in the organization. Thus, by directing more attention...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...

  9. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development. PMID:27644601

  10. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  11. Behavioral targeting: a European legal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral targeting, or online profiling, is a hotly debated topic. Much of the collection of personal information on the Internet is related to behavioral targeting, although research suggests that most people don't want to receive behaviorally targeted advertising. The World Wide Web Consortium i

  12. Inflation Targeting as a Monetary Policy Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Lars E. O. Svensson

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to survey and discuss inflation targeting in the context of monetary policy rules. The paper provides a general conceptual discussion of monetary policy rules, attempts to clarify the essential characteristics of inflation targeting, compares inflation targeting to the other monetary policy rules, and draws some conclusions for the monetary policy of the European system of Central Banks.

  13. Tantalum/Copper X-Ray Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, William J.; Edmonds, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed unique solution to subsidiary problem of fabrication of x-ray target. Plasma spraying enabled fabrication of lightweight, high-performance targets. Power settings, atmosphere-control settings, rate of deposition, and other spraying parameters developed. Thin coats of tantalum successfully deposited on copper targets. Targets performed successfully in tests and satisfied all criteria expressed in terms of critical parameters. Significantly reduces projected costs of fabrication of targets and contributes to development of improved, long-lived, lightweight x-ray system.

  14. Targeting nominal income growth or inflation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behavior of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation...... targeting is preferable. Otherwise, nominal income growth targeting may be superior because it induces inertial policy making, which improves the inflation-output-gap trade-off. Somewhat paradoxically, inflation targeting may be relatively less favorable the more society dislikes inflation, and the more...... persistent are the effects of inflation-generating shocks...

  15. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  16. Design and Implementation of SCSI Target Emulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A SCSI target emulator is used in a storage area network (SAN) environment to simulate the behavior of a SCSI target for processing and responding to I/O requests issued by initiators. The SCSI target emulator works with general storage devices with multiple transport protocols. The target emulator utilizes a protocol conversion module that translates the SCSI protocols to a variety of storage devices and implements the multi-RAID-level configuration and storage visualization functions. Moreover, the target emulator implements RAM caching, multi-queuing, and request merging to effectively improve the I/O response speed of the general storage devices. The throughput and average response times of the target emulator for block sizes of 4 KB to 128 KB are 150% faster for reads and 67% faster for writes than the existing emulator. With a block size of 16 KB, the I/O latency of the target emulator is only about 20% that of the existing emulator.

  17. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  19. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  20. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery. PMID:19663765

  1. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  2. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events-among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability.

  3. Target Therapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarotti, Stefano; Lococo, Filippo; Froesh, Patrizia; Zappa, Francesco; Andrè, Dutly

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is an extremely heterogeneous disease, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under the fourth revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system. Because these variants have differing genetic and biological properties correct classification of lung cancer is necessary to assure that lung cancer patients receive optimum management. Due to the recent understanding that histologic typing and EGFR mutation status are important for target the therapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients there was a great need for a new classification that addresses diagnostic issues and strategic management to allow for molecular testing in small biopsy and cytology specimens. For this reason and in order to address advances in lung cancer treatment an international multidisciplinary classification was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS), further increasing the histological heterogeneity and improving the existing WHO-classification. Is now the beginning of personalized therapy era that is ideally finalized to treat each individual case of lung cancer in different way. PMID:26667341

  4. Using the Dual-Target Cost to Explore the Nature of Search Target Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Michael J.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored to examine search efficiency and infer how color is mentally represented to guide search for multiple targets. Observers located a single color target very efficiently by fixating colors similar to the target. However, simultaneous search for 2 colors produced a dual-target cost. In addition, as the similarity between…

  5. Double-layered target and identification method of individual target correlated with evaporation residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-layered target system and an identification method (target ID) for individual targets mounted on a rotating wheel using correlation with evaporation residues were newly developed for the study of superheavy elements (SHE). The target system can be used in three modes: conventional single-layered mode, double-layered mode, and energy-degrader mode. The target ID method can be utilized for masking a target, measuring an excitation function without changing the beam energy from the accelerator, and searching for SHE nuclides using multiple targets during a single irradiation

  6. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  7. Climate targets for all countries: the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses five options for targets that could be taken by all countries to meet the ultimate objective of the Climate Change Convention: fixed, binding targets, dynamic targets; non-binding targets; sectoral targets, policies and measures. Each is evaluated according to criteria of environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, contribution to economic growth and sustainable development, and equity. While fixed, binding targets continue to be viable for industrialized countries, they do not seem suitable for many developing countries in the near future. Dynamic targets could alleviate developing countries' concerns about constraining their development as well as broader concerns about possible introduction of 'hot air' in a world trading regime; they could also be considered for some or all industrialized countries. Non-binding targets could be politically appealing to developing counties, alleviate fears about development and/or hot air, but might only allow conditional participation in emissions trading by developing countries. Sectoral targets could offer a pragmatic first step - although their cost-effectiveness might be questioned. Finally, targets based on commitments to implement specific policies and measures might drive mitigation action and be part of negotiated packages including financial and technological cooperation. All these options may coexist in the future. (authors)

  8. HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D. K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-12-01

    Since HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL-CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10-11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability.

  9. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleissa, Khalid A.; Almasoud, Fahad I.; Islam, Mohammed S. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); L' Annunziata, Michael F. [IAEA Expert, Montague Group, P.O. Box 5033, Oceanside, CA 92052-5033 (United States)], E-mail: mlannunziata@cox.net

    2008-12-15

    The activities of {sup 228}Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO{sub 2} and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter {sup 228}Ra({sup 228}Ac), the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by {sup 228}Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9{+-}0.1% was measured for {sup 228}Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317{+-}0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of {sup 228}Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for {sup 228}Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure {sup 228}Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used.

  10. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used.

  11. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  12. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  13. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  14. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  15. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load. PMID:26415215

  16. Multipositional internal target at the Yerevan synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main characteristics of the inner targets of three gamma-ray beams from the Erevan synchrotron are given. The accelerated electron beam is dumped on the targets by the orbit local disturbance method. Oscillograms of the beam stretching with time during extraction are given for different target operation. Some drawbacks of the design of the operating targets are pointed out, the main being the large period of time (about 3 hours) required to replace the target radiator. The comparative analysis of other known target designs is presented. The investigation was aimed at the development of a new target design that may ensure the possibility of an operative radiator replacement without breaking the accelerator vacuum with minimum effort and time. The problem has been solved by the modification of the present target design. An additional electromotor has been installed on the target chamber; the shaft pf the electromotor passes through the vacuum seal inside the chamber. The shaft has a gear at the end and it can be engaged with a gear at the main rod end of the target. 8 various radiators may be placed simulltaniously on the gear. The accuracy of installing each radiator in the radial direction is +-0.2 mm, and the accuracy of fixing if in rotation is +-0.3 degree. The replacement of the radiator takes not more than 3 min. The target may be used as an inner or an outer target in experiments in interactions of various materials with a particle beam. The relay control system for the multi-position target is described

  17. Should inflation targeting be abandoned in favour of nominal income targeting?

    OpenAIRE

    Stan du Plessis; Malan Rietveld

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of the international financial crisis nominal income targeting has received renewed attention from a number of leading macroeconomists as alternative to inflation targeting. The case for nominal income targeting has been built on both positive and negative arguments. The negative case relates to perceived inadequacies of inflation targeting, including: the presumed lack of robustness of inflation targeting to aggregate supply shocks, inadequate concern with financial stability, as...

  18. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:25869441

  19. Mitochondria: a target for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Elodie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Arnould, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells developed strategies to detect and eradicate infections. The innate immune system, which is the first line of defence against invading pathogens, relies on the recognition of molecular patterns conserved among pathogens. Pathogen associated molecular pattern binding to pattern recognition receptor triggers the activation of several signalling pathways leading to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory state required to control the infection. In addition, pathogens evolved to subvert those responses (with passive and active strategies) allowing their entry and persistence in the host cells and tissues. Indeed, several bacteria actively manipulate immune system or interfere with the cell fate for their own benefit. One can imagine that bacterial effectors can potentially manipulate every single organelle in the cell. However, the multiple functions fulfilled by mitochondria especially their involvement in the regulation of innate immune response, make mitochondria a target of choice for bacterial pathogens as they are not only a key component of the central metabolism through ATP production and synthesis of various biomolecules but they also take part to cell signalling through ROS production and control of calcium homeostasis as well as the control of cell survival/programmed cell death. Furthermore, considering that mitochondria derived from an ancestral bacterial endosymbiosis, it is not surprising that a special connection does exist between this organelle and bacteria. In this review, we will discuss different mitochondrial functions that are affected during bacterial infection as well as different strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to subvert functions related to calcium homeostasis, maintenance of redox status and mitochondrial morphology.

  20. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paul Kirsner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or ‘mean’ just 2.7 NM (nautical miles from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor’s reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013. The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  1. Memory for found targets interferes with subsequent performance in multiple-target visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    Multiple-target visual searches--when more than 1 target can appear in a given search display--are commonplace in radiology, airport security screening, and the military. Whereas 1 target is often found accurately, additional targets are more likely to be missed in multiple-target searches. To better understand this decrement in 2nd-target detection, here we examined 2 potential forms of interference that can arise from finding a 1st target: interference from the perceptual salience of the 1st target (a now highly relevant distractor in a known location) and interference from a newly created memory representation for the 1st target. Here, we found that removing found targets from the display or making them salient and easily segregated color singletons improved subsequent search accuracy. However, replacing found targets with random distractor items did not improve subsequent search accuracy. Removing and highlighting found targets likely reduced both a target's visual salience and its memory load, whereas replacing a target removed its visual salience but not its representation in memory. Collectively, the current experiments suggest that the working memory load of a found target has a larger effect on subsequent search accuracy than does its perceptual salience.

  2. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  3. Development on dynamic nuclear polarized targets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttila, S. I. (Seppo I.)

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in understanding the spin content of the nucleon has left its marks on the recent development, of the dynamic nuclear polarized (DNP) targets. This can be seen from the targets developed at CERN and SLAC for the measurement of the polarized spin structure functions in deep inelastic scattering. The results of the experiments indicated that less than 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by the quarks. This unpredicted small value initiated planning of new polarized target experiments to determine the gluon polarization on the nucleon using polarized real photons and polarized 'LiD targets. In several facilities very intense polarized photon beams are available at a wide energy range. During the next few years these photon beanis with DNP targets will be used to test the fundamental GDH sum rule. Other DNP target developments are also discussed.

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Target for the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, J; Duday-Chanat, L; Geyer, R; Mallot, G K; Pirotte, O; Vullierme, B

    2014-01-01

    A liquid hydrogen target has been developed for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The target has a diameter of 40 mm and a length of 2.5 meter, creating an active volume of about 3 liter of liquid hydrogen. The cylindrical part of the target wall is formed by a Kapton® foil strip, wound and glued to a thickness of 0.125 mm. The Kapton® foil is used to minimize the energy loss of the particles, scattered or created within the target volume, crossing the target boundary. The two end-caps enclosing the target volume have been fabricated from Mylar®. The system is cooled with a 30 W at 20 K cryocooler, delivering the cooling capacity for the cool-down as well as for the continuous operation of the system.

  5. Application of VNIIRS for target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kahler, Bart

    2015-05-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has created the Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (VNIIRS). VNIIRS extends NIIRS to scene characterization from streaming video to include object recognition of various targets for a given size. To apply VNIIRs for target tracking, there is a need to understand the operating conditions of the sensor type, environmental phenomenon, and target behavior (SET). In this paper, we explore VNIIRS for target tracking given the sensor resolution to support the relative tracking performance using track success. The relative assessment can be used in relation to the absolute target size associated with the VNIIRS. In a notional analysis, we determine the issues and capabilities of using VNIIRS video quality ratings to determine track success. The outcome of the trade study is an experiment to understand how to use VNIIRS can support target tracking evaluation.

  6. Astatine-211 Pathway from Radiochemistry to Clinical Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particularly in clinical settings where tumour burden is low and cancers are located in close proximity to essential normal tissue structures, α-particle emitting radionuclides can offer significant advantages for targeted radionuclide therapy. One of the first alpha emitters to be evaluated for this purpose is the 7.2-h half-life radiohalogen Astatine-211 (211At). From a commercialization-potential perspective 211At, is less appealing than the longer half-life alpha particle emitters Radium-223, Actinium-225 and Thorium-227, which have become the focus of many laboratories. However, if methods for providing a better supply of 211At could be developed, this alpha emitter would be the radionuclide of choice for many potential therapeutic applications. With regard to the production of 211At, this can be readily be accomplished by bombarding natural bismuth targets with 28−29.5 MeV alpha particles via the 209Bi(α,2n)211At reaction. The goal is to utilize an alpha particle beam energy that provides the required balance for maximizing 211At production while minimizing creation of 210At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life alpha-particle emitting daughter, 210Po. For most intended clinical applications, alpha particle beam energy of about 29 MeV offers the best compromise between maximizing yield and providing 211At with sufficient radionuclidic purity for clinical use. Clinically relevant levels of 211At have been produced at several institutions using both internal and external cyclotron targets

  7. From monetary to exchange rate targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. ARTIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the Fourth International Seminar on European Economic and Monetary Union, held in Copenhagen in March of 1981. The author takes up the theoretical issues in the framework of both static and dynamic analysis. He argues, on the basis of the criterion of minimising the variance of prices around their target value, that an exchange-rate target outperforms a monetary target under most conceivable types of disturbances in a static analysis. 

  8. Design of liposomal formulations for cell targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, E.; Gomes, Andreia C.; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have gained extensive attention as carriers for a wide range of drugs due to being both nontoxic and biodegradable as they are composed of substances naturally occurring in biological membranes. Active targeting for cells has explored specific modification of the liposome surface by functionalizing it with specific targeting ligands in order to increase accumulation and intracellular uptake into target cells. None of the Food and Drug Administration-licensed liposomes or lipid nanop...

  9. Isomeric target for nuclear structure studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maunoury, L; Aubert, P; Aupiais, J; Baudin, M; Blier, G; Bonnereau, B; Boulin, Y; Pointurier, F; Sauvestre, J E; Sigaud, J; Szmigiel, M

    2002-01-01

    The experimental studies on nuclear structure and reactions dealing with nuclei in their isomeric state are, actually, mainly constrained by the difficulty of producing isomeric targets. The CEA/Bruyeres-le-Chatel laboratory has initiated the production of a sup 1 sup 7 sup 7 Lu sup m isomeric target. We plan to reach a 45% isomeric purity associated with a number of isomeric nuclei about 10 sup 1 sup 5. This target will be available for experiments at the end of the year 2000. The method performed to produce such targets will be discussed.

  10. Target studies for surface muon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  11. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  12. Two target localization using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-02-19

    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localization and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localizing one or two targets laying within a narrow beam centered around the monopulse antenna boresight direction. In this work, however, a new approach uses the outputs of a four quadrant antenna receiver to rapidly localize two point targets present in the hemisphere. A second set of antennas can be required to localize two targets sharing the same elevation or azimuth angles. To combine the outputs of both antenna sets and enhance the estimation performance of the algorithm, two methods are presented and compared.

  13. Applying target shadow models for SAR ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Scott; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2007-04-01

    Recent work has suggested that target shadows in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images can be used effectively to aid in target classification. The method outlined in this paper has four steps - segmentation, representation, modeling, and selection. Segmentation is the process by which a smooth, background-free representation of the target's shadow is extracted from an image chip. A chain code technique is then used to represent the shadow boundary. Hidden Markov modeling is applied to sets of chain codes for multiple targets to create a suitable bank of target representations. Finally, an ensemble framework is proposed for classification. The proposed model selection process searches for an optimal ensemble of models based on various target model configurations. A five target subset of the MSTAR database is used for testing. Since the shadow is a back-projection of the target profile, some aspect angles will contain more discriminatory information then others. Therefore, performance is investigated as a function of aspect angle. Additionally, the case of multiple target looks is considered. The capability of the shadow-only classifier to enhance more traditional classification techniques is examined.

  14. The potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Priyanka Dwarampudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of invasive cervical carcinoma several molecular events were reported and these molecular events resulting in multiple genetic abnormalities. In order to control these tumors multiple molecular therapeutic targets are needed with different molecular mechanisms. Unfortunately, these molecular targets were in early stages of development. Because of less degree of success of conventional therapeutics for late stages of cervical cancer and lowering of prognosis of patients there is an increase in interest for the development of potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer. This review article emphasizes the current molecular targeted agents; with special attention to estrogen receptors for human papilloma virus infected cervical cancer.

  15. Modeling and Filtering for Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical model describing the motion of manned maneuvering targets is presented. This model is simple to be implemented and closely represents the motion of maneuvering targets. The target maneuver or acceleration is correlated in time. Optimal Kalman filter is used as a tracking filter which results in effective tracker that prevents the loss of track or filter divergency that often occurs with conventional tracking filter when the target performs a moderate or heavy maneuver. Computer simulation studies show that the proposed tracker provides sufficient accuracy.

  16. Pyrographite water-cooled target analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables that affect the problem. The maximum target temperatures and stresses were calculated and compared for a variety of conditions. The comparisons show that the 0.6-cm half-width fin target proposed for the A-2 line is the most vulnerable of the targets analyzed

  17. Physical measurements of inertial-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of inertial-fusion targets has stimulated the development of many new techniques and instruments. This paper reviews the basis for selected target measurement requirements and the development of optical interferometry, optical scattering, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy as applied to target measurement. We summarize the resolution and speed which have been achieved to date, and describe several systems in which these are traded off to fill specific measurement applications. We point out the extent to which present capabilities meet the requirements for target measurement and the key problems which remain to be solved

  18. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  19. Targeting bactoprenol-coupled cell envelope precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Hannah; Schneider, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    Targeting the bactoprenol-coupled cell wall precursor lipid II is a validated antibacterial strategy. In this review, selected prototype lipid II-binding antibiotics of different chemical classes are discussed. Although these compounds attack the same molecular target, they trigger nuanced and diverse cellular effects. Consequently, the mechanisms of antibacterial resistance and the likelihood of resistance development may vary substantially. PMID:27495122

  20. Mathematical modelling of magnetically targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grief, Andrew D. [Theoretical Mechanics, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andrew.grief@nottingham.ac.uk; Richardson, Giles [Theoretical Mechanics, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: giles.richardson@nottingham.ac.uk

    2005-05-15

    A mathematical model for targeted drug delivery using magnetic particles is developed. This includes a diffusive flux of particles arising from interactions between erythrocytes in the microcirculation. The model is used to track particles in a vessel network. Magnetic field design is discussed and we show that it is impossible to specifically target internal regions using an externally applied field.

  1. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of molecular biology, genetic engineering, and polymer chemistry provide various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. In this paper, recent achievements in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune, and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques are introduced

  2. Target Studies for Surface Muon Production

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, F; Fuchs, A; Hajdas, W; Hodge, Z; Kettle, P -R; Knecht, A; Lüscher, R; Papa, A; Rutar, G; Wohlmuther, M

    2015-01-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programmes. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90{\\deg}. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30 - 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizin...

  3. Polarized proton target-IV. Operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard operating procedures are presented for the vacuum, cryogenic, and electronic systems of a polarized proton target. The systems are comprised of (1) a target cryostat; (2) a 4He pumping system; (3) a 3He pumping system; (4) a microwave system; (5) a magnet and power supply; (6) a computerized polarization monitor; and (7) miscellaneous auxiliary equipment

  4. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

  5. PIE preparation of the MEGAPIE target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuther, Michael; Wagner, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The MEGAPIE target, after successfully operating for 4 months at a beam power of 0.77 MW, is now being prepared for post irradiation examination PIE. The lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target was irradiated from August until December 2006, and in this period received a beam charge of 2.8 A h of 575 MeV protons. After that, the target was stored in the target storage facility of PSI, waiting for its post irradiation examination. In the meantime several campaigns of tests have been conducted by PSI and ZWILAG, the interim storage facility of Swiss nuclear power plants. In these tests the feasibility of the conditioning of the target and the extraction of sample material for the PIE has been proven. After transport to the hot cell facility at ZWILAG in June 2009, the dismantling of the MEGAPIE target started. It finally was cut into 21 pieces. Ten of these pieces will be shipped to the Hot Laboratory of PSI ('PSI hotlab') to extract samples from the structural materials as well as from the LBE. Currently it is foreseen that the sample extraction will start in the first half of 2011. The remaining parts of the MEGAPIE target were conditioned as radioactive waste. The present paper will mainly focus on the dismantling and first visual inspection of the MEGAPIE target. In addition an outlook on the PIE phase of MEGAPIE is given.

  6. Target asymmetry in inclusive photoproduction of pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the target asymmetry in inclusive pion photoproduction in the photon fragmentation region using a helicity dependent Mueller-Regge model, in which the Regge cut contributions are also included. We obtained predictions for the t-dependence and the magnitude of the target asymmetry. (orig.)

  7. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  8. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy

  9. Liquid hydrogen target cooled by circulating helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and characteristics of a liquid hydrogen target, where hydrogen is liquefied with liquid helium flow using evaporation heat of liquid helium and vapour cold, are described. Good thermal insulation of liquid helium supply line permits to remove out of the target the most volumetric and heavy component - helium tank - and to supply liquid helium along spreaded pipeline from the Dewar helium flask. It results in considerable reduction of dimensions and weight, the structure simplification and work facilitation with the target. The target having a working volume of 400 mm length and 60 mm diameter was tested. Vacuum casing of the working volume was made of foam plastic, heat flow to the working volume is equal to 1.5 W. Achieving mode of operation including structure cooling and hydrogen liquefaction took approximately 3 h, liquid helium flow rate for liquefaction of 1 l hydrogen is 2.7 l. Liquid helium flow rate in the mode of operation was equal to 0.7 l/h, i.e. target operation period without adding liquid helium to the Dewar flask is 4-5 days. The target described is notable for simplicity in fabrication, reliability in operation and is very suitable for using in experiment as compared to existing targets with hydrogen liquefaction with liquid helium. Unit structure of the target enables to easily change its configuration relative to problems of concrete physical experiment

  10. Inflation targeting and interest rate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the impl

  11. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  12. Resource implications of a national health target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Peter; Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; Ashton, Toni

    2014-01-01

    of clinical/service managers in ED throughout New Zealand determined the type and cost of resources used for the target. Responses to the target were classified according to their impact in ED, the hospital and the community. Quantifiable resource changes were assigned a financial value and grouped...

  13. Targeted Toxins in Brain Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Hall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted toxins, also known as immunotoxins or cytotoxins, are recombinant molecules that specifically bind to cell surface receptors that are overexpressed in cancer and the toxin component kills the cell. These recombinant proteins consist of a specific antibody or ligand coupled to a protein toxin. The targeted toxins bind to a surface antigen or receptor overexpressed in tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor or interleukin-13 receptor. The toxin part of the molecule in all clinically used toxins is modified from bacterial or plant toxins, fused to an antibody or carrier ligand. Targeted toxins are very effective against cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. They are far more potent than any known chemotherapy drug. Targeted toxins have shown an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical studies and have demonstrated evidence of a tumor response. Currently, clinical trials with some targeted toxins are complete and the final results are pending. This review summarizes the characteristics of targeted toxins and the key findings of the important clinical studies with targeted toxins in malignant brain tumor patients. Obstacles to successful treatment of malignant brain tumors include poor penetration into tumor masses, the immune response to the toxin component and cancer heterogeneity. Strategies to overcome these limitations are being pursued in the current generation of targeted toxins.

  14. Target discrimination strategies in optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Lars; Allard, Lars; Henriksson, Markus; Jonsson, Per; Pettersson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Detection and localisation of optical assemblies used for weapon guidance or sniper rifle scopes has attracted interest for security and military applications. Typically a laser system is used to interrogate a scene of interest and the retro-reflected radiation is detected. Different system approaches for area coverage can be realised ranging from flood illumination to step-and-stare or continuous scanning schemes. Independently of the chosen approach target discrimination is a crucial issue, particularly if a complex scene such as in an urban environment and autonomous operation is considered. In this work target discrimination strategies in optics detection are discussed. Typical parameters affecting the reflected laser radiation from the target are the wavelength, polarisation properties, temporal effects and the range resolution. Knowledge about the target characteristics is important to predict the target discrimination capability. Two different systems were used to investigate polarisation properties and range resolution information from targets including e.g. road signs, optical reflexes, rifle sights and optical references. The experimental results and implications on target discrimination will be discussed. If autonomous operation is required target discrimination becomes critical in order to reduce the number of false alarms.

  15. A rotating target for Ra production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohani, M.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    A target wheel with pyrolytic graphite targets is designed and constructed at the TRI mu P facility to boost the production rate of Ra isotopes. Simulation, design properties and production results are discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeted inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two main strategies have been pursued for the development of an effective and targeted anti-cancer treatment. The first strategy comprised the generation of a targeted nanomedicine for the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation by blocking growth factor receptor pathways. The epidermal growth factor

  17. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  18. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  19. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-12-15

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  20. Radiochemical aspects of liquid mercury spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eichler, Bernd; Eller, Martin; Horn, Susanne; Schumann, Dorothea; Stora, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Liquid metal spallation targets using mercury as target material are used in state-of-the-art high power pulsed neutron sources that have been constructed in the USA and Japan within the last decade. Similar target concepts were also proposed for next generation ISOL, beta-beam and neutrino facilities. A large amount of radioactivity will be induced in the liquid metal during operation caused by the interaction of the target material with the intense proton beam. This radioactivity - carried by a wide range of radioisotopes of all the elements of the periodic table from hydrogen up to thallium - must be considered for the assessment of safe operation and maintenance procedures as well as for a final disposal of the used target material and components. This report presents an overview on chemical investigations performed in our laboratory that deal with the behavior of radionuclides in proton irradiated mercury samples. The solubility of elements in mercury was calculated using thermodynamical data obtained by...