WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 222

  1. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than AmIII (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  3. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-08-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1- ligands (3.2+/-1.1) than AmIII (0.8+/-0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour.

  4. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development.

  5. Relativistic small-core pseudopotentials for actinium, thorium, and protactinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Anna; Cao, Xiaoyan; Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael

    2014-04-03

    Small-core pseudopotentials for actinium, thorium, and protactinium have been energy-adjusted to multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock reference data based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian and the Fermi nucleus model. Corresponding optimized valence basis sets of polarized valence quadruple-ζ quality are presented. Atomic test calculations for the first four ionization potentials show satisfactory results at both the Hartree-Fock and the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional level. Highly correlated Fock-space coupled cluster calculations demonstrate that the new pseudopotentials yield ionization potentials, which are in excellent agreement with corresponding all-electron results and experimental data. The pseudopotentials and basis sets supplement a similar set previously published for uranium.

  6. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  7. 34 CFR 222.56-222.59 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 222.56-222.59 Section 222.56-222.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments Under Section 8003(d) of the Act for Local...

  8. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  9. Comment: 222 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 222.png Shinobu Okamoto (Kazusa DNA Research Institute ) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan シアノバクテリア 光学顕微鏡写真 撮影:岡本忍(かずさDNA研究所) bando 2010/02/15 15:28:38 2010/02/16 10:25:09 ...

  10. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi).

  11. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  12. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  13. 40 CFR 61.222 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal of Uranium Mill Tailings § 61.222 Standard. (a) Radon-222 emissions to the ambient air from...-sec)) of radon-222. (b) Once a uranium mill tailings pile or impoundment ceases to be operational it... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.222 Section...

  14. 36 CFR 222.33 - Management coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management coordination. 222.33 Section 222.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.33 Management coordination. All...

  15. 29 CFR 553.222 - Sleep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleep time. 553.222 Section 553.222 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.222 Sleep time... enforcement personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude sleep...

  16. 42 CFR 431.222 - Group hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group hearings. 431.222 Section 431.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Recipients Right to Hearing § 431.222 Group hearings. The agency— (a) May respond to a series of...

  17. 36 CFR 2.22 - Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 2.22 Section 2.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  18. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  19. 42 CFR 93.222 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research. 93.222 Section 93.222 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHC222 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHC222 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16381-1 - (Link to Original site) CHC2...22F 152 - - - - - - Show CHC222 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHC222 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHC2-A/CHC222Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHC222 (CHC222Q) /CSM/CH/CHC2-A/CHC222Q.Seq.d/ CACTGTTGGCCTACTGG...NA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHC222 (CHC222Q) /CSM/CH/CHC2-A/CHC222Q.

  1. A European-wide 222Radon and 222Radon progeny comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmithüsen, Dominik; Chambers, Scott; Fischer, Bernd; Gilge, Stefan; Hatakka, Juha; Kazan, Victor; Neubert, Rolf; Paatero, Jussi; Ramonet, Michel; Schlosser, Clemens; Schmid, Sabine; Vermeulen, Alex; Levin, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    A European-wide 222Radon/222Radon progeny comparison study has been conducted in order to determine correction factors that could be applied to existing atmospheric 222Radon data sets for quantitative use of this tracer in atmospheric transport model validation. Two compact and easy-to-transport Heidelberg Radon Monitors (HRM) were moved around to run for at least one month at each of the nine European measurement stations that were included in the comparison. Linear regressions between paral...

  2. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.;

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  3. Residential radon-222 exposure and lung cancer: exposure assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Lynch, C F; Brus, C P; Neuberger, J S; Kross, B C

    1996-01-01

    Although occupational epidemiological studies and animal experimentation provide strong evidence that radon-222 (222Rn) progeny exposure causes lung cancer, residential epidemiological studies have not confirmed this association. Past residential epidemiological studies have yielded contradictory findings. Exposure misclassification has seriously compromised the ability of these studies to detect whether an association exists between 222Rn exposure and lung cancer. Misclassification of 222Rn exposure has arisen primarily from: 1) detector measurement error; 2) failure to consider temporal and spatial 222Rn variations within a home; 3) missing data from previously occupied homes that currently are inaccessible; 4) failure to link 222Rn concentrations with subject mobility; and 5) measuring 222Rn gas concentration as a surrogate for 222Rn progeny exposure. This paper examines these methodological dosimetry problems and addresses how we are accounting for them in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of 222Rn and lung cancer in Iowa.

  4. 50 CFR 222.301 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES General... Commerce that has been determined to be endangered under the Act, or that has been determined to be... effective administration of those parts and will not be unlawful. Other sections within parts 222, 223,...

  5. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser...

  6. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.222 - Books and Records of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and Records of Board. 1280.222 Section 1280.222... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1280.222 Books and Records of Board. The Board shall: (a) Maintain such books and records, which shall be...

  8. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Requirement § 222.404 Observer program sampling. (a) During the program design, NMFS would be guided by...

  9. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13 Section 222.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law...

  10. 20 CFR 222.12 - Ceremonial marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship. 222.12 Section 222.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial...

  11. Integrated 222-GHz corner-reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Steven S.; Ling, Curtis C.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    A high-gain monolithic millimeter-wave antenna has been designed, fabricated, and tested at 222 GHz. The structure consists of a traveling-wave antenna integrated on a 1.2-micron dielectric membrane and suspended in a longitudinal cavity etched in a silicon wafer. A new traveling-wave antenna design yields a wideband input impedance and a low cross-polarization component in the E- and quasi-H-plane patterns. A directivity of 17.7 dB and a main-beam efficiency of 88.5 percent are calculated from the 222-GHz pattern measurements. The integrated corner-reflector antenna is well suited for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave imaging applications in large f-number systems.

  12. Radon-222 in the lunar atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    In 1969 Yeh and Van Allen set upper limits for the alpha-particle emissivity of the moon. The equilibrium surface activity reported by Turkevich et al. (1970) for each alpha active Rn-222 daughter at Mare Tranquillitatis cannot be reconciled with existing diffusion theory. The data, therefore, suggest that earth based diffusion constants are not applicable in the vacuum conditions of the moon, or that there are substantial variations in the uranium content of the moon over relatively small distances.

  13. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Collé, R.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Unterweger, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon (222Rn) against international and national radium (226Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon ...

  14. 40 CFR 22.2 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 22.2 Section... PERMITS General § 22.2 Use of number and gender. As used in these Consolidated Rules of Practice, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine,...

  15. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  16. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under...

  17. 42 CFR 457.222 - FFP for equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation in the cost of equipment under CHIP are determined in accordance with subpart G of 45 CFR part 95... of 45 CFR part 95. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for equipment. 457.222 Section 457.222...

  18. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have...

  19. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2005-07-01

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl∗, 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl∗ excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λmax ≈ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented.

  20. Enatioselective[2+2+2] Cycloaddition as A Synthetic Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Shibata; S.Yoshida; M.Otsuka; Y.Arai; K.Endo

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Transition metal-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition is one of the most efficient protocols for the construction of six-membered ring system.Our group has comprehensively studied various types of highly enantioselective [2+2+2] cycloaddition for the synthesis of chiral cycloadducts; we already reported an iridium-catalyzed intermolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition between α,ω-diynes,having various tethers and substituents on the alkyne termini,and monoalkynes,possessing oxygen or/and nitrogen functiona...

  1. 20 CFR 222.11 - Determination of marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.11 Determination of marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an...

  2. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship... claimant is deemed to be the wife, husband, or widow(er) of the employee if the person's marriage to...

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP...

  4. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  5. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014; Messgeraete zur Bestimmung der Radon-222-Aktivitaetskonzentration oder der Radon-222-Exposition. Vergleichspruefung 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2014-10-15

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices{sup 1} using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  6. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  7. 12 CFR 222.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) You means... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  8. 33 CFR 157.222 - Pump and piping arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.222 Pump and piping arrangements. (a) Dedicated clean ballast tanks must be connected to the least practicable: (1... each dedicated clean ballast tank must be arranged so that oily water does not enter any...

  9. 20 CFR 416.222 - Who is an essential person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 416.222 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Eligibility for Increased Benefits Because of Essential Persons § 416... show that under a State plan in effect for June 1973, the State took that person's needs into...

  10. 40 CFR 98.222 - GHGs to report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.222 GHGs to report. (a) You must report N2O process emissions from each nitric acid production train as required by this subpart. (b) You must report...

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-25 - Affirmative Action Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....222-25 Affirmative Action Compliance. As prescribed in 22.810(d), insert the following provision: Affirmative Action Compliance (APR 1984) The offeror represents that (a) it □ has developed and has on file... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative...

  12. 48 CFR 222.403-4 - Department of Labor regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.403-4 Department of Labor regulations. Direct all questions regarding Department of Labor regulations to the labor advisor. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of...

  13. Present status of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater in Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Lopez, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: monica.galan@ciemat.es; Martin Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L{sup -1}. The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111 {+-} 7) Bq L{sup -1} and a median of (36 {+-} 3) Bq L{sup -1}. A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L{sup -1}. Three uranium series radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, and {sup 226}Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  14. 78 FR 61446 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fourteenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The...

  15. 78 FR 8684 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. DATES: The...

  16. 48 CFR 252.222-7006 - Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mandatory Arbitration Agreements. 252.222-7006 Section 252.222-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Arbitration Agreements. As prescribed in 222.7404, use the following clause: Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements (MAY 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Covered...

  17. 42 CFR 403.222 - State with an approved regulatory program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State with an approved regulatory program. 403.222 Section 403.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Programs § 403.222 State with an approved regulatory program. (a) A State has an approved...

  18. 36 CFR 222.51 - National Forests in 16 Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forests in 16 Western States. 222.51 Section 222.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing Fees § 222.51 National Forests in 16 Western States. (a) Grazing fees...

  19. 20 CFR 222.15 - When spouse is living with employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When spouse is living with employee. 222.15 Section 222.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.15 When spouse is living...

  20. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish...

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or...

  2. 12 CFR 222.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 222.90 Section 222.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Identity Theft Red Flags § 222.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  4. 48 CFR 222.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 222.404 Section 222.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations....

  5. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for...'s Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual, available through the TEAS Plus form...

  6. 33 CFR 148.222 - When must public hearings or meetings be held?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meetings be held? 148.222 Section 148.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Hearings Or Meetings § 148.222 When must public hearings or meetings be held? (a) Before a license is issued, at least one public license hearing under 33 U.S.C. 1504(g) must be held in each adjacent...

  7. The Dark Matter filament between Abell 222/223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg P.; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    Weak lensing detections and measurements of filaments have been elusive for a long time. The reason is that the low density contrast of filaments generally pushes the weak lensing signal to unobservably low scales. To nevertheless map the dark matter in filaments exquisite data and unusual systems are necessary. SuprimeCam observations of the supercluster system Abell 222/223 provided the required combination of excellent seeing images and a fortuitous alignment of the filament with the line-of-sight. This boosted the lensing signal to a detectable level and led to the first weak lensing mass measurement of a large-scale structure filament. The filament connecting Abell 222 and Abell 223 is now the only one traced by the galaxy distribution, dark matter, and X-ray emission from the hottest phase of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The combination of these data allows us to put the first constraints on the hot gas fraction in filaments.

  8. Analysis of ground-based 222Rn measurements over Spain: Filling the gap in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C.; Àgueda, A.; Vogel, F. R.; Vargas, A.; Zimnoch, M.; Wach, P.; Martín, J. E.; López-Coto, I.; Bolívar, J. P.; Morguí, J. A.; Rodó, X.

    2016-09-01

    Harmonized atmospheric 222Rn observations are required by the scientific community: these data have been lacking in southern Europe. We report on three recently established ground-based atmospheric 222Rn monitoring stations in Spain. We characterize the variability of atmospheric 222Rn concentrations at each of these stations in relation to source strengths, local, and regional atmospheric processes. For the study, measured atmospheric 222Rn concentrations, estimated 222Rn fluxes, and regional footprint analysis have been used. In addition, the atmospheric radon monitor operating at each station has been compared to a 222Rn progeny monitor. Annual means of 222Rn concentrations at Gredos (GIC3), Delta de l'Ebre (DEC3), and Huelva (UHU) stations were 17.3 ± 2.0 Bq m-3, 5.8 ± 0.8 Bq m-3, and 5.1 ± 0.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The GIC3 station showed high 222Rn concentration differences during the day and by seasons. The coastal station DEC3 presented background concentrations typical of the region, except when inland 222Rn-rich air masses are transported into the deltaic area. The highest 222Rn concentrations at UHU station were observed when local recirculation facilitates accumulation of 222Rn from nearby source represented by phosphogypsum piles. Results of the comparison performed between monitors revealed that the performance of the direct radon monitor is not affected by meteorological conditions, whereas the 222Rn progeny monitor seems to underestimate 222Rn concentrations under saturated atmospheric conditions. Initial findings indicate that the monitor responses seem to be in agreement for unsaturated atmospheric conditions but a further long-term comparison study will be needed to confirm this result.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Cationic Low-Valent Gallium Complexes of Cryptand[2.2.2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jeremy L; Boyle, Paul D; Baines, Kim M

    2015-06-26

    The synthesis and characterization of two bimetallic, cationic low-valent gallium-cryptand[2.2.2] complexes is reported. The reaction of cryptand[2.2.2] with Ga2Cl4 gave two different cations, [Ga3Cl4 (crypt-222)](+) (1) or [Ga2Cl2 (crypt-222)](2+) (2), depending on whether or not trimethylsilyl triflate (Me3SiOTf) was added as a co-reagent. Complexes 1 and 2 are the first examples of bimetallic cryptand[2.2.2] complexes, as well as the first low-valent gallium-cryptand[2.2.2] complexes. Computational methods were used to evaluate the bonding in the gallium cores.

  10. Estimation of 222Rn release from the phosphogypsum board used in housing panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mee; Kang, Chang-Sun; Hyun Moon, Joo

    2005-01-01

    Phosphogypsum board is a popular construction material used for housing panels in Korea. Phosphogypsum often contains (226)Ra which decays into (222)Rn through an alpha transformation. (222)Rn emanated from the (226)Ra-bearing phosphogypsum board has drawn the public concern due to its potential radiological impacts to indoor occupants. The emanation rate of (222)Rn from the board is estimated in this paper. A mathematical model of the emanation rate of (222)Rn from the board is presented and validated through a series of experiments. The back diffusion effect due to accumulation of (222)Rn-laden air was incorporated in the model and found to have a strong impact on the (222)Rn emanation characteristics.

  11. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources; Calibracao de detectores de radonio-222 atraves do uso de fontes de radio-222 em circuito fechado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Del Claro, Flavia, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  12. Stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 and Benzocaine in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1970-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized with M.S. 222 for periods up to 12 min experience interrenal ascorbate depletion, uremia, and moderate hypercholesterolemia. Anesthesia with neutralized M.S. 222 (pH 7) or benzocaine prevented these changes and significantly reduced the variability in plasma glucose, cholesterol, and cortisol, indicating that the stress of anesthesia with M.S. 222 is due to the low pK of the sulfonic acid moiety.

  13. Reference source of the radon-222 for modern technology of environmental monitoring in radioactive waste storages

    OpenAIRE

    Солодовнікова, Лідія Миколаївна; Тарасов, Володимир Олексійович

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a reference source of the radon-222 created to solve the problem of probability of environmental monitoring of the radon-222 in storages of radioactive wastes, uranium mines, geodynamic landfills over the study of portents of earthquakes.The main objective of the study is to develop a modern technology of environmental radon monitoring using the built-in reference sources of the radon-222 with the metrological characteristics independent of environmental parameters - tem...

  14. 22 CFR 40.68 - Aliens subject to INA 222(g).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens subject to INA 222(g). 40.68 Section 40... § 40.68 Aliens subject to INA 222(g). An alien who, under the provisions of INA 222(g), has voided a... new nonimmigrant visa unless the alien complies with the requirements in 22 CFR 41.101 (b) or...

  15. High Resolution Study of the 222Ra Exotic Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J. F.; Brillard, L.; Dalmasso, J.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-10-01

    The 14C-decay of 222Ra has been reinvestigated using a strong 230U source and the magnetic superconducting spectrometer SOLENO in view of looking for a possible feeding of the first 208Pb excited state. 210 14C-events were recorded in a single peak of (30.930±0.090) MeV energy; the 14C branching ratio values b=(2.31±0.31)×10-10 and <1×10-12 to the respective 208Pb ground and Iπ=3- octupole state were deduced.

  16. Monitoreo de Radón 222 en la zona sur de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Hancco, Jhonny Jonnatan

    2016-01-01

    Existen diversos estudios de las concentraciones de Radón 222 [36], los cuales comenzaron en minas, el objetivo de este tipo de estudios era determinar la dosis a la que estaban expuestos los trabajadores por diversas fuentes naturales entre ellas el Radón, las concentraciones de Radón 222 encontradas fueron muy elevadas llegando a la conclusión que las hijas del Radón 222 son las mas nocivas adicionándose a los efectos que causa el fumar, dado que el Radón 222 es un gas exhalado por el suelo...

  17. Effective Dose Radon 222 of the Tap Water in Children and Adults People; Minab City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Kargosha, Morteza; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Rasouli Amirhajeloo, Leila; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    (222)Rn is a radioactive, odorless, and colorless element which has a half-life of 3.83 days. One of (222)Rn main resources are Groundwater (wells, springs, etc.). Hence, the use of groundwater with high concentration of (222)Rn can increase the risk of lung and stomach cancers. Concentration of (222)Rn in tap water of Minab city in two temperatures 5 and 15 ºC was measured by radon meter model RTM1668-2. The effective dose was calculated by equations proposed by UNSCEAR. Geometric mean concentration of (222)Rn in drinking water was found to be 0.78±0.06 and 0.46±0.04 Bq/l at 5 and 15 ̊C (p value222)Rn at 5 and 15 ̊C were estimated 0.0021 and 0.0012mSv/y, respectively. Geometric mean concentration in (222)Rn drinking water and effective dose received from drinking water and inhalation of (222)Rn is lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Increasing temperature of drinking water will decrease the effective dose received. Annual Effective dose received from inhalation and consumption of (222)Rn in drinking water in children is more than adults.

  18. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  19. 48 CFR 2452.222-70 - Accessibility of meetings, conferences, and seminars to persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accessibility of meetings, conferences, and seminars to persons with disabilities. 2452.222-70 Section 2452.222-70 Federal Acquisition... (e.g., sign language interpreters) for each meeting, conference, or seminar in light of the known...

  20. 34 CFR 222.151 - When is an administrative hearing provided to a local educational agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is an administrative hearing provided to a local educational agency? 222.151 Section 222.151 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  1. 34 CFR 222.156 - How is an administrative hearing conducted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is an administrative hearing conducted? 222.156 Section 222.156 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid...

  2. 34 CFR 222.150 - What is the scope of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the scope of this subpart? 222.150 Section 222.150 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid Administrative Hearings...

  3. 34 CFR 222.155 - When and where is an administrative hearing held?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When and where is an administrative hearing held? 222.155 Section 222.155 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid...

  4. 34 CFR 222.154 - How must written submissions under this subpart be filed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must written submissions under this subpart be filed? 222.154 Section 222.154 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact...

  5. 34 CFR 222.152 - When may a local educational agency request reconsideration of a determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may a local educational agency request reconsideration of a determination? 222.152 Section 222.152 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT...

  6. 34 CFR 222.158 - What procedures apply to the Secretary's review of an initial decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply to the Secretary's review of an initial decision? 222.158 Section 222.158 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  7. 34 CFR 222.153 - How must a local educational agency request an administrative hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must a local educational agency request an administrative hearing? 222.153 Section 222.153 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  8. 34 CFR 222.159 - When and where does a party seek judicial review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When and where does a party seek judicial review? 222.159 Section 222.159 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid...

  9. Quantification of Kryptofix2.2.2 in ~(18)FDG by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET). Kryptofix2.2.2 (K-222) is used as a phase-transfer catalyst in the synthesis of 18FDG.Because of its toxicity

  10. 20 CFR 222.16 - When spouse is living in the same household with employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When spouse is living in the same household with employee. 222.16 Section 222.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) §...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 222 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation J Appendix J to Part 222 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM..., App. J Appendix J to Part 222—Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and.... Examples of Red Flags from each of these categories are appended as Supplement A to this appendix J....

  12. 48 CFR 222.7301 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens. 222.7301 Section 222.7301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... aliens. (a) Any alien who is issued a visa or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status under Section...

  13. 34 CFR 222.80 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to this subpart? 222.80 Section 222.80 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments to Local Educational Agencies...

  14. Increased radon-222 in soil gas because of cumulative seismicity at active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Ueyama, Takayoshi; Asaue, Hisafumi

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates how the radon-222 (222Rn) concentration of soil gas at an active fault is sensitive to cumulative recent seismicity by examining seven active faults in western Japan. The 222Rn concentration was found to correlate well with the total earthquake energy within a 100-km radius of each fault. This phenomenon can probably be ascribed to the increase of pore pressure around the source depth of 222Rn in shallow soil caused by frequently induced strain. This increase in pore pressure can enhance the ascent velocity of 222Rn carrier gas as governed by Darcy's law. Anomalous 222Rn concentrations are likely to originate from high gas velocities, rather than increased accumulations of parent nuclides. The high velocities also can yield unusual young gas under the radioactive nonequilibrium condition of short elapsed time since 222Rn generation. The results suggest that ongoing seismicity in the vicinity of an active fault can cause accumulation of strain in shallow fault soils. Therefore, the 222Rn concentration is a possible gauge for the degree of strain accumulation.

  15. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are...

  16. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water... for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. (a) The Commission has adopted a Policy Statement on its pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power...

  17. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be provided when relocating existing or constructing new power and communication lines over waters of... section). (e) Required clearances. Minimum vertical clearances for power and communication lines over... communication lines over reservoirs. 222.3 Section 222.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF...

  18. Nationwide indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn map for India: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandan, T.V. [Ex-Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-450 085 (India); Sathish, L.A., E-mail: lasgayit@yahoo.com [Post Graduate Department of Physics, Government Science College, Nrupathunga Road, Bangalore 560 001 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Considering the role of radon in epidemiology, an attempt was made to make a nation-wide map of indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn for India. More than 5000 measurements have been carried out in 1500 dwellings across the country comprising urban and nonurban locations. The solid state nuclear track detectors based twin cup {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn discrimination dosimeters were deployed for the measurement of indoor {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny levels. The geometric means of estimated annual inhalation dose rate due to indoor {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny in the dwellings was 0.94 mSvy{sup -1} (geometric standard deviation 2.5). It was observed that the major contribution to the indoor inhalation dose was due to indoor {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. However, the contribution due to indoor {sup 220}Rn and its progeny was not trivial as it was found to be about 20% of the total indoor inhalation dose rates. The indoor {sup 222}Rn levels in dwellings was significantly different depending on the nature of walls and floorings. - Highlights: > A countrywide survey on {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn levels for India was carried out in dwellings. > The regional values are obtained from the data on a few houses in that area. > Calibration factors for the measurements were derived experimentally as well as theoretically. > The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn levels are represented on the maps.

  19. 5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes? 591.222 Section 591.222 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... combine price indexes? OPM uses a three-step process to combine price indexes. (a) Step 1. For each...

  20. A simple and versatile {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn exposure chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk; Koo, V.S.Y.; Guan, Z.J

    2002-04-01

    A simple {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn exposure chamber is described. The chamber is made of acrylic and has a volume of 0.41 m{sup 3}. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn sources can be operated independently or simultaneously. The concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn were monitored by a continuous alpha spectrometer called RAD7. The capability of alpha spectrometry has removed the mutual interference between {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn, which is a major problem in measuring {sup 220}Rn. Furthermore, the capability can also provide fast response to changes in the {sup 222}Rn level and {sup 220}Rn level in the exposure chamber, with temporal resolutions of about 20 and 2 min, respectively.

  1. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  2. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  3. Removal of {sup 222}Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzel, G.; Wojcik, M. [Jagiellonian University Institute of Physics, Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Majorovits, B. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P. [Canberra-France, 1 Chemin de la Roseraie, B.P. 311, 67834 Tanneries Cedex (France)

    2015-08-17

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from copper, stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning techniques etching and electro-polishing was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements electro-polishing was always more efficient compared to etching and in case of copper the activity reduction factors for {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po were between 200 and 400. Etching does not remove {sup 210}Po from copper but works very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi for etched stainless steel were worse but still slightly better than those achieved for copper.

  4. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  5. Nicotinamide–2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bardin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinamide (NA molecules of the title compound, 2C6H6N2O·C2H3F3O, form centrosymmetric R22(8 hydrogen-bonded dimers via N—H...O contacts. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules of NA and one trifluoroethanol molecule disordered over two sites of equal occupancy. The packing consists of alternating layers of nicotinamide dimers and disordered 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol molecules stacking in the c-axis direction. Intramolecular C—H...O and intermolecular N—H...N, O—H...N, C—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...F interactions are present.

  6. 230Th, 226Ra and 222Rn in abyssal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadko, David

    1980-09-01

    A model that predicts the flux of 222Rn out of deep-sea sediment is presented. The radon is ultimately generated by 230Th which is stripped from the overlying water into the sediment. Data from many authors are compared with the model predictions. It is shown that the continental contribution of ionium is not significant, and that at low sedimentation rates, biological mixing and erosional processes strongly affect the surface concentration of the ionium. Two cores from areas of slow sediment accumulation, one from a manganese nodule region of the central Pacific and one from the Rio Grande Rise in the Atlantic were analyzed at closely spaced intervals for 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb. The Pacific core displayed evidence of biological mixing down to 12 cm and had a sedimentation rate of only 0.04 cm/kyr. The Atlantic core seemed to be mixed to 8 cm and had a sedimentation rate of 0.07 cm/kyr. Both cores had less total excess 230Th than predicted. Radium sediment profiles are generated from the 230Th model. Adsorbed, dissolved, and solid-phase radium is considered. According to the model, diffusional losses of radium are especially important at low sedimentation rates. Any particulate, or excess radium input is ignored in this model. The model fits the two analyzed cores if the fraction of total radium available for adsorption-desorption is about 0.5-0.7, and if K, the distribution coefficient, is about 1000. Finally, the flux of radon out of the sediments is derived from the model-generated radium profiles. It is shown that the resulting standing crop of 222Rn in the overlying water may be considered as an added constraint in budgeting 230Th and 226Ra in deep-sea sediments.

  7. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 222.20 - When determination of relationship as divorced spouse, surviving divorced spouse, or remarried...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... divorced spouse, surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er) is made. 222.20 Section 222.20 Employees... Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.20 When determination of relationship as divorced spouse, surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er) is made....

  9. 36 CFR 222.27 - Maintenance of wild free-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned lands. 222.27 Section 222.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.27 Maintenance of wild free-roaming horses and burros on privately-owned...

  10. 36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... horses and burros from private lands. 222.26 Section 222.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands. Owners of land upon...

  11. 20 CFR 404.222 - Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance amount from your average monthly wage. 404.222 Section 404.222 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.222 Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage. (a) General. We find your...

  12. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  13. (220)Rn/(222)Rn isotope pair as a natural proxy for soil gas transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxol, Stephan; Brennwald, Matthias S; Henneberger, Ruth; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-12-17

    Radon (Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, which is ubiquitous in soil gas. Especially, its long-lived isotope (222)Rn (half-life: 3.82 d) gained widespread acceptance as a tracer for gas transport in soils, while the short-lived (220)Rn (half-life: 55.6 s) found less interest in environmental studies. However, in some cases, the application of (222)Rn as a tracer in soil gas is complex as its concentrations can be influenced by changes of the transport conditions or of the (222)Rn production of the soil material. Due to the different half-lives of (220)Rn and (222)Rn, the distances that can be traveled by the respective isotopes before decay differ significantly, with (220)Rn migrating over much shorter distances than (222)Rn. Therefore, the soil gas concentrations of (220)Rn and (222)Rn are influenced by processes on different length scales. In laboratory experiments in a sandbox, we studied the different transport behaviors of (220)Rn and (222)Rn resulting from changing the boundary conditions for diffusive transport and from inducing advective gas movements. From the results gained in the laboratory experiments, we propose the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn to determine gas transport processes in soils. In a field study on soil gases in the cover soil of a capped landfill we applied the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn in soil gas for the first time and showed the feasibility of this approach to characterize soil gas transport processes.

  14. Using 222 Rn for hydrograph separationin a micro basin (Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hoffmann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain information on the hydrological signature of rivers during and after heavy rain events, small catchment areas are selected as experimental sites. Hydrograph separations based on environmental tracers are performed. Natural isotopic tracers such as 18O, 2H and particularly 222Rn may help to distinguish the components dominating the outflow, particularly of 'pre-event waters', 'event waters' and 'post-event waters'. Even with moderate concentrations in groundwater, radon can be a very sensitive indicator of groundwater input into rivers. The selected microbasin under investigation is situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belongs to the Attert River catchment. At chosen points at the basin's outflow radon detectors continuously measure radon activity in water. The radon monitors are installed together with high precision thermometers, conductivity meters, flow meters and automatic water samplers for chemical analysis. Besides the continuous measurements, grab water samples are taken at different locations along the stream, most of them during periods of heavy rain events. Presented are the results of a one year measurement campaign. During the dry season i.e. during more or less continuous discharge conditions, the observed mean values do not show substantial variations and can be used as reference values. Fluctuations of the measured data during rain events are discussed and the interplay between the different parameters analysed.

  15. 30 CFR 285.222 - What does MMS do with my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to, insufficiency, illegality, anti-competitive behavior, administrative error, and the presence of... Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.222 What does MMS do with my bid? (a) If...

  16. Continuous measurements of outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations for three years at one location in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borak, T.B.; Baynes, S.A. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiological Health Sciences

    1999-04-01

    Measurements were made of {sup 222}Rn concentrations outdoors in Ft. Collins, Colorado, using a continuously sampling scintillation flask between January 1993 and December 1995. These data were analyzed for hourly, daily, and seasonal variations. The average {sup 222}Rn concentration at 1 m above the ground was 18 {+-} 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} with a geometric mean of 15 Bq m{sup {minus}3} and a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. Hourly averaged data indicated a diurnal pattern with the outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentration reaching a maximum in the early morning between 4:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. and a broad minimum between 1:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. in the afternoon. An analysis also indicated that the outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations were consistently lowest during the spring (March and April) and highest during the late summer (July--September).

  17. Solvolise de tosilatos de 1-aril-2,2,2-trialogenoetila

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Carmen de

    1988-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciencias Fisicas e Matematicas A solvólise dos tosilatos de 2,2,2-tricloro-1-(4-metoxifenil)etanol, 2,2,2-tricloro-1-(4-metoxifenil)etanol, 2,2,2-tricloro-1-(4-metilfenil)etanol e 2,2,2-tricloro-1-(fenil)etanol foi estudada a diversas temperaturas em vários solventes polares (etanol-água, metanol-água, metanol, etanol, trifluoroetanol, ácido fórmico e ácido acético). Os dados cinéticos indicam que os tosilatos tricl...

  18. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  19. 12 CFR 222.26 - Delivery of opt-out notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.26 Delivery of opt-out notices. (a... of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (b)...

  20. 75 FR 63534 - Seventh Meeting-Special Committee 222: Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...: Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services. The agenda will include: Agenda Opening Plenary... Satellite (Route) Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222: Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  1. Ministry of Commerce Issued 222 the Most Competitive China's Market Brands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Recently, the Ministry of Commerce issued a total of 222 the most competitive China's market brands, which engage in 19 categories such as food, drink,apparel, household appliance and transportation.

  2. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  3. Two New Dicyanamide Coordination Polymers with Alternating Parallel Chains: {Mn(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2 and {Cu(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊; 周锡庚; 侯秀峰; 吴惠霞; 翁林红; 李艳荣

    2005-01-01

    Two new dicyanamide coordination polymers, {Mn(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2 (1) and {Cu(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2 (2)(dmpz=3,5-dimethylpyrazole), were synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and IR spectroscopy. In 1 and 2 the metal ions have two different coordination modes, where one is coordinated to four dicyanamide anions and two monodentate dmpz molecules to form a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, while the other adopts octahedral geometry, surrounded by four nitrile N atoms and two amide N atoms of the dicyanamide anions. Both complexes contain two alternating chains that are parallel to each other.

  4. Characterization of the 222Rn family turbulent transport in the convective atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galmarini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of turbulent transport and radioactive decay on the distribution of 222Rn and its progeny in convective atmospheric boundary layers (CBL is investigated. Large eddy simulation is used to simulate their dispersion in steady state CBL and in unsteady conditions represented by the growth of a CBL within a pre-existing reservoir layer. The exact decomposition of the concentration and flux budget equations under steady state conditions allowed us to determine which processes are responsible for the vertical distribution of 222Rn and its progeny. Their mean concentrations are directly correlated with their half-life, e.g. 222Rn and 210Pb are the most abundant whereas 218Po show the lowest concentrations. 222Rn flux decreases linearly with height and its flux budget is similar to the one of inert emitted scalar, i.e., a balance between on the one hand the gradient and the buoyancy production terms, and on the other hand the pressure and dissipation at smaller scales which tends to destroy the fluxes. While 222Rn exhibits the typical bottom-up behavior, the maximum flux location of the daughters is moving upwards while their rank in the 222Rn progeny is increasing leading to a typical top-down behavior for 210Pb. We also found that the relevant radioactive decaying contributions of 222Rn short-lived daughters (218Po and 214Pb act as flux sources leading to deviations from the linear flux shape. In addition, while analyzing the vertical distribution of the radioactive decay contributions to the concentrations, e.g. the decaying zone, we found a variation in height of 222Rn daughters' radioactive transformations. Under unsteady conditions, the same behaviors reported under steady state conditions are found: deviation of the fluxes from the linear shape for 218Po, enhanced discrepancy in height of the radioactive transformation contributions for all the daughters. In addition, 222Rn and its progeny concentrations decrease due to the

  5. 78 FR 31627 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The meeting will be held June 10-11 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  6. Utility of 222Rn as a passive tracer of subglacial distributed system drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, Benjamin S.; Charette, Matthew A.; Nienow, Peter W.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Tedstone, Andrew J.; Cowton, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Water flow beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been shown to include slow-inefficient (distributed) and fast-efficient (channelized) drainage systems, in response to meltwater delivery to the bed via both moulins and surface lake drainage. This partitioning between channelized and distributed drainage systems is difficult to quantify yet it plays an important role in bulk meltwater chemistry and glacial velocity, and thus subglacial erosion. Radon-222, which is continuously produced via the decay of 226Ra, accumulates in meltwater that has interacted with rock and sediment. Hence, elevated concentrations of 222Rn should be indicative of meltwater that has flowed through a distributed drainage system network. In the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012, we made hourly 222Rn measurements in the proglacial river of a large outlet glacier of the GrIS (Leverett Glacier, SW Greenland). Radon-222 activities were highest in the early melt season (10-15 dpm L-1), decreasing by a factor of 2-5 (3-5 dpm L-1) following the onset of widespread surface melt. Using a 222Rn mass balance model, we estimate that, on average, greater than 90% of the river 222Rn was sourced from distributed system meltwater. The distributed system 222Rn flux varied on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales with highest fluxes generally occurring on the falling limb of the hydrograph and during expansion of the channelized drainage system. Using laboratory based estimates of distributed system 222Rn, the distributed system water flux generally ranged between 1-5% of the total proglacial river discharge for both seasons. This study provides a promising new method for hydrograph separation in glacial watersheds and for estimating the timing and magnitude of distributed system fluxes expelled at ice sheet margins.

  7. Development of the primary measurement standard for gaseous radon-222 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Lee, S H; Oh, P J; Lee, M K; Ahn, J K

    2012-09-01

    The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed a primary system for the activity standardization of gaseous radon-222, based on the defined solid angle counting method. The size of adsorbed radon is determined by a Cyclone Storage Phosphor System, and a buffer chamber is introduced between the measurement chamber and the source for the purpose of gas purification. The measured activity of gaseous radon-222 and its associated measurement uncertainty obtained using the system are presented.

  8. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wen-jun; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong, E-mail: chengongzlp@hotmail.com; Zheng, Shan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis.

  9. Evaluation of radon-222 concentration in air of workplaces at Curitiba/PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rocha@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The isotope Rn-222 is a noble gas that is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population, and has very high probability to induce the lung cancer. The goal of present research is to evaluate the activity concentration of Rn-222 in the air of workplaces at Curitiba, Parana State. Simultaneously there were performed the measurements of Rn-222 emanation from soil and building materials occurred at evaluated workplaces. Indoor measurements of Rn-222 activity were performed using CR-39 detectors. The instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used in the measurements of the average concentrations of Rn-222 in soil gas and building materials. The average concentration of indoor Rn-222 obtained in the measurements of workplaces vary between 36+/-49 Bq/m³ and 164+/-51 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the reference limit of 200 Bq/m³ established by international agencies such as the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection, but slightly above the limit of 148 Bq/m³ established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The measurements involving building materials presented the concentration values of Rn-222 in a range from 427+/-310 Bq/m³ to 2053+/-700 Bq/m³. The Rn-222 concentrations in soil ranged from 31+/-2 kBq/m³ to 35+/-4 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 are found in a range of 41+/-6 kBq/m³ and 25+/-11 kBq/m³, thus the concentrations of radon gas soil are below the swedish criterion of 50 kBq/m³ that represent the minimum value for high-risk situation. (author)

  10. 222Rn-calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surface of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2011, altogether 191 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 94 of the events and was constant during almost all the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM / 222Rn flux ratio of all events including the non-significant ones was −0.0001 with a standard error of ±0.0030 pg mBq−1. Weighted with the event duration, the average GEM / 222Rn flux ratio was −0.0048 ± 0.0011 pg mBq−1. With an emission rate of 1.1 222Rn atoms cm−2 s−1 and a correction for the transport time, this flux ratio corresponds to a radon-calibrated flux of about −0.54 ng GEM m−2 h−1 with a standard error of ±0.13 ng GEM m−2 h−1 (n = 191. With wet deposition, which is not included in this estimate, the terrestrial surface of southern Africa seems to be a net mercury sink of about −1.55 ng m−2 h−1. The additional contribution of an unknown but presumably significant deposition of reactive gaseous mercury would further increase this sink.

  11. Exhalation of (222)Rn from phosphogypsum piles located at the Southwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, C; Liger, E; Cañete, S; Pérez, M; Bolívar, J P

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product of the phosphoric acid production process and contains, generally, high activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. It is stored in piles formed over the last 40 years close to the town of Huelva (Southwest of Spain). The very broad expanse of the PG piles (about 1200 ha) produces a local, but unambiguous, radioactive impact to their surroundings. In 1992, the regional government of Andalusia restored an area of 400 ha by covering it with a 25-cm thick layer of natural soil and, currently, there is an additional zone of 400 ha in course of restoration (unrestored) and the same area of active PG stacks. Due to the high activity concentration of (226)Ra in active PG stacks (average 647 Bq kg(-1)), a significant exhalation of (222)Rn could be produced from the surface of the piles. Measurements have been made of (222)Rn exhalation from active PG stacks and from restored and unrestored zones. The (222)Rn exhalation from unrestored zones is half of that of the active PG stacks. Following restoration, the (222)Rn exhalation is approximately eight times lower than the active PG stacks. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (40)K, (232)Th) in the mentioned zones have been determined. This study was also conducted to determine the effect of (226)Ra activity concentration on the (222)Rn exhalation, and a good correlation was obtained between the (222)Rn exhalation and (226)Ra activity, porosity and density of soil.

  12. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  13. Expression of Hpa and CD222 in bladder carcinoma and analysis of clinico-pathologic correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhong Shi; Hui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between the clinico-pathologic features and the hepa-ranase (Hpa) and CD222 expressions in bladder carcinoma. Methods:The expressions of Hpa and CD222 in 95 bladder carcinoma specimens and 20 paraneoplastic bladder tissues (controls) were assessed using the immunohistochemical stain-ing method. Results:The positive expression rates of Hpa and CD222 in bladder carcinoma were 68.42%and 61.05%, respectively. The positive rate of Hpa was significantly higher in the carcinoma specimens than in the control specimens (P<0.01). Similarly, the Hpa expression in the invasive bladder carcinoma was significantly higher than that in the non-invasive bladder carcinoma (P<0.01). A positive correlation was observed between the expressions of Hpa and CD222 (P<0.05). The expressions of Hpa and CD222 were significantly correlated with lymphatic invasion and TNM staging (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in negative expression of the Hpa group than that in the positive expression group (P<0.05). Compared with the non-co-positive expression group, the 5-year survival rate in the co-positive expression of Hpa and CD222 group was significantly lower (P<0.05). Conclusion:High Hpa and CD222 expressions in tumor tissues were associated with the occurrence and development of bladder carcinoma. Our results provide helpful information for the further diagnosis and therapy of bladder carcinoma.

  14. Occurrences of Uranium and Radon-222 in Groundwaters from Various Geological Environments in the Hoengseong Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Cheon; Choi, Hyeon Young; Yang, Jae Ha

    2016-04-01

    Groundwaters in granite, gneiss, and two-mica granite formations, including faults, in the Hoengseong area are examined to determine the relationship between their uranium and radon-222 contents and rock types. The chemical compositions of 38 groundwater samples and four surface water samples collected in the study area were analyzed. Sixteen of the samples showing high uranium and radon-222 contents were repeatedly analyzed. Surface radioactivities were measured at 30 points. The uranium and radon-222 concentrations in the groundwater samples were in the ranges of 0.02-49.3 μg/L and 20-906 Bq/L, respectively. Four samples for uranium and 35 samples for radon had concentrations exceeding the alternative maximum contaminant level of the US EPA. The chemical compositions of groundwaters indicated Ca(Na)-HCO3 and Ca(Na)-NO3(HCO3+Cl) types. The pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.66. High uranium and radon-222 contents in the groundwaters occurred mainly at the boundary between granite and gneiss, and in the granite area. The occurrence of uranium did not show any distinct relationship to that of radon-222. The radon-222, an inert gas, appeared to be dissolved in the groundwater of the aquifer after wide diffusion along rock fractures, having been derived from the decay of uranium in underground rocks. The results in this study indicate that groundwater of neutral or weakly alkaline pH, under oxidizing conditions and with a high bicarbonate content is favorable for the dissolution of uranium and uranium complexes such as uranyl or uranyl-carbonate. Key word: uranium, radon-222, geological boundary, groundwater, chemical characteristics, surface radioactivity

  15. Radon-222 from the island of hawaii: deep soils are more important than lava fields or volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, M H

    1974-02-01

    The mean flux of radon-222 atoms from the island of Hawaii is 0.45 atom per square centimeter per second. Lava fields occupy 50 percent of the land area, but their radon flux is only 1 percent of that from deep volcanic soils. The island yields approximately 10 curies of radon-222 per hour to the air surrounding it. The radon-222 contribuition of volcanoes is negligible.

  16. The air luminescence count for the rapid determination of {sup 222}Rn in a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Murakami, Isao; Homma, Yoshio [Laboratory for Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A liquid scintillation spectrometer has been applied to the determination of the counting efficiency for the air luminescence produced by standardized {sup 222}Rn and its daughters. Based on the counting efficiency, known amounts of {sup 222}Rn can be prepared in 3.5 h. Moreover, the {sup 226}Ra source from which {sup 222}Rn is collected does not necessary have to be a standard one. In contrast, the conventional method for preparing known amounts of {sup 222}Rn usually requires a long waiting period (ca. 15-30 days). (author)

  17. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of groundwater discharge into small lakes based on the temporal distribution of radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, N.T.; Burnett, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate groundwater discharge into small lakes we constructed a model that is based on the budget of 222Rn (radon t1/2 5 3.8 d) as a tracer. The main assumptions in our model are that the lake's waters are wellmixed horizontally and vertically; the only significant 222Rn source is via groundwater discharge; and the only losses are due to decay and atmospheric evasion. In order to evaluate the groundwater-derived 222Rn flux, we monitored the 222Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total 222Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of ??? 1.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1 in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage). ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. Dynamics of the X-ray clusters Abell 222, Abell 223 and Abell 520

    CERN Document Server

    Proust, D; Capelato, H V; Sodré, L; Lehodey, B T; Lefèvre, O; Mazure, A

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a dynamical analysis of three rich, X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, Abell 222, Abell 223 and Abell 520, that are at intermediate redshifts. Our study is based on radial velocities for 71 cluster members, respectively 30 for A222, 20 for A223 and 21 for A520, measured from spectra obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the European Southern Observatory, and the Pic du Midi Observatory, and supplemented with radial velocities from the literature. A222 galaxies have slightly higher velocities than those of A223, with bi-weighted mean velocity of V_{bi} = 64242 +/- 194 km/s for A222, and of V_{bi} = 63197 +/- 266 km/s for A223. The velocity dispersions of the two clusters are about the same: sigma_{bi} = 1013 +/- 150 km/s and sigma_{bi} = 1058 +/- 160 km/s for A222 and A223, respectively. For A520 we obtain V_{bi} = 60127 +/- 284 km/s with sigma_{bi} = 1250 +/- 189 km/s. We also give mass and mass-luminosities ratio estimates for each cluster separately. We argue that these clus...

  20. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N; Reynolds, James O; Waldron, Daniel F; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2012-06-10

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genetic resistance in goats. Two prion protein variants (amino acid substitutions S146 and K222) in goats have been significantly underrepresented in scrapie cases though present in scrapie-exposed flocks, and have demonstrated low cell-free protein conversion efficiency to the disease form (PrP(D)). To test degree of genetic resistance conferred in live animals with consistent exposure, we performed the first oral scrapie challenge of goats singly heterozygous for either PRNP S146 or K222. All N146-Q222 homozygotes became clinically scrapie positive by an average of 24months, but all S146 and K222 heterozygotes remain scrapie negative by both rectal biopsy and clinical signs at significantly longer incubation times (Pscrapie, suggesting these alleles do not confer complete resistance in the heterozygous state but rather extend incubation. The oral challenge results presented here confirm extended incubation observed in a recent intracerebral challenge of K222 heterozygotes, and to our knowledge provide the first demonstration of extended incubation in S146 heterozygotes. These results suggest longer relevant trace-back histories in scrapie-eradication programs for animals bearing these alleles and strengthen the case for additional challenge experiments in both homozygotes to assess potential scrapie resistance.

  1. {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: appetery@city.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Guan, Z.J.; Mui, B.W.N.; Ng, Y.T

    2000-04-01

    An active sampling system using charcoal canisters and an HPGe {gamma}-spectrometer was employed to survey {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations in 65 offices in Hong Kong, and a traditional method was used to record simultaneously the potential {alpha}-energy concentrations (PAEC) of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny at the same sites. The mean values of gas concentration, PAEC and equilibrium factor for {sup 222}Rn were 48{+-}32 Bq m{sup -3}, 5.2{+-}5.1 mWL and 0.38{+-}0.13, respectively, and the corresponding values for {sup 220}Rn were 14{+-}7 Bq m{sup -3}, 2.7{+-}2.1 mWL and 0.050{+-}0.016. These values were in general higher than those in dwellings in Hong Kong, which was due to the poorer fresh air exchange in offices. Factors affecting the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny were also studied. The type of air conditioners and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference show some effects on {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and progeny concentrations, while rainfall and relative humidity affect only the progeny concentrations.

  2. A novel application for 222Rn emanation standards: radon-cryptophane host chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Perez, L; Collé, R; Jacobson, D R; Fitzgerald, R; Khan, N S; Dmochowski, I J

    2012-09-01

    In collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania, a (222)Rn emanation source was used for the determination of the binding affinity of radon to a cryptophane molecular host. This source was similar to a (222)Rn emanation standard that was developed and disseminated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The novel experimental design involved performing the reactions at femtomole levels, developing exacting gravimetric sampling methods and making precise (222)Rn assays by liquid scintillation counting. A cryptophane-radon association constant was determined, K(A)=(49,000±12,000) L mol(-1) at 293 K, which was the first measurement of radon binding to a molecular host.

  3. Radon-222 as a test of convective transport in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Prather, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional tracer model based on the Goddard Institude of Space Studies GCM is used to simulate the distribution of Rn-222 over North America to test the ability of the model to describe the transport of pollutants in the boundary layer and the exchange of mass between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. The model results are compared with surface observations from five sites in the U.S., showing that Rn-222 concentrations are primarily regulated by dry convection. The simulations show satisfactory agreement with observations although the model underpredicts observations at night and the simulated Rn-222 concentrations over the northeastern U.S. are too high in the spring and too low in the fall.

  4. Rn-222 exhalation rates from phosphogypsum embankments subjected to fixed external activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabi, Jose A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: jrabi@pucpcaldas.br; Silva, Nivaldo C. da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas]. E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br

    2003-07-01

    Half of the average total dose received by humans worldwide corresponds to the annual effective dose due to {sup 222} Rn. This radionuclide is found in phosphogypsum, which is a by-product from phosphate fertilizer industries. Although there is a global interest in finding large-scale usage of this material, environmental issues related to its disposal and management still remain, as far as the {sup 222} Rn exhalation rate is concerned. Radon transport mechanism through phosphogypsum-based embankments is a rather complex process and depends upon many physical factors as porosity, moisture, temperature and emanation power. In this paper, an existing mathematical model was applied to simulate {sup 222} Rn transport in a one-dimensional porous media domain and under a steady-stage regime. As a first approach, natural convection effects were neglected and boundary conditions included no-flux at the base of the embankment and constant concentration activity at its top. (author)

  5. Radon-222 concentrations in ground water and soil gas on Indian reservations in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWild, John F.; Krohelski, James T.

    1995-01-01

    The weighted average radon-222 concentration of indoor air in homes located on Wisconsin Indian Reservations is 5.8 picocuries per liter, which exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action limit of 4 picocuries per liter. Ground water is the principle source of drinking water on Wisconsin Indian Reservations and generally accounts for about 5 percent of the total indoor air radon-222 concentrations found in homes. To determine the distribution of radon-222, ground water from 29 private and community Wisconsin Indian Reservation wells and soil gas at a depth of about 3 feet below land surface adjacent to the wells were sampled. Sites with wells were distributed among the 11 Wisconsin Indian Reservations so that each Reservation contained at least 2 sites. The remaining seven sites were divided among the Reservation by acreage held by each tribe.

  6. Upregulation of miR-222 in both Helicobacter pylori-infected and noninfected gastric cancer patients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MINA NOORMOHAMMAD; SAMIRA SADEGHI; HOSSEIN TABATABAEIAN; KAMRAN GHAEDI; ARDESHIR TALEBI; MANSOUREH AZADEH; MEHRI KHATAMI; MOHAMMAD MEHDI HEIDARI

    2016-12-01

    Despite of promising improvements in treatment of gastric cancer, the mortality rate of this malignancy remains high. Chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, interfering with intracellular signalling pathways, is the main risk factor for gastric cancer.Some evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNA), the small noncoding RNA molecules, can play role as oncogenes or tumour suppressors in the cells. MiR-222 is one of the remarkable miRNAs undergoing upregulation in gastric cancer. However, the association between miR-222 upregulation and H. pylori infection in gastric cancer tissues remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression level of miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues, evaluating the relationship between miR-222 expression level and H. pylori infection and also finding novel miR-222 targets based on in silico investigations. MiR-222 expression level in 200 patients including 112 H. pylori positive and 88 H. pylori negative was relatively measured using RT-qPCR and compared with 88 healthy samples. In silico enrichment analysis of miR-222 targets was performed byDAVID database to evaluate the possible role(s) of miR-222 in gastric tumourigenesis. We observed upregulated level of miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal samples (P<0.05). However, no significant difference between miR-222 expression in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative cases was observed. Our in silico analyses showed the possiblerole of p53, p27, PTEN and Elongin B in gastric cancer tumourigenesis. MiR-222 functions as an onco-miRNA and its overexpression can be involved in pathogenesis of gastric cancer, independent of H. pylori infection.

  7. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide 222Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Cassette, P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of 222Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Design and construction of a system to determine Radon-222 through alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante espectroscopia alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio M, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Facultad de Quimica. Toluca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this work consists in the design a radon-222 gas measurement system utilizing a surface barrier detector with the objective to obtain a more accurate measurement for this isotope through an alpha particle spectrum and so to address as to avoid the activity influence of the descendants of short half-life, which are too beta particles emitters, already other methods it must be correction series to obtain the real value of radon activity. Here are presented the general properties properties of radon, the experimental part description indicating the design to measure the radon-222 gas and its parts, as well as too the standard separation of radium-226 starting from carnotite mineral. Finally, it is presented the results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author) results obtained with a discussion about it. (Author)

  9. [2+2+2] Cycloaddition Reactions of Macrocyclic Systems Catalyzed by Transition Metals. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roglans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyalkyne and enediyne azamacrocycles are prepared from arenesulfonamides and various alkyne and alkene derivatives either under basic or neutral conditions. The new family of macrocyclic substrates is tested in the [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Several catalysts are used for the cycloisomerization reaction, and their enantioinduction is evaluated as appropriate. The effect of the structural features of the macrocycles, namely the ring size, substituents in precise positions and the number and type of unsaturations, on the [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction has also been studied.

  10. Identifying Groundwater Discharge in the Merced River Basin, California Using Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. D.; Hudson, G. B.; Moran, J.; Conklin, M.

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured granite of the Sierra Nevada is poorly characterized, in particular, contributions of mountain block recharge are not known. Using a combination of water quality and isotopic analyses, groundwater inputs to the Upper Merced River were characterized. Between November 2003 and July 2004, monthly water quality samples were taken from Happy Isles to the inlet of Lake McClure, a 75 km reach. These samples demonstrated the expected dilution due to snowmelt in the spring. In the fall, the spatial profile matched the geology with anion concentrations increasing downstream of the transition from the Sierra Nevada batholith to the country rock, suggesting significant groundwater inputs. From July 19 to 21, 2004, radon-222 and other noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe abundances and 3He/4He ratio) were measured along a 37 km reach of the Merced River, extending from the top of Yosemite Valley to the confluence of the South Fork of the Merced River. All radon samples were extracted into mineral oil immediately in the field and counted using liquid scintillation; noble gas samples were collected in copper tubes. Radon-222 activity varied from about 1 to 100 pCi/L (at collection time) indicating significant, spatially variable groundwater discharge into the Merced River. Two one-mile reaches of the Merced River were sampled for 222Rn on a fine scale. Large fracture sets in these two locations and previous temperature measurements suggested that groundwater discharge was higher relative to other locations along the river. Radon-222 activity was low upstream and downstream of large fractures observed in the bedrock; whereas, 222Rn activity was high at large fracture zones. Degassing is rapid downstream of fractures where no groundwater discharge is observed. For a representative groundwater end-member, radon-222 activity measured in Fern Spring, Yosemite Valley was about 1200 pCi/L. Excess 4He from U and Th decay is observed in samples with elevated

  11. An extensive indoor {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn monitoring in North-East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, K.K. [Department of Science and Technology, Embassy of India, 2536 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (United States)]. E-mail: kkdwivedi@yahoo.com; Mishra, R. [Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), Via. V. Brancati 48, Rome 00144 (Italy); Tripathy, S.P. [Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), Via. V. Brancati 48, Rome 00144 (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    The behaviour of ubiquitous radon (Rn222), thoron (Rn220) and their progeny in the indoor atmosphere generally reflect a complex interplay between a number of processes, the most important of which are radioactive {alpha}-decay, ventilation, attachment to aerosols and deposition on the surfaces. The present work involved a long-term (1997-2000) passive monitoring of Rn222 and Rn220 in the indoor environment of the North-Eastern region of India. This region being a zone of high seismicity, the indoor radon and thoron measurement of the region will provide a better insight and a valuable database for any study related to radon and thoron anomalies.

  12. Measurements of the radon-222 concentration in residences of Lima - Peru; Mediciones de la concentracion de radon 222 en residencias de Lima - Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, P.; Lopez, M. E.; Perez, B., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The measurement of the Radon-222 levels was realized in the first semester of 2013 in residences corresponding to 16 districts of the metropolitan area of Lima, including to the zones North, Center and South of the city, during one period of 3 to 6 months in continuous form, with measurement periods of 1 to 2 months. The houses where the measurements were made were selected considering diverse variables as antiquity, construction materials, coatings, soil type, occupational use of the monitored rooms, etc. The measurements were realized in basements, first and second floor of the residences. For the Radon-222 measurements passive detectors of cellulose nitrate (Lr-115) were used. The procedure of data collection, dosimeters reading and the measurement results are shown in this work; this monitoring is the first one that is carried out in this city. The results are only indicators of the present radon rate, by the detectors type not is possible to discriminate the presence of the Radon-222 descendants. (Author)

  13. 34 CFR 222.16 - What information and documentation must an LEA submit for an eligible overpayment to be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information and documentation must an LEA submit for an eligible overpayment to be considered for forgiveness? 222.16 Section 222.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS General...

  14. 34 CFR 222.157 - What procedures apply for issuing or appealing an administrative law judge's decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply for issuing or appealing an administrative law judge's decision? 222.157 Section 222.157 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT...

  15. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âChild in careâ when child of the employee is living with the claimant. 222.17 Section 222.17 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) §...

  16. 50 CFR 222.308 - Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... enhancement of propagation or survival of species. 222.308 Section 222.308 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival of species. (a) Scope. The Assistant Administrator may issue permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of the propagation or survival...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-23 - Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. 52.222-23 Section 52.222-23... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. As prescribed in 22.810(b), insert the following provision: Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal...

  18. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  19. 34 CFR 222.75 - How does the Secretary compute the average per pupil expenditure of generally comparable local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary compute the average per pupil expenditure of generally comparable local educational agencies under this subpart? 222.75 Section 222.75... pupil expenditure of generally comparable local educational agencies under this subpart? The...

  20. 50 CFR 222.309 - Permits for listed species of sea turtles involving the Fish and Wildlife Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for listed species of sea turtles involving the Fish and Wildlife Service. 222.309 Section 222.309 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... species of sea turtles involving the Fish and Wildlife Service. (a) This section establishes...

  1. 47 CFR 90.719 - Individual channels available for assignment in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual channels available for assignment in... Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.719 Individual channels available for assignment in the 220-222 MHz band. (a) Channels 171 through 200 are available to both Government and...

  2. {sup 222}Rn monitoring in the radioactive storage of IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil; Monitoracao de Rn-222 nos galpoes de armazenamento de rejeitos radioativos do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manocchi, Fabio Henrique

    2014-07-01

    Some radionuclides that make up the radioactive series are noted for their contribution to the total exposure to which individuals are subjected, an important example is known as radon {sup 222}Rn and their descendants, responsible for more than half of the radiation dose received by the population due to natural sources. In this work the effective dose received by the workers of the Management of Radioactive Waste in IPEN due to inhalation of {sup 222}Rn in storage sheds from treated and untreated radioactive waste was evaluated. Concentrations of {sup 222}Rn inside the sheds of treated and untreated radioactive waste G3 and G4 were determined by the technique of passive detection with solid state nuclear track (SSNTD) detectors. The detector used was CR-39 inserted in a diffusion chamber type NRPB. A total of 12 internal points and 1 external point were monitored in the shed radioactive waste treated G4 and 13 points in the shed radioactive waste untreated G3, for a period of 11 months between June 2012 and May 2013. Concentrations ranged 0.73 ± 0.08 to 4.55 ± 0.16 kBq∙m{sup -3} among the monitoring periods in the shed G4 and between 0.61 ± 0.07 and 2.94 ± 0.12 kBq∙m{sup -3} in the shed G3. The effective dose due to inhalation of {sup 222}Rn inside the sheds radioactive waste was calculated according to the procedures of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) from a conversion factor of dose, the mean concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the air and time of exposure of individuals. The dose values for G4 and G3 are 15.70 and 9.27 mSv∙a{sup -1} respectively, this being greater than the value established by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 20 mSv / a for occupationally exposed individuals, thus indicating the need for mitigation measures. It should, however, report that was considered a very conservative assumption of 2,000 hours of work on

  3. A process-based 222Rn flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karstens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed 222Rn flux maps are an essential prerequisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate was parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by local water table depth and soil texture. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The average 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 or 15 mBq m-2 s-1, depending on the soil moisture data set, and the seasonal variations in the two realisations range from 7.1 mBq m-2 s-1 in February to 13.9 mBq m-2 s-1 in August and from 10.8 mBq m-2 s-1 in March to 19.7 mBq m-2 s-1 in July, respectively. This systematic difference highlights the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates.

  4. miR-221和miR-222在胃癌中的表达及临床意义%Expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in Gastric Cancer and its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶; 闫竞一; 薛向阳; 武文一; 黄颖鹏; 朱冠保; 沈贤

    2011-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in gastric cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic features. [ Method ] The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in 32 cases of gastric cancer tissues and their matched non-tumor adjacent tissues was examined by stem-loop RT-PCR. And the correlation with clinicopathologic features was investigated. [ Resuits] The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P<0.05). The ratio of miR-221/miR-222 expression had significant difference (P=0.05). The expression of miR-222 was related to differentiation (P=0.046); the expression of miR-221 was related to lymph node metastasis(P=0.013). [Conclusion] The expressions of miR-221 and miR-222 in gastric cancer markedly up regulation,they are important markers for gastric cancer,and they may play different effect with different stages in gastric cancer.%[目的]探讨miR-221和miR-222在胃癌中的表达及与临床病理特征的关系.[方法]应用茎环RT-PCR方法检测32例胃癌及癌旁胃黏膜组织中miR-221和miR-222表达,分析miR-221和miR-222表达与胃癌临床病理指标的关系.[结果]胃癌组织miR-221和miR-222表达明显高于对应的正常胃黏膜组织(P<0.05),且胃癌与正常胃黏膜组织中miR-221和miR-222比值也有显著性差异(P=0.05).miR-222表达与胃癌分化程度相关(P=0.046);miR-221表达与淋巴结转移相关(P=0.013).[结论]miR-221和miR-222在胃癌中表达明显上调是胃癌的重要标志.但两者在胃癌发生发展的不同阶段,可能发挥不同的效应.

  5. 20 CFR 222.21 - When marriage is terminated by final divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When marriage is terminated by final divorce... Widow(er) § 222.21 When marriage is terminated by final divorce. A final divorce, often referred to as an absolute divorce, completely dissolves the marriage relationship and restores the parties to...

  6. Fungal Origins of the Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring System of Prenylated Indole Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Sherman, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Over eight different families of natural products consisting of nearly 70 secondary metabolites that contain the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system have been isolated from various Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Malbranchea species. Since 1968, these secondary metabolites have been the focus of ...

  7. One year of 222Rn concentration in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galmarini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year time series of 222Rn measured in a rural area in the North of Italy in 1997 is analyzed. The scope of the investigation is to better understand the behavior of this common atmospheric tracer in relation to the meteorological conditions at the release site. Wavelet analysis is used as one of the investigation tools of the time series. The measurements and scalograms of 222Rn are compared to those of wind-speed, pressure, relative humidity, temperature and NOx. The use of wavelet analysis allows the identification of the various scales controlling the influence of the meteorological variables on 222Rn dispersion in the surface layer that are not visible through classical Fourier analysis or direct time series inspection. The analysis of the time series has identified specific periods during which the usual diurnal variation of radon is superimposed to a linear growth thus indicating the build up of concentration at the measurement level. From these specific cases an estimate of the surface flux of 222Rn is made. By means of a simple model these special cases are reproduced.

  8. One year of 222Rn concentration in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galmarini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A one-year time series of 222Rn measured in a rural area in the North of Italy in 1997 is analyzed. The scope of the investigation is to better understand the behavior of this common atmospheric tracer in relation to the meteorological conditions at the release site. Wavelet analysis is used as one of the investigation tools of the time series. The measurements and scalograms of 222Rn are compared to those of wind-speed, pressure, relative humidity, temperature and NOx. The use of wavelet analysis allows the identification of the various scales controlling the influence of the meteorological variables on 222Rn dispersion in the surface layer that are not visible through classical Fourier analysis or direct time series inspection. The analysis of the time series has identified specific periods during which the usual diurnal variation of radon is superimposed to a linear growth thus indicating the build up of concentration at the measurement level. From these specific cases an estimate of the surface flux of 222Rn is made. By means of a simple model these special cases are reproduced.

  9. Proline Catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction between Methyl Ketones and 1-Aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Li-Hua; SHEN Zong-Xuan; SHI Chang-Qing; LIU Yan-Hua; ZHANG Ya-Wen

    2005-01-01

    Direct asymmetric aldol addition of methyl ketones to 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanone and its ring-substituted derivatives was achieved using L-proline as a chiral promoter. Various optically active β-trifluoromethyl-β-hydroxy ketones were obtained in almost quantitative yields with moderate enantioselectivities up to 64 % ee.

  10. 12 CFR 222.25 - Reasonable and simple methods of opting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.25 Reasonable and... electronically mailed or processed at an Internet Web site, if the consumer agrees to the electronic delivery of... opt-out under the Act, and the affiliate marketing opt-out under the Act, by a single method, such...

  11. Prediction of {sup 222} Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part I: parametric mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabi, Jose A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: jrabi@pucpcaldas.br; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A. [The University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering]. E-mail: amohamad@enme.ucalgary.ca

    2004-07-01

    Radon-222 is a radionuclide exhaled from phosphogypsum by-produced at phosphate fertilizer industries. Alternative large-scale application of this waste may indicate a material substitute for civil engineering provided that environmental issues concerning its disposal and management are overcome. The first part of this paper outlines a steady-state two-dimensional model for {sup 222}Rn transport through porous media, inside which emanation (source term) and decay (sink term) exist. Boussinesq approach is evoked for the laminar buoyancy-driven interstitial air flow, which is also modeled according to Darcy-Brinkman formulation. In order to account for simultaneous effects of entailed physical parameters, governing equations are cast into dimensionless form. Apart from usual controlling parameters like Reynolds, Prandtl, Schmidt, Grashof and Darcy numbers, three unconventional dimensionless groups are put forward. Having in mind {sup 222}Rn transport in phosphogypsum-bearing porous media, the physical meaning of those newly introduced parameters and representative values for the involved physical parameters are presented. A limiting diffusion-dominated scenario is addressed, for which an analytical solution is deduced for boundary conditions including an impermeable phosphogypsum stack base and a non-zero fixed concentration activity at the stack top. Accordingly, an expression for the average Sherwood number corresponding to the normalized {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate is presented.

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-36 - Affirmative Action for Workers With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative Action for... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-36 Affirmative Action for Workers With Disabilities. As prescribed in 22.1408(a), insert the following clause: Affirmative Action for Workers With Disabilities (OCT 2010) (a) General....

  13. INDOOR 222RN IN TENNESSEE VALLEY HOUSES: SEASONAL, BUILDING AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for thre...

  14. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water control management (ER 1110... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.5 Water control management (ER 1110-2-240). (a... Engineers in carrying out water control management activities, including establishment of water...

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child Labor-Cooperation... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-19 Child Labor—Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies. As prescribed in 22.1505(b), insert the following clause: Child Labor—Cooperation With Authorities and...

  16. Refugee Camp Planning And Construction Handbook - Air Force Handbook 10-222, Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    site emergency facility will be required, as well as a preventive medicine facility. Use of local existing facilities will help ease the burden of...are mosquitoes, flies, fleas, and cockroaches . AFH 10-222, Volume 22, 15 June 2000 52

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-5 - Davis-Bacon Act-Secondary Site of the Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Secondary... Clauses 52.222-5 Davis-Bacon Act—Secondary Site of the Work. As prescribed in 22.407(h), insert the following provision: Davis-Bacon Act—Secondary Site of the Work (JUL 2005) (a)(1) The offeror shall...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-32 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method). As prescribed in 22.407(g), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Actual Method) (DEC 2001) (a) The...

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method) (DEC...

  20. Indoor radon (Rn-222) concentration measurements in Cyprus using high-sensitivity portable detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, T; Christofides, S; Christodoulides, G

    2003-01-01

    Using high--sensitivity radon (Rn-222) portable detectors, the airborne Rn-222 concentration in the interior of various Cypriot buildings and dwellings was measured. For each preselected building and dwelling, a calibrated detector was put into a closed room, and the Rn-222 concentration was registered in sampling intervals of 2 to 4 hours for a total counting time of typically 48 hours. Rn-222 activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 6.2 to 102.8 Bq/m**3, with an overall arithmetic mean value of (19.3 +- 1.6) Bq/m**3. This value is by a factor of two below the world average (population-weighted) value of 39 Bq/m**3. The total annual effective dose equivalent to the Cypriot population was calculated to be between 0.16 and 2.6 mSv with an overall arithmetic mean value of (0.49 +- 0.04) mSv.

  1. Cascade Reaction and Synthesis of Bicyclo[2,2,2]octenones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nian-Guang; WANG Jin-Xin; YOU Qi-Dong; CHU Gang; GUO Qing-Long

    2008-01-01

    During study on the remarkable cascade reaction for synthesis of compound 1, the neo-caged scaffold 2 with a heterocyclic bicyclo[2.2.2]octenone moiety and two new aUyl substituted xanthones 3, 4 were obtained besides the known caged scaffold 1.The probable reaction processes were also elucidated in this paper.

  2. 14 CFR 222.5 - Cancellation or conditioning of a Statement of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation or conditioning of a Statement... § 222.5 Cancellation or conditioning of a Statement of Authorization. A Statement of Authorization may be canceled or made subject to additional terms, conditions, or limitations, at any time, with...

  3. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  4. Dose assessment to inhalation exposure of indoor 222Rn daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C W; Chang, S Y; Lee, B H

    1992-10-01

    Long-term, average indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 12 residential areas by passive CR-39 radon cups. Corresponding equilibrium-equivalent concentration of radon daughters were derived. The resulting effective dose equivalent for the Korean population due to inhalation exposure of this equilibrium-equivalent concentration of radon daughters was then evaluated.

  5. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  6. Microrna-221 and microrna-222 modulate differentiation and maturation of skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Cardinali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression. They negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by translational repression and target mRNA degradation. miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in muscle development and in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing miRNA expression profiling of proliferating myoblasts versus differentiated myotubes, a number of modulated miRNAs, not previously implicated in regulation of myogenic differentiation, were identified. Among these, miR-221 and miR-222 were strongly down-regulated upon differentiation of both primary and established myogenic cells. Conversely, miR-221 and miR-222 expression was restored in post-mitotic, terminally differentiated myotubes subjected to Src tyrosine kinase activation. By the use of specific inhibitors we provide evidence that expression of miR-221 and miR-222 is under the control of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Both in myoblasts and in myotubes, levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 inversely correlated with miR-221 and miR-222 expression, and indeed we show that p27 mRNA is a direct target of these miRNAs in myogenic cells. Ectopic expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in myoblasts undergoing differentiation induced a delay in withdrawal from the cell cycle and in myogenin expression, followed by inhibition of sarcomeric protein accumulation. When miR-221 and miR-222 were expressed in myotubes undergoing maturation, a profound alteration of myofibrillar organization was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: miR-221 and miR-222 have been found to be modulated during myogenesis and to play a role both in the progression from myoblasts to myocytes and in the achievement of the fully differentiated phenotype. Identification of miRNAs modulating muscle gene expression is crucial for the understanding of the circuits

  7. Evaluation of the anesthetic effects of MS222 in the adult Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zullian,1 Aurore Dodelet-Devillers,1 Stéphane Roy,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, 2Département de Stomatologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is a unique research model in several fields of medicine, where surgical and invasive procedures may be required. As yet, little is known about the efficacy of MS222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, which is the most commonly used anesthetic agent in amphibians. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the anesthetic effects and physiological changes in adult axolotls following a 20-minute immersion bath, containing progressive MS222 concentrations starting at 0.1%. Depth of anesthesia and physiological changes were evaluated every 15 minutes post-MS222 exposure with the following parameters: righting behavior, withdrawal reflex, acetic acid test response, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation, as well as cloacal and body surface temperatures. A 20-minute exposure in a 0.1% MS222 immersion bath (n=6 animals had no anesthetic effects on adult axolotls after 20 minutes of exposure. With a 0.2% MS222 solution, all axolotls (n=9 were deeply anesthetized at 15 minutes, and 80% were still unresponsive at 30 minutes postexposure. Blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were slightly, but significantly, increased when compared with the baseline value and remained stable up to recovery. There was no significant increase in surface and cloaca temperatures, compared with baseline. With the 0.4% MS222 solution, the duration of anesthesia lasted for 90 minutes to at least 120 minutes (n=3 animals and this concentration was deemed too high. In conclusion, a 20-minute immersion bath with 0.2% MS222 may be used for short procedures (15–30 minutes requiring anesthesia of adult axolotls. Keywords: Ambystoma mexicanum

  8. Distribution characteristics of Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa spa district, Tottori Pref., JAPAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T.; Morishima, H.; Inagaki, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Mifune, M. [Kinki Univ., Fuse, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst

    2000-05-01

    We have carried out convenient and highly sensitive radon measurement using absorption to means of a detecting active charcoal and a liquid scintillation spectrometer, Packard Pico-rad System. The {alpha} and {beta} radioactivities of its decay products originated from radon gas absorbed detector exposed to air were measured. Its detection limit is 1.7Bq/m{sup 3} in air with an accuracy of about 10% on 200 minutes of counting time, and correction coefficient, the ratio of measured radon concentration to standard radon concentration (about 300Bq/m{sup 3}) is 0.75 on the standard radon gas chamber of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Misasa district, Tottori pref. is famous for the radioactive spa in Japan. We have measured the Rn-222 concentrations in air with a set of indoor and outdoor. The distribution range of Rn-222 concentrations in air on Misasa spa district from 1995 to 1998 are 8 - 194Bq/m{sup 3} indoors, 2 - 150Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors, the former generally are higher than those outdoor and these ratios fluctuate on the range 1.1 - 2.3. Rn-222 concentrations in air on Asahi, Takeda and Misasa districts geologically formed from granite strata were higher than those on Mitoku and Osika districts formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt), and its ratio of indoor to outdoor were similar trend too. The strata is also a influence on Rn-222 concentration in air. The Rn-222 concentrations on Higashi-osaka as control area are 4.9 - 17Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 0.33 - 10Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors. (author)

  9. Radon ((222)Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Dang Duc; Fernando, Carvalho P; Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Long, Nguyen Quang; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Fonseca, Heloisa

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas ((222)Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of (222)Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m(-3) averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m(-3) (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m(-3). This was similar to outdoor (222)Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m(-3) (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m(-3). Indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor (222)Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average (222)Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor (222)Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline (222)Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of (222)Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m(-3). These results suggest that (222)Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase (222)Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of (222)Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m(-3). Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from (222)Rn exposure in the study region.

  10. MicroRNA-221/222 regulate ox-LDL-induced endothelial apoptosis via Ets-1/p21 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bing; Cao, Yuze; Yang, Huan; Xiao, Bo; Lu, Zhengqi

    2015-07-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is thought to play an essential role in atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs, acting as posttranscriptional regulators of protein-coding genes involved in vascular cell biology. MiRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miR-221/222) are known to be involved in the regulation of endothelial inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the function of miR-221/222 in ox-LDL-induced ECs apoptosis and atherosclerosis is still unknown. Here, we showed that miR-221/222 expression was markedly down-regulated in ox-LDL-induced apoptotic human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells. MiR-221/222 inhibition enhanced apoptosis in ECs, whereas over-expression of miR-221/222 could partly alleviate apoptotic cell death mediated by ox-LDL through suppression of Ets-1 and its downstream target p21. These findings suggest that manipulation of the miR-221/222-Ets-1-p21 pathway may offer a novel strategy for treatment of endothelial apoptosis and atherosclerosis.

  11. Comparison of one- and two-filter detectors for atmospheric 222Rn measurements under various meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parallel monitoring of 222Rn and its short-lived progeny (218Po and 214Pb were carried out from November 2007 to April 2008 close to the top of the Schauinsland mountain, partly covered with forest, in South-West Germany. Samples were aspired from the same location at 2.5 m above ground level. We measured 222Rn with a dual flow loop, two-filter detector and its short-lived progeny with a one-filter detector. A reference sector for events, facing a steep valley and dominated by pasture, was used to minimize differences between 222Rn and progeny-derived 222Rn activity concentrations. In the two major wind sectors covered by forest to a distance between 60 m and 80 m towards the station progeny-derived 222Rn activity concentration was on average equal to 87% (without precipitation and 74% (with precipitation of 222Rn activity concentration. The observations show that most of the time both detector types follow the same pattern. Still, there is no single disequilibrium factor that could be used to exactly transform short-lived progeny to 222Rn activity concentration under all meteorological conditions.

  12. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose.

  13. Design and construction of a system for determining Radon-222 through Alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante Espectroscopia alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, J.; Iturbe, J.L

    1992-02-15

    The study of the present work consists on designing a system to measure gas {sup 222} Rn, using a surface barrier detector, in order to obtaining a more accuracy measure of this isotope by means of an alpha particle spectra and thus to try to avoid the influence of the radioactivity of the isotope descendants of short half life, which are also emitting of alpha particles, since by other methods its should make a series of corrections to obtain the real value of the radon activity. (Author)

  14. Synthesis and Transformations of di-endo-3-Aminobicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Palkó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13 and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10 were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2. Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR and NMR.

  15. Low-level measurements of Ra-226/Rn-222 by pulse ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Daoushy, Fand; Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of two ionization chambers have been studied and the chambers utilized for 226Ra/ 222Rn measurements for more than ten years. The results obtained show that coating of internal surfaces with a pure and thin Ag-layer enhances the background of ionization chambers in spite of some improvements at the early stages of operation. In addition to previously known parameters influencing the accuracy in routine measurements, new correction factors are suggested. 226Ra impurities in the body of ionization chambers are found to act not only as a permanent, but also as a temperature-dependent source of background. Earlier accuracies of 226Ra/ 222Rn measurements have been considerably improved by assuring long-term mechanical and thermal stability of the ionization chambers.

  16. Monitoring 222 Rn in soil gas of Garfagnana (Tuscany aimed at earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pescia

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 222 Rn concentration in soil gas from nineteen stations of Garfagnana valley (Central ltaly was continuously monitored from December 1990 to May 1993. 222 Rn activity was measured by solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD. Tracks detected by spark-counter and by optical microscope were proportionally constant for track densities lower than 2500 tracks/cm2. Since time variations in track density both for the same monitoring station and for different stations are significanfly higher than fluctuations in the experimental conditions, the validity of spark-counter for radon activity measurements is confirmed. Data collected in the period of monitoring indicate significant seasonal variations in radon concentration for every monitoring station. Moreover, the soil characteristics play an important role in determining the observed patterns. No significant correlation could be found between radon emission and seismicity. However, it should be noted that no earthquake with a magnitude higher than 3.5 occurred in Garfagnana during the monitoring period.

  17. A 'delayed' counting method to determine indoor Rn-222 levels indirectly

    CERN Document Server

    Iannopollo, V; Trimarchi, M; Tripepi, M G; Vermiglio, G

    2001-01-01

    A new indirect and 'delayed' way is presented to determine indoor concentration of Rn-222 by best-fitting methods. If a rapid knowledge of Rn-222 levels is required and if a detection system is not available in situ, it is possible to obtain concentration of radioactive gas by determining of 'delayed' counts of Po-214. The 'delay' time consists of two or three hours. The method is based on the use of cellulose filters for particulate collection and on the analysis of samples by alpha spectroscopy. It is also possible to obtain concentrations of short-lived radon daughters Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, which are very important quantities in a medical framework.

  18. Comparison of outdoor activity size distributions of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt)]. E-mail: amermohamed6@hotmail.com; El-Hussein, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt)

    2005-06-01

    Inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny from the domestic environment contributes the greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to the public. Dosimetric models are most often used in the assessment of human lung doses due to inhaled radioactivity because of the difficulty in making direct measurements. These models require information about the parameters of activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny. The present study presents measured data on the attached and unattached activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny in outdoor air in El-Minia, Egypt. The attached fraction was collected using a low-pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The activity size distribution of thoron progeny was found to be shifted to slightly smaller particle size compared to radon progeny.

  19. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn with a Large Size Collector of Radon Progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qifan; Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Wang Jun; Cheng Jianping; Liu Guilin; Zhu Li

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than those of others in China, especially 220Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurements of 222Rn and 220 Rn concentrations should be carried out there. This paper introduces a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fiber with electrostatics of (-500 V) - ( -700 V). Its size (60 mm in diameter) is larger than those of others (26 mm in diameter) that work with the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore, its sensitivity of measurement is higher than that of others.According to the different half lives of radon progeny, and based on both theory and experiments, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations is deduced. The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of com-mercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222Rn nor 220Rn concentration was found significantly high. However, several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different.Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  20. Measuring radon-222 in soil gas with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Darren; Read, David; Shaw, George

    2017-02-01

    In order to exploit (222)Rn as a naturally-occurring tracer in soils we need to sample and measure radon isotopes in soil gas with high spatial and temporal resolution, without disturbing in situ activity concentrations and fluxes. Minimisation of sample volume is key to improving the resolution with which soil gas can be sampled; an analytical method is then needed which can measure radon with appropriate detection limits and precision for soil gas tracer studies. We have designed a soil gas probe with minimal internal dead volume to allow us to sample soil gas volumes of 45 cm(3). Radon-222 is extracted from these samples into a mineral oil-based scintillation cocktail before counting on a conventional liquid scintillation counter. A detection limit of 320 Bq m(-3) (in soil gas) is achievable with a 1 h count. This could be further reduced but, in practice, is sufficient for our purpose since (222)Rn in soil gas typically ranges from 2000-50,000 Bq m(-3). The method is simple and provides several advantages over commonly used field-portable instruments, including smaller sample volumes, speed of deployment and reliability under field conditions. The major limitation is the need to count samples in a liquid scintillation counter within 2-3 days of collection, due to the short (3.824 day) radioactive half-life of (222)Rn. The method is not applicable to the very short-lived (55 s half-life) (220)Rn.

  1. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  2. A new beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent for 222Rn monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C

    1996-05-01

    A new commercially available beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent, Carboxen-564 (20/45 mesh), was tested and compared to Calgon-PCB (40/80) activated carbon for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics under controlled conditions of temperature (25 degrees C) and relative humidity (RH). The amount of water vapor adsorbed by the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was typically a factor of 4 lower than the activated carbon, with a concomitant fourfold increase in the 222Rn adsorption coefficient, K(Rn). The maximum K(Rn) value for a thin layer of Carboxen-564, following a 2-d exposure at 40% RH, was 7.2 Bq kg(-1) per Bq m(-3). The K(Rn) or a 1-cm bed, following a 2-d exposure was 5.5 Bq m(-3), a 25% reduction. Under dynamic sampling conditions, where 0.4 g of the beaded carbon molecular sieve was contained in a 6 cm x 0.4 cm diameter tube, the maximum K(Rn) value was 6.5 Bq m(-3) after 2.5 h of sampling at 29% RH when the input flow rate was 4.2 x 10(-3) m3 h-1. Kinetic studies were also conducted under passive sampling conditions. The data show that the 222Rn buildup time-constant for a thin layer of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was 1.3 h, whereas that of a 1 cm bed was 13 h. The 222Rn desorption time-constants, from gram amounts of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material into air and into a commercially available toluene based liquid scintillation cocktail, were 2 h and 3 h, respectively. Carboxen's high 222Rn adsorbing capacity, rapid kinetics, hydrophobicity and physical properties makes it an attractive alternative to other commercially available activated carbon used in passive and dynamic sampling devices.

  3. The diurnal evolution of 222Rn and its progeny in the atmospheric boundary layer during the Wangara experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galmarini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal atmospheric boundary layer evolution of the 222Rn decaying family is studied by using a state-of-the-art large-eddy simulation model. In particular, a diurnal cycle observed during the Wangara experiment is successfully simulated together with the effect of diurnal varying turbulent characteristics on radioactive compounds in a secular equilibrium. This study allows us to clearly analyze and identify the boundary layer processes driving the 222Rn and its progeny concentration behaviors. The activity disequilibrium observed in the nocturnal boundary layer is due to the proximity of the radon source and the trapping of fresh 222Rn close to the surface induced by the weak vertical transport. During the morning transition, the secular equilibrium is fast restored by the vigorous turbulent mixing. The evolution of 222Rn and its progeny concentration in the unsteady growing convective boundary layer depends on the strength of entrainment events.

  4. Effects of air conditioning, dehumidification and natural ventilation on indoor concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Thomas K.C.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2000-01-01

    A bedroom was selected for detailed measurements on {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental parameters including CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature and relative humidity. To simulate different sealing conditions, five conditions were artificially created in the sampling period of 25 consecutive days. It was concluded that natural ventilation is the most efficient way to lower the {sup 222}Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidification provides only a marginal reduction of {sup 222}Rn levels. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not affected by natural ventilation, air conditioner or dehumidification, and were all around 10 Bq m{sup -3}. There are no significant correlations between the {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental conditions such as CO{sub 2} concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and pressure.

  5. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all times. (b) Molybdenum filtrate solvent extraction raffinate. BPT Limitations for the Secondary... CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.222 Effluent limitations guidelines...) Leach tailings. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory Pollutant...

  6. Radon-222 signatures of natural ventilation regimes in an underground quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Crouzeix, Catherine; Morat, Pierre; Le Mouël, Jean Louis

    2004-01-01

    Radon-222 activity concentration has been monitored since 1999 in an underground limestone quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris, France. It is homogeneous in summer, with an average value of 1700 Bq m(-3), and varies from 730 to 1450 Bq m(-3) in winter, indicating natural ventilation with a rate ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 x 10(-6) s(-1) (0.04-0.22 day(-1)). This hypothesis is supported by measurements in the vertical access pit where, in winter, a turbulent air current produces a stable radon profile, smoothly decreasing from 700 Bq m(-3) at 20 m depth to 300 Bq m(-3) at surface. In summer, a thermal stratification is maintained in the pit, but the radon-222 concentration jumps repeatedly between 100 and 2000 Bq m(-3). These jumps are due to atmospheric pressure pumping, which induces ventilation in the quarry at a rate of about 0.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) (0.009 day(-1)). Radon-222 monitoring thus provides a dynamical characterisation of ventilation regimes, which is important for the assessment of the long-term evolution of underground systems.

  7. Measurements of soil and canopy exchange rates in the Amazon rain forest using Rn-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, S. E.; Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Da Costa, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements were taken of the emission of Rn-222 from Amazon forest rocks and soils and used as a tracer of ventilation of the forest canopy layer at night. It was determined that the greatest resistance to transfer of trace gases from the soil to the atmosphere lies in the soil air space. Profiles of Rn-222 and CO2 showed steepest concentration gradients in the layer between 0 and 3 m above soil surface. Aerodynamic resistances calculated for this layer from Rn-222 and CO2 varied from 1.6 to 18 s/cm, with greater resistance during the afternoon than at night. The resistance to exchange with air from the entire 41 m layer below the canopy averaged 4.8 s/cm during 13 nights of CO2 profiles. The calculated average time to flush the layer below 41 m is 5.5 hr, and it is concluded that this indicates that significant exchange occurs despite nocturnal stratification.

  8. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  9. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

  10. Study on {sup 222-226}Th isotopes in the cranking framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Daya; Devi, Rani; Khosa, S.K., E-mail: rani_rakwal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2013-08-15

    The yrast spectra, quadrupole moments, quadrupole deformation parameters (β{sub 2}), non-axiality parameters (γ), root mean-square radii for protons and neutrons, occupation probabilities, moment of inertia (I), and B(E2) transition probabilities are calculated for {sup 222{sup -226}}Th in the cranked Hartree-Bogoliubov framework. The calculations employ a quadrupole-quadrupole plus pairing model of residual interaction operating in a reasonably large valence space outside the {sup 164}Pb core. Our calculations reproduce qualitatively the observed yrast spectra in {sup 222-226}Th up to spin 20{sup +}. The calculated results indicate that the non-axiality parameter decreases as one moves along the yrast states. The observed increase in deformation from {sup 222}Th to {sup 226}Th is due to the increase in the occupation of low-κ components of (2g{sub 9/2}){sub π} and (1{sub j15/2}){sub ν} orbits. The model parameters reproduce not only the moment of inertia, deformation, and transition probabilities but also the proton and neutron pairing gaps and are the most appropriate for cranking studies in this region. (author)

  11. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    1999-08-01

    This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30 cm{sup 3} . Numerical modelling is used to assess (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of an open-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 mBq h{sup -1} kg{sup -1}. Under consideration of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222 concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical materials will increase the indoor concentration by less than 10 Bq m{sup -3}. (au) 6 tabs., 15 ills., 29 refs.

  12. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acutis, Pier Luigi; Martucci, Francesca; D'Angelo, Antonio; Peletto, Simone; Colussi, Silvia; Maurella, Cristiana; Porcario, Chiara; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Dell'atti, Luana; Zuccon, Fabio; Corona, Cristiano; Martinelli, Nicola; Casalone, Cristina; Caramelli, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino

    2012-02-01

    Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.

  13. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acutis Pier Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP. Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002. Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.

  14. Numerical simulation of {sup 222}RN exhalation from phosphogypsum building blocks and accumulation inside a closed chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabi Junior, Jose A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: jrabi@fzea.usp.br; Silva, Nivaldo C. da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]|[Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio]. E-mail: ncsilva@pucpcaldas.br; ncsilva@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    Zero-order models for {sup 222}Rn exhalation from phosphogypsum-bearing building materials and its transient indoor accumulation assume uniform distribution inside the enclosure. Conversely, this paper numerically simulates a transient two-dimensional {sup 222}Rn accumulation in a test chamber that contains a phosphogypsum board at one wall. Results show that above hypothesis might be oversimplified when spatial dependence is considered. (author)

  15. Development of a highly sensitive radon-222 amplifier (HiSRA) for low-level atmospheric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topin, Sylvain; Richon, Patrick; Thomas, Vincent; Gréau, Claire; Pujos, Julie; Moulin, Julien; Hovesepian, Alexandre; Deliere, Ludovic

    2017-05-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), a radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.82 days, is continuously emanated from soil, rocks, and water by the radioactive decay of (226)Ra. Radon-222 is released from the ground into the atmosphere, where it is transported mainly by turbulent diffusion or convection. For precise measurement of radon-222 atoms in the atmosphere, the detectors typically used present a small volume or surface area and are therefore not very sensitive, especially for online measurements and short sample intervals (Radon Amplifier (HiSRA) consisting in an enrichment system placed prior to a classic radon-222 analyzer. This system uses permeation membranes that make it possible to treat large quantities of air online (30 m(3) h(-1)). The radon-222 concentration is increased instantaneously by at least a factor of 30 across the HiSRA system. Therefore, in this study, when coupling to an ionization chamber (AlphaGUARDTM) at the outlet of the HiSRA system, the detection limit of the overall system is multiplied by factor of 30 and induces a new LD for a radon 222 gas analyzer lower than 1 Bq m(-3) for an integrating time of 10 min and 0.1 Bq m(-3) for 1 h. We constructed one radon amplifier prototype that provided the preliminary results for amplification efficiency and the initial measurements presented herein.

  16. Estimation of the radiological risk related to the presence of radon 222 in a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, S; Essafi, F; Mahjoubi, H

    2006-09-01

    The (222)Rn concentration in air was measured in a thermal water spa used as a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia. The associated health risk for employees and patients due to the inhalation of (222)Rn and its progeny was estimated. A protection scheme for the employees of the spas has been designed. Results show that the (222)Rn concentration varies in the range 33-589 Bq m(-3). The (222)Rn concentrations measured in the present study show lower values in comparison to those reported for thermal spas in other countries. The (222)Rn concentration in different rooms of the spa depends mainly on the ventilation rate. A model based on a dosimetric approach was adopted to estimate the radon risk considering the (222)Rn concentration, the time spent in the spa, and the radioactive equilibrium factor F. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.2 and 1.7 mSv for workers while the range for patients was from 2.8 x 10(-4) to 1.1 x 10(-4) mSv. These values are within the ICRP recommended values.

  17. Estimation of the radiological risk related to the presence of radon 222 in a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, S [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (Tunisia); Essafi, F [Faculte de Medecine de Tunis, Section de Biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-09-15

    The {sup 222}Rn concentration in air was measured in a thermal water spa used as a hydrotherapy centre in Tunisia. The associated health risk for employees and patients due to the inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny was estimated. A protection scheme for the employees of the spas has been designed. Results show that the {sup 222}Rn concentration varies in the range 33-589 Bq m{sup -3}. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations measured in the present study show lower values in comparison to those reported for thermal spas in other countries. The {sup 222}Rn concentration in different rooms of the spa depends mainly on the ventilation rate. A model based on a dosimetric approach was adopted to estimate the radon risk considering the {sup 222}Rn concentration, the time spent in the spa, and the radioactive equilibrium factor F. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.2 and 1.7 mSv for workers while the range for patients was from 2.8 x 10{sup -4} to 1.1 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (note)

  18. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A

    2016-02-13

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level.

  19. {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations in soil gas of Karkonosze-Izera Block (Sudetes, Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczewski, Dariusz [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Silesia (Poland)]. E-mail: malczews@us.edu.pl; Zaba, Jerzy [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Silesia (Poland)]. E-mail: jzaba@interia.pl

    2007-07-01

    Soil gas {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations were measured at 18 locations in the Karkonosze-Izera Block area in southwestern Poland. Measurements were carried out in surface air and at sampling depths of 10, 40 and 80 cm. Surface air {sup 222}Rn concentrations ranged from 4 to 2160 Bq m{sup -3} and {sup 220}Rn ranged from 4 to 228 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentrations for 10 and 40 cm varied from 142 Bq m{sup -3} to 801 kBq m{sup -3} and 102 Bq m{sup -3} to 64 kBq m{sup -3} for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn, respectively. At 80 cm {sup 222}Rn concentrations ranged from 94 Bq m{sup -3} to >1 MBq m{sup -3}. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations at 80 cm varied from 45 Bq m{sup -3} to 48 kBq m{sup -3}. The concentration versus depth profiles for {sup 222}Rn differed for soils developed on fault zones, uranium deposits or both. Atmospheric air temperature and soil gas {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn were negatively correlated. At sampling sites with steep slopes, {sup 220}Rn concentrations decreased with depth.

  20. miR-221/222 Promotes S-Phase Entry and Cellular Migration in Control of Basal-Like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The miR-221/222 cluster has been demonstrated to function as oncomiR in human cancers. miR-221/222 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms by which miR-221/222 regulates breast cancer aggressiveness remain unclear. Here we detected a much higher expression of miR-221/222 in highly invasive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC cells than that in non-invasive luminal cells. A microRNA dataset from breast cancer patients indicated an elevated expression of miR-221/222 in BLBC subtype. S-phase entry of the cell cycle was associated with the induction of miR-221/222 expression. miRNA inhibitors specially targeting miR-221 or miR-222 both significantly suppressed cellular migration, invasion and G1/S transition of the cell cycle in BLBC cell types. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the down-regulation of two tumor suppressor genes, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibit 1B (CDKN1B, by miR-221/222. This is the first report to reveal miR-221/222 regulation of G1/S transition of the cell cycle. These findings demonstrate that miR-221/222 contribute to the aggressiveness in control of BLBC.

  1. Advance research on microRNA-221,microRNA-222 and malignant tumor%microRNA-221和microRNA-222与恶性肿瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春智; 康春生; 浦佩玉

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that particular microRNAs(miRNAs) function either as tumor suppres-sors or oncogenes, whose loss or overexpression, respectively, has diagnostic and prognostic significance.Mi-croRNA-221 and microRNA-222 are a cluster microRNAs of oncogenes.They are overexpressed in some malig-nant tumors, including glioblstoma, prostate carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and so on.By regulating particular target mRNAs, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 perform pro- oneogenie role.p27kip1 and p57kip2 are target genes of microRNA-221 and mieroRNA-222.MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 promote oncogensis and tumor grow by down-regulating p27kip1 and p57kip2 expression.%微RNA(micmRNA)-221和microRNA-222是成簇的microRNA,在恶性肿瘤中起促癌作用,在胶质母细胞瘤、前列腺癌、乳头状甲状腺癌等恶性肿瘤中高表达.microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过调控其特定的靶基因行使促癌作用.在所有预测的靶基因中,p27kip1和p57kip2是已被验证的靶基因,microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过下调p27kip1和p57kip2的表达来促进肿瘤的形成和生长.

  2. miR-222 contributes to sex-dimorphic cardiac eNOS expression via ets-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Alicia M; Deschamps, Anne M; Liu, Delong; Raghavachari, Nalini; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2013-06-17

    It is well recognized that there is sex-dimorphic expression of mRNA and protein in the heart; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of cardiac function, and the expression levels of eNOS differ between male and female hearts. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of specific microRNA (miRNA, miR) in males and females contributes to changes in the expression of eNOS. miRNA was extracted from the myocardium of male and female C57BL/6 mice and subjected to an Affymetrix miRNA array. Decreased expression of miR-222 was discovered in females and confirmed by qRT-PCR from whole heart or isolated cardiomyocytes. The transcription factor V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog-1 (ets-1) was identified as a potential target of miR-222 using TargetScan, and fivefold increased ets-1 protein expression in females was confirmed by Western blot. Targeting of ets-1 by miR-222 was determined in HEK293 cells overexpressing luciferase under regulation of either the ets-1 3'-UTR, a null 3'-UTR control, or a scrambled ets-1 3'-UTR and treated with a small molecule miR-222 mimic or inhibitor. Additionally qRT-PCR confirmed that mRNA levels of the ets-1 transcriptional target, eNOS, were 25% higher in females. Compared with untreated myocyte controls, 50% inhibition of eNOS expression was achieved by treatment with a miR-222 mimic, compared with a 25% increase due to miR-222 inhibitor. Our findings indicate that sex-dependent miR-222 regulation alters the expression of the cardiac regulatory protein eNOS.

  3. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  4. 用氡-222评价五缘湾的地下水输入%Assessment of submarine groundwater discharge into the Wuyuan bay via continuous Radon-222 measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占荣; 李开培; 袁晓婕; 章斌; 马志勇

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important process in land-ocean interactions in the coastal zone (LOICZ). The subject has thus become the focus of intensive research. Geochemical tracers can be effective tools for estimating SGD in LOICZ. The objective of this study is to estimate SGD in the Wuyuan Bay using Radon-222 (222Rn) as naturally occurring tracer. The dynamic variation of SGD can thus be subsequently assessed. We continuously measure the seawater 222Rn and 226Ra activities, the near-sea surface air Rn, wind speed, sea water temperature and depth for two consecutive days. We also deploy an incubation device to measure the diffusive flux of 222Rn from sediments and the pore-water 222Rn activities. Based on the mass balance principle for the 222Rn flux, the measured seawater 222Rn are corrected for the decay product of parent 226Ra, the effects of tides, the losses to the atmosphere, the diffusive influxes from the sediments, and the mixing with offshore seawaters. The result shows a conservative estimate of 222Rn flux attributed to SGD is between 0 and 126.7 Bq/(m2 h) , which can account for 54% 222Rn in seawater. Taking a SGD end-member as example, the calculated SGD input rates range from 0 to 29. 3 cm/d with an average value of 9. 3 cm/d. The end-member is made of the weighted average of ground-water and pore-water 222Rn activities. The fluctuation in the SGD input rate has a 12-h period, which matches well with the semi-diurnal tides in this region. The SGD input to the Wuyuan Bay could be as much as 1. 86 X 105 mVd if the estimation were made under the assumption that the average SGD input rate is applicable to the entire bay area. The input of terrestrially derived fresh groundwater in the Wuyuan Bay could be approximately 1. 86 X 104 mVd if the fresh groundwater were 10% of the total SGD input.%海底地下水排泄(SGD)近年来成为陆-海相互作用的研究热点,地球化学示踪方法是其主

  5. Application of {sup 222} Rn as a tracer of groundwater discharge at the coastal zone of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Aplicacao de {sup 222} Rn como tracador da descarga de aguas subterraneas na regiao costeira de Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joselene de; Farias, Luciana A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiometria Ambiental]. E-mail: jolivei@net.ipen.br; Burnett, William C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Saraiva, Elisabete de S.B. e; Furtado, Valdenir V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Quimica e Geologica

    2002-07-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and recycled seawater can provide chemical constituents to coastal zone, representing an important material flux pathway from land to sea in some areas. Geochemical tracers, like {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra, are advantageous for regional-scale assessment of SGD, because their signals represent values integrated through the water column that removes small-scale variations. These radionuclides are usually enriched in groundwater compared to seawater, can be measured at very low concentrations and are conservative. This work reports preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26{sup '}S and 23 deg 46{sup '}S and longitudes between 45 deg02{sup '}W and 45 deg 11{sup '}W. The main aims of this research were to set up an analytical method to assess {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra activities in seawater samples and to apply the excess {sup 222} Rn inventories obtained to estimate the submarine groundwater discharge. Measurements made during 2001/2002 included {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra in seawater, {sup 222} Rn in sediment, seawater and sediment physical properties. (author)

  6. Alpha radioactivity monitoring related to Radon-222 in water from wells in metropolitan area of Curitiba (PR), Brazil; Monitoramento da radioatividade alfa relacionada ao radonio-222 em aguas de pocos da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba (PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo Reuters [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    This research objective was to assess the level of randon-222 concentration in well water of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Parana. Current work presents the results of indoor {sup 222}Rn activity ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the region. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the radon detector AlphaGUARD. The calculations of initial radon activity in water were done considering the {sup 222}Rn decay correction as well as equilibrium level of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra observed after 30 days of measurements. Obtained results show that about 70% of measured activity levels of {sup 222}Rn are higher than the recommended value of 11.1 Bq.L{sup -1}, which represent the risk for the human health associated with this radionuclide. The case study showed that previous measurements of radon are recommended for a construction project is implemented. In this case, it is observed that the radon concentrations decrease about 56% in the first water tank and 83% in the second water tank over the well. This fact shows that the actions for mitigation of radon are viable and do not require major modifications to the usual systems of construction. (author)

  7. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222; Determinacao do fator de calibracao para detectores solidos de tracos nucleares tipo CR-39 expostos a Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci, E-mail: cdcazula@ipen.br, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm{sup 2}) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m{sup 3}, by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm{sup 2} per Bq / m{sup 3} day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility.

  8. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, D.L. [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Silva, A.A.R. da [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O.Box 66318, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, Departamento de Saúde, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua da Reitoria, 109, 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lacerda, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Rosas, J.P. de [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Tognelli, G. [Departamento de Geología, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. - Highlights: • {sup 222}Rn levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina • CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose • higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter • radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents • it localizes unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  9. Environmental benefits of parking-integrated photovoltaics: A 222kWp experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves;

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of a grid-connected, parking integrated, 222kWp cadmium telluride photovoltaic system has been performed. The system was built at the University of Murcia and has been monitored for 2.5years (sampling data every 5min). The detailed material inventory, the energy embedded...... integration (in this case parking integration) have been quantified using a standard methodology for the calculation of several environmental parameters. Finally, the environmental benefits of renewable energy generation because of the savings of producing the same amount of electricity by the Spanish grid...

  10. Investigations on the Formation of 4-Aminobicyclo[2.2.2]-octanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Weis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzylidene acetone reacts with thiocyanates derived from secondary amines in a one-pot reaction to give 4-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ones. The reaction mixture was investigated for the presence of possible intermediates using GC-MS. These intermediates – diketones and enamines – were prepared and exposed to the same reaction conditions to examine the reaction mechanism. The reaction of ethyl styryl ketone with thiocyanates of secondary amines yielded cyclohexanone derivatives instead of the expected bicyclo- octanones. Their structures were established by means of a single crystal structure analysis.

  11. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ben Rhaiem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound (C6H14N2[CdCl4]·H2O contained one 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dication, a tetrahedral CdCl42− anion and a lattice water molecule. In the crystal, the solvate water molecule interacts with the cationic and anionic species via N—H...O and O—H...Cl [O...Cl = 3.289 (7 Å] hydrogen-bond interactions, respectively, leading to a layered supramolecular structure extending parallel to (011.

  12. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO 5-aminotetrazolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Schottenberger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of four salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO and 5-aminotetrazole are described. Anhydrous 1:1 (Pbca, Rgt = 0.041 and 1:2 (P, Rgt = 0.038 salts form hydrogen-bonded layers of anions and cations. The monohydrate of the 1:1 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.038 shows infinite chains of DABCO cations and an undulated layer of anions and water molecules. The octahydrate of the 3:2 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.042 features DABCO triples and clusters of four tetrazolate ions in a network of water molecules.

  13. 222Rn calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surface of southern Africa derived from observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2011 altogether 191 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 94 of the events and was constant during almost all the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM/222Rn emission ratio of all events including the non-significant ones was −0.0001 ± 0.0030 pg mBq−1, with 0.0030 pg mBq−1 being the standard error of the average. With an emission rate of 1.1 222Rn atoms cm−2 s−1 and a correction for the transport duration, this emission ratio corresponds to a radon calibrated flux of about −0.01 ng GEM m−2 h−1 with a standard error of ±0.34 ng GEM m−2 h−1 (n = 191. With wet deposition, which is not included in this estimate, the terrestrial surface of southern Africa seems to be a net mercury sink of about −1.01 ng m−2 h−1.

  14. Pharmacologic parameters of MS222 and physiologic changes in frogs (Xenopus laevis) after immersion at anesthetic doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde-Robert, Vanessa; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the anesthetic efficacy of MS222 (dose, 1 or 2 g/L; pH 7) administered as an immersion bath (duration, 20 min) for nonbreeding female Xenopus leavis frogs (n = 33; average body weight, 103 ± 16 g). The acid acetic test, the withdrawal reflex, righting behavior, heart rate, respiratory frequency, and blood oxygen saturation were used to evaluate the level of anesthesia. Acetic acid and withdrawal reflex responses were present at 30 and 60 min following immersion for the 1- and 2-g/L doses, respectively. MS222 had no effect on heart rate or oxygen saturation, but caused pronounced respiratory depression, as expected. Microscopic observations of selected tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidneys, and skin) showed no evidence of lesions at 24 h after immersion. In addition, we calculated the pharmacokinetics of MS222 in plasma and analyzed the drug by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated half-life of MS222 is 3.2 h. We conclude that MS222 administered at 1 or 2 g/mL via immersion bath for 20 min is an effective anesthetic that can be used for surgical procedures of less than 30 or 60 min, respectively, in Xenopus leavis.

  15. miR-222 induces Adriamycin resistance in breast cancer through PTEN/Akt/p27(kip1) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Yang, Su-Jin; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Hong-Yu; Luo, Long-Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhong, Shan-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Tang, Jin-Hai

    2016-11-01

    The high resistant rate of Adriamycin (Adr) is associated with a poor prognosis of breast cancer in women worldwide. Since miR-222 might contribute to chemoresistance in many cancer types, in this study, we aimed to investigate its efficacy in breast cancer through PTEN/Akt/p27 (kip1) pathway. Firstly, in vivo, we verified that miR-222 was upregulated in chemoresistant tissues after surgery compared with the paired preneoadjuvant samples of 21 breast cancer patients. Then, human breast cancer Adr-resistant cell line (MCF-7/Adr) was constructed to validate the pathway from the parental sensitive cell line (MCF-7/S). MCF-7/Adr and MCF-7/S were transfected with miR-222 mimics, miR-222 inhibitors, or their negative controls, respectively. The results showed that inhibition of miR-222 in MCF-7/Adr significantly increased the expressions of PTEN and p27 (kip1) and decreased phospho-Akt (p-Akt) both in mRNA and protein levels (p cancer cells to Adr through PTEN/Akt/p27 (kip1) signaling pathway, which provided a potential target to increase the sensitivity to Adr in breast cancer treatment and further improved the prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  16. Monte Carlo calculations of LR115 detector response to {sup 222}Rn in the presence of {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N.

    2000-04-01

    The sensitivities (in m) of bare LR115 detectors and detectors in diffusion chambers to {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn chains are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The partial sensitivities of bare detectors to the {sup 222}Rn chain are larger than those to the {sup 220}Rn chain, which is due to the higher energies of alpha particles in the {sup 220}Rn chain and the upper energy limit for detection for the LR115 detector. However, the total sensitivities are approximately equal because {sup 220}Rn is always in equilibrium with its first progeny, which is not the case for the {sup 222}Rn chain. The total sensitivity of bare LR115 detectors to {sup 222}Rn chain depends linearly on the equilibrium factor. The overestimation in {sup 222}Rn measurements with bare detectors caused by {sup 220}Rn in air can reach 10% in normal environmental conditions. An analytical relationship between the equilibrium factor and the ratio between track densities on the bare detector and the detector enclosed in chamber is given in the last part of the paper. This ratio is also affected by {sup 220}Rn, which can disturb the determination of the equilibrium factor.

  17. Dose by {sup 222} Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city; Dosis por {sup 222} Rn en casas-habitacion de la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.H.; Talamantes F, C. [ITCH II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua (Mexico); Villalba, M.L. [UACH, Facultad de Ingenieria, Chihuahua (Mexico); Dobson, P.F. [Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, California (United States); Ortalejo M, B. [UACH, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the {sup 226} Ra that generates to the {sup 222} Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the {sup 222} Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m{sup 3}, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were

  18. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley; Determinacion de {sup 222}Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of {sup 222} Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  19. On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hirsch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its ubiquitous release on land and well-characterized atmospheric loss, radon-222 has been very useful for deducing fluxes of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and N2O. It is shown here that the radon-tracer method, used in previous studies to calculate regional-scale greenhouse gas fluxes, returns a weighted-average flux (the flux field F weighted by the sensitivity of the measurements to that flux field, f rather than an evenly-weighted spatial average flux. A synthetic data study using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and modeled CO2 fluxes suggests that the discrepancy between the sensitivity-weighted average flux and evenly-weighted spatial average flux can be significant in the case of CO2, due to covariance between F and f for biospheric CO2 fluxes during the growing season and also for anthropogenic CO2 fluxes in general. A technique is presented to correct the radon-tracer derived fluxes to yield an estimate of evenly-weighted spatial average CO2 fluxes. A new method is also introduced for correcting the CO2 flux estimates for the effects of radon-222 radioactive decay in the radon-tracer method.

  20. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  1. On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hirsch

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of its ubiquitous release on land and well-characterized atmospheric loss, radon-222 has been very useful for deducing fluxes of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and N2O. It is shown here that the radon-tracer method, used in previous studies to calculate regional-scale greenhouse gas fluxes, returns a weighted-average flux (the flux field F weighted by the sensitivity of the measurements to that flux field, f rather than an evenly-weighted spatial average flux. A synthetic data study using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and modeled CO2 fluxes suggests that the discrepancy between the sensitivity-weighted average flux and evenly-weighted spatial average flux can be significant in the case of CO2, due to covariance between F and f for biospheric CO2 fluxes during the growing season and also for anthropogenic CO2 fluxes in general. A technique is presented to correct the radon-tracer derived fluxes to yield an estimate of evenly-weighted spatial average CO2 fluxes. A new method is also introduced for correcting the CO2 flux estimates for the effects of radon-222 radioactive decay in the radon-tracer method.

  2. Measurement of 222Rn dissolved in water at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Blevis, I

    2004-01-01

    The technique used at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to measure the concentration of 222Rn in water is described. Water from the SNO detector is passed through a vacuum degasser (in the light water system) or a membrane contact degasser (in the heavy water system) where dissolved gases, including radon, are liberated. The degasser is connected to a vacuum system which collects the radon on a cold trap and removes most other gases, such as water vapor and nitrogen. After roughly 0.5 tons of H2O or 6 tons of D2O have been sampled, the accumulated radon is transferred to a Lucas cell. The cell is mounted on a photomultiplier tube which detects the alpha particles from the decay of 222Rn and its daughters. The overall degassing and concentration efficiency is about 38% and the single-alpha counting efficiency is approximately 75%. The sensitivity of the radon assay system for D2O is equivalent to ~3 E(-15) g U/g water. The radon concentration in both the H2O and D2O is sufficiently low that the rate of ba...

  3. VdBH 222: a starburst cluster in the inner Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, A; González-Fernández, C; Apellániz, J Maíz; Dorda, R; Clark, J S

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the compact open cluster VdBH 222 is a young massive distant object. We set out to characterise VdBH 222 using a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength observations. We obtained multi-band optical (UBVR) and near-infrared (JHK) photometry of the cluster field, as well as multi-object and long-slit optical spectroscopy for a large sample of stars in the field. We applied classical photometric analysis, as well as more sophisticated methods using the CHORIZOS code, to determine the reddening to the cluster. We then plotted dereddened HR diagrams and determined cluster parameters via isochrone fitting. We have identified a large population of luminous supergiants confirmed as cluster members via radial velocity measurements. We find nine red supergiants (plus one other candidate) and two yellow supergiants. We also identify a large population of OB stars. Ten of them are bright enough to be blue supergiants. The cluster lies behind 7.5 mag of extinction for the preferred value of Rv of ...

  4. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  5. Modeling and experimental validation of the dispersion of 222Rn released from a uranium mine ventilation shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, Hanqing; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2012-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) found in uranium mine shaft ventilation exhaust gases could pose hazards to the surrounding environment and the public by virtue of its progeny. Radon migration under complex terrain is complicated by pollution source characteristics, geographical features of the dispersion region, meteorological conditions and precipitation. Fluid dynamics computations of 222Rn dispersion are performed for uranium mine shaft exhausts for complex models of the actual physical terrain corresponding to a mine in the Jiangxi Province of China. The eight cases studied included a ventilation shaft source, four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 m s-1) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m, 1.0 m). 222Rn distributions in the vicinity of uranium mine ventilation shaft are computed and compared with field measurements.

  6. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  7. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  8. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed; Efectos geneticos del radon 222 en una poblacion de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 {+-} 2 to 43 {+-} 5 kBq/m{sup 3}. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  9. 34 CFR 222.69 - What tax rates may the Secretary use if substantial local revenues are derived from local tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local revenues are derived from local tax sources other than real property taxes? 222.69 Section 222.69... substantial local revenues are derived from local tax sources other than real property taxes? (a) In a State... derived from local tax sources other than real property taxes, the State educational agency (SEA)...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52.222-43 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  11. 20 CFR 222.18 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is not living with the claimant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âChild in careâ when child of the employee is not living with the claimant. 222.18 Section 222.18 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or...

  12. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  13. 36 CFR 222.25 - Protection of wild free-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-roaming horses and burros when they are upon other than the National Forest System or public lands. 222.25... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.25 Protection of wild free-roaming horses... animals and herds of wild free-roaming horses and burros will be under the protection of the Chief,...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Obligate Halophilic Bacillus sp. Strain NSP22.2, Isolated from a Seasonal Salt Marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kamal Krishna; Sherathia, Dharmesh; Vanpariya, Sejal; Patel, Ilaxi; Dalsania, Trupti; Savsani, Kinjal; Sukhadiya, Bhoomika; Mandaliya, Mona; Thomas, Manesh; Ghorai, Sucheta; Rupapara, Rupal; Rawal, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.0-Mbp draft genome of an obligate halophile, Bacillus sp. strain NSP22.2, isolated from a seasonal salt marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India. To understand the mechanism(s) of obligate halophilism and to isolate the relevant gene(s), the genome of Bacillus sp. NSP22.2 was sequenced. PMID:24356848

  15. Studying {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate from soil and sand samples using CR-39 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafi-ur-Rehman [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Shakeel-ur-Rehman [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rahman, Said [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-07-15

    Accurate knowledge of exhalation rate plays an important role in characterization of the radon source strength in building materials and soil. It is a useful quantity to compare the relative importance of different materials and soil types. Majority of houses in Pakistan are mainly constructed from soil and sand. Therefore, studies concerning the determination of radon exhalation rate from these materials were carried out using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. In this context, samples were collected from different towns of the Bahawalpur Division, Punjab and major cities of NWFP. After treatment, samples were placed in plastic containers and dosimeters were installed in it at heights of 25cm above the surface of the samples. These containers were hermetically sealed and stored for three weeks to attain equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra. After exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were etched in 25% NaOH at 80 deg. C for 16h. From the measured radon concentration values, {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates were determined. It ranged from 1.56 to 3.33Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for the soil collected from the Bahawalpur Division and 2.49-4.66Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for NWFP. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates from the sand samples were found to range from 2.78 to 20.8Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for the Bahawalpur Division and from 0.99 to 4.2Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for NWFP. {sup 226}Ra contents were also determined in the above samples which ranged from 28 to 36.5Bqkg{sup -1} in the soil samples collected from the Bahawalpur Division and from 40.9 to 51.9Bqkg{sup -1} in the samples collected from NWFP. In sand samples, {sup 226}Ra contents ranged from 49.2 to 215Bqkg{sup -1} and 22.6-27Bqkg{sup -1} in the samples collected from the Bahawalpur Division and NWFP, respectively. {sup 226}Ra contents in these samples were also determined using HPGe detector. The results of both the techniques are in good agreement within experimental errors.

  16. A preliminary Investigation of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山222Rn和220Rn水平初步调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚兵; 崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 苏旭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure levels of 222Rn and 220Rn in typical non-uranium mines, China, and to estimate dose from the occupational radon exposure in the miners. Methods Using typical sampling scheme,44 mines were selectcd in 12 provinces, which can be classified into 4 categories and 17 types of mines. The radon-thoron discriminative detectors were used to measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in mines. Result The concentration of 222Rn or 220Rn was log-normally distributed. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration and geometric mean (GM) concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn in 25 metal mines (n=147) were estimated to be (1211±2359) Bq/m3(AM) and (311±5.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (269±700) Bq/m3(AM) and (71±4.4)Bq/m3(GM), respectively. The mean concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in 18 non-metal mines (n=118) were (98±207) Bq/m3(AM) and(55±2.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (60±76) Bq/m3(AM) and (38±2.4)Bq/m3(GM),respectively. In total, we measured 222 Rn concentration in 44 underground mines, 6 of them, accounted for 15%, with the mean radon concentration exceeding 1000 Bqm-3 (limit of workplace in China). Approximately 7% of radon concentration in mines measured were higher than 3700 Bq/m3(current limit in uranium mine in China), some points even exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. Based on this typical measurements, the equilibrium factor for 222Rn was estimated to be 0.33±0.15 in underground mines and 0.47±0.18 in nearby houses. Equilibrium factor for 222Rn ranged from 0.001 to 0.032. Using the data obtained in this typical survey, the average annual effective dose of underground miners exposed to radon and thoron was estimated to be 8.15 mSv/a. Conclusions High levels of 222Rn exists in metal mines, such as copper, tin, lead and zinc, gold, and aluminum mines among others. More study and administrative measures are needed to address the radiation protection of workers occupationally exposed to high radon in mines.%目的 测量非铀矿山222Rn、220Rn水平,了解我国矿山氡超标比

  17. The Rn-222 with natural tracer in the study of natural gas transport within sterile cells of mining; O Rn-222 como tracador natural no estudo de transporte de gases no interior de pilhas de estereis de mineracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Eduardo G.L. das; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.; Couto, Jeferson A.; Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: duglchagas@hotmail.com, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Braz, Marcelo L. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Abreu, Carolina B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lopez, Dina [Universidade de Ohio (United States); Branco, Otavio [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Fleming, Peter M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this work are mapping of Rn-222 concentration in the interstitial air of the cell 4 (BF-4) barren of uranium mining in the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG - Brazil, as well as build an automatic system for collection of interstitial gases.

  18. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Progress of miR-221/222 in tumor diagnosis and treatment%miR-221/222在肿瘤诊治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙斌; 李林法; 易贺庆

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs(miRNA)are a kind of small non -conding RNA,which negative regulate target genes expression at post -transcription level by binding 3'-untraslation region(3'UTR).Dysregulation of miRNA pro-files relate to cancer,immune disorders,cardiovascular disease,neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. miR -221 /222 are two similary miRNAs,which share the same promoter and have the same seed sequence.miR -221 /222 usually target to same target genes and co -regulate same processes and act as onco -miRNA roles.Howev-er,miR -221 /222 maybe act as suppressor in cancer which maybe dependent particular context.The roles of miR -221 /222 are reviewed in this article,will provide a comprehensive vision for comprehending the biological process of miR -221 /222 in carcinoma.%微小 RNA(microRNAs,miRNAs)是一类短链非编码 RNA,通过与编码基因的3′非翻译区(3′Un-traslation region,3′UTR)结合,发挥转录后负向调控靶基因表达的作用,进而调控相应的生物学功能。其异常表达与肿瘤、免疫失调、心血管疾病、神经退行性疾病和代谢疾病等多种疾病的发生、发展密切相关,并在疾病的治疗、药物代谢等过程发挥重要的作用。miR-221/222是两个序列和结构类似的 miRNA,且具有类似的生物学功能。miR-221/222在多种肿瘤和疾病中差异表达,主要发挥致癌 miRNA(Onco-miRNA)作用。但新近研究表明,在一定背景下 miR-221/222也发挥抑癌基因的作用。本研究对 miR-221/222在疾病中的角色进行综述,展现当前研究的 miR-221/222在肿瘤中的重要生物学功能和机制,为以 miRNA 为靶点的治疗研究提供相关信息。

  20. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined...... diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...

  1. Prediction of Rn-222 in Danish dwellings using geology and house construction information from central databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Andersen, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    A linear regression model has been developed for the prediction of indoor Rn-222 in Danish houses. The model provides proxy radon concentrations for about 21,000 houses in a Danish case-control study on the possible association between residential radon and childhood cancer (primarily leukaemia......). The model was calibrated against radon measurements in 3116 houses. An independent dataset with 788 house measurements was used for model performance assessment. The model includes nine explanatory variables,, of which the most important ones are house type and geology. All explanatory variables...... are available from central databases. The model was fitted to log-transformed radon concentrations and it has an R-2 of 40%. The uncertainty associated with individual predictions of (untransformed) radon concentrations is about a factor of 2.0 (one standard deviation). The comparison with the independent test...

  2. Removal of long-lived $^{222}$Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    CERN Document Server

    Schnee, R W; Bunker, R; McCabe, K; White, J; Cushman, P; Pepin, M; Guiseppe, V E

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the $^{222}$Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double-beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  3. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the Rn-222 decays detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Etezov, R A; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P

    2015-01-01

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register alpha-particles from the $^{222}$Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV alpha-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented.

  4. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the 222Rn decays detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gezhaev, A. M.; Etezov, R. A.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register α-particles from the 222Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV α-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented.

  5. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  6. Search for a fine structure in the 14C decay of 222Ra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J. F.; Brillard, L.; Dalmasso, J.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-06-01

    The 14C decay of 222Ra has been reinvestigated, using an 85 MBq activity 230U source radiochemically separated, a Si barrier detector, and a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. In a 16 days counting run, 210 14C events were recorded. The 14C particles energy value 30.930+/-0.090 MeV was found and an upper limit b<=2×10-12 was estimated for the 14C branching ratio to the 208Pb first excited state; the branching-ratio value to the 208Pb ground state, thus equal to the total branching ratio, was found to be b=λc/λα=(2.31+/-0.31)×10-10.

  7. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian M. Davis; Lewis Semprini; Jonathan Istok

    2003-02-27

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings.

  8. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  9. Calibration of LR-115 for 222Rn monitoring taking into account the plateout effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, A A R; Yoshimura, E M

    2003-01-01

    The dose received by people exposed to indoor radon is mainly due to radon progeny. This fact points to the establishment of techniques that access either radon and progeny together, or only radon progeny concentration. In this work a low cost and easy to use methodology is presented to determine the total indoor alpha emission concentration. It is based on passive detection using LR-115 and CR-39 detectors, taking into account the plateout effect. A calibration of LR-115 track density response was done by indoor exposure in controlled environments and dwellings, places where 222Rn and progeny concentration were measured with CR-39. The calibration factor obtained showed great dependence on the ambient condition: (0.69 +/- 0.04) cm for controlled environments and (0.43 +/- 0.03) cm for dwellings.

  10. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  11. Characterizing a shallow groundwater system beneath irrigated sugarcane with electrical resistivity and radon (Rn-222), Puunene, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a combination of electrical resistivity profiling and radon (222Rn) measurements to characterize a shallow groundwater system beneath the last remaining, large-scale sugarcane plantation on Maui, Hawaii. Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company has continuously operated a sugarcane...

  12. 20 CFR 222.10 - When determinations of relationship as wife, husband, widow or widower of employee are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.10 When determinations of relationship as wife, husband, widow or widower of employee are made. (a) The claimant's relationship as the wife or husband of an employee is determined when the claimant applies for an annuity, or when there is a claim which would include a husband or wife...

  13. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere.

  14. 48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal of... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal...: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of Military Installations (APR 1992) (a) The...

  15. Improved green-light-emitting pyrotechnic formulations based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate and boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Rusan, Magdalena; Sabatini, Jesse J

    2014-08-28

    Green-light-emitting pyrotechnic compositions based on tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate (TNEB) and boron carbide have been investigated. The best performing formulations were found to be insensitive to various ignition stimuli, and exhibited very high spectral purities and luminosities compared to previously reported green-light-emitting formulations.

  16. Elevation of miR-221 and -222 in the internal mammary arteries of diabetic subjects and normalization with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Chasity B; Lightell, Daniel J; Moss, Stephanie C; Bates, Michael; Parrino, Patrick E; Woods, T Cooper

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased intimal thickening and accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. We measured the expression of two microRNAs that promote intimal thickening, miR-221/222, and mRNA encoding a downstream target, p27(Kip1), in internal mammary artery (IMA) segments collected from 37 subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The segments were stratified into three groups: non-diabetic subjects (ND), diabetic subjects not on metformin (DMMet-), and diabetic subjects on metformin (DMMet+). The DMMet- group exhibited a significant increase in miR-221/222 and decrease in p27(Kip1) mRNA compared to both the ND and DMMet+ groups. miR-221/222 levels inversely correlated with metformin dose. VSMCs isolated from the IMAs of the DMMet- group proliferate at a faster rate than those of the ND and DMMet+ groups. Further studies into the importance of miR-221/222 in the increased intimal thickening observed in diabetic subjects is warranted.

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method). As prescribed in 22.407(e), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price...

  18. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies...

  19. Bethe Ansatz for Supersymmetric Model Constructed from Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] R-Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Li; ZHEN Yi

    2001-01-01

    Using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method, we obtain the eigenvalues of transfer matrix of the supersymmetric model constructed from the R-matrix of the twisted affine superalgebra Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] in periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition.``

  20. The microRNA-221/-222 cluster balances the antiviral and inflammatory response in viral myocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsten, Maarten; Heggermont, Ward; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Deckx, Sophie; Tijsma, Aloys; Verhesen, Wouter; van Leeuwen, Rick; Carai, Paolo; Thibaut, Hendrik-Jan; Custers, Kevin; Summer, Georg; Hazebroek, Mark; Verheyen, Fons; Neyts, Johan; Schroen, Blanche; Heymans, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Viral myocarditis (VM) is an important cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in young healthy adults; it is also an aetiological precursor of dilated cardiomyopathy. We explored the role of the miR-221/-222 family that is up-regulated in VM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that mi

  1. Sensitivity of LR115 detector in diffusion chamber to {sup 222}Rn in the presence of {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, V.S.Y.; Yip, C.W.Y.; Ho, J.P.Y.; Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2002-06-01

    Determination has been made of the sensitivity of LR115 type 2-track detectors (in units of m) to {sup 222}Rn, measured in the presence of {sup 220}Rn. Measurements have been made by means of a widely used diffusion chamber while Monte Carlo simulations have also been conducted. The experimentally derived sensitivities for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn were found to be 0.470{+-}0.022 and 0.486{+-}0.042 m, respectively. For Monte Carlo simulations, the sensitivities to {sup 222}Rn gas were found to range from 0.618x10{sup -2} m (assuming that all {sup 218}Po progeny decay before deposition onto the internal walls of the diffusion chamber) to 0.405x10{sup -2} m (assuming that all {sup 218}Po progeny are deposited on the internal walls of the same containment vessel before decaying). The sensitivity to {sup 220}Rn gas of 0.465x10{sup -2} m found from Monte Carlo simulations agrees to within uncertainty with experimental findings. The experimentally derived sensitivity value for {sup 222}Rn indicates that 30% of the {sup 218}Po progeny decay before deposition onto the internal walls of the diffusion chamber.

  2. 1-Methoxy-3-o-tolylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2,2-dicarbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Büyükgüngör

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H18N2O, the cyclohexene and cyclohexane rings of the bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene unit adopt distorted boat conformations. In the crystal, molecules exist as C—H...N hydrogen-bonded centrosymmetric R22(14 dimers, which are further linked by C—H...π interactions.

  3. Effects of the Use of Lecture Method and Wordle on the Performance of Students Taught Curriculum Studies 1: EDU222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afurobi, Ada; Izuagba, Angela; Obiefuna, Carol; Ifegbo, Perpetua

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to determine the effects of the use of Wordle and lecture method in teaching Curriculum Studies 1 EDU: 222 on students' performance. 100 students were purposively selected and to ensure homogeneity and consistency, the WRub was given to the 100 students and they were then grouped based on their performance--above average, average…

  4. Spinning process of 2.22 dtex polyphenylene sulfide staple fiber%2.22 dtex聚苯硫醚短纤维纺丝工艺的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先正; 李艳玲; 刘秀清; 成郁君

    2013-01-01

    采用含水率小于50 μg/g的聚苯硫醚(PPS)切片熔融纺丝生产PPS短纤维,对纺丝工艺条件进行了探讨.结果表明:控制PPS切片干燥温度120~140℃,干燥时间8~10 h,纺丝温度330℃,环吹风温度23 ~26℃,环吹风速度1.3 ~1.6 m/s,拉伸槽温度90 ~100℃,紧张热定型温度150~180℃,单体抽吸速度0.4 s/min,总拉伸倍数3.4 ~4.4,纺丝过程平稳,生产2.22 dtex PPS短纤维断裂强度大于等于4.2 cN/dtex,断裂伸长率为34.2%.%Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) staple fiber was prepared from PPS chip with moisture content less than 50μg/g by melt spinning process. The spinning process conditions were discussed. The results showed that the 2. 22 dtex PPS staple fiber can be steadily produced with the breaking strength not less than 4.2 cN/dtex and elongation at break of 34.2% under the conditions as followed: PPS chip drying temperature 120 - 140℃, drying time 8 - 10 h, spinning temperature 330℃, circular air blow temperature 23-26℃ and speed 1.3-1.6 m/s, drafting groove temperature 90 - 100℃, heat setting temperature under tension 150 - 180℃ , monomer suction speed 0.4 s/min, total draw ratio 3.4 -4.4.

  5. Quantification of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using a Radon (222-Rn) Mass Balance and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Eric; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Knöller, Kay; Schubert, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Apart from river and surface water runoff subsurface discharge of groundwater plays a key role in coastal water and matter budgets. Two major forms of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be distinguished: (i) pure freshwater discharge from continental aquifers that are connected to the coastal sea driven by a positive hydraulic gradient (fresh SGD) and (ii) re-circulation of seawater that has penetrated permeable coastal sediments (re-circulated SGD), e.g. driven by tidal pumping. The localization of SGD zones and the quantification of SGD fluxes is of high interest for coastal water management due to potential threats related to SGD, namely (i) the detrimental impact of discharging nutrient- or contaminant-laden groundwater on coastal seawater quality, an aspect that is of relevance along coastlines which are impacted by agriculture, industry or intense urbanization, and (ii) the loss of freshwater to the ocean, an issue that is of major relevance in all coastal areas with (seasonally) limited freshwater availability. In this work, we discuss estimates for the total (fresh + re-circulated) SGD fluxes derived from a mass balance of the radioactive noble gas radon (222-Rn) with estimates of fresh SGD fluxes derived by hydrogeological modelling. The precision of the mass balance results depends on the adequate determination of the mass balance source and sink terms. These terms are calculated based on field observations of environmental tracers (salinity, δ18O, 222-Rn, 223-Ra, 224-Ra, 226-Ra) in seawater and porewater, as well as on meteorological data. The numerical hydrogeological model estimates groundwater flow based on groundwater monitoring data, river flow data, groundwater recharge estimates, tidal dynamics, and density effects along the freshwater/seawater interface. We compare these two independent methodological approaches of SGD flux estimation, discuss results regarding their relevance for the regional water balance and reason the implications of

  6. Persistence of radon-222 flux during monsoon at a geothermal zone in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Rajaure, Sudhir

    2009-11-01

    The Syabru-Bensi hydrothermal zone, Langtang region (Nepal), is characterized by high radon-222 and CO(2) discharge. Seasonal variations of gas fluxes were studied on a reference transect in a newly discovered gas discharge zone. Radon-222 and CO(2) fluxes were measured with the accumulation chamber technique, coupled with the scintillation flask method for radon. In the reference transect, fluxes reach exceptional mean values, as high as 8700+/-1500 gm(-2)d(-1) for CO(2) and 3400+/-100 x 10(-3) Bq m(-2)s(-1) for radon. Gases fluxes were measured in September 2007 during the monsoon and during the dry winter season, in December 2007 to January 2008 and in December 2008 to January 2009. Contrary to expectations, radon and its carrier gas fluxes were similar during both seasons. The integrated flux along this transect was approximately the same for radon, with a small increase of 11+/-4% during the wet season, whereas it was reduced by 38+/-5% during the monsoon for CO(2). In order to account for the persistence of the high gas emissions during monsoon, watering experiments have been performed at selected radon measurement points. After watering, radon flux decreased within 5 min by a factor of 2-7 depending on the point. Subsequently, it returned to its original value, firstly, by an initial partial recovery within 3-4h, followed by a slow relaxation, lasting around 10h and possibly superimposed by diurnal variations. Monsoon, in this part of the Himalayas, proceeds generally by brutal rainfall events separated by two- or three-day lapses. Thus, the recovery ability shown in the watering experiments accounts for the observed long-term persistence of gas discharge. This persistence is an important asset for long-term monitoring, for example to study possible temporal variations associated with stress accumulation and release.

  7. Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: A diffusion/ion exchange model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W.W.; Kraemer, T.F.; Shapiro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion- exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (42??56???N, 71??43???W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model.

  8. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R., E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba - PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba - PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope {sup 222}Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  9. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Przylibski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear Cave in Kletno, Poland – a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night. Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit and at home (outside their working hours

  10. Specificity of the Spectrophotometry for Detecting Aminopolyether K2.2.2 in 18F-FDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jin-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 氨基聚醚(K2.2.2含量是18F-FDG质控中的关键指标,比较了两种常用测量K2.2.2方法的专属性。分别采用分光光度计和半定量TLC 碘显色法测量了14个样品,其中9个阴性样品、2个阳性样品和3个供试品,并与LC-MS/MS测量对比。结果显示:9个阴性样品经分光光度计法测量均为阳性,K2.2.2的测量结果在6.7~470.0 μg/mL;2个阳性样品结果偏高(53,73 μg/mL),3个供试品的K2.2.2含量在14.3~19.2 μg/mL;半定量TLC 碘显色法测量9个阴性样品结果为阴性,2个阳性样品半定量结果与实际一致,3个供试品的K2.2.2含量低于10 μg/mL;LC-MS/MS法测量的14个样品的结果与半定量TLC 碘显色法的结果一致。以上结果表明,半定量TLC 碘显色法测量K2.2.2的专属性较好,适用于测量18F-FDG溶液中K2.2.2含量。

  11. Controls on {sup 222}Rn variations in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer evaluated using aquifer tests and geophysical logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folger, P.F. [Office of Senator Pete V. Domenici, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geologic Engineering; Poeter, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geologic Engineering; Wanty, R.B.; Frishman, D.; Day, W.

    1996-03-01

    Concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in ground water may vary considerably within megascopically homogeneous rocks over relatively short distances. Calculations indicate that different hydraulic apertures of water-bearing fractures may account for variations in dissolved {sup 222}Rn concentration measured in domestic water wells completed in fractured Pikes Peak Granite, assuming that all other factors influencing dissolved {sup 222}Rn concentrations are constant. Concentrations of dissolved {sup 222}Rn range from 124 to 840 kBq/m{sup 3} [3,360 to 22,700 picocuries/liter] within a 2.5 km{sup 2} well field. Aquifer tests show that transmissivities range from 0.072 to 160 m{sup 2}/day within the well field. Acoustic televiewer and heat-pulse flow meter logging of four wells reveals that, despite tens to hundreds of fractures that intersect each well, a single fracture supplies all the flow to three wells, and one fracture provides 65% of the flow to the fourth well. Type-curve interpretation of early-time data from aquifer tests reveals classic half-slope behavior on log-log plots of drawdown versus time for two wells, suggesting linear flow to a single fracture. Drawdown versus time for the other two wells indicates radial or pseudo-radial flow, which suggests a higher degree of fracture interconnectivity near those boreholes. Hydraulic apertures calculated using the cubic law are 0.024 and 0.038 cm for producing fractures in the first hydraulically connected well pair and 0.011 and 0.020 cm for flowing fractures in the second well pair. Assuming uniform distribution of {sup 226}Ra along fracture walls and long residence time of water relative to {sup 222}Rn decay, the ratio of fracture apertures should equal the inverse ratio of {sup 222}Rn concentration in each well. Differences in {sup 222}Rn concentration between wells in the hydraulically connected pairs can be attributed solely to differences in hydraulic aperture.

  12. Identification of targets of miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 in fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Sun, Manna; Jiang, Wenhua; Zhao, Jinkun; Liang, Chunyong; Zhang, Huilai

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) regulated by microRNA (miRNA)-221 and miRNA-222 that are associated with the resistance of breast cancer to fulvestrant. The GSE19777 transcription profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and includes data from three samples of antisense miRNA-221-transfected fulvestrant-resistant MCF7-FR breast cancer cells, three samples of antisense miRNA-222-transfected fulvestrant-resistant MCF7-FR cells and three samples of control inhibitor (green fluorescent protein)-treated fulvestrant-resistant MCF7-FR cells. The linear models for microarray data package in R/Bioconductor was employed to screen for DEGs in the miRNA-transfected cells, and the pheatmap package in R was used to perform two-way clustering. Pathway enrichment was conducted using the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis tool. Furthermore, a miRNA-messenger (m) RNA regulatory network depicting interactions between miRNA-targeted upregulated DEGs was constructed and visualized using Cytoscape. In total, 492 and 404 DEGs were identified for the antisense miRNA-221-transfected MCF7-FR cells and the antisense miRNA-222-transfected MCF7-FR cells, respectively. Genes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) were significantly enriched in the antisense miRNA-221-transfected MCF7-FR cells. In addition, components of the Wnt signaling pathway and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) were significantly enriched in the antisense miRNA-222-transfected MCF7-FR cells. In the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network, miRNA-222 was demonstrated to target protocadherin 10 (PCDH10). The results of the present study suggested that the PPP and Wnt signaling pathways, as well as CAMs and PCDH10, may be associated with the resistance of breast cancer to fulvestrant. PMID:27895744

  13. Role of miR-222-3p in c-Src-Mediated Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Takigawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play a mostly post-transcriptional regulatory role in gene expression. Using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclast cells and genome-wide expression analysis, we identified a set of miRNAs that are involved in osteoclastogenesis. Based on in silico analysis, we specifically focused on miR-222-3p and evaluated its role in osteoclastogenesis. The results show that the inhibitor of miR-222-3p upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, while its mimicking agent downregulated their mRNA levels. Western blot analysis showed that its inhibitor increased the protein levels of TRAP and cathepsin K, while its mimicking agent decreased their levels. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis in the presence and absence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL predicted c-Src as a potential regulatory target of miR-222-3p. Live cell imaging using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET technique revealed that miR-222-3p acted as an inhibitor of c-Src activity, and a partial silencing of c-Src suppressed RANKL-induced expression of TRAP and cathepsin K, as well as the number of multi-nucleated osteoclasts and their pit formation. Collectively, the study herein demonstrates that miR-222-3p serves as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and c-Src mediates its inhibition of cathepsin K and TRAP.

  14. Tricaine (MS-222) is a safe anesthetic compound compared to benzocaine and pentobarbital to induce anesthesia in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Yavuz; Strauch, Stephen M

    2005-01-01

    Tricaine (MS-222) is used commonly for sedation, immobilization, and anesthesia of poikilothermic animals. The anesthetic efficacy of different concentrations of MS-222 was compared to benzocaine and pentobarbital on the physiological changes, heart rate and ECG (electrocardiogram) parameters in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Loss of righting reflex (RR), loss of pain response (NR = nociceptor response) and recovery time were measured. Heart rate and ECG parameters were also tested before and during anesthesia. The time to loss of RR and NR decreased while recovery time markedly increased with the increasing concentration of MS-222. Benzocaine at 200 mg/l induced a rapid anesthesia, but all frogs needed resuscitation. Pentobarbital at 300 mg/l induced a slow anesthesia, however, all of the frogs also needed resuscitation. All anesthetics at the mentioned concentrations decreased heart rate significantly as well as altered the ECG parameters. All anesthetics prolonged the Q-T interval, and MS-222 at 800 mg/l and benzocaine at 200 mg/l were the most effective anesthetic concentrations in increasing the Q-T interval. Frogs anesthetized by benzocaine and pentobarbital and high concentrations of MS-222 required resuscitation due to hypoxia. Pentobarbital and benzocaine seem to be very effective compounds, but their safety margins are narrow because of ventilatory failure. Therefore, MS-222 at a concentration of 200 mg/l or less is highly recommended for leopard frogs because prolonged recovery, high mortality rate and significant ECG changes are observed with higher concentrations of MS-222.

  15. Contribution of (222)Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Diyun; Chen, Yongheng

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ((222)Rn)-bearing water to indoor (222)Rn in thermal baths. The (222)Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM(10) and PM(2.5)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m(-3) of (222)Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which (222)Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average (222)Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor (222)Rn levels were influenced by the (222)Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average (222)Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 × 10(-4)-4.1 × 10(-3). The 24-h average levels of CO(2) and PM(10) in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM(2.5). Radon and PM(10) levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants.

  16. Down-regulation of MicroRNAs 222/221 in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with Deranged Core-Binding Factor Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Brioschi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL is a subgroup of acutemyeloid leukemia (AML characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF. The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most commonmutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR 222/221 targets the 3′ untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133+ stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21 or inv(16 CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117 display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21 AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

  17. Volumic activities measurements and equivalent doses calculation of indoor 222Rn in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Choukri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor 222Rn and we have calculated the corresponding effective dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. Seasonal variation of Radon activities and Relationships between variation of these activities and some parameters such height, depth and type of construction were also established in this work.Methods: The passive time-integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II was employed. These films, cut in pieces of 3.4 ´ 2.5 cm2, were placed in detector holders and enclosed in heat-scaled polyethylene bags.Results: The measured volumic activities of radon vary in houses, between 31 and 136 Bq/m3 (0.55 and 2.39 mSv/year with an average value of 80 Bq/m3 (1.41 mSv/year. In enclosed work area, they vary between 60 Bq/m3 (0.38 mSv/year in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 (11.9 mSv/year at not airy underground level of 12 m. the relatively higher volumic activities of 222Rn in houses were measured in Youssoufia and khouribga towns situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits. Measurements at the geophysical observatory of Berchid show that the volumic activity of radon increases with depth, this is most probably due to decreased ventilation. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the effective dose calculated for indoor dwellings are comparable to those obtained in other regions in the word. The risks related to the volumic activities of indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation. The reached high value of above 1884 Bq/m3 don't present any risk for workers health in the geophysical observatory of Berchid because workers spend only a few minutes by day in the cellar to control and reregister data.

  18. A contribution to the study of the behaviour of {sup 220}Rn, {sup 222}Rn and their daughters in the atmosphere; Contribution a l'etude du comportement du radon-220, du radon-222 et de leurs descendants dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, T.; Yunoki, E.; Michihiro, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Shimizu, M.; Mori, T. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health, Uchio, Okayama (Japan); Tsukamoto, O.; Sahashi, K. [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Maitani, T. [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Bioresources

    1999-06-01

    We simultaneously measured the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb (a {sup 220}Rn daughter) and short-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters, and some meteorological elements at three sites 2-3 km apart in Kamisaibara Village (Okayama Prefecture, Japan). The resulting data shows that variations of the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb and {sup 222}Rn daughters and of the ratio Pb/Rn-daughters at these three sites are correlated, but that their levels are considerably influenced by emanations of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn from the soil near the observation sites. The results of further treatment make it clear that the addition of Pb/Rn (the ratio of the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb and {sup 222}Rn) or of Pb/Rn-daughters as an indicator to one of the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb, {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn daughters enables us to get information about the state of the lower atmosphere. Considering the above, the ratio Pb/Rn or Pb/Rn-daughters will be useful as a tracer for elucidation of the behaviour of air pollutants in urban and industrial areas, as well as the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb, {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn daughters. (author)

  19. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level; Dosimetria de Rn-222 no ar em ambientes localizados acima e abaixo do nivel do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-07-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m{sup 3} for homes and 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y{sup -1}, lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  20. The 222 Rn Volume Radioactivity Response of AlphaGUARD Radon Monitor in Active/passive Mode%AlphaGUARD 在主/被动模式下对222 Rn体积活度的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小军; 何林锋; 徐一鹤; 曹振; 孙训; 唐方东

    2014-01-01

    AlphaGUARD radon monitor is the most stable and accurate radon detector at present , widely used as radon measurement standard delivery device at home and abroad .This paper introduced the AlphaGUARD ra-don volume activity response from low to high volume of radio -activity based on the actual applications , and made a comparative analysis of AlphaGUARD measuring radon activity in two modes .the results showed that:Firstly, the volume activity response of AlphaGUARD at active mode is smaller than the response at passive mode ;secondly , AlphaGUARD volume activity response doesn't changes with flow rate of sampling pump obvi-ously;thirdly, the222 Rn measurement repeatability decreases with the increase of 222 Rn volume activity, but not varied with the sampling flow rate .%AlphaGUARD是目前技术性能最优的测氡仪之一,常用作氡测量传递标准。文章介绍了AlphaGUARD主动与被动测量模式的原理,对AlphaGUARD在主动和被动两种工作模式下和不同采样流速下的氡体积活度响应作了分析对比,实验结果表明:主动模式下AlphaGUARD体积活度响应小于在被动模式下,采样流速对AlphaGUARD的体积活度响应无明显影响;AlphaGUARD对222 Rn体积活度的测量重复性随222 Rn体积活度的增大而减小,但是尚得不到其重复性随采样流量的变化规律。

  1. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples; Calibracao de uma linha de emanacao para determinacao de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring {sup 226}Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  2. Physical characterization of the short-lived radon 222 derivatives in a house: comparison between model and the experiment; Caracterisation physique des derives a vie courte du Radon-222 dans une habitation: comparaison modele-experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, C.; Tymen, G. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Lab. de Recherches Appliquees Atmosphere, 29 - Brest (France); Michielsen, N.; Boulaud, D. [CEA/Saclay, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN/DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    The radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas coming from the uranium 238 channel. It is present in soils and building materials. After exhalation it produces derivatives which may stick to the aerosols of the ambient air and be inhaled by the human. To understand this gas behavior in a house, two methods are possible: the in situ measurements and the physical phenomena simulation. The authors compare both possibilities. (A.L.B.)

  3. Study of Rn-222 exhalation in phosphogypsum through the adsorption technique in activated coal; Estudo da exalacao de Rn-222 em fosfogesso por meio da tecnica de adsorcao em carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Campos, Marcia Pires de, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The radon exhalation was estimated through the adsorption in activated carbon technique. Classified as TENORM, the radon exhalation determination on the phosphogypsum piles was performed through the adsorption ratio of radon in activated carbon, from the concentration of descendants of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi obtained by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained in this work were compatibles with the values found in the literature

  4. Molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of 222 commercially available oral drugs in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaeda, T; Okamura, N; Nagata, S; Yagami, T; Horinouchi, M; Okumura, K; Yamashita, F; Hashida, M

    2001-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the exclusion criteria that differentiate poorly absorbed drugs from good drug candidates, and to accelerate drug development by exclusion of unnecessary assessment. The molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of 222 commercially available oral drugs were tabulated and their correlations were analyzed. The exclusion criteria obtained were 1) a molecular weight of more than 500, and 2) a ClogP value of more than 5. Exceptions to molecular weight criteria were compounds with a sugar moiety, high atomic weight, and large cyclic structure. It was also suggested that being a substrate for MDRI (P-glycoprotein) does not always result in poor bioavailability, and that drug development by chemical modification of a seed or lead compound with quantitative structure activity relationship analysis can result in lower bioavailability, higher bound fraction and lower urinary excretion, which would hamper later development processes and might result in considerable drug-drug interaction. The criteria should be adjusted according to the pharmacological profiles of the agents in question and depending on the estimated profit, but ignoring these criteria may result in a significant waste of time and money during drug development.

  5. Variation of radon-222 concentration in exposure systems air under different conditions of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, A.; Abdul-Fattah, A. A.; Qari, T. M.

    1994-07-01

    Simplified, laboratory scale systems, namely ordinary laboratory desiccators and cylindrical containers were tested with regard to their reliability as exposure systems for determining certain parameters of radon emanation from locally obtained crushed granite rock samples. The samples were placed inside the exposure systems. Activity concentration of emanated radon in the exposure systems air increased with increase of mass of granite sample in the desiccator and with length of the exposure period. Activity concentration of radon was high near the granitic source but decreased with vertical distance from it when the exposure system was semiclosed but activity was homogeneous when the system was completely closed. The cylindrical exposure system was used in assessing Ra-226 content in some crushed granitic samples identified as altered alkali granite and found to be: 0.024 Bq g-1 (0.65 pCig-1). Rn-222 emanation rate from the same samples was: 0.013 Bq m-2 s-1 (0.34 pCi m-2 s-1). Saturation density thickness for a mixed sample of pure and alkali granites was found to be 116 g cm-2. The results agree in general with reported observations and support the reliability of the exposure systems used.

  6. Outdoor (222)Rn-concentrations in Germany - part 1 - natural background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M; Dushe, C; Müller, S; Gehrcke, K

    2014-06-01

    To determine the natural radiation exposure due to outdoor radon ((222)Rn) and its short-lived decay products in Germany, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) conducted a measuring programme over three years. The annual mean radon concentration at 1.5 m above ground level was measured with solid-state track etch detectors at 173 measuring points in an even grid with a grid length of approx. 50 km. Furthermore, annual mean values of the equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration (EEC) and the equilibrium factor were estimated on the basis of the activity concentrations of (214)Pb and (214)Bi measured at 27 stations of the German Meteorological Service (DWD). Our study yielded a spatial mean outdoor radon concentration for Germany of 9 ± 1 Bq m(-3) (median: 8 (-0.5/+1.0) Bq m(-3)), with regional means varying from 4.5 Bq m(-3) in Hamburg to 14 Bq m(-3) in Bavaria. The determined EEC are in a range from 1.4 to 11 Bq m(-3).

  7. Outdoor (222)Rn-concentrations in Germany - part 2 - former mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M; Dushe, C; Müller, S; Gehrcke, K

    2014-06-01

    In the German Federal States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, centuries of mining and milling activities resulted in numerous residues with increased levels of natural radioactivity such as waste rock dumps and tailings ponds. These may have altered potential radiation exposures of the population significantly. Especially waste rock dumps from old mining activities as well as 20th century uranium mining may, due to their radon ((222)Rn) exhalation capacity, lead to significant radiation exposures. They often lie close to or within residential areas. In order to study the impact on the natural radon level, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has run networks of radon measurement points in 16 former mining areas, together with 2 networks in regions not influenced by mining for comparison purposes. Representative overviews of the long-term outdoor radon concentrations could be established including estimates of regional background concentrations. Former mining and milling activities did not result in large-area impacts on the outdoor radon level. However, significantly increased radon concentrations were observed in close vicinity of shafts and large waste rock dumps. They are partly located in residential areas and need to be considered under radiation protection aspects. Examples are given that illustrate the consequences of the Wismut Ltd. Company's reclamation activities on the radon situation.

  8. Groundwater Discharge into Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and/or Lagoons (ICOLLs) via Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, M.; Santos, I. R.; Tait, D. R.; McMahon, A.; Kadel, S.; Maher, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and Lagoons (ICOLLs) are brackish coastal water bodies with an intermittent connection to the ocean that is closed periodically due to the accumulation of marine sediment forming an entrance berm. ICOLLs have dynamic coastal systems that may be vulnerable to minor changes in catchment hydrology. However, little is known regarding the impacts of groundwater on the hydrological cycles of ICOLLs. The relative contribution of rainfall versus groundwater discharge in two ICOLLs (Welsby, and Mermaid Lagoon) and a nearby wetland (South Welsby Lagoon) located on Bribie Island (Australia) were investigated using radon (222Rn) as natural geochemical groundwater tracer. Four seasonal surveys were undertaken to quantify the temporal and spatial groundwater dynamics of the ICOLLs. Radon contour maps revealed temporal and spatial changes over the study period. The estimated groundwater discharge rates from a radon-mass balance were 3.4±3.1, 7.3±9.8 and 2.6±3.8 cm d-1 in Weslby, South Weslby and Mermaid Lagoons, respectively. These values are at least 8-fold greater than rainfall (1420 mm per year, or 0.4 cm d-1). Assuming very minor surface water flows (not perceived during field surveys), this demonstrates that these systems are groundwater-dominated and their hydrology can be influenced by regional changes in groundwater level.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to (222)Rn and (220)Rn environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, J; Trinkl, S; Wielunksi, M; Tschiersch, J; Rühm, W

    2016-07-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both (220)Rn and (222)Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra.

  10. Discovery of a deep Seyfert-2 galaxy at z = 0.222 behind NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Combi, J A; Rodriguez, M J; Gamen, R; Cellone, S A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the unveiling of the nature of the unidentified X-ray source 3XMM J005450.3-373849 as a Seyfert-2 galaxy located behind the spiral galaxy NGC 300 using Hubble Space Telescope data, new spectroscopic Gemini observations and available XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We show that the X-ray source is positionally coincident with an extended optical source, composed by a marginally resolved nucleus/bulge, surrounded by an elliptical disc-like feature and two symmetrical outer rings. The optical spectrum is typical of a Seyfert-2 galaxy redshifted to z=0.222 +/- 0.001, which confirms that the source is not physically related to NGC 300. At this redshift the source would be located at 909+/-4 Mpc (comoving distance in the standard model). The X-ray spectra of the source are well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model. By tying $N_\\mathrm{H}$ between the six available spectra, we found a variable index $\\Gamma$ running from ~2 in 2000-2001 years, to 1.4-1.6 in the 2005-2014 period. Alternatively, by tying $\\...

  11. Estimating the relation between groundwater and river water by measuring the concentration of Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relationship between groundwater in shallow layer and river water by determining the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and nitric nitrogen along with water temperature. The region around ca. 20 km along river A in a certain basin was chosen as a test area. The Rn concentration of groundwater was determined by Rn extracting with toluene and counting in liquid scintillation counter, whereas for river water, it was determined by activated charcoal passive collector method developed by the authors, by which the amount of Rn adsorbed on activated charcoal was estimated by Ge-solid state detector. In addition, water temperature and nitric nitrogen concentration were measured at various points in the test area. Thus, a distribution map of the three parameters was made on the basis of the data obtained in December, 1989. Since Rn concentration is generally higher in ground water than river water and the water temperature in December is higher in the former, it seems likely that the concentrations of Rn and nitric nitrogen would become higher in the area where ground water soaks into river water. Thus, the directions of ground water flow at the respective sites along river A were estimated from the data regarding the properties of ground water. (M.N.)

  12. Rn-222 concentrations in private well water and in river water around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Eiji [Okayama, Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The Ningyo-Toge Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have started the pilot plant for uranium refining and conversion in 1984 and thereafter been producing 6-uranium fluoride, which is a raw material for an uranium concentration plant. The operation of prototype reactor has started since 1989. In this study, radioactive contamination around the works under these circumstances has been monitored in the respects of Rn concentrations in well water and river one for more than 10 years. The radioactivities of well water sampled at 4 points in this area were in a range of 0.6-82.9 Bq/l. The differences in the activities seemed to be depending on petrological properties. For the river water, the Rn concentration was determined at 13 points in the area. Seasonal changes in the Rn concentrations were not significant (p<0.05) but there were significant changes among years during 1985-1995. Further, the radioactive levels of soils collected from riverbed at 5 points were significantly different both for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, but the ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra were consistent. Furthermore, there was no correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the river water. (M.N.)

  13. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride ( = 222 nm) excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Benerji; N Varshnay; A Singh; Bijendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Development of a discharge-pumped krypton chloride (KrCl) laser operating at 222 nm wavelength is demonstrated. In this paper the design, successful realization and operating characteristics of KrCl excimer laser are reported. The laser is driven by a simple and efficient excitation technique using automatic UV pre-ionization with discharge-pumped self-sustained capacitor– capacitor (C–C) energy transfer circuit. The experimental investigations including output laser energy, temporal pulse parameters, emission spectra and beam profile of the KrCl laser were recorded. For high repetition rate operation, in-built, compact gas circulation system using tangential blower was incorporated. The laser was operated at 25 kV discharge voltage, gas mixture of 5 mbar HCl, 160 mbar kypton and neon as balance with a total gas pressure of ∼2.5 bar. These experiments produced an efficient and reliable output energy of 25 mJ from an active volume of 60 cm3.

  14. The cobalt-mediated [2+2+2]cycloaddition of thiophenes and benzofurans to alkynes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaska, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The cobalt-mediated [2+2+2]cycloaddition of thiophenes and benzofurans to alkynes was investigated. The cocyclization of 2-propynyloxymethylthiophenes provided two types of cyclohexadiene complexes. It was found that one of these complexes could be converted to the other by a thermal rearrangement. This novel transformation was investigated by deuterium-labelling and kinetic studies, and a mechanism was proposed. The complexes could be oxidatively demetallated to provide the liberated organic framework. Further reorganization of these dienes were observed during the decomplexation process and in the presence of CpCo(C[sub 2]H[sub 4])[sub 2]. In this manner several new heterocyclic ring systems could be constructed from 2-substituted thiophenes. Following the success of the thiophene cyclizations, the cocyclization of the benzofuran nucleus was examined. Reagents and conditions were developed that provide an efficient synthesis of alkynols from carboxylic acids; other functional group interconversions of the alkynols were briefly studied. The synthesis and cyclization of 1-[7-methoxy-4-benzofuranyl]-3-butyn-2-ol produced a cobalt complex containing the A,B,C, and D rings of the morphine skeleton. A synthetic advantage of this methodology would be the ease of substitution at pharmaco-logically relevant C-6 and C-7 positions of the morphine framework. Synthetic routes using a cobalt cyclization strategy were proposed.

  15. Prediction of 222Rn in Danish dwellings using geology and house construction information from central databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus E; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Helle Primdal; Lind, Morten; Gravesen, Peter; Thomsen, Birthe L; Ulbak, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    A linear regression model has been developed for the prediction of indoor (222)Rn in Danish houses. The model provides proxy radon concentrations for about 21,000 houses in a Danish case-control study on the possible association between residential radon and childhood cancer (primarily leukaemia). The model was calibrated against radon measurements in 3116 houses. An independent dataset with 788 house measurements was used for model performance assessment. The model includes nine explanatory variables, of which the most important ones are house type and geology. All explanatory variables are available from central databases. The model was fitted to log-transformed radon concentrations and it has an R(2) of 40%. The uncertainty associated with individual predictions of (untransformed) radon concentrations is about a factor of 2.0 (one standard deviation). The comparison with the independent test data shows that the model makes sound predictions and that errors of radon predictions are only weakly correlated with the estimates themselves (R(2) = 10%).

  16. A long-period Cepheid variable in the starburst cluster VdBH222

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J S; Lohr, M E; Dorda, R; González-Fernández, C; Lewis, F; Roche, P

    2015-01-01

    Galactic starburst clusters play a twin role in astrophysics, serving as laboratories for the study of stellar physics and also delineating the structure and recent star formation history of the Milky Way. In order to exploit these opportunities we have undertaken a multi-epoch spectroscopic survey of the red supergiant dominated young massive clusters thought to be present at both near and far ends of the Galactic Bar. Significant spectroscopic variability suggestive of radial pulsations was found for the yellow supergiant VdBH 222 #505. Follow-up photometric investigations revealed modulation with a period of ~23.325d; both timescale and pulsational profile are consistent with a Cepheid classification. As a consequence #505 may be recognised as one of the longest period Galactic cluster Cepheids identified to date and hence of considerable use in constraining the bright end of the period/luminosity relation at solar metallicities. In conjunction with extant photometry we infer a distance of ~6kpc for VdBH22...

  17. Assessment and prevention of radioactive risk due to 222Radon on University Premises in Genoa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, D; Gasparini, R; Benatti, U; Gallelli, G

    2006-12-01

    From October 2004 to September 2005, Radon222 activity in high-risk indoor spaces used by employees and students at the University of Genoa was measured with CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The mean concentration in winter (78.9 Bq/m3 +/- 74.92 S.D.) was low in relation to the microenvironment considered. When data were broken down by type and location of the spaces, no significant differences were found, despite the fact that the Genoa conurbation lies on soil of variable geological composition. The dose absorbed by employees was 0.42 mSv/year, with a relative risk of 4.2/1000 cases of Radon-related lung cancer. The dose absorbed by students was 0.28 mSv/year, with a relative risk of 2.5/1000 cases of Radon-related lung cancer. The level of radon activity detected never exceeded the limit of 500 Bq/m3 established by Italian law. Nevertheless, the value of the compound uncertainty index suggested that the real level of Radon contamination could have exceeded 400 Bq/m3 in selected spaces, a value requiring annual concentration tests.

  18. Using (222)Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, D L; da Silva, A A R; Lacerda, T; Anjos, R M; Rizzotto, M; Velasco, H; de Rosas, J P; Tognelli, G; Yoshimura, E M; Ayub, J Juri

    2014-01-15

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of (222)Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  19. Controls on the spatial and temporal variability of Rn-222 in riparian groundwater in a lowland Chalk catchment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullinger, Neil J.; Pates, Jackie M.; Binley, Andrew M.; Crook, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Radon is a powerful tracer of stream-aquifer interactions. However, it is important to consider the source and behaviour of radon in groundwater when interpreting observations of river radon in relation to groundwater discharge. Here we characterise the variability in groundwater radon concentrations in the riparian zone of a Chalk catchment. Groundwater 222Rn (radon) concentrations were determined in riparian zone boreholes at two sites in the Lambourn catchment, Berkshire, UK, over a two ye...

  20. Investigation of some factors affecting on release of radon-222 from phosphogypsum waste associated with phosphate ore processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, M A; El Afifi, E M; Nayl, A A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is oriented to investigate the influence of some physicochemical factors such as radium distribution, grain size, moisture content and chemical constituents on releases of radon-222 from the accumulated phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The emanation fraction, activity concentration in the pore and the surface exhalation rate of radon-222 in the bulk PG waste are 34.5 ± 0.3%, 238.6 ± 7.8 kBq m(-3) and 213 ± 6.9 mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. These values were varied and enhanced slightly in the fine grain sizes (F1 radon from residue PG waste was controlled positively by radium (Ra-226), calcium (CaSO4) and strontium (SrO). About 67% of radon release attributed to the grain size below 0.5 mm, while 33% due to the large grain size above 0.5 mm. The emanation fraction of Rn-222 is increased with moisture content and the maximum emanation is ∼43% of moisture of 3-8%. It reduced slowly with the continuous increase in moisture till 20%. Due to PG waste in situ can be enhancing the background to the surround workers and/or public. Therefore, the environmental negative impacts due to release of Rn-222 can be minimized by legislation to restrict its civil uses, or increasing its moisture to ∼10%, or by the particle size separation of the fine fraction containing the high levels of Ra-226 followed by a suitable chemical treatment or disposal; whereas the low release amount can be diluted and used in cement industry, roads or dam construction.

  1. Amplification and absorption of acousto-electric waves in the system of piezoelectric rhombic crystal of 222 class and semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danoyan Z.N.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The reflection, amplification and absorption of plane electro-elastic shear wave from the boundary of piezoelectric rhombic crystal of 222 class and semiconductor in the absence of acoustic contact is considered. The wave fields' in the piezoelectric crystal and semiconductor are found. The amplitude ratios of arising waves are determined. It is shown, that in the crystal the attendant surface waves are occurred, in consequence of which, the amplification is took place.

  2. De novo dup(7)(q21q22.2) and cytogenetics of 7q21q34 duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, H

    2013-01-01

    We report on a constitutional dup(7)(q21q22.2) and compile 25 similar mid-7q imbalances in order to sort out relevant cytogenetic aspects. The propositus was first karyotyped elsewhere at 2 years of age and found to have a de novo 7q+ chromosome. When reassessed at 22 years of age, he exhibited overt mental disability, marked speech delay, mild short stature, frontal bossing, and mild dysmorphisms. The patient's chromosomes were analyzed in metaphases from a lymphocyte culture by means of G-banding and FISH assays with a wcp 7 and two dual probes, namely ELN (7q11)/D7S2686 (7q22) and ELN (7q11)/D7S486, D7S522 (q31). G-bands revealed a 7q21q22.2 direct duplication that was confirmed by FISH: the 7q+ was entirely painted with the wcp and had two 7q22 signals but a single 7q31 signal. Thus, the patient's karyotype was 46,XY, dup(7)(q21q22.2).ish dup(7)(q21 q22.2)(wcp7+, ELN+, D7S2686++, D7S486+)dn. Among 26 interstitial duplications confined to the segment 7q21q34, 13 were contiguous de novo duplications, one was due to a de novo ins (19;7), and 12 were inherited from carriers of inter-/intrachromosomal insertions or complex rearrangements. Mean paternal and maternal ages in de novo contiguous duplications of paternal/unknown (n = 9) or maternal/unknown (n = 10) descent were 33.44 and 30.9 yr whereas median ages were 29 and 30, respectively. The patient's clinical picture confirms the mild or moderate phenotypical repercussion of mid-7q duplications; among 25 patients born alive, 24 (including six teenagers or older) were still alive when reported on.

  3. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprien Lemouchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.

  4. Measurements of {sup 222}Rn and{sup 220}Rn with a large size collector of radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qifan; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Guilin; Zhu, Li [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ja, Wenyi; Fang, Fang [Chengdu Univ. of Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2002-07-01

    People have paid more attention to radon since 1980s. Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than others in China, especially {sup 220} Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurement of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 220} Rn concentration should be carried out there. I will introduce a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications in this paper. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fibre with electrostatics of -500V {approx} -700V. Its size (60mm in diameter) is larger than others (26mm in diameter) that work as the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore its sensitivity of measurement is high than others. According to the different half life of radon progeny and based on both theory and experiment, a formula for discrimination and calculation of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 220} Rn concentrations was deduced. The {sup 222} Rn and {sup 220} Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of commercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither {sup 222} Rn nor {sup 220} Rn concentrations were found significant high. However several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different. Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  5. Chromosome 18q22.2-->qter deletion and a congenital anomaly syndrome with multiple vertebral segmentation defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowton, S B; Hing, A V; Sheen-Kaniecki, V; Watson, M. S.

    1997-01-01

    Multiple vertebral segmentation defects occur in a group of conditions variably associated with anomalies of other organ systems. This report describes a female child in whom a deletion of chromosome 18 (18q22.2-->qter) is associated with congenital anomalies including multiple vertebral segmentation defects resembling sporadic spondylocostal dysplasia. The child also has unilateral renal agenesis and unilateral fibular aplasia. The association of severe multiple vertebral segmentation defect...

  6. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bellotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8⋅10−5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16stat(4syst days.

  7. Occurrence of {sup 222}Rn in irrigation water from Wadi Al-Rummah Qassim province, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, Atef; Alashrah, Saleh [Physics department, College of Science, Qassim University, P. O. 6644, Buraidah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-08-28

    Naturally accruing radioactive materials in the environment have received attention since they may be present in high level and pose risk to human health. The present work deals with measuring of {sup 222}Rn in irrigation water samples from Wadi Al-Rummah, Qassim province, in central of Saudi Arabia. {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured by RAD7. It was found that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn ranged from 2.1 ± 1.2 to 7.2 ± 1.5 BqL{sup −1}. These values are below 11.1 BqL{sup −1} the maximum contamination level recommended from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The calculated annual effective dose (AED) ranging from 7.5 to 26.1 µSv/y. It was evident that the total annual effective dose resulting from radon in irrigation groundwater in Wadi Al-Rummah in Qassim area were significantly lower than the recommended limit 1 mSv/y for the public.

  8. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a mediterranean sinkhole - spring (Causse d’Aumelas, SE France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batiot-Guilhe Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and 222Rn monitoring of the atmosphere of a Mediterranean sink hole - spring (SE France during two hydrological cycles (from September 2004 to September 2006 showed seasonal variations with very high concentrations during summer (greater than 6% and 20 000 Bq/m3, respectively. Gas dynamics in caves often show seasonal variations.Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure and temperature mainly, cave geometry and fracture networks control exchanges between the cavity and outside atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and 222Rn may have different sources (atmosphere, soil, bedrock, deep gas diffusion, in situ oxidation of organic matter and, in some caves, the key role of swift underground streams.For a CO2 origin, 13C measurements on water and gas samples taken into the cavity suggest a superficial origin. Radon-222 appears to be locally produced and transported by biogenic CO2. Further investigations will be carried out in order to study the relationship of gas-level variations with barometric pressure variations and piezometric level fluctuations within the aquifer.

  9. Meteorological parameters contributing to variability in 222Rn activity concentrations in soil gas at a site in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sakamoto, Keita; Imanishi, Tsukushi; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Sawamura, Sadashi; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2006-10-15

    Continuous (222)Rn monitoring in soil gas since November 22, 2004 has revealed variability in activity concentration with time in the semi-natural woods on the campus of Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. Among various factors affecting soil radon levels and variability, temperature was found to be dominant during three seasons when activity concentrations of (222)Rn showed a diurnal high and nocturnal low with a boundary around 10 o'clock in the morning. This pattern was disturbed by low pressure fronts with occasional rain. The activity gradually decreased as soil temperatures decreased from late November to mid-December. After the ground surface was completely covered with snow, soil radon levels became low with a small fluctuation. There were several peaks of (222)Rn on the time-series chart in winter. Those peaks appearing in early winter and early spring may be interpreted by considering meteorological parameters. In a few cases, the radon activity suddenly increased with increasing pressure in the soil at a depth of 10 cm, which may be associated with subsurface events such as seismic activity in the area.

  10. [Rb(18-crown-6][Rb([2.2.2]-cryptand]Rb2Sn9·5NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gaertner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, poly[[(4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosanerubidium] [[(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecanerubidium]di-μ-rubidium-μ-nonastannide] pentaammonia], {[Rb(C18H36N2O6][Rb3Sn9(C12H24O6C12H24O6]·5NH3}n represents the first ammoniate of a Zintl anion together with two different chelating substances, namely 18-crown-6 and [2.2.2]-cryptand. The involvement of these large molecules in the crystal structure of [Rb(18-crown-6][Rb([2.2.2]-cryptand]Rb2Sn9·5NH3 leads to the formation of a new structural motif, namely one-dimensionally extended double strands running parallel to [100] and built by Sn94− cages and Rb+ cations. The double strands are shielded by 18-crown-6 and [2.2.2]-cryptand. The cations are additionally coordinated by ammonia molecules. One of the four independent Rb+ cations is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.74 (2:0.26 (2 ratio.

  11. Virulence-associated substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus affects receptor binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); S. Herfst (Sander); J. Steel (John); A.C. Lowen (Anice); J. Ye (Jian); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); B.F. Koel (Björn); D.F. Burke (David); K.H. Sutherland-Cash (Kyle); C.S. Whittleson (Chris); C.A. Russell (Colin); D.J. Wales (David); D.J. Smith (Derek); M. Jonges (Marcel); A. Meijer (Adam); M. Koopmans (Matty); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. García-Sastre (Adolfo); D.R. Perez (Daniel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical impact of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (pdmH1N1) has been relatively low. However, amino acid substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of pdmH1N1 has been associated with cases of severe disease and fatalities. D222G was introduced in a prototype pdmH1N1 by rever

  12. Long-term temporal variability of the radon-222 exhalation flux from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Doering, Che

    2016-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation flux densities from two different substrates of several metres thickness, waste rock and waste rock mixed with approximately 30% lateritic material, were measured over a period of five years in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Fourteen measurement campaigns using activated charcoal canisters (n > 1000) covered both dry and wet seasons and showed differences in seasonal and long term trends of the (222)Rn exhalation flux densities normalised to the (226)Ra activity concentrations of the substrate. Dry season (222)Rn exhalation was generally higher for the mixed substrate, due to the larger fraction of fines. Seasonality established within the first year of landform construction on the mixed substrate, due to the higher water holding capacity of the lateritic material. In contrast, waste rock only shows no seasonality until years four and five after construction, when average normalised dry season (222)Rn exhalation flux densities from waste rock increase to values (0.47 ± 0.06 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) similar to the mixed substrate (0.64 ± 0.08 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)), likely due to an increase in fines from rapid weathering of the schistose waste rock. Volumetric water content has been used to parametrize relative (222)Rn exhalation and we determined that wet season (222)Rn exhalation is about 40% of the dry season exhalation.

  13. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Morishima, H; Shen, T; Koga, T; Wei, L; Sugahara, T

    2000-10-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: (1) integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; (2) eqilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; (3) external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; (4) cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined.

  14. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Tong [Labor Hygiene Inst. of Human Province, Changsha (China); Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; equilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined. (author)

  15. Annual committed effective dose from olive oil (due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn) estimated for members of the Moroccan public from ingestion and skin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Touti, R

    2012-03-01

    Olive oil is traditionally refined and widely consumed by Moroccan rural populations. Uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) contents were measured in various locally produced olive oil samples collected in rural areas of Morocco. These radionuclides were also measured inside various bottled virgin olive oils consumed by the Moroccan populations. CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used. Annual committed effective doses due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by the members of the general public were determined. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by adult members of Moroccan rural populations was found equal to 5.9 µSv y-1. The influence of pollution due to building material dusts and phosphates on the radiation dose to workers from the ingestion of olive oil was investigated, and it was found that the maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was on the order of 0.22 mSy y-1. Committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the application of olive oil masks by rural women were evaluated. The maximum total committed effective dose to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was found equal to 0.07 mSy y-1 cm-2.

  16. The role of mesoscale meteorology in modulating the (222)Rn concentrations in Huelva (Spain)--impact of phosphogypsum piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vargas, A; Arnold, D; Bolívar, J P

    2015-07-01

    The combined analysis of (222)Rn activity concentrations and mesoscale meteorological conditions at Huelva city (Spain) was addressed in this study to understand the potential impact of phosphogypsum piles on the (222)Rn activity concentrations registered at this area. Hourly mean data from April 2012 to February 2013 registered at two sampling sites (Huelva city and in the background station of El Arenosillo, located 27 km to the south-east) have been used in the study. The results of the present study showed a large difference in mean radon concentrations between the two stations during the sampling period, 6.3 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) at Huelva and 3.0 ± 0.2 Bq m(-3) at El Arenosillo. The analysis has demonstrated that hourly (222)Rn concentrations at Huelva city above 22 Bq m(-3), with nocturnal peaks up to 50 Bq/m(3), mainly coincided with the occurrence of a pure sea-land breeze cycle. Mesoscale circulations in this region are mainly characterized by two patterns of sea-land breeze, pure and non-pure, with the phosphosypsum piles directly upstream (south) of the city during the afternoon on pure sea-breeze days. The difference between mean (222)Rn activity concentrations at Huelva city were 9.9 ± 1.5 Bq m(-3) for the pure pattern and 3.3 ± 0.5 Bq m(-3) for the non-pure pattern, while in the background station concentrations were 3.9 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) and 2.8 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) respectively. Considering these large differences, a detailed analysis of composites and case studies of representative sea-land breeze cycles of both types and their impact on (222)Rn activity concentration was performed. The results suggested that the presence of the phosphogypsum piles was necessary in order to justify the high (222)Rn activity concentrations observed at Huelva compared with the background station in the afternoons on pure sea breeze days (1.5-2.0 Bq m(-3)). On the other hand, large night time differences between the two sites on these days were

  17. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L(-1) and 10% for 10 mBq L(-1). While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L(-1), a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L(-1), corresponding to 0.14 fg g(-1). The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported.

  18. 222 Rn study throughout different seismotectonical areas: comparison between different techniques for discrete monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzino

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available n the frame of the geochemical monitoring of seismicity mainly aimed at deepening the relationships between active seismotectonics and fluid geochemistry, i.e. earthquake prediction, a 222 Rn study was accomplished. It is addressed to inter-calibrate in diverse tectonic settings different methods to measure radon in groundwater: Alpha Scintillation Method using Lucas Cells (ASM-LCC and Gamma Spectrometry Method (GSM, adopting both the Charcoal Trap Method (CTM by Active Charcoals Canisters (ACC and the Beaker Marinelli (BM sampling devices. The intercalibration occurred on the field as well as in the laboratory, to finally select the best-fitting to gather radon information in each situation. Three Italian areas were selected to verify radon behavior and background concentration in different seismotectonical, geo-structural and lithological settings: ancient metamorphosed rocks – quiescent faults (Eastern Alps, carbonate foreland – active faults (Gargano and quiescent volcanic structure overlapping a carbonate basement – swarm seismic activity (Colli Albani. The high radon concentration variability and the factors affecting radon behavior in groundwater (i.e. carrier gases presence, convection along fault systems, lithology influence, etc. strongly constrain the measurement method to be adopted. The results point out apparently that the ASM-LCC method may be useful for expeditious and quick response of groundwater radon concentration during geochemical surveys aimed at grossly detecting the presence of tectonic structures, the deepening of circulation or the peculiar geological features linked to the presence of U-Th minerals. This method is not reliable for accurate measurements, while the GSM methods showed low standard deviation (higher precision with respect ASM-LCC and accurate radon measurements. Finally, a customized DINCE Standard Radiactive Source (DSRS was set up, and first used for the efficient estimation of the ING available

  19. Hemagglutinin 222D/G polymorphism facilitates fast intra-host evolution of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Seidel

    Full Text Available The amino acid substitution of aspartic acid to glycine in hemagglutinin (HA in position 222 (HA-D222G as well as HA-222D/G polymorphism of pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza viruses (A(H1N1pdm09 were frequently reported in severe influenza in humans and mice. Their impact on viral pathogenicity and the course of influenza has been discussed controversially and the underlying mechanism remained unclarified. In the present study, BALB/c mice, infected with the once mouse lung- and cell-passaged A(H1N1pdm09 isolate A/Jena/5258/09 (mpJena/5258, developed severe pneumonia. From day 2 to 3 or 4 post infection (p.i. symptoms (body weight loss and clinical score continuously worsened. After a short disease stagnation or even recovery phase in most mice, severity of disease further increased on days 6 and 7 p.i. Thereafter, surviving mice recovered. A 45 times higher virus titer maximum in the lung than in the trachea on day 2 p.i. and significantly higher tracheal virus titers compared to lung on day 6 p.i. indicated changes in the organ tropism during infection. Sequence analysis revealed an HA-222D/G polymorphism. HA-D222 and HA-G222 variants co-circulated in lung and trachea. Whereas, HA-D222 variant predominated in the lung, HA-G222 became the major variant in the trachea after day 4 p.i. This was accompanied by lower neutralizing antibody titers and broader receptor recognition including terminal sialic acid α-2,3-linked galactose, which is abundant on mouse trachea epithelial cells. Plaque-purified HA-G222-mpJena/5258 virus induced severe influenza with maximum symptom on day 6 p.i. These results demonstrated for the first time that HA-222D/G quasispecies of A(H1N1pdm09 caused severe biphasic influenza because of fast viral intra-host evolution, which enabled partial antibody escape and minor changes in receptor binding.

  20. Predominance of HA-222D/G polymorphism in influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses associated with fatal and severe outcomes recently circulating in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Wedde

    Full Text Available Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses cause sporadically very severe disease including fatal clinical outcomes associated with pneumonia, viremia and myocarditis. A mutation characterized by the substitution of aspartic acid (wild-type to glycine at position 222 within the haemagglutinin gene (HA-D222G was recorded during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Germany and other countries with significant frequency in fatal and severe cases. Additionally, A(H1N1pdm09 viruses exhibiting the polymorphism HA-222D/G/N were detected both in the respiratory tract and in blood. Specimens from mild, fatal and severe cases were collected to study the heterogeneity of HA-222 in A(H1N1pdm09 viruses circulating in Germany between 2009 and 2011. In order to enable rapid and large scale analysis we designed a pyrosequencing (PSQ assay. In 2009/2010, the 222D wild-type of A(H1N1pdm09 viruses predominated in fatal and severe outcomes. Moreover, co-circulating virus mutants exhibiting a D222G or D222E substitution (8/6% as well as HA-222 quasispecies were identified (10%. Both the 222D/G and the 222D/G/N/V/Y polymorphisms were confirmed by TA cloning. PSQ analyses of viruses associated with mild outcomes revealed mainly the wild-type 222D and no D222G change in both seasons. However, an increase of variants with 222D/G polymorphism (60% was characteristic for A(H1N1pdm09 viruses causing fatal and severe cases in the season 2010/2011. Pure 222G viruses were not observed. Our results support the hypothesis that the D222G change may result from adaptation of viral receptor specificity to the lower respiratory tract. This could explain why transmission of the 222G variant is less frequent among humans. Thus, amino acid changes at HA position 222 may be the result of viral intra-host evolution leading to the generation of variants with an altered viral tropism.

  1. Evolution of {sup 222} Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano; Evolucion de {sup 222} Rn y especies quimicas relacionadas con procesos eruptivos del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The {sup 222} Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  2. {sup 222} Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley; Determinacion de {sup 222} Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, A

    1998-10-01

    Concentration levels of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The {sup 222} Rn source is the decay of {sup 226} Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. {sup 222} Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, {sup 226} Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for {sup 226} Rn, the average {sup 222} Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and

  3. Concentrations of Ra-226 and Rn-222 in Thermal Groundwater Measured by Emanation-scintillation Method%射气闪烁法测定地下热水的镭-226和氡-222浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 周训; 龙汨; 王晓翠; 陈婷; 李婧玮; 杨苗林

    2014-01-01

    High radioactive concentrations of 226 Ra and 222 Rn in thermal groundwater are of important significance in studying formation and circulation of thermal groundwater. The experimental apparatus,measurement principle and steps,pre-treatment of water samples and result calculations of the emanation-scintillation method to measure the radioactive concentrations of 226 Ra and 222 Rn in thermal groundwater in laboratory were described,and the determination of parameters used in the experimental devices and the measuring methods were discussed.The results show that the optimal threshold electric pressure for the radioactive FD-125 radonvthorium analyzer used in the experiment is 2 V,and the corresponding optimal working high electric pressure is 450 V;the collection factors for the three scintillation chambers used are 0.005 428,0.005 567 and 0.005 060,respectively;when 226 Ra is extracted from water sample in the pre-treatment,the pH values are controlled in the range of 2.5-3.0 in order to obtain the maximum method recovery rate.%地下热水中放射性浓度较高的226 Ra 和222 Rn 对于研究地下热水的形成和循环具有重要的意义.阐明了实验室测定地下热水226 Ra 和222 Rn 放射性浓度的射气闪烁法的仪器组成、测试原理、测试步骤、水样前处理和结果换算,讨论了在测试过程中各仪器和试验方法所需参数的选取及确定的具体操作.结果表明:在本试验中,所用放射性测试仪器 FD-125型氡钍分析仪的最佳阈电压为2 V,对应的最佳工作高压为450 V;所采用的3个闪烁室的校正因子分别为0.005428、0.005567和0.005060;进行前处理提取水样226 Ra时,pH 值应控制在2.5~3.0之间,可确保方法回收率最大.

  4. Simulation of Rn-222 decay products concentration deposited on a filter. Description of radon1.pas computer program; Symulacja koncentracji produktow rozpadu Rn-222 osadzanych na filtrze. Opis programu komputerowego radon1.pas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    A computer program allowing simulation of activity distribution of {sup 222}Rn short lived decay products deposited on a filter against time is presented, for any radiation equilibrium degree of the decay products. Deposition of the decay products is simulated by summing discrete samples every 1/10 min in the sampling time from 1 to 10 min. The concentration (activity) of the decay products is computed in one minute intervals in the range 1 - 100 min. The alpha concentration and the total activity of {sup 218}Po + {sup 214}Po produced are computed in the range 1 to 100 min as well. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs.

  5. A 222 energy bins response matrix for a {sup 6}Lil scintillator Bss system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, M. A. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Calibracao de Dosimetros, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Gallego D, E., E-mail: masl@cdtn.br [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A new response matrix was calculated for a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) with a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator. We utilized the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code MCNPX, version 2.7.0, with Endf/B-VII.0 nuclear data library to calculate the responses for 6 spheres and the bare detector, for energies varying from 9.441 E(-10) MeV to 105.9 MeV, with 20 equal-log(E)-width bins per energy decade, totalizing 222 energy groups. A Bss, like the modeled in this work, was utilized to measure the neutron spectrum generated by the {sup 241}AmBe source of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. From the count rates obtained with this Bss system we unfolded neutron spectrum utilizing the BUNKIUT code for 31 energy bins (UTA-4 response matrix) and the MAXED code with the new calculated response functions. We compared spectra obtained with these Bss system / unfold codes with that obtained from measurements performed with a Bss system constituted of 12 spheres with a spherical {sup 3}He Sp-9 counter (Centronic Ltd., UK) and MAXED code with the system-specific response functions (Bss-CIEMAT). A relatively good agreement was observed between our response matrix and that calculated by other authors. In general, we observed an improvement in the agreement as the energy increases. However, higher discrepancies were observed for energies close to 1-E(-8) MeV and, mainly, for energies above 20 MeV. These discrepancies were mainly attributed to the differences in cross-section libraries employed. The ambient dose equivalent (H (10)) calculated with the {sup 6}Lil-MAXED showed a good agreement with values measured with the neutron area monitor Bert hold Lb 6411 and within 12% the value obtained with another Bss system (Bss-CIEMAT). The response matrix calculated in this work can be utilized together with the MAXED code to generate neutron spectra with a good energy resolution up to 20 MeV. Some additional tests are being done to validate this response matrix and improve the

  6. Mapping indoor radon-222 in Denmark: Design and test of the statistical model used in the second nationwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Ulbak, K.; Damkjær, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark, a new survey of indoor radon-222 has been carried out. 1-year alpha track measurements (CR-39) have been made in 3019 single-family houses. There are from 3 to 23 house measurements in each of the 275 municipalities. Within each municipality, houses have been selected randomly. One...... important outcome of the survey is the prediction of the fraction of houses in each municipality with an annual average radon concentration above 200 Bq m(-3). To obtain the most accurate estimate and to assess the associated uncertainties, a statistical model has been developed. The purpose of this paper...

  7. Isothermal titration calorimetry study of a bistable supramolecular system: reversible complexation of cryptand[2.2.2] with potassium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosso, Maria G; Ciesielski, Artur; Colella, Silvia; Harrowfield, Jack M; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-09-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to investigate the thermodynamics of the complexation of potassium ions by 1,10-diaza-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane (cryptand[2.2.2]) in aqueous solution. By changing the pH of the solution it was possible to trigger the reversible complexation/decomplexation of the cryptand in consecutive in situ experiments and to assess for the first time the use of ITC to monitor the thermodynamics of a bistable system.

  8. Analytical services: 222-S characterization of 242-A Evaporator Slurry, Campaign 94-1. Addendum 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-13

    During the 242-A Evaporator`s 94-1 campaign, five process samples were collected from the slurry stream for waste characterization. The five samples were collected over a 36 day time span, respectively on May 4, May 9, May 16, May 23, and June 9, 1994. Sample collections were performed per the protocol described in 242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan, WHC-SD-WM-EV-060, Rev. 3 and in 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-009, Rev. 0. Slurry waste was characterized chemically and radiochemically by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory as directed.

  9. Fluctuaciones en la presencia de Radón 222 ambiental en la ciudad de Lima (Zona San Miguel)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La presencia de contaminantes radiactivos en forma natural es y será un problema medio ambiental. Existen elementos radiactivos que sobreviven en la Tierra desde su formación inicial, como el Uranio 238, Torio 232, Actinio 227 y por intervenciones humanas el Neptunio 235. Particularmente, en la cadena de desintegración del Uranio 238 encontramos un elemento gaseoso radiactivo que puede difundirse en el agua o en el aire que respiramos llamado Radón222. Este gas radiactivo se encuentra en porc...

  10. Comprehensive software for the assessment of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn decay products based on air sampling measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, Octavian [Physics Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-11, RO-077125 (Romania)], E-mail: octavian.sima@ik.fzk.de

    2009-05-15

    A computational tool dedicated to the measurement of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn decay products by air sampling is presented. {alpha}- or {gamma}-spectrometry measurements, gross {alpha} or {beta} counting, as well as a combination of them are considered. Special attention is given to the evaluation of the uncertainty budget of the results. Besides typical applications in the analysis of experimental data, the software can be used for assessing the expected quality of a measurement protocol and for optimizing it, by generating and analyzing sets of realistic synthetic data.

  11. Chromosome 18q22.2-->qter deletion and a congenital anomaly syndrome with multiple vertebral segmentation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Hing, A V; Sheen-Kaniecki, V; Watson, M S

    1997-05-01

    Multiple vertebral segmentation defects occur in a group of conditions variably associated with anomalies of other organ systems. This report describes a female child in whom a deletion of chromosome 18 (18q22.2-->qter) is associated with congenital anomalies including multiple vertebral segmentation defects resembling sporadic spondylocostal dysplasia. The child also has unilateral renal agenesis and unilateral fibular aplasia. The association of severe multiple vertebral segmentation defects with 18q- in this patient suggests the possibility that a gene important for somite formation or vertebral differentiation maps to this segment of chromosome 18.

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of hepatitis C virus variants observed in clinical studies of VX-222, a nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Zhang, Eileen Z; Ardzinski, Andrzej; Tigges, Ann; Davis, Andrew; Sullivan, James C; Nelson, Michelle; Spanks, Joan; Dorrian, Jennifer; Nicolas, Olivier; Bartels, Doug J; Rao, B Govinda; Rijnbrand, Rene; Kieffer, Tara L

    2014-09-01

    VX-222, a thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivative, is a selective nonnucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In phase 1 and 2 clinical studies, VX-222 demonstrated effective antiviral efficacy, with substantial reductions in plasma HCV RNA in patients chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV. To characterize the potential for selection of VX-222-resistant variants in HCV-infected patients, the HCV NS5B gene was sequenced at baseline and during and after 3 days of VX-222 dosing (monotherapy) in a phase 1 study. Variants with the substitutions L419C/I/M/P/S/V, R422K, M423I/T/V, I482L/N/T, A486S/T/V, and V494A were selected during VX-222 dosing, and their levels declined over time after the end of dosing. Phenotypic analysis of these variants was conducted using HCV replicons carrying site-directed mutations. Of the 17 variants, 14 showed reduced susceptibility to VX-222 compared with the wild type, with the L419C/S and R422K variants having higher levels of resistance (>200-fold) than the rest of the variants (6.8- to 76-fold). The M423I and A486S variants remained susceptible to VX-222. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for the L419P variant could not be obtained due to the poor replication of this replicon. The majority of the variants (15/17) were less fit than the wild type. A subset of the variants, predominately the L419S and R422K variants, were observed when the efficacy and safety of VX-222- and telaprevir-based regimens given for 12 weeks were investigated in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients in a phase 2 study. The NS3 and NS5B variants selected during the dual combination therapy showed reduced susceptibility to both telaprevir and VX-222 and had a lower replication capacity than the wild type. The phase 1b study has the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00911963, and the phase 2a study has ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01080222.

  13. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  14. A detailed examination of the chemical, hydrological, and geological properties influencing the mobility of {sup 222}radon and parent radionuclides in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexsmith, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines hydrological, geological and geochemical controls on {sup 222}Rn variability in groundwater in the Front Range of Colorado. Specific objectives of the study are: (1) to determine if there are any correlations or spatial relationships between {sup 222}Rn and the geological, geochemical and hydrogeological data; and (2) to determine whether it is geochemically reasonable for observed {sup 222}Rn levels to be the result of U and {sup 226}Ra accumulation by fracture filling minerals. Domestic-water wells were sampled and tested to determine the local aquifer characteristics and aqueous geochemistry. A multivariate and staged approach was used in the data analyses. Analysis of variance tests were used to test for relationships between {sup 222}Rn and the lithology of the study wells. The effects of rock-type were then removed from the chemical and hydrological variables by subtracting the mean value for each rock-type from each of the measured values within that rock-type (a residual transformation). Linear and linear multiple regression techniques were used to test for expected relationships between residual {sup 222}Rn levels and these variables, and stepwise linear regressions were used to test for any unforeseen multivariate relationships in the data. Correlograms, distance-weighted average and inverse-distance-weighted average predictions were used to look for spatial relationships in the data.

  15. A comparative study on the effects of clove oil, 2-phenoxy ethanol, and MS- 222 upon some enzymatic and hormonal activities in juvenile Caspian brown trout (Salmotruttacaspius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahr Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of threeanesthetics namelyclove oil(CO, 2-phenoxy ethanol(2-PE, and MS-222 were examined on blood enzymes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartateaminotransferase (AST, protein, albumin, glucose, and cortisol levels in the Caspianbrowntrout (salmotruttacaspius. The biochemical composition of blood and cortisol levels were analyzed in fish anesthetized with CO (30 mg/l, 2-PE (0.3 ml/l and MS-222 (100 mg/l and acontrol group received no anesthetic agent. The long term stressing effect of 2-PEwas detected to belesser than those found for both MS-222 and CO. MS-222, however, revealedliver tissue damage in long run indicating that it would be inappropriate for aquaculturespecies. After all, since no stressful effect of MS-222 was noticed on the Caspianbrown trout in short term, it can be effectively usedin conditions when itbecomes important to reduce severe instantaneous stress such as surgery and broodstock spawning.

  16. Calcium phosphate-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced triple negative breast cancer treatment via co-delivery of paclitaxel and miR-221/222 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zilan; Kennell, Carly; Lee, Joo-Youp; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Tarapore, Pheruza

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a development of a novel calcium phosphate-polymer hybrid nanoparticle system is reported.The nanoparticle system can co-encapsulate and co-deliver a combination of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties (i.e., inhibitors for microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 (miRi-221/222) and paclitaxel (pac)).miRi-221/222 are hydrophilic and were encapsulated with calcium phosphate by co-precipitation in a water-in-oil emulsion.The precipitates were then coated with an anionic lipid, dioleoylphosphatidic acid (DOPA), to co-encapsulate hydrophobic paclitaxel outside the hydrophilic precipitates and inside the same nanoparticle.The nanoparticles formed by following this approach had a size of about ≤100nm and contained both lipid-coated calcium phosphate/miRi and paclitaxel.This nanoparticle system was found to simultaneously deliver paclitaxel and miRi-221/222 to their intracellular targets, leading to inhibit proliferative mechanisms of miR-221/222 and thus significantly enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel.

  17. Continuous on-line calibration of diffusive soil-atmosphere trace gas transport using vertical {sup 220}Rn- and {sup 222}Rn-activity profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, B.E. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physics Inst.; Neftel, A. [Inst. of Environmental Protection and Agriculture, Bern (Switzerland); Tarakanov, S.V. [Inst. of Silicate Chemistry, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of {sup 220}Rn- and {sup 222}Rn-activities above and below the soil surface combined with sporadic direct {sup 222}Rn-flux measurements is used to quantify diffusive trace gas transport in the air-filled pore space of soil, through the soil-atmosphere interface and in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. In a calm night, {sup 222}Rn-activities above the surface first build-up near the ground (z < 10 cm) and subsequently with a delay of 2-3 hours at higher altitudes (z < 5 m). Knowing (1) the {sup 222}Rn-flux from activity profiles measured in soil gas, (2) from direct flux determinations and (3) using information about atmospheric diffusion parameters from {sup 220}Rn-activities measured near the surface it is possible to model the temporal evolution of the vertical {sup 222}Rn-profiles in a night with stable weather and constant soil conditions. The system operates automatically for extended periods of time in the field enabling a better understanding of transport processes in response to changing environmental conditions (wind, rain, soil humidity). (orig.)

  18. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  19. Isolation of Actinium from Neutron-irradiated Thorium-I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Isolation of Actinium from Neutron-irradiated Thorium-I¥YangWeifan;YuanShuanggui;MuWantong;ZhangXueqian;LiZhongweiandZhaoLili...

  20. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  1. Aγ-225~-222缺失复合β地中海贫血的研究%RESEARCH ON THE Aγ-225 TO-222 DELETION IN COMPOUND WITH β-THALASSEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱恒莹; 陈萍; 林伟雄; 李树全; 肖璇; 谢湘芝; 杨德寨

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨A γ-225~-222缺失导致的非缺失型遗传性持续性胎儿血红蛋白综合征(nondeletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin,nd HPFH)复合β地中海贫血的基因突变和临床特征.方法:选择2013年6月至2014年7月在广西医科大学第一附属医院就诊的病例进行血常规检查;应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定血红蛋白Hb F和Hb A2水平;应用DNA测序方法分析γ珠蛋白基因突变;应用反向斑点杂交(RDB)和gap-PCR方法检测地中海贫血基因突变;应用SPSS 16.0统计软件对数据进行统计分析.结果:在122例Hb F增高的病例中,检测出7例Aγ-225~222 AGCA缺失杂合子,其中3例复合Gγ-158 C→T突变杂合子,1例同时复合β地中海贫血28 A→G突变杂合子以及Gγ-158 C→T突变杂合子,1例复合β地中海贫血CD17 A →T突变杂合子.血常规检查显示7例Hb为96.7~142.3 g/L,MCV为54.61~77.65 fl,MCH为16.10~25.26 pg.Hb分析显示7例Hb F为4.0%~11.2%,其中复合Gγ-158 C→T突变杂合子HbF为4.0%~8.1%,复合β地中海贫血杂合子Hb F为8.1%~11.2%.5例Hb A2正常,2例复合β地中海贫血杂合子Hb A2增高(5.6%~6.4%).Aγ225~-222缺失复合β地中海贫血杂合子与β地中海贫血杂合子相比,Hb F、Hb水平明显升高(P<0.05).结论:Aγ 225~222缺失可导致Hb F水平升高,其杂合子均无临床症状,Hb正常或降低,MCV、MCH降低.Aγ-225~-222缺失复合β地中海贫血杂合子的HbF、Hb水平明显高于β地中海贫血杂合子.

  2. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the {sup 222}Rn decays detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu.M.; Gangapshev, A.M.; Gezhaev, A.M.; Etezov, R.A.; Kazalov, V.V.; Kuzminov, V.V. [Baksan Neutrino Observatory,Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, 361609 Neutrino (Russian Federation); Panasenko, S.I. [V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Ratkevich, S.S., E-mail: ssratk@gmail.com [V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Tekueva, D.A.; Yakimenko, S.P. [Baksan Neutrino Observatory,Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, 361609 Neutrino (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-21

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register α-particles from the {sup 222}Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV α-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented. - Highlights: • The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. • The chamber is intended to register alpha-particles from {sup 222}Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. • The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. • An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV alpha-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure have been investigated and the results are presented.

  3. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: a probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellotti, E; Di Carlo, G; Laubenstein, M; Menegazzo, R

    2015-01-01

    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give the reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8*10^-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the ...

  4. Potential antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of autochthonous starter cultures and protease EPg222 in dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Margarita; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María José; Martín, Alberto; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-05-18

    This work studied the presence of nitrogen compounds with bioactive properties in Iberian pork sausages that were manufactured using different autochthonous starter cultures (Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34) and protease EPg222. Nitrogen compounds were extracted and evaluated for their antimicrobial effect against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and antiproliferative activity on the HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Dry-fermented sausages elaborated with starter cultures P200S34 and protease EPg222 generate extracts that cause inhibition of the growth of pathogens reaching 25% inhibition of Bacillus cereus, making this a promising tool for biocontrol in the meat industry. On the other hand, the inoculation of well-adapted starter cultures with high proteolytic activity also increased the antiproliferative activity of these extracts, around 45% inhibition at 72 h, mainly due to an increase in free amino acids, such as Lys and Pro, but also small peptides.

  5. Site-specific branching ratios for H-atom production from primary haloalkanes photolyzed at 193, 222, and 248 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jeffrey L.; Deshmukh, Subhash; Wang, Zhongrui; Koplitz, Brent

    1993-01-01

    Selectively deuterated compounds are used to investigate the ``site-specific'' nature of H-atom production resulting from the photolysis of primary haloalkanes. The molecules investigated are 1-iodopropane, 1-bromopropane, iodoethane, bromoethane, and chloroethane, with photolysis being initiated at 193, 222, and 248 nm. Hydrogen and deuterium isotopes are systematically used to label chemically distinct carbon atoms within a given molecule. H- and D-atom Doppler profiles are generated via two-photon (121.6+364.7 nm) ionization resonant with Lyman-α, and the relative H/D ratios are used to quantify the probability for hydrogen production from each carbon site. In general, photolysis of an intermediate, presumably the alkyl radical, is implicated as being a key step in the overall process. When using 248 nm radiation, the photolysis process is dominated by C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage at the β carbon position regardless of the system investigated. In contrast, results using 193 nm excitation display no obvious preference for bond cleavage at a particular carbon site, again regardless of the system. The data produced by 222 nm photolysis show a qualitative tendency for C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage at the β carbon, but the quantitative results are not as self-consistent as either the 248 nm or the 193 nm data. Also, the results of ab initio calculations on the ground and excited states of the ethyl radical are used to help interpret the observed site specificity.

  6. Measurements of CO2, its stable isotopes, O2/N2, and 222Rn at Bern, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sturm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year time series of atmospheric CO2 measurements from Bern, Switzerland, is presented. O2/N2 and Ar/N2 ratios as well as stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of CO2 and δ29N2, δ34O2 and δ36Ar were measured periodically during a one year period. Additionally, the 222Rn activity was measured during three months in the winter 2004. Using the correlation from short-term fluctuations of CO2 and 222Rn we estimated a mean CO2 flux density between February 2004 and April 2004 in the region of Bern of 95±39 tC km–2month–1. The continuous observations of carbon dioxide and associated tracers shed light on diurnal and seasonal patterns of the carbon cycle in an urban atmosphere. There is considerable variance in nighttime δ13C and δ18O of source CO2 throughout the year, however, with generally lower values in winter compared to summertime. The O2:CO2 oxidation ratio during the nighttime build-up of CO2 varies between –0.96 and –1.69 mol O2/mol CO2. Furthermore, Ar/N2 measurements showed that artifacts like thermal fractionation at the air intake are relevant for high precision measurements of atmospheric O2.

  7. A model to explain simultaneously the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn emanation from thin electrodeposited sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.J.M. Jurado. E-mail: mjv@unex.es

    2000-06-11

    In thin radioactive sources, loss of radon by emanation is a very common phenomenon, especially in sources made by electrodeposition. A quantification of this effect in radium sources can be easily developed by using a simple model that assumes a radon diffusion term in the ingrowth equations. By measuring the corresponding Rn/Ra activity ratio, a constant diffusion factor can be determined which represents the Rn emanation from the whole source. However, this simple model cannot explain simultaneously the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn diffusion produced in a thin source, because it gives diffusion factors that are different by many orders of magnitude for these two isotopes, while these values must be fairly close. In this paper, a new model of diffusion is proposed, which includes a linear dependence of the diffusion factor on the depth of Rn nuclides in the source. This new model has been applied to radium electrodeposited sources and allows us to explain satisfactorily both the {sup 220}Rn/{sup 224}Ra and {sup 222}Rn/{sup 226}Ra activity ratios observed in thin sources.

  8. An automatic static chamber for continuous {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn flux measurements from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, B.E. E-mail: lehmann@climate.unibe.ch; Ihly, B.; Salzmann, S.; Onen, F.; Simon, E

    2004-02-01

    A closed-circuit analytical system for the (quasi)-continuous measurement f radon fluxes from soil consisting of a static accumulation chamber and two radon detectors operated in series is described. The first detector measures he ({sup 220}Rn+{sup 222}Rn) activity, the second one the remaining {sup 222}Rn activity after the {sup 220}Rn atoms (half-life 56 s) have decayed when the air asses a delay volume between the two detectors. A step-motor driven cover loses the chamber at the beginning of a flux measurement interval of e.g. 3 . In between measurements the chamber remains open to maintain soil and vegetation inside the chamber as closely as possible to the conditions outside. A mathematical description of the temporal evolution of Rn activities in the analytical system is presented from which procedures are derived to calculate Rn fluxes (Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) from the measured activities n the two detectors. Examples from field tests illustrate the performance of he experimental set-up and possible complications due to technical and/or environmental difficulties.

  9. Crystal structure of the new hybrid material bis(1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane di-μ-chlorido-bis[tetrachloridobismuthate(III] dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Chouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound bis(1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane di-μ-chlorido-bis[tetrachloridobismuthate(III] dihydrate, (C6H14N22[Bi2Cl10]·2H2O, was obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature of a hydrochloric aqueous solution (pH = 1 containing bismuth(III nitrate and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO in a 1:2 molar ratio. The structure displays a two-dimensional arrangement parallel to (100 of isolated [Bi2Cl10]4− bioctahedra (site symmetry -1 separated by layers of organic 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications [(DABCOH22+] and water molecules. O—H...Cl, N—H...O and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds lead to additional cohesion of the structure.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 induction by diethyldithiocarbamate is regulated via Akt and ERK/miR222/ETS-1 pathways in hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Cong, Min; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Lin; Li, Hongyi; Zhai, Qingling; Li, Zhuo; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) plays an important role in fibrolysis by degrading excessively deposited collagen I and III. We previously demonstrated that diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) up-regulates MMP-1 in hepatic stellate cells via the ERK1/2 and Akt signalling pathways. In the current study, we attempted to further explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of MMP-1. We treated a co-cultured system that included hepatocytes (C3A) and hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) with DDC. The data revealed that the transcriptional factor ETS-1, which is an important regulator of MMP-1, was up-regulated in LX-2 cells following DDC treatment. Furthermore, the up-regulation of MMP-1 by DDC has been abrogated through employing si-ETS-1 to block expression of ETS-1. We found that DDC significantly inhibited the expression of miR-222 in LX-2 cells. We transfected miR-222 mimic into LX-2 cells and then co-cultured the cells with C3A. The up-regulation of ETS-1 and MMP-1 in LX-2 cells treated with DDC were inhibited after miR-222 mimic transfection. These data indicate that DDC up-regulated MMP-1 in LX-2 cells through the miR-222/ETS-1 pathway. Finally, we treated the co-cultured system with an Akt inhibitor (T3830) and an ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126). Both T3830 and U0126 blocked the suppression of miR-222 by DDC in LX-2. Collectively, these data indicate that DDC up-regulated MMP-1 in LX-2 cells through the Akt and ERK/miR-222/ETS-1 pathways. Our study provides experimental data that will aid the control of the process of fibrolysis in liver fibrosis prevention and treatment.

  11. Physical Parameters Affecting the Emanation of RADON-222 from Coal Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Terence Patrick

    The Rn-222 emanation coefficients for coal ash and parameters which affected them were measured. Samples of ash from both stoker fired and pulverized coal fired boilers were obtained. The stoker ash samples were mechanically separated into size fractions. The pulverized samples were too fine for mechanical sizing and were categorized qualitatively according to origin. Bulk density of the stoker fractions was measured and ranged from .488 to .944 g-cm('-3), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Bulk density of the pulverized ash ranged from 1.254 to 1.520 g-cm('-3). Specific gravity of the stoker fractions ranged from 2.017 to 2.390 g-cm('-3), also increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Specific gravity of the pulverized ash ranged from 2.357 to 2.588 g-cm(' -3). Ra-226 content of the samples was determined by gamma spectrometric analysis of the 352-KeV gamma of Pb -214 and the 609-KeV gamma of Bi-214 from sealed samples of ash. Ra-226 concentrations in the stoker fractions ranged from 11.82 to 16.77 dpm-g('-1), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Ra-226 concentrations in the pulverized ash ranged from 6.44 to 7.59 dpm-g(' -1). Scintillation cells were constructed out of commonly available materials and a commercial preparation of ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Emanation chambers which allowed for moderately large sample masses were constructed. The procedure used to measure emanation coefficients was shown to be insensitive to ingrowth time at greater than 3 days ingrowth and relatively insensitive to variations in sample porosity. Emanation coefficients of the stoker fractions were measured at moisture contents of 0, 1.0, 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight. Within each size fraction the emanation coefficient increased as a function of moisture content, ranging from 9.58 x 10('-4) to 4.13 x 10('-2) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Emanation coefficients also increased as a function of decreasing particle size

  12. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T; Krmar, Miodrag; Arsenić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of 222Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air.

  13. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependance of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, D T; Udovičić, V; Krmar, M; Arsenić, I

    2014-02-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured (222)Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of (222)Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air.

  14. Compound heterozygosity with a novel S222N GALT mutation leads to atypical galactosemia with loss of GALT activity in erythrocytes but little evidence of clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism caused by mutations in the GALT gene. Though early detection and galactose restriction prevent severe liver disease, affected individuals have persistently elevated biomarkers and often neuro-developmental symptoms. We present a teenage compound heterozygote for a known pathogenic mutation (H132Q and a novel variant of unknown significance (S222N, with nearly absent erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity but normal biomarkers and only mild anxiety despite diet non-adherence. This case is similar to a previously reported S135L mutation. In this report we investigate the novel S222N variant and critically evaluate a clinically puzzling case.

  15. Experimental Study on the Peaks Overlap Factor in the Continuous Measurement of 222 Rn/220 Rn Progeny GatheringαEnergy Spectrum%222Rn/220Rn子体连续测量仪采集α能谱的峰重叠因子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴喜军; 肖德涛; 李志强; 周青芝; 金畅; 黄成

    2015-01-01

    In order to smoothly develop the αspectroscopy -based continuous measurement instrument of 222 Rn/220 Rn progeny, the reseach of peak overlap factor ofαspectroscopy achieved by the continuous measure-ment instrument was performed.The 222 Rn chamber( national standard) , 220 Rn chamber were used as measure-ment environment of pure 222 Rn, 220 Rn progeny respectively, and the peaks overlap factors have been calculated byαenergy spectrums of 222 Rn( or 222 Rn) progeny, which was gathered from the measurement environment by the continuous measurement instrument of 222 Rn/220 Rn progeny in the radon laboratory of university of south chi-na.The results showed that:Under the non vacuum condition, the probability of 8.78 MeVαparticle emitted by 220Rn progeny ThC′(212Po) slowing down to the 7.69 MeVαparticle counts region, and the 7.69 MeV al-pha particleemittedby 222Rn progeny RrC′(214Po) slowing down to the 6.00 MeVαparticle counts region can not be ignored.But the probability of 8.78 MeVαparticle slowing down to the 6.00 MeVαparticle counts re-gion is very small;A membrane filter reuse don’ t result in peaks overlap factorsθ1 ,θ2 andθ3 significant chan-ges, and can take 0.0335, 0.1791 and zero as typical values respectively;The contribution to the instrument measurement error from membrane changing is limited, since the different membrane peaks overlap factor differ-ences within 2%.%为配合222 Rn/220 Rn子体连续测量仪的研制,开展了用222 Rn/220 Rn子体测量仪采集α能谱的峰重叠因子研究。本研究以国家标准222 Rn室与220 Rn室分别作为纯222 Rn子体与220 Rn子体测量环境,用222 Rn/220 Rn子体连续测量仪采集222 Rn子体与220 Rn子体α能谱,求得各α能峰的重叠因子。研究结果表明:非真空条件下220 Rn子体发射的8.78MeVα粒子慢化到7.69MeVα能谱峰计数区,以及222 Rn子体发射的7.69MeVα粒子慢化到6.00MeVα能谱峰计

  16. Uranium, radon-222 and polonium-210 in drinking waters from metropolitan area of Recife, PE, Brazil; Uranio, radonio-222 e polonio-210 em aguas de abastecimento publico da regiao metropolitana do Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da

    2000-04-01

    There is only scarce information on the presence of radionuclides in water for public consumption in Brazil. A recently issued federal regulation requires that waters from public supplies be screened to determine their content of alpha and beta emitters. In order to comply with this requirement the present work was carried out with the purpose of determining the concentration of natural uranium, {sup 222} Rn and {sup 210} Po in water supplies in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil. The analyses were performed in 17 points of supply of superficial water and 94 points of groundwater supply. The concentrations of uranium were determined by the fluorimetric method, whereas the liquid scintillation method was used to determine the concentration of {sup 222} Rn. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous deposition on copper disks. The water analyzer presented uranium concentrations varying from 35.3 to 1146.5 mBq/L for superficial resources and from 20.2 to 919.15 mBq/L for underground sources. The concentration of uranium in superficial water showed significant correlation with some parameters such as conductivity, alkalinity and total hardness, as well as, with the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, K, SO{sub 4} and Mn. No correlation, however, was shown with the concentrations of Fe, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}. The concentrations of {sup 222} Rn varied from 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L in the groundwater analyzer. Radon concentration was not measured in superficial water due to the high emanation rate of radon in open air conditions. As far as {sup 210} Po is concerned, the analyses showed concentrations ranging from <22 mBq/L (the lowest limit of detection) to 57.4 mBq/L for superficial water and from <22 to 813 mBq/L for ground water samples. The concentrations of {sup 210} Po did not show and correlation with physico-chemical parameters. The average concentrations of uranium and {sup 210} Po in superficial water were of 44

  17. Estimated doses related to {sup 222}Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes; Dosis estimada por concentraciones de {sup 222}Rn en bunker de radioterapia y de almacenamiento de isotopos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila, E-mail: freddymest@gmail.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de lnvestigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo, E-mail: sajobohus@gmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear; Diaz, Cruz, E-mail: cruzediaZ@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador, Barquisimeto (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto Pedagogico

    2013-07-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39 Registered-Sign ). The concentration of {sup 222}Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm{sup 2} equivalent to 0,434 Bqm{sup -3} per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10{sup -6} mSv h {sup -1} by Bqm{sup -3}, it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva{sup -1} and 150 micro risk cancer.

  18. Kinetics of the Exothermic Decomposition Reaction of N-Methyl-N-nitro-2,2,2- trinitroethanamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈三平; 胡荣祖; 宋纪蓉; 杨得琐; 高胜利; 赵宏安; 史启祯

    2003-01-01

    The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of the exothermic decomposition reaction of N-methyl-N-nitro-2,2,2-trinitroethanamine in a temperature-programmed mode have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The kinetic equation of the exothermic decomposition process of the compound is proposed. The values of the apparent activation energy (Ea), pre-exponential factor (A), entropy of activation (ΔS≠ ), enthalpy of activation (ΔH≠ ), and free energy of activation (ΔG≠ ) of this reaction and the critical temperature of thermal explosion of the compound are reported. Information is obtained on the mechanism of the initial stage of the thermal decomposition of the compound.

  19. Characterization of LR-115 Type 2 Detectors for Monitoring Indoor Radon 222: Determination of the Calibration Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pereyra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The city of Lima, capital of Peru, has about 11 million inhabitants. Lima has no records about the indoor Radon 222 concentration levels in dwellings. Hereby, we are planning to register the indoor radon concentrations in Lima and in other cities of Peru in the next three years. First, we will determine the calibration factor for the detectors which will be used in our measurements. For this purpose, Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors of nitrocellulose nitrate (LR-115 type 2 were used.The calibration process using a Radium 226 source was described to obtain the calibration factor. Linear response in tracks number was found in relation with irradiation time and its stability after time at the calibration chamber.

  20. Possibility of rapidly reporting 226Ra activity in 226Ra-222Rn samples with unknown equilibrium factor by γ spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qiong; ZHENG Rui; CHEN Yong; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the observed changes for equilibrium factors between 226Ra and 222Rn with sealing time of the samples. The samples include soil, raw coal, mineral water, cement, rock, etc. Especially the conceptions of "pre-equilibrium time" and "pre-equilibrium factor" have been put forward and methods of measuring and processing data have been given which can be used for rapidly reporting activity of 226Ra in samples with unknown equilibrium factor. It is definitely concluded that, using methods given in the paper, a test report will be completed in 3~7days, instead of one month, after receiving the sample whose activity is not lower than LLD of the spectrometer.

  1. Doses from {sup 222}Rn, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for {sup 222}Rn, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km{sup 2} within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  2. Crystal structure of bis(1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium thiosulfate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgui Awa Seck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the hydrated title salt, 2C6H13N2+·S2O32−·2H2O, contains a centrosymmetric cyclic motif of eight hydrogen-bonded molecular subunits. Two DABCOH+ cations (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane are linked to two water molecules and two thiosulfate anions via O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. Two other water molecules close the cyclic motif through O—H...O contacts to the first two water molecules and to the two thiosulfate anions. A second pair of DABCOH+ cations is N—H...O hydrogen bonded to the two anions and is pendant to the ring. Adjacent cyclic motifs are bridged into a block-like arrangement extending along [100] through O—H...O interactions involving the second pair of water molecules and neighbouring thiosulfate anions.

  3. Thermal Behavior of N,N'-Bis[N-(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)-N-nitro]ethylenediamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,San-Ping(陈三平); HU,Rong-Zu(胡荣祖); SONG,Ji-Rong(宋纪蓉); YANG,De-Suo(杨得琐); GAO,Sheng-Li(高胜利); SHI,Qi-Zhen(史启祯)

    2004-01-01

    The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of the exothermic decomposition reaction of N,N'-bis[N-(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)-N-nitro]ethylenediamine in a temperature-programmed mode have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that kinetic model function in differential form, apparent activation energy Ea and pre-exponential factor A of this reaction are 3(1-α)2/3, 203.67 kJ·mol-1 and 1020.61 s-1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion of the compound is 182.2 ℃. The values of △S≠, △H≠ and △G≠ of this reaction are 143.3 J·mol-1·K-1, 199.5 kJ·mol-1 and 135.5 kJ·mol-1, respectively.

  4. Radiological abnormalities of the skeleton in patients with sickle-cell anemia. A study of 222 cases in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dridi, M.F.; Oumaya, A.; Gastli, H.; Doggaz, C.; Bousnina, S.; Fattoum, S.; Ben Osman, R.; Gharbi, H.A.

    1987-05-01

    The way in which bones are affected in cases of sickle-cell anemia is well known. Nevertheless, advances in treatment and in methods of transfusion mean that we are increasingly seeing cases of older patients with this disease. A retrospective analysis of 222 cases of sickle-cell anemia demonstrates the radiological appearance of the skeleton in the disease and reveals the various bone segments which are particularly vulnerable at certain periods of life. Correlation of X-rays permits the discovery of lesions which are not clinically apparent. The frequency and characteristics of epiphyseal osteonecrosis and osteitis are studied. Aggravation of the bone lesions when corticoids are administered poses the problem of differential diagnosis of the disease, especially in comparison with rheumatic fever.

  5. Synthesis and agrochemical screening of a library of natural product-like bicyclo[2,2,2]octenones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen C; James, Donald R; Abelman, Matthew M; Sexton, Graham J

    2005-11-01

    A general route to a series of differentially substituted bicyclo[2,2,2]octenones has been developed, making use of the in situ intramolecular Diels Alder reaction of masked ortho-benzoquinones. This approach was used to synthesize a series of thirteen key acid-containing templates from which a solution phase discovery library of 1126 diverse amides was then constructed. The rigid polycyclic nature of the templates and the prevalence of oxygenated functionality confer natural product-like qualities and three-dimensional diversity. The library was screened in HTS in vivo against a number of weed, insect and fungal model organisms leading to the discovery of a novel series of herbicidally active compounds. The development, production and biological activity of the library are described.

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of K3[HO{VO(O2)2}2]·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红艳; 黄尊行; 郭鸿旭

    2004-01-01

    The title compound K3[HO{VO(O2)2}2]·H2O has been synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 6.7078(3), b = 9.9539(6), c = 15.8182(9)A, β = 93.702(3)0, V = 1053.96(10)A3, Mr = 414.20, Dc = 2.610 g/cm3, Z = 4, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073A, F(000) = 808, μ = 3.014 mm-1, the final R = 0.0173 and wR = 0.0466 for 2178 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). X-ray diffraction reveals that the coordination polyhedra of V atoms are not chemically equivalent: the V(1) and V(2) polyhedra can be described as pentagonal pyramid and pentagonal bipyramid, respectively.

  7. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India.

  8. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkai Dai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1 Background: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2 Methods: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01. Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3 Results: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  9. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenkai; Ji, Jun; Yan, Yiming; Lin, Wencheng; Li, Hongxin; Chen, Feng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Weiguo; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-12-11

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1) BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2) METHODS: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01). Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF) making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3) RESULTS: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  10. Compositional effects on the hydrogen storage properties of Mg(NH2)2-2LiH-xKH and the activity of KH during dehydrogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Yongfeng; Pang, Yuepeng; Gu, Yingjie; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2014-02-14

    Potassium hydride (KH) was directly added to a Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system to improve the hydrogen storage properties; the corresponding mechanisms were elucidated. The Mg(NH2)2-2LiH-0.08KH composite displays optimized hydrogen-storage properties, reversibly storing approximately 5.2 wt% hydrogen through a two-stage reaction and a dehydrogenation onset at 70 °C. The 0.08KH-added sample fully dehydrogenated at 130 °C begins to absorb hydrogen at 50 °C, and takes up approximately 5.1 wt% of hydrogen at 140 °C. Adding KH significantly enhances the de-/hydrogenation kinetic properties; however, an overly rapid hydrogenation rate enlarges the particle size and raises the dehydrogenation temperature. A cycling evaluation reveals that the KH-added Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system possesses good reversible hydrogen storage abilities, although the operational temperatures for de-/hydrogenation increase during cycling. Detailed mechanistic investigations indicate that adding KH catalytically decreases the activation energy of the first dehydrogenation step and reduces the enthalpy of desorption during the second dehydrogenation step as a reactant, significantly improving the hydrogen storage properties of Mg(NH2)2-2LiH.

  11. Rhodium-catalyzed selective[2+2+2]cyclizations of 1,6-diynes with monoynes leading to isoindolines and isobenzofurans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient and selective[2+2+2]cyclization of diynes and monoalkynes was catalyzed by rhodium under room temperature in water/THF mixed solvent,affording isoindolines and isobenzofurans in good to excellent yields.The center atoms (N,O) in the diynes showed a significant effect for the cyclization.

  12. Recurrent 70.8 Mb 4q22.2q32.3 duplication due to ovarian germinal mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Petit, François M; Lecerf, Laure; Rousseau, Ghislaine; Bas, Cécile; Laroudie, Mireille; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Tapia, Sylvie; Picone, Olivier; Prevot, Sophie; Goossens, Michel; Labrune, Philippe; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2010-08-01

    A mosaicism is defined by the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual. Chromosomal germinal mosaicism occurs in germ cells before the onset of meiosis. Previously, few studies have described germinal mosaicism. In this study, we report on two siblings who carried identical pure and direct interstitial 4q22.2q32.3 duplication. Procedure investigations included complete clinical description, conventional cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array experiments and microsatellite study searching for parental origin of the duplication. Microarray CGH and further FISH experiments with BAC clones showed the same 70.8 Mb direct duplication, dup(4)(q22.2q32.3). Molecular studies of the 4q duplication were consistent with maternal origin associated with mitotic or meiotic rearrangements. This structural chromosomal aberration was associated in both cases with increased nuchal translucency, growth retardation and dysmorphy. Cardiopathy and lung malformations were only evident in the first case. These clinical manifestations are similar to those previously reported in previous studies involving pure 4q trisomy of the same region, except for thumb and renal abnormalities that were not obvious in the presented cases. The amplified region included genes involved in neurological development (NEUROG2, MAB21L2, PCDH10/18 and GRIA2). The recurrent 4q duplication in these siblings is consistent with a maternal ovarian germinal mosaicism. This is the first description of germinal mosaicism for a large chromosomal duplication and highlights that genetic counselling for apparently de novo chromosome aberration should be undertaken with care.

  13. Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from the observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in the Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM, Yonagunijima (YON, and Ryori (RYO in the western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG, in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN events associated with the long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentrations of observed 222Rn when forced with a constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm−2 s−1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between the observation and the model. The anthropogenic emissions of CO for China, Japan, and Korea were estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr−1, 91% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

  14. Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the Western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM, Yonagunijima (YON, and Ryori (RYO over the Western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG, in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN events associated with long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentration of observed 222Rn when forced with constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm−2 s−1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between observation and model. The anthropogenic emission of CO for China, Japan, and Korea was estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr−1, 93% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

  15. Development of an inventory/archive program for the retention, management, and disposition of tank characterization samples at the 222-S laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.M.

    1998-04-29

    The Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Characterization Program is responsible for coordinating the sampling and analysis of the 177 large underground storage tanks at the Hanford site. The 222-S laboratory has been the primary laboratory for chemical analysis of this highly-radioactive material and has been accumulating these samples for many years. As part of the Fiscal Year 1998 laboratory work scope, the 222-S laboratory has performed a formal physical inventory of all tank characterization samples which are currently being stored. In addition, an updated inventory/archive program has been designed. This program defines sample storage, retention, consolidation, maintenance, and disposition activities which will ensure that the sample integrity is preserved to the greatest practical extent. In addition, the new program provides for continued availability of waste material in a form which will be useful for future bench-scale studies. Finally, when the samples have exceeded their useful lifetime, the program provides for sample disposition from,the laboratory in a controlled, safe and environmentally compliant manner. The 222-S laboratory maintains custody over samples of tank waste material which have been shipped to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The storage of these samples currently requires an entire hotcell, fully dedicated to sample archive storage, and is rapidly encroaching on additional hotcell space. As additional samples are received, they are beginning to limit the 222-S laboratory hotcell utility for other activities such as sample extrusion and subsampling. The 222-S laboratory tracks the number of sample containers and the mass of each sample through an internal database which has recently been verified and updated via a physical inventory.

  16. Value of combined detection of serum miR-21,miR-195 and miR-222 in the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhao Zhang; Ying Li; De-Xiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study level of miRNA in the serum of early breast carcinoma patients and to evaluate the clinical diagnostic value of combined detection of early breast carcinoma. Methods:A total of 54 cases of early breast carcinoma, 58 cases of benign breast diseases and 70 cases of healthy physical examination women were selected as the research subjects, to analysis serum miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 levels by fluorescence quantitative PCR method and to analyze the diagnostic value of single and combined detection in early breast cancer by receiver operating characteristic curve. Results:The relative expression levels of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-195 in early breast carcinoma patients were significantly higher than those in benign breast disease and healthy controls;there was no significant difference in the relative expression of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-195 in the benign breast disease group and healthy control group;receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that AUC of miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 in the diagnosis of early breast carcinoma were 0.805, 0.86 and 0.848 respectively, the sensitivity were 63.3%, 70.0%and 70.0%, and the specificity were 86.7%, 93.3%and 90.0%;AUC, sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection were 0.974, 93.3%and 96.7%respectively. Conclusion:miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 levels in serum of patients with early breast carcinoma rise, the combined detection of the 3 indicators have a high diagnostic value for early breast carcinoma, and contribute to early breast carcinoma screening and diagnosis.

  17. Determination of Rn{sup 222} in samples of well water and domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, Mexico; Determinacion de Rn{sup 222} en muestras de agua de pozos y domicilio de las ciudades de Chihuahua y Aldama, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav. edu. mx

    2004-07-01

    The study of the content of dissolved Rn{sup 222} is presented in underground water and of domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama of the State of Chihuahua. The existence of the Rn{sup 222} in the underground waters comes from its constant production in the rocks of the terrestrial bark. It has been determined that the radon is a noble gas of more solubility in the water, this solubility induces high concentrations in underground water, as well as bigger risk to the health in the human body once ingested or inhaled. Of the 32 wells studied in the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, the content of dissolved Rn{sup 222} in the water of 22 of them is bigger than 11 Bq/l and of 73 studied samples of water of domiciles 47 show bigger values that 11 Bq/l. These radon contents are attributable to the uraniferous rocks present in the aquifers. (Author)

  18. ~(222)Rn/~(220)Rn子体测量方法与仪器比较%Comparison of Methods and Instruments for ~(222)Rn/~(220)Rn Progeny Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳阳; 尚兵; 周青芝; 武云云

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,comparisons were made among three methods of measurement(grab measurement,continuous measurement and integrating measurement) and also measurements of different instruments for a radon/thoron mixed chamber.Taking the optimized five-segment method as a comparison criterion,for the equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222 Rn,measured results of BWLM and 24 h integrating detectors are 31% and 29% higher than the criterion,the results of Wlx, however,is 20% lower;and for 220 Rn progeny,the results of FJ414-142,KF-602D,BWLM and 24 h integrating detector are 86%,18%,28% and 36% higher than the criterion respectively,except that of WLx,which is 5% lower.For the differences shown,further research is needed.%在小型氡混合室对抓取测量、连续测量和累积测量三种方法及仪器测量结果进行了比较。与优化五段法相比,对于222Rn平衡当量浓度,BWLM连续测量仪和24 h累积探测器测量结果分别高出其31%和29%,Wlx仪偏低20%左右;对于220Rn平衡当量浓度,FJ414-142低本底闪烁探测器和KF-602D氡子体测量仪的测量结果分别偏高86%和18%,BWLM连续测量仪和24 h累积探测器测量结果分别偏高28%和36%,Wlx仪偏低5%左右。对于这几种方法和仪器测量数据之间的差异,须进一步研究。

  19. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  20. Study of Detection Efficiency of 222 Rn Samples Obtained by Active Activated Charcoal by HPGe γSpectrometry%HPGeγ谱仪对主动式活性炭法中222Rn样品的探测效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 刘春雨; 尹国辉; 李安; 申茂泉; 徐明; 邓培君; 成智威

    2014-01-01

    In active adsorption of activated charcoal ,it is uneven distribution of 222 Rn in the collector in different adsorption time ,w hich makes impact on efficiency calibration by HPGe γ spectrometry . By the adsorption experiment of active double-membrane activated charcoal in the standard radon chamber , the relationship between detection efficiencies of different energy characteristics of the γ-ray and counting relative deviation of 222 Rn from import and export side of the double-membrane activated charcoal collector by HPGeγspectrometry in different adsorption time was obtained ,which is linear .The absolute value of relative deviation of adsorption capacity for 222 Rn is less than 5%between calculated and measured ,which is to verify the correctness and reliability of the method of active double-membrane activated charcoal .%主动式活性炭吸附222 Rn的方法中,吸附时间不同,222 Rn在活性炭盒中的分布不均匀,这对 H PGeγ谱仪测量分析中效率刻度产生影响。通过在标准氡室进行的主动式双滤膜活性炭吸附实验,分析得到不同吸附时间下 HPGe γ谱仪对222 Rn子体不同能量特征γ射线的探测效率和222 Rn在双滤膜活性炭盒中进出口计数相对偏差,拟合得到两者之间的关系曲线,即不同能量特征γ射线下的探测效率与222 Rn进出口计数相对偏差呈线性关系。通过实验得到双滤膜活性炭盒对氡吸附量的拟合曲线值与测氡仪实测值相对偏差绝对值小于5%,验证了该方法的正确性和可靠性。

  1. Differences of near-ground atmospheric Rn-222 concentration between urban and rural area with reference to microclimate diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawczyńska, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    A unique 4-year dataset of hourly near-surface meteorological and atmospheric Radon-222 measurements made simultaneously at adjacent rural and urban sites in central Poland are presented and discussed. The annual, seasonal and diurnal variations of Rn-222 concentration were analysed. The magnitude of the urban heat island effect (UHI: difference in 2 m air temperature between the urban and rural regions) was found to be reasonably well correlated with traditional atmospheric stability indicators (i.e. wind speed and near-surface temperature gradient). To better quantify the influence of the UHI on the strength/depth of nocturnal mixing, the rural radon observations were used to classify the nocturnal mixing state regionally on a nightly basis, enabling a comparison between the rural and urban observations over four stability categories ranging from near-neutral to stable. Averaged over the entire dataset, near-neutral nocturnal conditions were characterised by 2 m wind speeds, U2m, of ˜1.3 m s-1 and 2-0.2 m temperature gradients, ΔT, of ˜0.5 °C in the rural region, compared to U2m = 1.15 m s-1 and ΔT = -0.24 °C in the urban region. By comparison, under regionally stable conditions U2m = 0.6 m s-1 and ΔT = 1.5-2.0 °C in the rural region and U2m = 0.8 m s-1 and ΔT = -0.25 °C in the urban region. Between near-neutral to stable conditions, the nocturnal UHI varied from ˜0.8 to 2.4 °C. The higher wind speeds under regionally stable conditions in the urban centre compared to the rural region (25 km distant) indicate that the slightly unstable conditions and UHI = 2.4 °C are sufficient to sustain a meso-scale circulation cell. The effect that the nocturnal urban heating has locally on the atmosphere's ability to dilute primary pollutants at night is indicated by the contrasting diurnal amplitude of radon concentration at each site under regionally stable conditions: ˜9 Bq m-3 in the rural region and ˜2 Bq m-3 in the urban region.

  2. Design of Real-Time Monitoring and Control sytem of 222Rn/220 Rn sampling for Radon chamber%氡室222 Rn/220 Rn采样的实时监测与控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣燕; 赵修良; 张美琴; 俞红

    2008-01-01

    提出了以Intel 51系列单片机为控制核心的.222Rn/220Rn采样监测与控制系统设计方案.硬件部分对传感器、A/D转换器件、USB芯片、键盘和数码显示芯片、光耦隔离与直流泵驱动芯片的选择和使用进行了详细介绍,并给出了电路设计简图;软件部分包括上下位机软件,分别通过Visual Basic语言和汇编语言实现数据采集转换及直流泵流量控制,并采用PID控制算法对泵流量稳定性进行改善,给出了程序流程图.

  3. The radon 222 transport in soils. The case of the storage of residues coming from uranium ores processing; La migration du radon 222 dans un sol. Application aux stockages de residus issus du traitement des minerais d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C

    2000-07-01

    Uranium Mill Tailings (UMT) contain comparatively large quantities of radium-226. This radionuclide yields, by radioactive decay, the radioactive gas radon-222. Tailing piles are routinely covered to reduce the radon release-rate into the atmosphere. In order to assess the long term environmental impact of a UMT repository, mechanisms governing radon exhalation at the soil surface must be deciphered and understood. A model of radon transport in the unsaturated zone is developed for this purpose: water- and air-flow in the porous material are determined, as well as radon transport by diffusion in the pore space and advection by the gas phase. The radon transport model in the unsaturated zone - TRACI (which stands, in French, for Radon Transport within the Unsaturated Layer) - calculates moisture contents in the soil, Darcy's velocities of the liquid and gas phases, radon concentrations in the gas phase and radon flux at the soil surface. TRACI's results are compared with observations carried out on a UMT and a cover layer. Input parameters are derived from the textural analysis of the material under study, whereas upper boundary conditions are given by meteorological data. If we consider measurement errors and uncertainties on the porous medium characterisation, model's results are generally in good agreement with observations, at least on the long run. Moreover, data analysis shows hat transient phenomena are understood as well, in most situations. (author)

  4. The clinical analysis of treatment of esophageal cancer of 222 cases with Cobalt-60 therapy unit and linear accelerator%钴-60机和加速器治疗食管癌222例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代培永; 袁胜利; 张春荣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨影响放射治疗食管癌疗效的常见因素。方法放射治疗食管癌222例,钴-60组与加速器组各111例,均采用常规分割照射。结果CR率钴-60与加速器组各为18.9%,31.5%。2a生存率钴-60与加速器组各为80.2%,90.1%。结论放射治疗食管癌应用加速器好于钴-60机,年轻患者、梗阻轻、无胸背痛及食管上段癌治疗效果较好。%Objective To analyze the factors influencing the effect of radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Methods 111 cases among cobalt-60 or Accelerator group are treated by conventional radiotherapy. Results The 2-year survival rate in two groups were 80.2%,90.1%, respectively. Conclusion Radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma with accelerator is more effective than with Cobalt-60 therapy unit .

  5. Parameters of calibration of the measurement system of {sup 222} Rn based in LR-115; Parametros de calibracion del sistema de medicion de {sup 222} Rn basado en LR-115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Lugo, F.; Pinedo, J.L. [CREN-UAZ, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Chavez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mluisagb@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    Since the SSNTD technique (Solid State Nuclear Track Detection) it was discovered it has been used as passive method for the detection of subnuclear particles in great variety of fields of the science. The use of the technique in measurements of {sup 222} Rn in air have already been established implying better methodologies in the exhibition to the environment until their engraving and reading processes. The SSNTD technique is since a method by comparison since the material it can be used a single time, therefore it requires of calibration in one controlled radon atmosphere, using gauged standards. The objective of this work is to show the calibration of the devices used as radon monitors based on SSNTD. The material used as SSNTD is LR-115 Il. The standardization of the parameters used in the exhibition to radon in air, engraving and reading process, its are based on the response of the LR-115 Il, the one arrangement of the device, engraving speed and mainly the calibration factor. They are considered two types of monitors: Open camera and Closed camera, the difference among the calibration factors of both cameras is the percentage of the descendants of radon in the open camera. The standardized parameters are operation voltage of the counting system; temperature, time and concentration of the engraving solution; and thickness. (Author)

  6. 共沉默miR-221-3p/222-3p表达抑制骨髓间充质干细胞增殖及促成软骨分化%Down-regulation of miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibits cell proliferation and promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫继红; 周德山; 杨姝; 孙海梅; 曹丹丹; 张秀英; 季凤清; 郭多; 吴波; 孙婷怡

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The use of mesenchymal stem cels in the field of tissue engineering for osteoarticular injury repair is a very promising tool since these cels are readily expandable and able to differentiate into chondrocytes. Abundant evidence suggests that microRNAs play critical roles in chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cels. OBJECTIVE:To observe the chondrogenic effect of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels transfected with lentiviral vectors bearing miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibition, thereby provding new strategies for cartilage injury. METHODS: miRNA microarray technology was applied to detect microRNAs expression profiles at three different stages of chondrogenic differentiation induction after transforming growth factor-β3 treatment and verified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels were infected with lentivirus bearing miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibition. After co-suppressing the expression of miR-221/222-3p, cel counting kit-8 was used to determine the cel proliferation, the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels towards chondrocytes was verified by type II colagen protein expression through immunohistochemistry and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was also elevated by sarranine O staining. RT-PCR was used to detect type II colagen and aggrecan mRNA expression at 21 days of chondrogenic induction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression of miR-221-3p/222-3p was inhibited after Lv-miR221-3p/222-3p inhibition co-transfected into bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels. microRNA microarray and RT-qPCR results showed that the expression of miR-221-3p/222-3p was declined significantly at the anaphase of chondrogenic differentiation. The expression levels of chondrogenic markers, Aggrecan and type II colagen were significantly increased in the miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibition group and cel proliferation was also inhibited significantly compared with non-transduced cels or transduced with the empty

  7. Radon-222 content of natural gas samples from Upper and Middle Devonian sandstone and shale reservoirs in Pennsylvania—preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of natural gas were collected as part of a study of formation water chemistry in oil and gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. Nineteen samples (plus two duplicates) were collected from 11 wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sandstones and the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. The samples were collected from valves located between the wellhead and the gas-water separator. Analyses of the radon content of the gas indicated 222Rn (radon-222) activities ranging from 1 to 79 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) with an overall median of 37 pCi/L. The radon activities of the Upper Devonian sandstone samples overlap to a large degree with the activities of the Marcellus Shale samples.

  8. Heterotactic Enthalpic Interactions of L-Arginine with 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol in Aqueous Solutions at 298.15, 303.15 and 310.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; PANG Xian-hong; YU Li

    2011-01-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of L-arginine with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous solutions at 298.15, 303.15 and 310.15 K were determined as a function of the mole fraction by flow microcalorimetric measurement. These experimental results were analyzed to obtain heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients(hXY, hXXY, hxyy) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. The hxy coefficients between L-arginine molecule studied and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol molecule in aqueous solutions at 298. 15, 303.15 and 310.15 K were found to be all negative. The results were discussed in terms of solute-solute interaction and solute-solvent interaction.

  9. 麻醉剂MS-222和低温对鲶鱼电感觉中枢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童裳亮

    1984-01-01

    MS-222(Tricaine Methanesulfonate,Sandoz)是鱼类生理学研究中最常见和最有效的麻醉剂。用0.1-0.2克/升的水溶液,可使大部分鱼处于深度麻醉状态,以完成各种手术。有些研究者在记录鱼类电感觉的实验中,把适量的MS-222加入水池中,以保持鱼的安静。但这种药物对鱼类的电感觉有什么影响是值得探讨的。

  10. Single-pass UV generation at 222.5 nm based on high-power GaN external cavity diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, N; Müller, A; Eppich, B; Güther, R; Maiwald, M; Sumpf, B; Erbert, G; Tränkle, G

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a compact system for single-pass frequency doubling of high-power GaN diode laser radiation. The deep UV laser light at 222.5 nm is generated in a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal. A high-power GaN external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system in Littrow configuration with narrowband emission at 445 nm is used as pump source. At a pump power of 680 mW, a maximum UV power of 16 μW in continuous-wave operation at 222.5 nm is achieved. This concept enables a compact diode laser-based system emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral range.

  11. Tracing the sources of gaseous components (222Rn, CO2 and its carbon isotopes) in soil air under a cool-deciduous stand in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Haraki, Yukihide; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Amano, Hikaru; Kobal, Ivan; Vaupotic, Janja

    2010-02-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide were monitored simultaneously in soil air under a cool-temperate deciduous stand on the campus of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Both (222)Rn and CO(2) concentrations in soil air varied with atmospheric (soil) temperature in three seasons, except for winter when the temperature in soil air remained constant at 2-3 degrees C at depth of 80 cm. In winter, the gaseous components were influenced by low-pressure region passing through the observation site when the ground surface was covered with snow of ~1 m thickness. Carbon isotopic analyses of CO(2) suggested that CO(2) in soil air may result from mixing of atmospheric air and soil components of different origins, i.e. CO(2) from contemporary soil organic matter and old carbon from deeper source, to varying degrees, depending on seasonal meteorological and thus biological conditions.

  12. Synthesis, structural and conformational study of new amides derived from 2-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5 syn ( anti) amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, M. S.; Fernández, M. J.; Huertas, R.; Gálvez, E.; Server, J.; Cano, F. H.; Bellanato, J.; Carmona, P.

    1997-04-01

    A series of amides derived from syn and anti 2-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-amines has been synthesized and studied by IR, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of 2-methyl-5- syn-(4-quinolinecarboxamide)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Id has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It has been found that syn amides present a preferred conformation in CDCl 3 solution, with the CH 3H bond in exo position. This is also observed for compound Id in the solid state. However, for anti amides the CH 3N bond adopts a favoured endo position. A conformational analysis using molecular modelling techniques was undertaken in order to gain additional information.

  13. Trifluoroacetic acid in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol facilitates S(N)Ar reactions of heterocycles with arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbain, Benoit; Coxon, Christopher R; Lebraud, Honorine; Elliott, Kristopher J; Matheson, Christopher J; Meschini, Elisa; Roberts, Amy R; Turner, David M; Wong, Christopher; Cano, Celine; Griffin, Roger J; Hardcastle, Ian R; Golding, Bernard T

    2014-02-17

    Small-molecule drug discovery requires reliable synthetic methods for attaching amino compounds to heterocyclic scaffolds. Trifluoroacetic acid-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFA-TFE) is as an effective combination for achieving SN Ar reactions between anilines and heterocycles (e.g., purines and pyrimidines) substituted with a leaving group (fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- or alkylsulfonyl). This method provides a variety of compounds containing a "kinase-privileged fragment" associated with potent inhibition of kinases. TFE is an advantageous solvent because of its low nucleophilicity, ease of removal and ability to solubilise polar substrates. Furthermore, TFE may assist the breakdown of the Meisenheimer-Jackson intermediate by solvating the leaving group. TFA is a necessary and effective acidic catalyst, which activates the heterocycle by N-protonation without deactivating the aniline by conversion into an anilinium species. The TFA-TFE methodology is compatible with a variety of functional groups and complements organometallic alternatives, which are often disadvantageous because of the expense of reagents, the frequent need to explore diverse sets of reaction conditions, and problems with product purification. In contrast, product isolation from TFA-TFE reactions is straightforward: evaporation of the reaction mixture, basification and chromatography affords analytically pure material. A total of 45 examples are described with seven discrete heterocyclic scaffolds and 2-, 3- and 4-substituted anilines giving product yields that are normally in the range 50-90 %. Reactions can be performed with either conventional heating or microwave irradiation, with the latter often giving improved yields.

  14. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  15. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model simulations of radon-222 and lead-210 to input meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Considine

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the radionuclides radon-222 and lead-210 using three different sets of input meteorological information: 1. Output from the Goddard Space Flight Center Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-STRAT assimilation; 2. Output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GISS II' general circulation model; and 3. Output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research MACCM3 general circulation model. We intercompare these simulations with observations to determine the variability resulting from the different meteorological data used to drive the model, and to assess the agreement of the simulations with observations at the surface and in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. The observational datasets we use are primarily climatologies developed from multiple years of observations. In the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region, climatological distributions of lead-210 were constructed from ~25 years of aircraft and balloon observations compiled into the US Environmental Measurements Laboratory RANDAB database. Taken as a whole, no simulation stands out as superior to the others. However, the simulation driven by the NCAR MACCM3 meteorological data compares better with lead-210 observations in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region. Comparisons of simulations made with and without convection show that the role played by convective transport and scavenging in the three simulations differs substantially. These differences may have implications for evaluation of the importance of very short-lived halogen-containing species on stratospheric halogen budgets.

  16. Radon 222 tracing of soil and forest canopy trace gas exchange in an open canopy boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussler, William, III; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    A set of continuous, high-resolution atmospheric radon (Rn-222) concentration time series and radon soil flux measurements were acquired during the summer of 1990 at a micrometeorological tower site 13 km northwest of Schefferville, Quebec, Canada. The tower was located in a dry upland, open-canopy lichen-spruce woodland. For the period July 23 to August 1, 1990, the mean radon soil flux was 41.1 +/- 4.8 Bq m(exp -2)/h. Radon surface flux from the two end-member forest floor cover types (lichen mat and bare soil) were 38.8 +/- 5.1 and 61.8 +/- 15.6 Bq m(exp -2)/h, respectively. Average total forest canopy resistances computed using a simple 'flux box' model for radon exchange between the forest canopy and the overlying atmosphere range from 0.47 +/- 0.24 s cm(exp -1) to 2.65 +/- 1.61 cm(exp -1) for daytime hours (0900-1700 LT) and from 3.44 +/- 0.91 s cm(exp -1) to 10.55 +/- 7.16 s cm(exp -1) for nighttime hours (2000-0600) for the period July 23 to August 6, 1990. Continuous radon profiling of canopy atmospheres is a suitable approach for determining rates of biosphere/atmosphere trace gas exchange for remote field sites where daily equipment maintenance is not possible. where daily equipment maintenance is not possible.

  17. Pharmacologic Reperfusion Therapy with Indigenous Tenecteplase in 15,222 patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction – The Indian Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, S.S.; Nair, T.; Hiremath, J.S.; Jadhav, U.; Katyal, V.K.; Kumbla, D.; Sathyamurthy, I.; Jain, R.K.; Srinivasan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and safety of single intravenous bolus administration of indigenously developed tenecteplase (TNK-tPA) in the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in clinical practice. Methods Observational, prescription-event monitoring study. Results Data of 15,222 patients who had STEMI and received weight adjusted TNK injection was analyzed. Overall 95.43% patients had clinically successful thrombolysis (CST). In the different subgroups, hypertensives, diabetics, smokers and hyperlipidemic patients had CST rates comparable to the general patient data. CST rates were significantly lower in the elderly patients (>70 years; 92.11%; p 6 h after onset of chest pain; 85.38%; p 70 years, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and history of IHD were associated with a higher incidence of heart failure, myocardial re-infarction or ventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, incidence of ICH and bleeding other than ICH was comparable amongst all patient subgroups. Conclusion This study confirms the safety and efficacy of indigenous tenecteplase in Indian patients with STEMI, including high risk subgroups. It also highlights the fact that delayed treatment denotes denial of benefits of pharmacologic reperfusion therapy. PMID:23993004

  18. Development and physical analysis of YAC contigs covering 7 Mb of Xp22.3-p22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrell, S.; Novo, F.J.; Charlton, R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    A total of YAC clones have been isolated from the region of Xp22.2-p22.3 extending from the amelogenin gene locus to DXS31. Restriction analysis of these clones in association with STS contenting and end clone analysis has facilitated the construction of 6 contigs covering a total of 7 Mb in which 20 potential CpG islands have been located. Thirty new STSs have been developed from probe and YAC end clone sequences, and these have been used in the analysis of patients suffering from different combinations of chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, X-linked ichthyosis, and Kallmann syndrome. The results suggest that (1) the gene for chondrodysplasia punctata must lie between the X chromosome pseudoautosomal boundary (PABX) and DXS1145; (2) a gene for mental retardation lies between DXS1145 and the sequence tagged site GS1; and (3) the gene for ocular albinism type 1 lies proximal to the STS G13. The CpG islands within the YAC contigs constitute valuable markers for the potential positions of genes. Genes found associated with any of these potential CpG islands would be possible candidates for the disease genes mentioned above. 47 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of {sup 222}radon occupational exposure in underground workplaces: tunnels used for mushroom cultivation in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, C.; Vecchiariello, S.; Angeloni, U. [Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity - Central Laboratory, ITALIAN RED CROSS, Rome (Italy); Trevisi, R.; Tonnarini, S. [Radon Measurement Laboratory - Department of Occupational Hygiene, ISPESL, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The mushroom cultivation in tunnels represents a working activity with interesting characteristics from a radiological protection point of view. The practice of using tunnels or caves for the cultivation of mushrooms is diffused in many countries as well as in several Italian regions. These places are characterized by micro climate conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) particularly adapted for the growth of mushrooms in every period of the year. This practice, like every working activity carried out in underground workplaces, is regulated by the Italian implementation of the European Union Basic Safety Standards (E.U. B.S.S., 1996). With the aim to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn exposure of workers in tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, a study has been undertaken. In particular, hygienic and micro climatic characteristics (depth, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, ventilation, etc.) and radiometric parameters (indoor radon concentration, radon decay products concentration, equilibrium factor F) have been investigated. In the present paper, the results of the two steps of the study are reported. In the first step, an operative protocol has been defined: the protocol was put through a series of measurements in two tuff tunnels in the area of Rome. In the second step, several tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, located in different Italian regions, have been monitored and experimental data have been used to estimate annual effective doses of workers due to radon inhalation.The experimental results have been analyzed in the context of the E.U. B.S.S.

  20. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC. The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days. This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to evaluate dissolved radon in ground water sample by gross alpha counting in LC. Radon counting system measures the collected radon after a delay of >180 min by gross alpha counting. Simultaneous measurement also carried out by AlphaGuard Aquakit in identical condition. AlphaGuard measures dissolved radon from water sample by constant aeration in a closed circuit without giving any delay. Both the methods are matching with a correlation coefficient of >0.9. This validates the calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system by designed encapsulated source. This study provides an alternative for calibration in absence of costly Radon source available in the market.

  1. Activity of radon ($^{222}$Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Charan Kumar; T Rajendra Prasad; M Venkat Ratnam; Nagaraja Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon ($^{222}$Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth’s surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5◦N and 79.2◦E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon inrelation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence ofrocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = – 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be12.01±0.66 Bq m$^{−3}$ and 4.25±0.18 Bq m$^{−3}$ for its progenies, in the study period.

  2. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  3. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon ( R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  4. Observation of {sup 222}Rn progeny-and {sup 220}Rn progeny-loaded aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C. [The Univ., of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhau, Q.F. [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    2002-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha} -particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  5. Dynamics, deterministic nature and correlations of outdoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations measured at Bacau, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuculeanu, Vasile, E-mail: cuculeanu@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Simion, Florin [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul Independentei 294, RO-060031 Bucharest (Romania); Simion, Elena [National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul Independentei 294, RO-060031 Bucharest (Romania); Geicu, Anton [National Administration of Meteorology, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-15

    The long-term variation, nature and correlations of outdoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations measured during the period 1994-2009 were investigated. The time series of data were obtained within the framework of the monitoring program performed by the Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Station (ERMS) Bacau, a component part of the National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network (NERSN), coordinated by National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA). The measuring method is based on the total beta measurements of atmospheric aerosol filters, using a low background total beta counter and ({sup 90}Sr/Y) reference standard. Analysis of the time series of progeny concentrations in the low atmosphere makes evident different patterns of variation of these concentrations: diurnal, seasonal and annual. A possible relationship of progeny concentration increase with global warming is emphasized. In order to find the dominant frequency of the physical processes determining progeny concentration variability the power spectrum has been used. The deterministic nature of the time series of concentrations has been studied making use of the autocorrelation function and stationarity of the original data and of their phase randomized time series. Also, the correlations with meteorological parameters have been investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient with corresponding level of significance. - Highlights: > Radon and thoron progeny concentrations measured on a period of 16 years. > 5 h, daily, monthly and annual patterns are pointed out. > Autocorrelation functions prove non-randomness of concentrations. > Deterministic nature of time series of concentrations is demonstrated. > Correlations with meteorological data are studied.

  6. Expression of serum microRNAs( miR-222,miR-181,miR-216 ) in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占美晓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the abnormal expression of microRNAs (miR-216,miR-222,miR-181) in the serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical significance.Methods Serum miRNAs expression was investigated in 49 patients with HCC and 25healthy normal controls by using real-time PCR technique,and then correlations between miRNAs expression

  7. Synthesis of new N-substituted cyclic imides with an expected anxiolytic activity. XVII. Derivatives of 1-ethoxybicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-5-one-2,3-dicarboximide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, J; Jarocka, M

    2001-10-01

    The preparation of a number of derivatives of 1-ethoxybicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-5-one-2,3-dicarboximide with potential anxiolytic activity has been described. The aim of our study was to obtain new analogs of tandospirone.

  8. 用氡-222评价蒲石河抽水蓄能电站的地下厂房渗漏水来源%Assessment on Underground Powerhouse Leakage Water Source of Pushihe Pumped-storage Power Station by Using Radon-222

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红永; 刘学; 万程炜; 王培杰; 戴增辉; 钱睿智

    2016-01-01

    使用同位素氡-222(222Rn)示踪技术分析蒲石河抽水蓄能电站地下厂房渗漏水来源.从2013年9月~2013年12月一共测量了取自绕坝渗流检测孔、地下水、水库库水以及地下厂房渗漏水共计199个样品.测量结果显示,地下厂房渗漏水、地下水以及水库库水中的222 Rn活度平均值分别为1 634.2、37 887.3 Bq/m3和2 343.7 Bq/m3.地下厂房渗漏水体中氡-222活度值(1 634.2 Bq/m3)与水库库水(2 343.7 Bq/m3)具有相似性,这说明水库渗流水是地下厂房渗漏水的主要补给源.

  9. Indoor {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentration measurements inside the Teotihuacan pyramids using NTD and E-PERM methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Navarrete, M. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bogard, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Xicotencatl y General Anaya s/n, 04120 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    Measurements of {sup 22}Rn (Thoron) and {sup 222}Rn (Radon) concentrations, inside the Sun and Moon pyramids of Teotihuacan's archeological zone in Mexico, are reported in this work. Two well-established methods, nuclear track detectors (NTDs), using open-close end cups with internal and external detectors of CR-39 polymer, and electret-passive environmental radon monitoring (E-PERM) were used for the measurements. This experiment had two objectives: to obtain better confidence in the {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn measurements inside the archeological tunnels, and to compare the data obtained in each one of the two methods. This experiment is specially interesting because of the very peculiar conditions where the measurements are made: high humidity, labyrinths with air currents, but almost constant temperature inside of the pyramid tunnels and galleries, notwithstanding of the temperature changes between the day and the night outside of the pyramid body. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations found in both the pyramids were lower than the action level proposed by the ICRP-65. These tunnels are not open to the public, but researchers from the Anthropology Institutions spend part of their time working there, in periods varying from 3 to 5 months.

  10. Biochemical and computational analyses of two phenotypically related GALT mutations (S222N and S135L that lead to atypical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GALT gene [1,2]. We encountered a patient heterozygous for a known pathogenic H132Q mutation and a novel S222N variant of unknown significance [3]. Reminiscent of patients with the S135L mutation, our patient had loss of GALT enzyme activity in erythrocytes but a very mild clinical phenotype [3–8]. We performed splicing experiments and computational structural analyses to investigate the role of the novel S222N variant. Alamut software data predicted loss of splicing enhancers for the S222N and S135L mutations [9,10]. A cDNA library was generated from our patient׳s RNA to investigate for splicing errors, but no change in transcript length was seen [3]. In silico structural analysis was performed to investigate enzyme stability and attempt to understand the mechanism of the atypical galactosemia phenotype. Stability results are publicly available in the GALT Protein Database 2.0 [11–14]. Animations were created to give the reader a dynamic view of the enzyme structure and mutation locations. Protein database files and python scripts are included for further investigation.

  11. EGFR Signaling Pathway and Related-miRNAs In Age-related Diseases: The Example of miR-221 and miR-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Presently, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer are the most clinically problematic age-related diseases worldwide. Although being distinct disorders, their developments share common cellular mechanisms. Oncogenesis and neurodegeneration arise from the deregulation of signaling pathways, as a consequence of the resulting imbalance in cellular homeostasis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR belongs to an important cellular signaling pathway, which regulates proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and migration. As transcriptional targets of EGFR, the microRNAs-221/222 (miR-221/222 are important expression regulators. Dysfunctions in their networks are associated with cellular disruptions. The transcriptional activation of these miRNAs seems to be involved in cell cycle, apoptosis, metastization and in the acquisition of resistance to therapies. The up-regulation of miR-221/222 is associated with increased expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and repression of cell cycle inhibitors, which are key molecules in oncogenesis and neurodegeneration processes. The interaction loop between proliferative signaling pathways and miRNA expression could reveal new targets for controlling the molecular behavior of age-related diseases.

  12. Roles of phenylalanine at position 120 and glutamic acid at position 222 in the oxidation of chiral substrates by cytochrome P450 2D6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kazufumi; Tamagake, Keietsu; Katsu, Takashi; Torigoe, Fumihiro; Saito, Keita; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Yamano, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Shigeo; Narimatsu, Shizuo

    2006-02-01

    The roles of Phe-120 and Glu-222 in the oxidation of chiral substrates bunitrolol (BTL) and bufuralol (BF) by CYP2D6 are discussed. Wild-type CYP2D6 (CYP2D6-WT) oxidized BTL to 4-hydroxybunitrolol (4-OH-BTL) with substrate enantioselectivity of (R)-(+)-BTL > (S)-(-)-BTL. The same enzyme converted BF into 1''-hydroxybufuralol with substrate enantioselectivity of (R)-BF > (S)-BF and metabolite diastereoselectivity of (1''R)-OH kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max) values) for (R)-BF 1''-hydroxylation remained unchanged. Furthermore, the substitution of Glu-222 as well as Glu-216 by alanine remarkably decreased both the apparent K(m) and V(max) values without changing substrate enantioselectivity or metabolite diastereoselectivity. A computer-assisted simulation study using energy minimization and molecular dynamics techniques indicated that the hydrophobic interaction of an aromatic moiety of the substrate with Phe-120 and the ionic interaction of a basic nitrogen atom of the substrate with Glu-222 in combination with Glu-216 play important roles in the binding of BF and BTL by CYP2D6 and the orientation of these substrates in the active-site cavity. This modeling yielded a convincing explanation for the reversal of substrate enantioselectivity in BTL 4-hydroxylation between CYP2D6-WT and CYP2D6-V374M having methionine in place of Val-374, which supports the validity of this modeling.

  13. Synthesis of new N-substituted cyclic imides with an expected anxiolytic activity. XVI. Derivatives of 1-acetoxy-7,7-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-one-2,3-dicarboximide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Jerzy; Hejchman, Elzbieta

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of a potential anxiety-relieving compounds N-[4-(4-aryl)-1-piperazinyl)butyl]-1-acetoxy-7,7-dimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-one-2,3-dicarboximides has been described. N-[4-(4-2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)butyl]-1-acetoxy-7,7-dimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-one-2,3-dicarboximide III showed a strong sedative effect in Writh's test.

  14. Evaluation of natural radionuclide occurrence (Rn-222) in a nuclear facility that processes UF{sub 6} for the UO{sub 2} powder and pellet productions; Avaliacao da ocorrencia de nuclideos naturais (Rn-222) em uma instalacao nuclear que processa UF{sub 6} para a producao de po e pastilha de UO{sub 2} that processes UF{sub 6} for the UO{sub 2} powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouco, Charles Dickens do Carmo Lacerda; Matta, Luiz Ernesto Santos Carvalho [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the early data from the concentration evaluation of Rn-222 in a nuclear facility that processes UF{sub 6} for the UO{sub 2} powder and tablet productions. Measurements were accomplished in the same points and under the same climatic conditions with the factory working and not working. The results showed that no significant alteration was detected in the obtained values in both situations. The average value was 15 and 18 Bq/m3 for operating and not operating respectively. There is no significant difference between data. The concentrations values of Rn-222 are lower than the internationally established limits for this radionuclide. The Rn-222 concentration values obtained, are probably originated from the building material, and the Rn-222 concentration levels are due to the great air exchange inside the factory. (author)

  15. {sup 220}Rn measurements and implications for earlier surveys of {sup 222}Rn; Meting van {sup 220}Rn en consequenties voor eerdere {sup 222}Rn-surveys. VERA-onderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauboer, R.O.

    2010-08-15

    The concentration of radioactive radon gas (Rn-222) encountered in newly constructed dwellings was lower than that expected from earlier surveys. An investigation into the response of the radon detectors used in these earlier surveys revealed that these were also sensitive to radioactive thoron (Rn-220), of which more appears to be present than originally assumed. This is the primary outcome of a detailed examination of the detectors that resulted from a national study on radiation exposure in Dutch dwellings constructed between 1994 and 2003. Detectors used in international radon comparison studies have only been set to test for radon, not thoron. Consequently, in practice it is not immediately evident that some detectors actually measure thoron as well, which is also reported as radon. The increasing interest shown by the Netherlands for thoron, provoked by survey results that appear to have been strongly affected by this radioactive isotope of radon, is mirrored by many other countries. The thoron found in dwellings seems to originate from a (frequently used) building material, possibly a finishing material, which has a relatively high thoron exhalation rate. It has more recently been determined that for many years a type of plaster was used in the Netherlands that contained phosphogypsum, a material known for its high radon content. However, it is possible that other materials incorporated into finishing layers also contribute to higher indoor thoron levels. A large portion of the total indoor exposure of occupants to radiation is from inhalation of radioactive decay products of radon and thoron. Radon and thoron are formed in the soil and earth-based building materials by radioactive decay and, because they are gaseous, they are able to diffuse into homes and other buildings. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the home accounts for approximately half of the average annual radiation dose received by a Dutch citizen. [Dutch] Er komt minder radioactief radongas

  16. Intensidade de ruído em hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª Regional de Saúde - PR Noise level in a 222 bed hospital in the 18th health region - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A poluição sonora ambiental torna-se hoje onipresente e beira o intolerável. Nos hospitais, os avanços tecnológicos trazem, como conseqüência, níveis de ruído potencialmente danosos. Muito do ruído no hospital provém mais de dentro, do que de fora desse ambiente, sendo as principais causas de ruído em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, por exemplo, os equipamentos e a conversação entre a equipe hospitalar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de ruído nos diversos ambientes hospitalares, em Hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª RS de Saúde - PR. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se, em março de 2005 no período de 24 horas, em dez setores. Forma de Estudo: Aferição do nível de ruído ambiental utilizando um Decibelímetro modelo 1350. RESULTADOS: O nível de ruído encontrado em nosso estudo apresentou média total de 63,7 dB(A, que excede os valores máximos permitidos de 45 dB recomendados pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987. CONCLUSÃO: Nos setores analisados, o nível de ruído encontrado neste está consideravelmente acima do recomendado. A equipe hospitalar deve estar consciente do ruído e dos efeitos deste, para que possa atuar de maneira mais efetiva na redução da poluição sonora, beneficiando assim a função laborativa dos profissionais e recuperação dos pacientes.Environment noise pollution is common place today, at intolerable levels. In hospitals, technological developments have, as a consequence, potentially harmful noise levels. Much of the hospital noise comes from inside, rather than outside, and the major source of such noise is the Intensive Care Unit, for example equipment and hospital staff talk. Our goal with the present study was to investigate the noise level present in the different hospital environments, within a 222 bed hospital located at the 18th health zone, PR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in March, 2005, during a period of 24 hours, in tem different

  17. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  18. Examining the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater inflows to a valley-to-floodplain river using 222Rn, geochemistry and river discharge: the Ovens River, southeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. L. Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Radon (222Rn and major ion geochemistry were used to define and quantify the catchment-scale river-aquifer interactions along the Ovens River in the southeast Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia, between September 2009 and October 2011. The Ovens River is characterized by the transition from a single channel river residing within a mountain valley in the upper catchment to a multi-channel meandering river on flat alluvial plains in the lower catchment. Overall, the river is dominated by gaining reaches, receiving groundwater from both alluvial and basement aquifers. The distribution of gaining and losing reaches is governed by catchment morphology and lithology. In the upper catchment, rapid groundwater recharge through sediments that have high hydraulic conductivities in a narrow valley produces higher baseflow to the river during wet (high flow periods as a result of hydraulic loading. In the lower catchment, the open and flat alluvial plains, lower rainfall and finer-gained sediments reduce the magnitude and variability of hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the river, producing lower and constant groundwater inflow. With a small difference between the water table and the river height, small changes in river height or in groundwater level can result fluctuating gaining and losing behaviour along the river. The middle catchment represents a transition in river-aquifer interactions from upper to lower catchment. High baseflow in some parts of the middle and lower catchments is caused by groundwater flow over basement highs. Mass balance calculations based on 222Rn activities indicate that groundwater inflow is 4–22% of total flow with higher baseflow occurring in high flow periods. Uncertainties in gas exchange coefficient and 222Rn activities of groundwater alter the calculated groundwater inflow to 3–35%. Ignoring hyporheic exchange appears not to have a significant impact on the total groundwater estimates. In comparison to

  19. Thermodynamic studies of aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand at 298.15 K: enthalpy-entropy compensation, partial entropies, and complexation with K+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Vasim R; Terdale, Santosh S; Ahamad, Abdul; Gupta, Gaurav R; Dagade, Dilip H; Hundiwale, Dilip G; Patil, Kesharsingh J

    2013-12-19

    The osmotic coefficient measurements for binary aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand (4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8] hexacosane) in the concentration range of ~0.009 to ~0.24 mol·kg(-1) and in ternary aqueous solutions containing a fixed concentration of 2,2,2-cryptand of ~0.1 mol·kg(-1) with varying concentration of KBr (~0.06 to ~0.16 mol·kg(-1)) have been reported at 298.15 K. The diamine gets hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions and needs proper approach to obtain meaningful thermodynamic properties. The measured osmotic coefficient values are corrected for hydrolysis and are used to determine the solvent activity and mean ionic activity coefficients of solute as a function of concentration. Strong ion-pair formation is observed, and the ion-pair dissociation constant for the species [CrptH](+)[OH(-)] is reported. The excess and mixing thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes) have been obtained using the activity data from this study and the heat data reported in the literature. Further, the data are utilized to compute the partial molal entropies of solvent and solute at finite as well as infinite dilution of 2,2,2-cryptand in water. The concentration dependent non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation effect has been observed for the studied system, and the compensation temperature along with entropic parameter are reported. Using solute activity coefficient data in ternary solutions, the transfer Gibbs free energies for transfer of the cryptand from water to aqueous KBr as well as transfer of KBr from water to aqueous cryptand were obtained and utilized to obtain the salting constant (ks) and thermodynamic equilibrium constant (log K) values for the complex (2,2,2-cryptand:K(+)) at 298.15 K. The value of log K = 5.8 ± 0.1 obtained in this work is found to be in good agreement with that reported by Lehn and Sauvage. The standard molar entropy for complexation is also estimated for the 2,2,2-cryptand

  20. Molecular modeling and residue interaction network studies on the mechanism of binding and resistance of the HCV NS5B polymerase mutants to VX-222 and ANA598.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weiwei; Jiao, Pingzu; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with essential functions in viral genome replication and represents a promising therapeutic target to develop direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Multiple nonnucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) binding sites have been identified within the polymerase. VX-222 and ANA598 are two NNIs targeting thumb II site and palm I site of HCV NS5B polymerase, respectively. These two molecules have been shown to be very effective in phase II clinical trials. However, the emergence of resistant HCV replicon variants (L419M, M423T, I482L mutants to VX-222 and M414T, M414L, G554D mutants to ANA598) has significantly decreased their efficacy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism about how these mutations influenced the drug binding mode and decreased drug efficacy, we studied the binding modes of VX-222 and ANA598 to wild-type and mutant polymerase by molecular modeling approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations results combined with binding free energy calculations indicated that the mutations significantly altered the binding free energy and the interaction for the drugs to polymerase. The further per-residue binding free energy decomposition analysis revealed that the mutations decreased the interactions with several key residues, such as L419, M423, L474, S476, I482, L497, for VX-222 and L384, N411, M414, Y415, Q446, S556, G557 for ANA598. These were the major origins for the resistance to these two drugs. In addition, by analyzing the residue interaction network (RIN) of the complexes between the drugs with wild-type and the mutant polymerase, we found that the mutation residues in the networks involved in the drug resistance possessed a relatively lower size of topology centralities. The shift of betweenness and closeness values of binding site residues in the mutant polymerase is relevant to the mechanism of drug resistance of VX-222 and ANA598. These results can provide an atomic-level understanding about

  1. cis-2,5-Diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane, a New Chiral Scaffold for Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Subrata; White, James D

    2016-09-20

    Catalysis of widely used chemical transformations in which the goal is to obtain the product as a pure enantiomer has become a major preoccupation of synthetic organic chemistry over the past three decades. A large number of chiral entities has been deployed to this end, many with considerable success, but one of the simplest and most effective catalytic systems to have emerged from this effort is that based on a chiral diamine, specifically trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. While there have been attempts to improve upon this scaffold in asymmetric synthesis, few have gained the recognition needed to take their place alongside this classic diamine. The challenge is to design a scaffold that retains the assets of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane while enhancing its intrinsic chirality and maximizing the scope of its applications. It occurred to us that cis-2,5-diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane could be such a scaffold. Synthesis of this diamine in enantiopure form was completed from benzoic acid, and the (1R,2R,4R,5R) enantiomer was used in all subsequent experiments in this laboratory. Condensation of the diamine with various salicyl aldehydes generated imine derivatives which proved to be excellent "salen" ligands for encapsulation of transition and other metals. In total, 12 salen-metal complexes were prepared from this ligand, many of which were crystalline and three of which, along with the ligand itself, yielded to X-ray crystallography. An advantage of this ligand is that it can be tuned sterically or electronically to confer specific catalytic properties on the salen-metal complex, and this feature was used in several applications of our salen-metal complexes in asymmetric synthesis. Thus, replacement of one of the tert-butyl groups in each benzenoid ring of the salen ligand by a methoxy substituent enhanced the catalytic efficiency of a cobalt(II)-salen complex used in asymmetric cyclopropanation of 1,1-disubstituted alkenes; the catalyst was employed in an improved

  2. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  3. Ultrasound guided percutaneous microwave ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Safety and imaging follow-up in 222 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Wenwen [Binzhou Medical University, #346 Guan-hai Road, Lai-shan, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Shurong, E-mail: 7762808@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Muping Area People' s Hospital, #629 Nan-hua Street, Mu-ping, Yantai, Shandong 264100 (China); Wang, Bin [Binzhou Medical University, #346 Guan-hai Road, Lai-shan, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Xu, Qingling; Yu, Shoujun; Yonglin, Zhang; Wang, Xiju [Department of Ultrasound, Muping Area People' s Hospital, #629 Nan-hua Street, Mu-ping, Yantai, Shandong 264100 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: Microwave ablation is a minimally invasive technique that has been used to treat benign and malignant tumors of liver, lung and kidney. Towards thyroid nodules, only a few cases are reported so far. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules with a large sample. Materials and methods: A total of 477 benign thyroid nodules in 222 patients underwent microwave ablation in our department from July 2009 to March 2012. Microwave ablation was carried out using microwave antenna (16G) under local anesthesia. Nodule volume, thyroid function and clinical symptoms were evaluated before treatment and at 1, 3, more than 6 months. The study was ethics committee approved and written informed consents were obtained from all patients. Results: All thyroid nodules significantly decreased in size after microwave ablation. A 6-month follow-up was achieved in 254 of 477 nodules, and the mean decrease in the volume of thyroid nodules was from 2.13 ± 4.42 ml to 0.45 ± 0.90 ml, with a mean percent decrease of 0.65 ± 0.65. A volume-reduction ratio greater than 50% was observed in 82.3% (209/254) of index nodules, and 30.7% (78/254) of index nodules disappeared 6-month after the ablation. The treatment was well tolerated and no major complications were observed except pain and transient voice changes. Conclusions: Microwave ablation seems to be a safe and effective technique for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to define the role of the procedure in the treatment of thyroid nodules.

  4. Mapping indoor radon-222 in Denmark: design and test of the statistical model used in the second nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C E; Ulbak, K; Damkjaer, A; Kirkegaard, P; Gravesen, P

    2001-05-14

    In Denmark, a new survey of indoor radon-222 has been carried out, 1-year alpha track measurements (CR-39) have been made in 3019 single-family houses. There are from 3 to 23 house measurements in each of the 275 municipalities. Within each municipality, houses have been selected randomly. One important outcome of the survey is the prediction of the fraction of houses in each municipality with an annual average radon concentration above 200 Bq m(-3). To obtain the most accurate estimate and to assess the associated uncertainties, a statistical model has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of this model, and to report results of model tests. The model is based on a transformation of the data to normality and on analytical (conditionally) unbiased estimators of the quantities of interest. Bayesian statistics are used to minimize the effect of small sample size. In each municipality, the correction is dependent on the fraction of area where sand and gravel is a dominating surface geology. The uncertainty analysis is done with a Monte-Carlo technique. It is demonstrated that the weighted sum of all municipality model estimates of fractions above 200 Bq m(-3) (3.9% with 95%-confidence interval = [3.4,4.5]) is consistent with the weighted sum of the observations for Denmark taken as a whole (4.6% with 95%-confidence interval = [3.8,5.6]). The total number of single-family houses within each municipality is used as weight. Model estimates are also found to be consistent with observations at the level of individual counties. These typically include a few hundred house measurements. These tests indicate that the model is well suited for its purpose.

  5. First row transition metal complexes of (E)-2-(2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinyl)-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Rakha, T. H.; El-Ayaan, Usama

    2011-12-01

    Manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and chromium(III) complexes of (E)-2-(2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal (TG and DTA) analyses, IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectra as well as magnetic moment. Mononuclear complexes are obtained with 1:1 molar ratio except [Mn(HOS) 2(H 2O) 2] and [Co(OS) 2](H 2O) 2 complexes which are obtained with 1:2 molar ratios. The IR spectra of ligand and metal complexes reveal various modes of chelation. The ligand behaves as a monobasic bidentate one and coordination occurs via the enolic oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The ligand behaves also as a monobasic tridentate one and coordination occurs through the carbonyl oxygen atom, azomethine nitrogen atom and the hydroxyl oxygen. Moreover, the ligand behaves as a dibasic tridentate and coordination occurs via the enolic oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and the hydroxyl oxygen atoms. The electronic spectra and magnetic moment measurements reveal that all complexes possess octahedral geometry except the copper complexes possesses a square planar geometry. From the modeling studies, the bond length, bond angle, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moment had been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligands and their investigated complexes. The thermal studies showed the type of water molecules involved in metal complexes as well as the thermal decomposition of some metal complexes. The protonation constant of the ligand and the stability constant of metal complexes were determined pH-metrically in 50% (v/v) dioxane-water mixture at 298 K and found to be consistent with Irving-Williams order. Moreover, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these compounds against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherechia coli and Candida albicans were determined.

  6. Partial trisomy 2q due to a maternal balanced translocation t(2;22) (q31;p12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, L.S.; Bleiman, M.; Punnett, H.H. [St. Christopher`s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Features consistent among reported patients with 2q duplications due to familial translocations or de novo duplications include pre- and postnatal growth failure, ocular defects such as congenital glaucoma, cardiac defects, micrognathia, urogenital defects, renal defects, connective tissue laxity, neurologic defects, and dermatologic abnormalities. Genotype/phenotype correlations of patients with trisomy 2q due to familial translocations are complicated by the presence of the deletions of the other chromosome involved. We have had the opportunity to observe `pure` trisomy 2q31-qter resulting from adjacent-1 segregation from 46,XX,t(2;22)(q31;p12) in a carrier mother with apparent loss of the 22 NOR region. He was the 2453 gm product of a gestation complicated by gestational diabetes to a 29-year-old G1 P0 mother and a 30-year-old father. At birth, he was noted to have hypotonia, micrognathia, microphthalmia, left cryptorchidism, hypospadias, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth digits, mild hyperextensibility of the joints, dry skin disorder, and bilateral hydronephrosis by ultrasound. He was treated for hypoglycemia in the nursery and had a vesicostomy at two months for vesicoureteral reflux. A hearing test at two months found moderate hearing loss in the right ear and mild to moderate hearing loss in the left ear. At 3 months he had surgery for a PDA and bilateral glaucoma and was treated for periods of hypothermia and type IV renal tubular acidosis. This patient and others with unbalanced translocations involving the NOR region of an acrocentric chromosome allow for genotype/phenotype correlation of the `pure` trisomic region.

  7. Effect of transport time and MS-222 concentration on cortisol, lactate levels of juvenile topmouth culter and the water quality indexes in O2-aerated bags%运输时间和 MS-222浓度对翘嘴鲌皮质醇、乳酸及氧气袋内水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠波; 胡培培; 刘汝鹏; 胡伟华; 樊启学

    2016-01-01

    釆用 MS-222浓度为0(C0组)、5 mg/L(C1组)、10 mg/L(C2组)、15 mg/L(C3组)、20 mg/L(C4组),运输时间为0、2、4、6、8、10 h,运输密度为33 g/L,采用5×6双因素实验,氧气袋运输翘嘴鲌(Culter albur-nus)稚鱼,研究了运输时间和 MS-222浓度对翘嘴鲌全鱼皮质醇、乳酸含量及氧气袋内水质的影响。结果显示:翘嘴鲌全鱼皮质醇、乳酸水平随运输时间呈现先升高后降低的趋势,随麻醉剂浓度的增加而显著降低; C1-C4组的 DO、 pH 随运输时间呈现先降低后升高的趋势, C0组则随运输时间的增加显著降低,各组的 DO 和 pH 随 MS-222浓度的增加而显著增加; C1-C4组的氨氮(TAN)和游离 CO2浓度随运输时间呈现先升高后降低的趋势,而C0组则随运输时间的增加显著升高,各组的 TAN 和游离 CO2浓度随 MS-222浓度的增加而显著降低。时间和浓度的交互作用都显著。运输时间 T <6 h 时, MS-222刺激翘嘴鲌,不利于运输,运输时间 T >6 h 时, MS-222能显著降低其应激水平及代谢强度,其中 C4组皮质醇、乳酸含量最低, C3、 C4组水质条件最好,其适宜的麻醉剂浓度为15~20 mg/L。%This study which used 5 ×6 factorial design was to determine the effect of transport time (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 h) and MS-222 concentration (0 (C0), 5 mg/L (C1), 10 mg/L (C2), 15 mg/L (C3), 20 mg/L (C4)) on whole body cortisol, lactate levels of juvenile topmouth culter (Culter alburnus) and the water quality indexes in the O 2-aerated bags used for transporting the fish.At the end of the experiment , the whole body cortisol and lactate levels of juvenile top -mouth culter increased during the first 2 hours, then it decreased with the increasing of the transport time , while the two levels significantly decreased with the increasing of MS -222 concentration.Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH values in group C1

  8. Mean annual {sup 222}Rn concentration in homes located in different geological regions of Poland - first approach to whole country area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A., E-mail: Tadeusz.Przylibski@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Institute of Mining, Division of Geology and Mineral Waters, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Zebrowski, Adam [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Karpinska, Maria; Kapala, Jacek [Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Biophysics, ul. Mickiewicza 2A, 15-089 Bialystok (Poland); Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Grzadziel, Dominik [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, ul. W. E. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Mamont-Ciesla, Kalina; Stawarz, Olga [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, ul. Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland); Kozlowska, Beata; Klos, Barbara; Dorda, Jerzy [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Wysocka, Malgorzata [Central Mining Institute, Department of Technical Acoustics, Laser Technique and Radiometry, Laboratory of Radiometry, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Olszewski, Jerzy [The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Radiation Protection Department, ul. Sw. Teresy 8, 91-348 Lodz (Poland); Dohojda, Marek [Building Research Institute, Department of Structures and Building Elements, ul. Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    The paper presents the results of year-long measurements of radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration inside 129 buildings in Poland in relation to the geological conditions of their foundation. The authors took into account the division of the country into tectonic units, as well as the lithology of the rocks forming the bedrock of these buildings. As expected, the highest value of mean annual {sup 222}Rn concentration (845 Bq/m{sup 3}) was recorded in a building situated in the area of the Sudetes, while the highest geometric mean (characteristic of the expected log-normal data distribution) was calculated based on measurements from buildings located within the East-European craton, in the area of Mazury-Podlasie monocline, where it reached 231 Bq/m{sup 3}. Such results reflect geological conditions - the occurrence of crystalline rocks (especially U- and Ra-enriched granites and orthogneisses) on the surface in the Sudetes, and of young post-glacial sediments containing fragments of Scandinavian crystalline rocks, also enriched with U and Ra, in the area of Mazury-Podlasie monocline. However, the least expected result of the investigations was finding out that, contrary to the hitherto widespread belief, none of the major tectonic units of Poland can be excluded from the list of those containing buildings with mean annual {sup 222}Rn concentration exceeding 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean annual concentration of radon for all the buildings were much higher than the mean concentration value (49.1 Bq/m{sup 3}) of indoor radon in Poland quoted so far. These results cast a completely new light on the necessity to perform measurements of radon concentration in residential buildings in Poland, no more with reference to small areas with outcrops of crystalline rocks (especially the Sudetes, being the Polish fragment of the European Variscan belt), but for all the major tectonic units within Poland. - Highlights: > {sup 222}Rn concentration in 129 buildings in Poland is presented

  9. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  10. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  11. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Po concentrations and {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Jose-Maria, E-mail: jmabril@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Ctra Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael, E-mail: gtenorio@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Manjon, Guillermo, E-mail: manjon@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its {sup 226}Ra content and to the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km{sup 2} from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged {sup 226}Ra concentrations for the stack were 730 {+-} 60 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1}. {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with {sup 226}Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  12. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Manjón, Guillermo

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its (226)Ra content and to the (222)Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of (222)Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km(2) from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged (226)Ra concentrations for the stack were 730+/-60 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). (222)Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m(-2)h(-1), but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with (226)Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  13. Activity concentrations of Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 and Cs-137 in water samples of Styria/Austria; Aktivitaetskonzentrationen von Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 und Cs-137 in Wasserproben aus der Steiermark/Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, E. [Verein zur Foerderung der Strahlenforschung Oesterreich, Graz (Austria). Strahlenmesstechnik Graz; Rauch, P. [Land Steiermark (Austria). Abt. 15 - Energie, Wohnbau, Technik

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radon (Rn-222), radium (Ra-226, Ra-228), uranium (U-238), and radiocesium (Cs-137), were determined in 50 water samples from different geogenic regions of Styria/Austria. Samples were collected in the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, by experts of the Styrian government. For measuring activities of U-238 we used a low energy-semiconductor detector, and a high purity-semiconductor detector to analyze the activities of all the other radionuclides. More than 90% of the activity concentrations of Rn-222 in all water samples were lower than 50 Bq/l. All activity concentrations observed for radium and uranium were lower than the detection limits of the corresponding radionuclides (Ra-226: 0,02 Bq/l, Ra-228: 0,03 Bq/l, U-238: 0,06 Bq/l). None of the water samples were contaminated by Cs-137.

  14. Radon-222 in groundwater and effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet Ayobami; Oyeleke, Oyebode Akanni

    2017-03-20

    Radon concentration in groundwater collected from the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibadan, Nigeria, was analyzed. Annual effective doses due to ingestion and inhalation of radon from the consumption of the water were determined. The arithmetic means (AMs) of radon concentration for the 11 LGAs varied from 2.18 to 76.75 Bq l(-1) with a standard deviation of 1.57 and 70.64 Bq l(-1), respectively. The geometric means (GMs) varied from 1.67 to 49.47 Bq l(-1) with geometric standard deviation of 2.22 and 3.04, respectively. About 58% of the 84 water samples examined had a higher concentration of radon than the 11.1 Bq l(-1) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); the AMs of six LGAs and GMs of three LGAs were higher than the recommended value. However the AMs and GMs of all the LGAs with about 93% of the water sampled were lower than the 100 Bq l(-1) recommended by the World Health Organization and EURATOM drinking water directive. The concentration of radon varied with the geological formation of the area. The AMs of the annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water ranged from 0.036 to 1.261 mSv y(-1), 0.071 to 2.521 mSv y(-1) and 0.042 to 1.471 mSv y(-1) for adult, child and infant, respectively and the GMs in the range of 0.026 to 0.813, 0.055 to 1.625 and 0.032 to 0.948 mSv y(-1), respectively. The AMs of 10 LGAs and GMs of 7 LGAs were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y(-1) from the consumption of water for the duration of one year for all the three categories of people. The AMs and GMs of the annual effective dose due to inhalation of radon in drinking water ranged from 0.533 to 18.82 μSv y(-1) and 0.411 to 12.13 μSv y(-1), respectively, contributing less to the overall dose.

  15. 222Radon Concentration Measurements biased to Cerro Prieto Fault for Verify its Continuity to the Northwest of the Mexicali Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro-Mancilla, O.; Lopez, D. L.; Reyes-Lopez, J. A.; Carreón-Diazconti, C.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.

    2009-05-01

    The need to know the exact location in the field of the fault traces in Mexicali has been an important affair due that the topography in this valley is almost flat and fault traces are hidden by plow zone, for this reason, the southern and northern ends of the San Jacinto and Cerro Prieto fault zones, respectively, are not well defined beneath the thick sequence of late Holocene Lake Cahuilla deposits. The purpose of this study was to verify if Cerro Prieto fault is the continuation to the southeast of the San Jacinto Fault proposed by Hogan in 2002 who based his analysis on pre-agriculture geomorphy, relocation and analysis of regional microseismicity, and trench exposures from a paleoseismic site in Laguna Xochimilco, Mexicali. In this study, four radon (222Rn) profiles were carried out in the Mexicali Valley, first, to the SW-NE of Cerro Prieto Volcano, second, to the W-E along the highway Libramiento San Luis Río Colorado-Tecate, third, to the W-E of Laguna Xochimilco and fourth, to the W-E of the Colonia Progreso. The Radon results allow us to identify in the Cerro Prieto profile four regions where the values exceed 100 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), these regions can be associated to fault traces, one of them associated to the Cerro Prieto Fault (200 pCi/L) and other related with Michoacán de Ocampo Fault (450 pCi/L). The profile Libramiento San Luis Río Colorado-Tecate, show three regions above 100 pCi/L, two of them related to the same faults. In spite of the results of the Laguna Xochimilco, site used by Hogan (2002), the profile permit us observe three regions above the 100 pCi/L, but we can associate only one of the regions above this level to the Michoacán de Ocampo Fault, but none region to the Cerro Prieto Fault. Finally in spite of the Colonia Progreso is the shortest profile with only five stations, it shows one region with a value of 270 pCi/L that we can correlate with the Cerro Prieto Fault. The results of this study allow us to think in the

  16. Sub-picosecond Graphene-based Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Repetition Rates up to 2.22 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramski K.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive harmonic-mode locking (PHML of erbium-doped fiber laser with multilayer graphene is presented. The laser could operate at several harmonics (from 2nd to 21st of the fundamental repetition frequency of the ring resonator (106 MHz. The highest achieved repetition rate was 2.22 GHz (which corresponds to the 21st harmonic with 900 fs pulse duration and 50 dB of the supermode noise suppression. The saturable absorber was formed by multilayer graphene, mechanically exfoliated from pure graphite block through Scotch-tape and deposited on the fiber ferrule.

  17. [Comparative analysis of two diffusion methods for radon Rn-222 estimation in atmospheric air by means of gamma ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, B; Pachocki, K; Peńsko, J; Majle, T; Rózycki, Z

    1995-01-01

    The comparative measurements of radon Rn-222 concentration in indoor air of some buildings and in radon labour chamber have been conducted using two different diffusions methods. The results of parallel measurements using radon charcoal detectors and gamma-rays spectrometry with liquid alpha scintillation counting (Pico-Rad) have been presented. It was concluded that both methods offer the similar measurements possibilities of radon concentrations in the air from about 30 Bq/m3 to about 600 Bq/m3 with the real average divergence between both methods of about +/- 11%.

  18. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  19. Measurement of activity concentration of {sup 222}Rn in ground waters drawn from two wells drilled in the Amparo Complex metamorphic rocks, municipio de Amparo, SP; Medida da atividade do {sup 222}Rn em aguas subterraneas extraidas de dois pocos perfurados em rochas metamorficas do Complexo Amparo, municipio de Amparo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Igor Jose Chaves de

    2008-07-01

    A sampling system was assembled for field {sup 222}Rn activity concentration measurements in ground waters. The system consists of a sampling flask that prevents the contact between the water sample and the atmosphere and a closed line for radon extraction from water. The system, its operation and calibration, are described in full detail, as well as, the conversion of the measured alpha counting rates in activity concentrations. The assembled system was used in {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations measurements in ground waters drawn from two wells drilled in the Amparo Complex metamorphic rocks. The wells are located at the urban area of the city of Amparo and are exploited for public use water. One well, named Vale Verde, is 56 meters deep and crosses 18 meters of soil, 26 meters of quartz rich gneiss and 12 meters of biotite-gneiss. The other well, named Seabra, is 117 meters deep, crosses 28 meters of soil and weathered rocks and ends in granite-gneiss. The mean activity concentrations for the year long observation were (377 +- 25) Bq/dm{sup 3}, for Seabra well, and (1282 +- 57) Bq/dm3, for the Vale Verde well. The {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations fall in the activity concentration range reported in the literature for similar geology areas and are larger than the concentrations found neighboring areas of the same metamorphic Complex. The seasonal activity concentration variations seem to correlate with rain fall variations in the study area. (author)

  20. Study of seasonal variation of {sup 222}Rn concentrations to estimate SGD in seawater samples in embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Estudo da variacao sazonal das concentracoes de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar nas enseadas de Ubatuba, para a estimativa da descarga de aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joselene de; Lopes, Patricia da Costa [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br; Braga, Elisabete de Santis; Chiozzini, Vitor Gonzalez [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico]. E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    We describe here an application of excess {sup 222}Rn to estimate SGD in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S and longitudes between 45 deg 02'W e 45 deg 11'W. Excess {sup 222}Rn inventories obtained in 11 vertical profiles varied from 3,300 {+-} 1,100 to 18,700 {+-} 4,900 dpm/m2. The estimated total fluxes required to support inventories measured varied from 597 {+-} 199 to 3,385 {+-} 887 dpm/m{sup 2} d. Considering these results, the SGD advective rates necessary to balance the sub-pycnocline fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.6x10{sup -1} to 1.9 cm/d. During the period of this investigation (from March/03 to May/2004), the highest {sup 222}Rn in excess inventories were observed late in the summer season (March). Taking into account all vertical profiles established, the percentual variability was 67%. Although, if we consider only the fluxes determined in both Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, the percentual variation was 21%.(author)

  1. Seasonal variation of {sup 222}Rn in seawater samples from Ubatuba embayments, SP, Brazil, for the assessment of submarine groundwater discharge; Estudo da variacao sazonal das concentracoes de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar nas enseadas de Ubatuba, para a estimativa da descarga de aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Patricia da Costa

    2005-07-01

    We describe here an application of excess {sup 222}Rn to estimate SGD in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S and longitudes between 45 deg 02'W e 45 deg 11'W. Excess {sup 222}Rn inventories obtained in 24 vertical profiles established from March/03 to July/05 varied from 345 {+-}{+-}24 to 18,700 {+-} 4,900 dpm/m{sup 2}. The highest inventories of excess {sup 222}Rn were observed both in Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, during summer campaigns (rainy season). The estimated total fluxes required to support inventories measured varied from 62 {+-} 4 to 3,385 +- 880 dpm/m{sup 2} d. Considering these results, the SGD advective rates necessary to balance the fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.1 x 10{sup -1} to 1.9 cm/d. Taking into account all SGD fluxes obtained, the percentual variability was 89% (seasonal variation in 3 years period, n = 24 measurements). Although, if we consider each year of study separately, the respective percentual variabilities estimated are 72% in 2003 (n = 10 measurements), 127% in 2004 (n = 6 measurements) and 97% in 2005 (n = 8 measurements). (author)

  2. Groundwater discharge to wetlands driven by storm and flood events: Quantification using continuous Radon-222 and electrical conductivity measurements and dynamic mass-balance modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Frei, S.; Hofmann, H.; Cartwright, I.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic response of groundwater discharge to external influences such as rainfall is an often neglected part of water and solute balances in wetlands. Here we develop a new field platform for long-term continuous 222Rn and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at Sale Wetland, Australia to study the response of groundwater discharge to storm and flood events. The field measurements, combined with dynamic mass-balance modelling, demonstrate that the groundwater flux can increase from 3 to ∼20 mm d-1 following storms and up to 5 mm d-1 on the receding limb of floods. The groundwater pulses are likely produced by activation of local groundwater flow paths by water ponding on the surrounding flood plains. While 222Rn is a sensitive tracer for quantifying transient groundwater discharge, the mass-balance used to estimate fluxes is sensitive to parameterisation of gas exchange (k) with the atmosphere. Comparison of six equations for calculating k showed that, based on parameterisation of k alone, the groundwater flux estimate could vary by 58%. This work shows that neglecting transient processes will lead to errors in water and solute flux estimates based on infrequent point measurements. This could be particularly important for surface waters connected to contaminated or saline groundwater systems.

  3. Heparin-induced platelet aggregation (H-IPA): dose/response relationship for two low molecular weight (LMW) heparin preparations (CY 216 and CY 222)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, L.D.; Fareed, J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that heparin and a LMW heparin derivative (PK 10169) causes platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner that can be inhibited by antagonists of the thromboxane pathway. Using fractions of these agents separated on the basis of molecular weight (MW) by gel permeation chromatography, the authors showed that H-IPA was directly dependent upon the MW of the agents tested. In order to further examine this MW dependence, the authors tested two other LMW heparin preparations, CY 216 and CY 222 and subfractions of these agents separated on the basis of MW. Citrate anticoagulated whole blood was drawn from drug-free normal healthy donors whose platelets aggregated when heparin was added to their platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was prepared, various concentrations of the agents or their subfractions were added and aggregation was monitored for 40 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. The results demonstrate that like heparin and PK 10169, CY 216 and CY 222 caused platelet aggregation in a dose and MW dependent manner. Fractions with MW less than 2500 daltons caused aggregation only at concentrations exceeding the therapeutic range of the agents. The authors conclude that the ability to cause H-IPA is an inherent property of heparin and its fractions.

  4. Contribution of plated-out 218Po and 214Po to measurements of airborne 222Rn and daughters with plastic (CR-39) nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Bernd; Wang, Zuoyuan; Sensistaffar, Edwin

    1984-01-01

    The fraction of alpha-particle tracks due to radioactivity plated out on its surface was measured for CR-39 nuclear track detector foils used to determine working level values in air. Bare foils were exposed to known concentrations of airborne 222Rn and its short-lived daughters in a calibration chamber. The amounts of 218Po and 214Po on the foil surface were measured with a calibrated diffused junction detector-spectrometer system immediately after the foils were removed from the chamber. Deposition was mostly by 218Po, with some 214Pb but essentially no 214Bi. The track density due to the plated-out radionuclides and the 222Rn, 218Po, and 214Po in chamber air was calculated and compared to the value measured by electrochemical etching. The calculated values generally were slightly above the measured values. On the basis of these calculations, the deposited radioactivity contributed slightly less than one-half of the total tracks in one test and slightly more than two-thirds in another. This effect complicates calibration of the detector relative to airborne radon daughters.

  5. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan;

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2...... mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively......, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream...

  6. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    The Lomagundi (2.22-2.1 Ga) positive carbon isotope excursion in shallow-marine sedimentary carbonates has been associated with the rise in atmospheric oxygen, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that the carbon isotope excursion was preceded by the rise in atmospheric oxygen. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon, which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected. We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2.22 and 2.06 Ga along the margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in an open-marine deltaic setting and experienced lower greenschist facies metamorphism. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8.3 to 11.2‰ vs. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents range from 0.01 to 0.6% and δ13C values range from - 24.8 to - 13.9‰. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average 30.3 ± 2.8‰ ( n = 32) in the shallow-marine environment. The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents (0.14 to 21.94%) and δ13C values (- 33.7 to - 20.8‰) with an average of - 27.0 ± 3.0‰ ( n = 50). Considering that the shales were also deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, and taking δ13C values of the overlying carbonates as representative of the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon during shale deposition, a carbon

  7. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rosaline, E-mail: rosaline@barc.gov.i [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-11-15

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for {sup 220}Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 +- 0.64 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1} and 22.30 +- 0.18 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}, respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for {sup 222}Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 +- 0.14 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1} and 2.08 +- 0.07 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}, respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  8. Continuous and discrete on-site detection of radon-222 in ground- and surface waters by means of an extraction module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schlueter, Michael; Melles, Martin; Schubert, Michael

    2008-12-01

    A robust and straightforward method for on-site determination of radon-222 activity concentrations in water is presented. The methodical approach is based on the principle of liquid-gas-membrane extraction. An extraction module, which consists of hollow polypropylene fibres, allows radon stripping from the water of interest into a connected closed air-loop. The resulting radon-in-air activity concentration, which can easily be reconverted into the original radon-in-water activity concentration is measured by means of a standard mobile radon-in-air monitor. The experimental set-up allows radon detection in discrete water samples as well as continuous water pump streams. The technique, covering a wide activity concentration range, is in particular advantageous for measurements of radon-in-water in the field or on research cruises.

  9. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential.

  10. A global numerical study of radon-222 and lead-210 in the atmosphere using the AES and York University CDT General Circulation Model (AYCG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, Stephen R.; Degrandpre, Jean; Mcconnell, John C.; Laprise, Rene; Mcfarlane, Norman

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Climate Center (CCC) GCM has been modified to allow its use for studies in atmospheric chemistry. The initial experiments reported here have been run to test and allow sensitivity studies of the new transport module. The impact of different types of parameterization for the convective mixing have been studied based on the large scale evolution of Rn-222 and Pb-210. Preliminary results have shown that the use of a scheme, which mixes unstable columns over a very short time scale, produces a global distribution of lead that agrees in some aspects with observations. The local impact of different mixing schemes on a short lived tracer like the radon is very important.

  11. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and ocular albinism co-occurring in a sibship with a maternally-inherited 97 kb Xp22.2 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsen, David; Davis-Keppen, Laura; Crotwell, Patricia; Flanagan, Jason; Munson, Patrick; Stein, Quinn

    2014-05-01

    Congenital Nasal Pyriform Aperture Stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare congenital malformation caused by overgrowth of the maxillary bone. We report on two patients, brothers born 3 and 1½ years apart, both presented at birth with radiographically diagnosed CNPAS. Both siblings also were born with ocular albinism, which is known to have X-linked inheritance. Subsequent genetic testing demonstrated a 97 kb deletion in the p arm of the X chromosome in both siblings and their mother. This deletion encompasses a gene known to cause ocular albinism (GPR143), as well as partial deletion of two other genes, TBL1X and SHROOM2. This is the first reported case of CNPAS in siblings, both males, sharing a maternally inherited Xp22.2 deletion.

  12. Structural phase transitions and dielectric transitions in a 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco) based organic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang-Bin; Hu, Pan; Shi, Chao; Zhang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (dabco) based organic crystal [(Hdabco)(H2O)](PF6) (1) was synthesized and characterized. Its structure is featured by wavy-like one-dimensional supramolecular hydrogen bond chains built from the [(Hdabco)(H2O)] units from end to end. Compound 1 undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 226/268 K and 178/181 K, respectively. The disorder-order transition of water molecule in the hydrogen bond chain induces the phase transition at 226 K while the twisting of the [Hdabco]+ cation and displacements of the PF6- anion and H2O molecules trigger the phase transition at 178 K. Dielectric transitions are thus triggered in the crystal.

  13. Continuous and discrete on-site detection of radon-222 in ground- and surface waters by means of an extraction module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.schmidt@ufz.de; Schlueter, Michael [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Department of Marine Geochemistry, Bremerhaven (Germany); Melles, Martin [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Schubert, Michael [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    A robust and straightforward method for on-site determination of radon-222 activity concentrations in water is presented. The methodical approach is based on the principle of liquid-gas-membrane extraction. An extraction module, which consists of hollow polypropylene fibres, allows radon stripping from the water of interest into a connected closed air-loop. The resulting radon-in-air activity concentration, which can easily be reconverted into the original radon-in-water activity concentration is measured by means of a standard mobile radon-in-air monitor. The experimental set-up allows radon detection in discrete water samples as well as continuous water pump streams. The technique, covering a wide activity concentration range, is in particular advantageous for measurements of radon-in-water in the field or on research cruises.

  14. Ionic liquids as unique solvents in one-pot synthesis of 4-(n,2,2,2-tetranitroethylamino)-3-R-furazans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremetev, Aleksei B; Aleksandrova, Nataly S; Palysaeva, Nadezhda V; Struchkova, Marina I; Tartakovsky, Vladimir A; Suponitsky, Kyrill Yu

    2013-09-01

    An efficient two-step one-pot protocol for the synthesis of N-nitrated trinitroethylamino furazans in an ionic liquid has been developed involving the condensation of aminofurazans with trinitroethanol and the N-nitration of an intermediate Mannich base. Trinitroethylnitramino derivatives have been synthesized and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. A role of the N,2,2,2-tetranitroethylamino group for stabilization of the high-density crystal-packing motif is described. The performance calculations gave detonation pressures and velocities for the furazan derivatives in a range of about 31-36 GPa and 8330-8745 ms(-1), respectively, which makes them competitive energetic materials. Furthermore, due to the positive oxygen balance, the compounds could be potential oxidizers for energetic formulations.

  15. Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries using lithium-rich layered oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Julie; Castets, Aurore; Timperman, Laure; Santos-Peña, Jesùs; Dumont, Erwan; Levasseur, Stéphane; Tessier, Cécile; Dedryvère, Rémi; Anouti, Mérièm

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report positive effect of Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) as additive during initial activation and cycling of Li-rich-NMC xLi2MnO3-(1 - x)LiMO2 (x >> 1; M = Ni, Co, Mn) cathode in EC/DMC + 1 M LiPF6 electrolyte. Firstly conductivity and viscosity of electrolyte with x wt.% TTFP; 0 wt.% NMC full cell is maintained after 50 cycles at C rate. Finally, XPS analysis of Li-rich -NMC electrodes show presence of TTFP on the surface during cycling and confirm the presence of Mn3+ at the end of discharge. The convergence of all characterizations indicates that TTFP should act as a catalyst to several surface reactions which are beneficial to long cycling cell performances.

  16. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of {sup 222}Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C., E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.a [AIMS-JCU, Townsville (Australia); Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB NO 3, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); Cook, Peter G., E-mail: peter.g.cook@csiro.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Burnett, William C., E-mail: wburnett@mailer.fsu.ed [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The radon isotope {sup 222}Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  17. Propuesta para la clasificación de los espacios interiores cerrados por su concentración de Rn-222 y las posibles dosis involucradas

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Marco; León, Kety; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    El radón ocasiona más del 50 % de la dosis total del fondo natural de radiación por año. Está ampliamente demostrada su capacidad para inducir cáncer de pulmón en las personas que están expuestas por largos períodos de tiempo a este gas radiactivo. El Rn-222 se produce continuamente a partir de suelos, materiales de construcción y minerales del entorno estando presente de manera ubicua en el ambiente que nos rodea. En nuestro país es necesaria una mejor regulación o reglamentación de la conce...

  18. An investigation into the hepatic cytochrome P-450 catalysed metabolism of the anaesthetic fluroxene (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J A; Ivanetich, K M; Bradshaw, J J; Harrison, G G; Webber, B L; Kaminsky, L S

    1975-01-01

    The role of the different cytochromes P-450 in the metabolism of the anaesthetic agent fluroxene, and the mechanism of production of toxic effects seen after pre-treatment of the animals with pehnobarbital prior to anaesthesia, have been investigated. Male rats were anaesthetized with fluroxene, or with 2,2,2-trifluroethyl ethyl ether, or with ethyl vinyl ether in an attempt to ascertain the in vivo toxic effects of the three anaesthetic agents. The resultant hepatic histology is reported. A study of the binding and metabolism of fluroxene by isolated rat hepatic microsomes was also made. We conclude that it is elevated levels of cytochrome P-450 which potentiate the toxicity of fluroxene anaesthesia in phenobarbital treated animals and that cytochrome P-448 does not bind or metabolize fluroxene. The potential toxicity of the fluroxene molecule is considered to reside in the trifluoroethyl moiety, while the vinyl group of fluroxene appears to play a role in the observed liver damage.

  19. Evaluation of di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) sulfite as a film-forming additive on the MCMB anode of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangzhen; Wang, Wenguo; Huang, Tao; Fang, Guihuang; Pan, Ying; Wu, Maoxiang

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates a sulfur-based compound, di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) sulfite (DTFES), as a new solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) forming additive on mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). When placed in the electrolyte, it can dramatically enhance the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The capacity loss was significantly decreased from 17.4% to 6.3% after 100 charge-discharge cycles due to the addition of DTFES. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) versus voltage (V) analysis showed that DTFES was decomposed in advance versus to electrolyte solvents. The effects of DTFES were characterized by charge-discharge testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that the SEI film formed on MCMB by DTFES plays an important role in LIBs performance. Their subsequent reaction pathways are proposed in the paper.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of FDG, ClDG and Kryptofix 2.2.2 in [{sup 18}F]FDG preparation by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Ryuji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: nakaor@nirs.go.jp; Ito, Takehito [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sumitomo Accelerator Service, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masatoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    A practical, sensitive and rapid analytical method was established and validated for chemical impurity tests of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), 2-deoxy-2-chloro-D-glucose (ClDG) and Kryptofix 2.2.2 (K-222) in [{sup 18}F]FDG. This method was based on precolumn derivatization with ultraviolet (UV) detection. FDG and ClDG were rapidly derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone in the presence of borate buffer at 40{sup o}C, and the labeled derivatives and K-222 were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and monitored by UV absorbance at 210 nm. After optimization of the conditions, FDG, ClDG and K-222 could be determined within 15 min and showed good performance in terms of sensitivity, linearity and reproducibility. This method could be successfully applied to the quality control test of [{sup 18}F]FDG produced by a commercially available apparatus.

  1. 连续测量法同时测定空气中222Rn子体与220Rn子体浓度%Simultaneous and consecutive measurements of radon decay products and thoron decay products in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王津; MEISENBERG Oliver; 刘娟; TSCHIERSCH Jochen; 陈永亨; CHALUPNIK Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    222 Rn子体浓度可通过测定母体222Rn浓度,根据平衡因子进行大致估算.由于220 Rn及其子体之间并不存在相对稳定的平衡因子,因此,若要准确获得220 Rn子体浓度,需借助仪器通过累积、连续测量进行测定.文章应用我国不常见的工作水平监测仪(working level monitor),同时实现空气中222 Rn子体与220Rn子体的累积连续测量,从而计算得到两者浓度.通过借助液体闪烁仪的参照比较,验证了此法同时测量空气中222Rn子体与220Rn子体的准确性与可靠性.

  2. Simultaneous Measurement of Radon and Thoron Using a Scintillation Cell%一种同时测量222 Rn、220 Rn的单闪烁室两段法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青芝; 肖德涛; 赵桂芝; 肖拥军; 单健

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了一种同时测量混合222 Rn、220 Rn空气的单闪烁室方法,该方法利用一个闪烁室测量采样结束后两个不同时间段的计数,再联立一个二元方程组来求解222 Rn、220 Rn浓度,因此也叫单闪烁室两段法,该方法无需任何延时即可快速准确测定混合环境下222 Rn、220 Rn浓度。%A method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron( 220 Rn) in a mixed environment using a scintillation cell in this paper. The method uses counts from two arbitrary counting intervals from zero time with respect to sampling,establishes two equations with two unknown variables to solve concentrations of radon and thoron,hence,called two-count method( TCM) . The method can be used to esti-mate the radon and thoron concentrations in a mixed environment accurately and quickly, as there is no need to delay the counting to achieve complete decay of thoron.

  3. Complex three-way translocation involving MLL, ELL, RREB1, and CMAHP genes in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia and t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuborgh, A; Meyer, C; Marschalek, R;

    2013-01-01

    until progression to acute myeloid leukemia, AML-M5. The leukemic cells harbored a novel apparent 3-way translocation t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3). We utilized advanced molecular cytogenetic methods including 24-color karyotyping, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and DNA...

  4. Baruch Spinoza, Compendio di grammatica della lingua ebraica (a cura e con introduzione di Pina Totaro, traduzione e note di Massimo Gargiulo, Firenze, Olschki Editore, 2013, 204 pp. ISBN 978-88-222-6212-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ferrari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Baruch Spinoza, Compendio di grammatica della lingua ebraica(a cura e con introduzione di Pina Totaro, traduzione e note di Massimo Gargiulo, Firenze, Olschki Editore, 2013, 204 pp. ISBN 978-88-222-6212-7

  5. Baruch Spinoza, Compendio di grammatica della lingua ebraica (a cura e con introduzione di Pina Totaro, traduzione e note di Massimo Gargiulo, Firenze, Olschki Editore, 2013, 204 pp. ISBN 978-88-222-6212-7)

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ferrari

    2014-01-01

    Baruch Spinoza, Compendio di grammatica della lingua ebraica(a cura e con introduzione di Pina Totaro, traduzione e note di Massimo Gargiulo, Firenze, Olschki Editore, 2013, 204 pp. ISBN 978-88-222-6212-7)

  6. Synthesis of new N-substituted cyclic imides with an expected anxiolytic activity. XXII. Derivatives of 1-methoxy-5-bicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-5-one-2,3-dicarboximide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Jerzy; Jarocka-Wierzba, Monika

    2003-01-01

    Continuing our studies with the design of new anxiolytics we have now synthesized a series of new compounds, derivatives of 1-methoxybicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-5-one-2,3-dicarboximide bearing a 4-aryl-1-piperazinylbutyl group attached to the imide nitrogen.

  7. Synthesis and anxiolytic activity of N-substituted cyclic imides N-[4-[(4-aryl)-1-piperazinyl]alkyl]-5,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2, 3-dicarboximide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowski, T; Kossakowski, J; Rump, S; Jakowicz, I; Płaźnik, A

    1995-01-01

    The preparation of N-substituted cyclic imides N-[4-[(4-aryl)-1-piperazinyl]alkyl]-5,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane- 2, 3-dicarboximides by condensation of N-(3-chloropropyl)- or N-(4-chlorobutyl)imides with appropriate amine has been described. One of compounds was tested in the Vogel's test and displayed an expected activity on CNS.

  8. Comparative analysis of two diffusion methods for radon Rn-222 estimation in atmospheric air by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy and liquid scintillation counting; Analiza porownawcza dwoch metod dyfuzyjnych pomiaru radonu Rn-222 w powietrzu z wykorzystaniem spektrometru promieni gamma i metody cieklej scyntylacji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorzkowski, B.; Pachocki, K.; Pensko, J.; Majle, T.; Rozycki, Z. [Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The comparative measurements of radon Rn-222 concentration in indoor air some buildings and in radon labour chamber have been conducted using two diffusions methods. The results of parallel measurements using radon charcoal detectors and gamma-ray spectroscopy with liquid alpha scintillation counting (Pico-Rad) have been presented. It was concluded that both methods offer the similar measurements possibilities of radon concentrations in the air from about 30 Bq/m{sup 3} to about 600 Bq/m{sup 3} with the real average divergence between both methods of about {+-}11%. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

  9. MS-222、丁香油、苯唑卡因对养殖美洲鲥幼鱼的麻醉效果%Anaesthetic effects of MS -222, clove oil and benzocaine on cultured American shad Alosa sapidissima finglings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜浩; 危起伟; 杨德国; 刘鉴毅; 甘芳; 陈细华; 沈丽

    2007-01-01

    研究了MS-222、丁香油、苯唑卡因3种麻醉剂对美洲鲥Alosa sapidissima幼鱼的麻醉效果,并运用该3种麻醉剂的适宜剂量对美洲鲥幼鱼进行了运输试验.麻醉试验结果表明:在较高麻醉浓度(MS-222为75 mg/L以上,丁香油为20 mg/L以上,苯唑卡因为40 mg/L以上)下,鱼很快(30 min内)停止鳃盖张合运动,且停止鳃盖运动的鱼在空气中暴露一定时间(10 min内)后也能够复苏;在适宜的麻醉浓度(MS-222为20~30 mg/L,丁香油为8~10 mg/L;苯唑卡因为20~30 mg/L)下,鱼能够进入麻醉状态,且能保持很长时间(12 h);麻醉效果随着水温的升高而增强;在20 mg/L MS-222麻醉剂下,小规格鱼较大规格鱼更容易进入麻醉状态,而在10 mg/L丁香油和20 mg/L苯唑卡因麻醉剂下,小规格鱼却难进入麻醉状态.运输试验结果表明:麻醉运输组和对照组(非麻醉运输组)鱼血清中皮质醇的含量均显著高于基础组(运输前)(P<0.05);麻醉运输后鱼血清中皮质醇的含量虽均有一定程度的升高,但明显低于对照组,其中仅苯唑卡因麻醉运输组鱼血清中皮质醇的含量显著低于对照组(P<0.05).试验结果表明,苯唑卡因更适合用于运输美洲鲥的麻醉.

  10. 渔用麻醉剂MS-222、丁香酚在鲜活水产品运输中的应用及检测方法研究进展%Progress of the research and application of fish anesthetics MS-222 and eugenolon in fresh seafoods transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明明; 孙兴权; 杨春光; 彭心婷; 刘慧颖; 曹际娟

    2015-01-01

    Seafoods are loved by the people deeply because they are delicious and nutritious.The taste and nutritional value of seafoods is affected directly by their freshness, so the preservation and transportation of seafoods is put on a very high demand. People have tried many ways to keep the transporting seafoods alive, such as by oxygenation, anesthesia, dryice, etc. Oxygenation and dryice methods cost high, and are not suitable for long-distance transportation because they can only keep alive for a short time. Eugenol and MS-222 are widely used in many countries because their low toxicity and long time preservation. This paper reviewed the application and detection methods of MS-222 and eugenol in aquatic transportation, and discussed the problems and prospects for fishing anesthetics, in order to provide some information for the fishing anesthetic management.%海产品味道鲜美,营养丰富,深受人们喜爱。海产品的新鲜程度直接影响着它的口感和价值,所以对海产品的保鲜及运输过程提出了很高的要求。现已有多种方法运输鲜活海产品,如充氧保活,麻醉保活,冰温无水保活等。充氧保活、冰温无水保活的方法成本较高,保活时间较短,不适合长途运输;而丁香酚和间氨基苯甲酸乙酯甲烷磺酸盐(MS-222)的低毒及其保鲜时间长等特性,被多个国家广泛使用。本文综述了渔用麻醉剂MS-222、丁香酚在水产品运输中的应用及检测方法,探讨了渔用麻醉剂存在的问题和发展前景,希望能为我国渔用麻醉剂的管理提供基础信息。

  11. Adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells is modulated by microRNA-155, microRNA-221, and microRNA-222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skårn, Magne; Namløs, Heidi M; Noordhuis, Paul; Wang, Meng-Yu; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Myklebost, Ola

    2012-04-10

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are capable of limited self-renewal and multilineage differentiation in vitro. Several studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), post-transcriptional modifiers of mRNA stability and protein translation, play crucial roles in the regulation of these complex processes. To gain knowledge regarding the role of miRNAs in human adipocyte differentiation, we examined the miRNA expression profile of the immortalized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line hMSC-Tert20. Such a model system has the advantage of a reproducible and consistent phenotype while maintaining important properties of the primary donor cells, including the potential to differentiate to adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. We identified 12 miRNAs that were differentially expressed during adipogenesis, of which several have been previously shown to play important roles in adipocyte biology. Among these, the expression of miRNA-155, miRNA-221, and miRNA-222 decreased during the adipogenic program of both immortalized and primary hMSCs, suggesting that they act as negative regulators of differentiation. Interestingly, ectopic expression of the miRNAs significantly inhibited adipogenesis and repressed induction of the master regulators PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that miRNA-155, miRNA-221, and miRNA-222 have an important function in human adipocyte differentiation, and that their downregulation is necessary to relieve the repression of genes crucial for this process.

  12. Determination of natural radioactivity, 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates and radiation hazards of fly ash and fly ash brick used in Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural radioactivity levels, 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates and radiation hazards of fly ash and fly ash brick used in Baotou, China were determined. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in fly ash samples ranged from 38.81 to 93.73, 40.34 to 135.17, and 66.92 to 290.86 Bq/kg with an average of 76.52, 109.95, and 170.72 Bq/kg, respectively; while in fly ash brick samples, these radionuclides ranged from 42.43 to 71.60, 76.65 to 208.37, and 94.32 to 489.42 Bq/kg with an average of 53.83, 101.93, and 266.48 Bq/kg, respectively. The exhalation rates of 222Rn and 220Rn in all determined samples were in the range of 1.13-20.50 and 15.60-113.00 mBq/m2s, respectively. The calculated results of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor annual effective dose and outdoor annual effective dose indicated that fly ashes and fly ash bricks collected from some brick factories of Baotou would pose excessive radiation risks to inhabitants and that they are not suitable for use in building construction. The natural radioactivity level of fly ash and fly ash brick needs to be constantly monitored considering the radiation safety of the local residents.

  13. Liquid mixtures involving hydrogenated and fluorinated chains: (p, ρ, T, x) surface of (ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol), experimental and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Pedro; Silva, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Djêide; Morgado, Pedro; Martins, Luís F G; Filipe, Eduardo J M

    2013-08-22

    The effect of mixing hydrogenated and fluorinated molecules that simultaneously interact through strong hydrogen bonding was investigated: (ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol) binary mixtures were studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. This mixture displays a very complex behavior when compared with mixtures of hydrogenated alcohols and mixtures of alkanes and perfluoroalkanes. The excess volumes are large and positive (unlike those of mixtures of hydrogenated alchools), while the excess enthalpies are large and negative (contrasting with those of mixtures of alkanes and perfluoroalkanes). In this work, the liquid density of the mixtures was measured as a function of composition, at several temperatures from 278.15 to 353.15 K and from atmospheric pressure up to 70 MPa. The corresponding excess molar volumes, compressibilities, and expansivities were calculated over the whole (p, ρ, T, x) surface. In order to obtain molecular level insight, the behavior of the mixture was also studied by molecular dynamics simulation, using the OPLS-AA force field. The combined analysis of the experimental and simulation results indicates that the peculiar phase behavior of this system stems from a balance between the weak dispersion forces between the hydrogenated and fluorinated groups and a preferential hydrogen bond between ethanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. Additionally, it was observed that a 25% reduction of the F-H dispersive interaction in the simulations brings agreement between the experimental and simulated excess enthalpy but produces no effect in the excess volumes. This reveals that the main reason causing the volume increase in these systems is not entirely related to the weak dispersive interactions, as it is usually assumed, and should thus be connected to the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential.

  14. Recurrent 70.8 Mb 4q22.2q32.3 duplication due to ovarian germinal mosaicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Petit, François M; Lecerf, Laure; Rousseau, Ghislaine; Bas, Cécile; Laroudie, Mireille; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Tapia, Sylvie; Picone, Olivier; Prevot, Sophie; Goossens, Michel; Labrune, Philippe; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    A mosaicism is defined by the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual. Chromosomal germinal mosaicism occurs in germ cells before the onset of meiosis. Previously, few studies have described germinal mosaicism. In this study, we report on two siblings who carried identical pure and direct interstitial 4q22.2q32.3 duplication. Procedure investigations included complete clinical description, conventional cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array experiments and microsatellite study searching for parental origin of the duplication. Microarray CGH and further FISH experiments with BAC clones showed the same 70.8 Mb direct duplication, dup(4)(q22.2q32.3). Molecular studies of the 4q duplication were consistent with maternal origin associated with mitotic or meiotic rearrangements. This structural chromosomal aberration was associated in both cases with increased nuchal translucency, growth retardation and dysmorphy. Cardiopathy and lung malformations were only evident in the first case. These clinical manifestations are similar to those previously reported in previous studies involving pure 4q trisomy of the same region, except for thumb and renal abnormalities that were not obvious in the presented cases. The amplified region included genes involved in neurological development (NEUROG2, MAB21L2, PCDH10/18 and GRIA2). The recurrent 4q duplication in these siblings is consistent with a maternal ovarian germinal mosaicism. This is the first description of germinal mosaicism for a large chromosomal duplication and highlights that genetic counselling for apparently de novo chromosome aberration should be undertaken with care. PMID:20424646

  15. Identifying candidate genes for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) in the critical region X(p22.1-p22.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, L.A.; Freedner, N.L.; Maizoub, J.A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) is the most common inherited form of rickets, characterized by a proximal renal tubular phosphate leak leading to phosphate-wasting and abnormal 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism. The primary defect is unknown, and the candidate gene approach has thus far been unsuccessful in identifying the gene. The HYP locus has been mapped to X(p22.1-p22.2) and more recently to a 500,000 base pair region spanned by two YACs, E01138 and A0472. In an effort to identify the HYP gene in the 500 kb region, we are taking the direct selection approach. Since the tissue expressing the HYP gene is unknown, we are using cDNA libraries from a number of tissues for direct selection, including kidney, liver, thyroid, brain, spinal cord, total fetus, bone, and an osteosarcoma cell line. The tissue cDNA is hybridized to the YACs A0472 and EO1138 (obtained courtesy of Fiona Francis, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London) in the presence of quenchers, which block repeated and ribosomal sequences on the YACs. A selected library is created from the tissues cDNAs that hybridize to the YACs. The selected cDNA library is first screened to eliminate inserts containing repeated and ribosomal sequences. The presence of the inserts on the YAC and on X(p22.1-p22.2) is then verified using mapping panels. Candidate cDNAs that make it through this analysis are sequenced. Our first attempts at making selected libraries resulted in a number of contaminants. Three separate libraries are currently under construction, using the following combinations of tissue cDNA libraries: (1) kidney, liver, and thyroid; (2) brain, spinal cord, and total fetus; and (3) bone and an osteosarcoma cell line. We will discuss transcripts obtained from these libraries.

  16. miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernest K Amankwah; Evelyn Anegbe; Hyun Park; Julio Pow-Sang; Ardeshir Hakam; Jong Y Park

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in both obesity and prostate cancer recurrence,but the association between the expression of these miRNAs and obesity in prostate cancer recurrence is unknown.In this study,we examined the effect of the interaction between obesity and miR-21,miR-221 or miR-222 expression on prostate cancer recurrence among 28 recurrent and 37 non-recurrent prostate cancer cases,miRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age at diagnosis,clinical stage and Gleason score were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for recurrence free survival.A significantly (P=0.014) higher proportion of recurrent cases (78.6%) than non-recurrent cases (48.6%) had a low expression of miR-21 and the difference was more prominent in obese than non-obese patients.Multivariate analysis showed that the expression of miR-21 was an independent risk factor for recurrence in obese (HR=6.15,95% CI=1.04-36.48,P=0.045),but not in non-obese (HR=1.28,95% CI=0.30-5.49,P=0.74) cases.A significant association with recurrence was not observed for the expression of miR-221 and miR-222.In summary,our findings show that miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and suggest that the differential expression of miR-21 is more prominent in obese than in non-obese cases.Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  17. 间氨基苯甲酸乙酯甲磺酸盐对泥鳅的麻醉效果%Anesthetic Effects of 3-Aminobenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光明; 毕建花; 张家宏; 寇祥明; 朱凌宇; 徐荣; 王桂良; 王守红

    2015-01-01

    根据泥鳅(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)对20~140 mg/L 麻醉剂间氨基苯甲酸乙酯甲磺酸盐(MS-222)在最终麻醉状态和复苏过程中的行为特征,分别把麻醉程度和复苏过程分为6和4个时期,研究140~340 mg/L的麻醉剂 MS-222在12℃和22℃条件下对泥鳅的麻醉效果,比较180 mg/L 的 MS-222对不同规格(5.1、11.6、28.1 g)泥鳅的麻醉效果差异。结果表明:当 MS-222溶液浓度为80 mg/L 时,泥鳅达到麻醉3期,可以作为泥鳅长途运输的参考剂量;泥鳅呼吸频率受麻醉程度的影响,在麻醉3期之前无显著变化,但是4期之后出现显著下降(P declined clearly until stage 4 under the concentration range of 20 - 140 mg/L. The induction time of the loach under the condition of temperature 12 ℃,in the MS-222 solution with mass concentration of 140- 340 mg/L, were longer than those under the condition of temperature 22 ℃, and the change of recovery time was same to induction time. The effective anesthetic concentrations of MS-222 on loach at 12 and 22 ℃ are 180, 220 mg/L, respectively. Small loach individuals have short anesthesia time and long recovery time (P < 0.05). It is suggested that MS-222 has preferable anesthetic effect to the loach, and at the anesthesia operation, we need to consider factors such as water temperature, fish size in order to use reasonable anesthesia concentration for the loach.

  18. Investigation on radon concentration and dose estimation at some areas in Zhejiang Province%浙江部分地区室内222Rn和220Rn水平及剂量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志强; 王子友; 尚兵; 王春红; 崔宏星; 武云云; 赵尧贤; 吴寿明; 俞顺飞; 郑双来

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the concentrations of indoor radon (222Rn) and its daughter products as well as indoor thoron (220Rn) in selected houses in Yuhang district and Sanmen county,Zhejiang province,and estimate their annual effective doses to the population.Methods Solid state nuclear track detectors were used in selected dwellings in Yuhang district and Sanmen county,and the detectors were placed in bedrooms or living rooms.Without changing the ventilation habits of residents,These detectors were continuously placed from March to September in 2009.Results Indoor 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations in low-rise buildings were the highest among all types of houses.The indoor concentration of 222 Rn had no relation with the building age (F = 0.53,P > 0.05),but that of 220 Rn was dependent on the building age (F = 3.56,P < 0.05).Moreover,the investigation demonstrated indoor 220 Rn concentrations in houses with no decoration were higher than in the houses decorated (t = 2.33,P <0.05).The average indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in Yuhang district were 32.5 Bq/m3 and 314.3 Bq/m3,respectively,and the annual effective doses were 0.88 mSy and 0.42 mSv respectively.The average indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in Sanmen county were 26.8 Bq/m3 and 399.5 Bq/m3,and the annual effective doses were 0.72 mSy and 0.53 mSv respectively.Conclusion The concentrations of indoor 222 Rn in some areas of Zhejiang province are at natural background level,and the concentrations of indoor 220Rn in rural areas are relatively higher.The total annual effective dose from 220Rn and its progeny was larger than that from 222Rn and its progeny by 50 percents.%目的 调查浙江省余杭区和三门县居室内222Rn、220Rn及其子体水平,明确其所致公众有效剂量.方法 采用固体径迹探测器测量余杭区和三门县两地居室中222Rn和220Rn浓度,探测器均放置于卧室或客厅,在不改变居民日常通风习惯情况下连续暴露6个月.结果

  19. Fault Analysis and Prevention of BLK222 Spring Mechanism in LTB245E1 Circuit Breaker%LTB245E1型断路器BLK222型弹簧机构的故障分析和预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兵

    2013-01-01

    LTB245E1型断路器是目前应用于电力企业的主流开关设备,为北京ABB公司生产的220kV SF6断路器,该型断路器配BLK222型弹簧操动机构.通过对该型断路器弹簧机构故障原因的分析,找出此类型机构存在的诸多问题,并就如何加强SF6断路器的检修维护管理提出了一些措施和建议,以预防电气故障的发生.%LTB245E1 circuit breaker is a widely used switch equipment in electric power enterprise currently. It's the 220 kv SF6 circuit breaker produced by Beijing ABB company. This type of circuit breaker is equipped with BLK222 spring operating mechanism. Based on the fault analysis of spring mechanism, we found out many problems in it and then put forward some measures and suggestions to strengthen the maintenance management of SF6 circuit breaker, which is supposed to prevent the occurrence of electrical fault.

  20. Seasonal variation in concentration of radon and thoron at non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山~(222)Rn、~(220)Rn浓度季节变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 尚兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究非铀矿山中~(222)Rn、~(220)Rn浓度的季节变化规律.方法 选取云南、山东、新疆、黑龙江、湖南和贵州6个省份的铜、金、铝、锰、锑、钨、铜镍和煤矿共8类9个矿山,采用LD-P型~(222)Rn.~(220)Rn分辨探测器对井下不同季节~(222)Rn和~(220)Rn浓度进行了测量.结果 井下~(222)Rn浓度存在明显的季节变化,夏季~(222)Rn浓度为35.5~4841 Bq/m~3,其中4个矿~(222)Pm浓度均值超过1000 Bq/m~3.冬季~(222)Rn浓度均值为5~1917 Bq/m~3,只有1个矿超过1000 Bq/m~3.夏季与冬季的比值在2-12之间.各矿间~(222)Rn浓度差异很大,通风是影响其变化的重要因素.~(220)Rn浓度的季节变化略呈夏高冬低的趋势,由于受到布放位置的影响,其规律性有待进一步确认.结论 井下~(222)Rn、~(220)Hn浓度随季节而变化,在估算矿工受照剂量时应考虑季节变化的影响;在矿山氡测量中应避免采用瞬时测量方法;采用累积测量方法时,也应考虑季节变化的影响,合理的暴露时间应为半年,同时要注意季节的选择;对于季度性(3个月)的测量结果应该进行季节修正.%Objective To study the seasonal variation in concentrations of radon and thoron in non-uranium mine. Methods Eight kinds of mineral types from 9 non-uranium mines were selected, including copper, gold, aluminium, manganese, antimonium, tungsten,copper-nickel and coal mines in 6 provinces, such as Yunnan, Shandong, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hunan and Guizhou. LD-P R-T discriminative detectors were used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in underground mines during four seasons in one year. Results Radon concentrations in underground mines showed a significantly seasonal variation. Radon concentration ranged from 35.5 to 4841 Bq/m~3 in summer, and the average value in four mines exceeded 1000 Bq/m~3 of the control limit for workplace (GB 18871-2002) . In winter, radon concentration ranged from 5 to 1917 Bq/m~3 , only one of