WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 221

  1. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than AmIII (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  3. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-08-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1- ligands (3.2+/-1.1) than AmIII (0.8+/-0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour.

  4. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development.

  5. Relativistic small-core pseudopotentials for actinium, thorium, and protactinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Anna; Cao, Xiaoyan; Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael

    2014-04-03

    Small-core pseudopotentials for actinium, thorium, and protactinium have been energy-adjusted to multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock reference data based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian and the Fermi nucleus model. Corresponding optimized valence basis sets of polarized valence quadruple-ζ quality are presented. Atomic test calculations for the first four ionization potentials show satisfactory results at both the Hartree-Fock and the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional level. Highly correlated Fock-space coupled cluster calculations demonstrate that the new pseudopotentials yield ionization potentials, which are in excellent agreement with corresponding all-electron results and experimental data. The pseudopotentials and basis sets supplement a similar set previously published for uranium.

  6. On the ^{221}Rn \\to ^{221}Fr Decay Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, K Ya; Norseev, Yu V; Samatov, Zh K; Sergienko, V A; Fominykh, V I; Chumin, V G

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigating the ^{221}Rn beta^{-}-decay and the ^{225}Ac alpha-decay are compared. It is shown that ^{221}Fr levels at 145.9 and 393.2 keV are excited at the ^{221}Rn decay. Intensities and reduced probabilities of the beta^{-}-decay to the ^{221}Fr levels are determined. A conclusion is drawn that the parity of the ^{221}Rn ground state is positive.

  7. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  8. Cyclotron production of cesium radionuclides as analogues for francium-221 biodistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, R.; McDevitt, M.; Sheh, Y.; Lom, C.; Qiao, J.; Cai, S.; Burnazi, E.; Nacca, A.; Pillarsetty, N.; Jaggi, J.; Scheinberg, D.

    2005-12-01

    In our clinical investigations focussing on improved therapeutic treatment of specific tumors we have concentrated on a targeted therapy approach utilizing designed radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies as the cytotoxic reagent. The physical characteristics of the alpha particle emitting radionuclide bismuth-213 including the short half-life of 45.6 min, has shown promise for the treatment of specific cancers such as leukemias and lymphomas or micrometastatic carcinomas. In an effort to increase the cytocidal effect of the HuM195, a humanized monoclonal antibody carrier to the CD33 antigen expressed on leukemia cells, our focus is directed toward an "internal" nano-generator composed of Ac-225 radionuclide, the parent of the bismuth-213. The actinium-225 radionuclide decays through several short-lived, alpha emitting daughters including francium-221, astatine-217 and bismuth-213. In order to study the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics of the individual daughter nuclide, francium-221, the cyclotron production and separation of cesium radionuclides, specifically cesium-132, from a natural xenon gas target was undertaken. The choice of cesium as an analogue for francium was predicated upon both elements being in Group 1A alkali metals and cesium radionuclide possesses a sufficient half-life to allow biodistribution studies to be performed. The preliminary experimental results of this investigation are presented.

  9. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  10. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall...

  11. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  12. 22 CFR 221.41 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 221.41 Section 221.41 Foreign... Administration § 221.41 Arbitration. Any controversy or claim between A.I.D. and any noteholder arising out of this Guarantee shall be settled by arbitration to be held in Washington, DC in accordance with the...

  13. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall...

  14. 49 CFR 192.221 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.221 Section 192.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.221 Scope. (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 51.221 - Reciprocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocal compensation. 51.221 Section 51.221... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.221 Reciprocal compensation. The rules governing reciprocal compensation are set forth in subpart H of this part....

  16. 14 CFR 221.4 - English language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false English language. 221.4 Section 221.4... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.4 English language. All tariffs and other documents and material filed with the Department pursuant to this part shall be in the English language....

  17. 33 CFR 136.221 - Proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.221 Section 136.221 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.221 Proof. In addition to...

  18. 39 CFR 221.5 - Headquarters organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headquarters organization. 221.5 Section 221.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.5 Headquarters organization. (a) Postmaster General—(1) Appointment. The postmaster general (PMG), the...

  19. 39 CFR 221.6 - Field organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Field organization. 221.6 Section 221.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.6 Field organization. (a) General. There are 8 areas, each with a vice president. (b) Area locations. Area...

  20. 36 CFR 2.21 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 2.21 Section 2.21... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.21 Smoking. (a) The superintendent may designate a portion of a park area, or all or a portion of a building, structure or facility as closed to smoking when...

  1. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty....

  2. 14 CFR 23.221 - Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spinning. 23.221 Section 23.221 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Spinning § 23.221 Spinning. (a...-turn spin or a three-second spin, whichever takes longer, in not more than one additional turn...

  3. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  4. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi).

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC221 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16381-1 SLC221Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC221Z 707 - - - - Show SLC221 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC221 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC2-A/SLC221Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC22...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC221 (SLC221Q) /CSM/SL/SLC2-A/SLC221Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...mmmtiimvmmtmimigtmimigvmi gimigtmkmviigmmmtskmqmmngtikplif*kkiiiiliqiif*kkkkkkkkkkkk Frame C: ---l*m*nqt*wlqmlc

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHF221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF221 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF221P (Link to Original site) VHF...221F 533 VHF221Z 417 VHF221P 930 - - Show VHF221 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-A/VHF221Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...221P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF221 (VHF221Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-A/VHF2...lated Amino Acid sequence LSSAKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHF

  7. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  8. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  9. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength. S1. Scope. This standard establishes requirements for the strength of the body panel joints in...

  10. 14 CFR 221.50 - Currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... States and foreign currencies permitted. Fares and charges applying between points in the United States... foreign countries, may also be stated in the currencies of foreign countries in addition to being stated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Currency. 221.50 Section 221.50...

  11. 22 CFR 221.42 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... English language, shall refer to the Israel Loan Guarantee Number inscribed on the Eligible Note and shall... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice. 221.42 Section 221.42 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  12. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  13. 40 CFR 436.221 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.221 Section 436.221 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bentonite Subcategory §...

  14. 42 CFR 93.221 - PHS support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PHS support. 93.221 Section 93.221 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFM221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM221 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM221P (Link to Original site) AFM221F 624 AFM...221Z 732 AFM221P 1336 - - Show AFM221 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM221 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM...2-A/AFM221Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFM221P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM221 (AFM221Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-A/AFM221Q.Seq.d/ ACACAACAATTTATAA

  16. 46 CFR 221.13 - General approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transfers to Bowaters Corporations; (ii) As limited by § 221.15(d) of this part for sales for scrapping... waters of (as distinct from passage through), any of these countries. This list of countries is...

  17. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  18. 40 CFR 98.221 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.221 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a nitric acid train and the facility meets...

  19. DNA analysis of the genes encoding acidocin LF221 A and acidocin LF221 B, two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LF221

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majhenič, A.Č.; Venema, K.; Allison, G.E.; Matijašić, B.B.; Rogelj, I.; Klaenhammer, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri LF221, an isolate from the feces of a child, produces two bacteriocins. Standard procedures for molecular techniques were used to locate, clone and sequence the fragments of LF221 chromosomal DNA carrying the acidocin LF221 A and B structural genes, respectively. Sequencing ana

  20. 40 CFR 61.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal of Uranium Mill Tailings § 61.221 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all terms not defined here... uranium mill tailings pile for the purpose of ensuring compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 192.02(a... requirements of 40 CFR 192.02(a) have been met. (b) Operational means a uranium mill tailings pile that...

  1. 22 CFR 221.01 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Definitions § 221.01 Definitions. Wherever used in these standard terms and conditions: (a) A.I.D. means the... government or any agency or political subdivision thereof....

  2. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  3. 32 CFR 724.221 - Scheduling of discharge reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of discharge reviews. 724.221 Section 724.221 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.221 Scheduling of...

  4. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural...

  5. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  6. 40 CFR 86.221-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86.221-94 Section 86.221-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.221-94 Hydrocarbon...

  7. 42 CFR 431.221 - Request for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for hearing. 431.221 Section 431.221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Recipients Right to Hearing § 431.221 Request for hearing. (a) The agency may require that a request for...

  8. 14 CFR 417.221 - Time delay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time delay analysis. 417.221 Section 417... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.221 Time delay analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a time delay analysis that establishes the mean...

  9. 14 CFR 221.203 - Unique rule numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique rule numbers required. 221.203... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.203 Unique rule numbers required... bear a unique rule number. (b) The unique rule numbers for the fares specified in this section shall...

  10. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  11. 18 CFR 2.21 - Regional Transmission Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional Transmission Groups. 2.21 Section 2.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy...

  12. 47 CFR 22.221 - Eligibility for partitioned licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive Bidding Procedures § 22.221... short-form applications and for submitting upfront payments and down payments contained in this...

  13. 76 FR 38741 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  14. 75 FR 9016 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  15. 75 FR 52591 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight... RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security...

  16. 20 CFR 221.3 - Social Security Administration jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Administration jurisdiction... RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.3 Social Security Administration jurisdiction. The Board... Security Administration considers in determining benefits payable) to the Social Security...

  17. 20 CFR 416.221 - Who is a qualified individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 416.221 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Eligibility for Increased Benefits Because of Essential Persons... the Act; (b) The State took into account the needs of another person in deciding your need for...

  18. 20 CFR 725.221 - Determination of dependency; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; child. 725.221... Determination of dependency; child. For the purposes of determining whether a child was dependent upon a... the eligibility of a child who is under a disability as defined in section 223(d) of the...

  19. Theragnosis-based combined cancer therapy using doxorubicin-conjugated microRNA-221 molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Moon, Sung Ung; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNA (miRNA or miR) has emerged as a new cancer biomarker because of its high expression level in various cancer types and its role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In cancer studies, molecular imaging and treatment based on target cancer markers have been combined to facilitate simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, for combined therapy with diagnosis of cancer, we developed a doxorubicin-conjugated miR-221 molecular beacon (miR-221 DOXO MB) in a single platform composed of three different nucleotides: miR-221 binding sequence, black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), and doxorubicin binding site. Imaging of endogenous miR-221 was achieved by specific hybridization between miR-221 and the miR-221 binding site in miR-221 DOXO MB. The presence of miR-221 triggered detachment of the quencher oligo and subsequent activation of a fluorescent signal of miR-221 DOXO MB. Simultaneous cancer therapy in C6 astrocytoma cells and nude mice was achieved by inhibition of miRNA-221 function that downregulates tumor suppressor genes. The detection of miR-221 expression and inhibition of miR-221 function by miR-221 DOXO MB provide the feasibility as a cancer theragnostic probe. Furthermore, a cytotoxic effect was induced by unloading of doxorubicin intercalated into miR-221 DOXO MB inside cells. Loss of miR-221 function and cytotoxicity induced by the miR-221 DOXO MB provides combined therapeutic efficacy against cancers. This method could be used as a new theragnostic probe with enhanced therapy to detect and inhibit many cancer-related miRNAs.

  20. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the balance of the system, such matter, insofar as it applies over the balance of the system... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs....

  1. 14 CFR 221.56 - Applicable fare when no through local or joint fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable fare when no through local or joint fares. 221.56 Section 221.56 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Requirements Applicable to All Statements of Fares and Charges § 221.56 Applicable...

  2. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  3. In vivo visualization of expression and function of miR221 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Soon Hag; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    MicroRNA 221 has been known to be one of up-regulated miRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma. To evaluate the expression and function of miR221, we measured the quantities of primary or mature miR221 in normal thyroid or papillary cancer cells and examined the gene expression of Gaussian luciferase (Glue) regulated by miR221. Total RNA and small RNA were isolated from normal thyroid cells (HT-ori3) and papillary thyroid cancer cells (NPA, TPC-1). The quantities of primary miR221 or mature miR221 in cells were measured by qRT-PCR. We constructed a CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 including 3 times repeated perfect target sequences of miR221 in the 3'UTR of Gluc. CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 was transfected into HT-ori3, NPA, and TPC-1, CMV/Gluc was used as a control. Also, precursor miR221 or anti-miR221 were co-transfected with CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 into each cells and compared the Gluc activities by luciferase assay and in vivo bioluminescence image. The quantities of primary miR221 of NPA or TPC-1 were 2.24 or 1.5 times more than that of HT-ori3, and quantities of mature miR221 in NPA or TPC-1 were 17 or 7 times more than that of HT-ori3, respectively. Gluc activities in NPA or TPC-1 transfected with CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 were repressed 2 times or more than those of CMV/Gluc, respectively. Also, Gluc activities in NPA or TPC-1 co-transfected with pre-miR221 and CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 were repressed 5 times or more down-regulated than those of CMV/Gluc, respectively. The other hand, Gluc activities in NPA or TPC-1 co-transfected with anti-miR221 and CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 were retrieved as those of CMV/Gluc. In vivo bioluminescence images also showed that Gluc activities were repressed by pre.miR221 and retrieved by anti-miR221. These results suggest that CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 system may be a useful tool for monitoring the quantities of miR221 and gene regulation by miR221 in a living animal.

  4. 12 CFR 221.112 - Loans by bank in capacity as trustee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. 221.112... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.112 Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. (a... been pledged as collateral for loans. Loans are not made, under the plan, from bank funds,...

  5. 12 CFR 221.124 - Purchase of debt securities to finance corporate takeovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... securities to finance corporate takeovers. (a) Petitions have been filed with the Board raising questions as... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of debt securities to finance corporate takeovers. 221.124 Section 221.124 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD...

  6. Dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the implantation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaizola, B.; Fraile, L.M.; Riisager, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    The possible dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the solid-state environment has been investigated by the simultaneous measurement of implanted 221Fr ions in an insulator (Si) and a metallic substrate (Au) at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Our results indicate that, if existing, the difference ...

  7. 50 CFR 221.56 - What are the requirements for transcription of the hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for transcription of the hearing? 221.56 Section 221.56 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... requirements for transcription of the hearing? (a) Transcript and reporter's fees. The hearing will...

  8. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(22)-1 - Successor life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Successor life insurance company. 1.381(c)(22)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(22)-1 Successor life insurance... the following examples: Example 1. X qualified as a life insurance company in 1949. Y qualified as...

  9. 78 FR 31614 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane... ML13015A688 Interim Staff Guidance-024 on Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis...

  10. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles.'' The purpose of this ISG is to supplement the guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and...

  11. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-09-29

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0.

  12. 12 CFR 221.113 - Loan which is secured indirectly by stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mind that the reason the Board has thus far refrained * * * from regulating loans not secured by stock... effectively to strengthen the bank's position. The definition of indirectly secured in § 221.2, which...

  13. Substrate activation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase is abolished by mutation of cysteine 221 to serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, I; Gao, Y; Hu, Z; Jordan, F; Hohmann, S; Furey, W

    1994-05-10

    Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), a thiamin diphosphate and Mg(II)-dependent enzyme, isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses four cysteines/subunit at positions 69, 152, 221, and 222. Earlier studies conducted on a variant of the enzyme with a single Cys at position 221 (derived from a gene that was the product of spontaneous fusion) showed that this enzyme is still subject to substrate activation [Zeng, X., Farrenkopf, B., Hohmann, S., Jordan, F., Dyda, F., & Furey, W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2704-2709], indicating that if Cys was responsible for this activation, it had to be C221. To further test the hypothesis, the C221S and C222S single and the C221S-C222S double mutants were constructed. It is clearly shown that the mutation at C221, but not at C222, leads to abolished substrate activation according to a number of kinetic criteria, both steady state and pre steady state. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme [Dyda, F., Furey, W., Swaminathan, S., Sax, M., Farrenkopf, B., Jordan, F. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 6165-6170], it is obvious that while C221 is located on the beta domain, whereas thiamin diphosphate is wedged at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains, addition of pyruvate or pyruvamide as a hemiketal adduct to the sulfur of C221 can easily bridge the gap between the beta and alpha domains. In fact, residues in one or both domains must be dislocated by this adduct formation. It is very likely that regulation as expressed in substrate activation is transmitted via this direct contact made between the two domains in the presence of the activator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. MiR-221 and miR-130a regulate lung airway and vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mujahid

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play a crucial role in branching morphogenesis, but very little is known about how endothelial cells contribute to this process. Here, we examined how anti-angiogenic miR-221 and pro-angiogenic miR-130a affect airway and vascular development in the fetal lungs. Lung-specific effects of miR-130a and miR-221 were studied in mouse E14 whole lungs cultured for 48 hours with anti-miRs or mimics to miR-130a and miR-221. Anti-miR 221 treated lungs had more distal branch generations with increased Hoxb5 and VEGFR2 around airways. Conversely, mimic 221 treated lungs had reduced airway branching, dilated airway tips and decreased Hoxb5 and VEGFR2 in mesenchyme. Anti-miR 130a treatment led to reduced airway branching with increased Hoxa5 and decreased VEGFR2 in the mesenchyme. Conversely, mimic 130a treated lungs had numerous finely arborized branches extending into central lung regions with diffusely localized Hoxa5 and increased VEGFR2 in the mesenchyme. Vascular morphology was analyzed by GSL-B4 (endothelial cell-specific lectin immunofluorescence. Observed changes in airway morphology following miR-221 inhibition and miR-130a enhancement were mirrored by changes in vascular plexus formation around the terminal airways. Mouse fetal lung endothelial cells (MFLM-91U were used to study microvascular cell behavior. Mimic 221 treatment resulted in reduced tube formation and cell migration, where as the reverse was observed with mimic 130a treatment. From these data, we conclude that miR-221 and miR-130a have opposing effects on airway and vascular morphogenesis of the developing lung.

  15. Maternal transmission of translocation 2;21 associated with Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotwaliwale, S V; Dicholkar, V V; Motashaw, N D

    1991-01-01

    An unusual 2;21 translocation associated with Down's syndrome is reported. The proband was a 3 year old boy, clinically diagnosed as having Down's syndrome and with a family history of Down's syndrome. Maternal age at the time of study was 28 years. Out of the four sibs with Down's syndrome three had died. Two pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. The proband was found to have trisomy 21 associated with a 2;21 translocation inherited from his mother.

  16. MiR-221 promotes stemness of breast cancer cells by targeting DNMT3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Giuseppina; Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Puoti, Ilaria; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Fiore, Danilo; Russo, Valentina; Todaro, Matilde; Romano, Giulia; Thomas, Renato; Cortino, Giuseppina; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Esteller, Manel; Croce, Carlo M; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-05

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small part of the heterogeneous tumor cell population possessing self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential as well as a great ability to sustain tumorigenesis. The molecular pathways underlying CSC phenotype are not yet well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a powerful role in biological processes. Early studies have linked miRs to the control of self-renewal and differentiation in normal and cancer stem cells. We aimed to study the functional role of miRs in human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), also named mammospheres. We found that miR-221 was upregulated in BCSCs compared to their differentiated counterpart. Similarly, mammospheres from T47D cells had an increased level of miR-221 compared to differentiated cells. Transfection of miR-221 in T47D cells increased the number of mammospheres and the expression of stem cell markers. Among miR-221's targets, we identified DNMT3b. Furthermore, in BCSCs we found that DNMT3b repressed the expression of various stemness genes, such as Nanog and Oct 3/4, acting on the methylation of their promoters, partially reverting the effect of miR-221 on stemness. We hypothesize that miR-221 contributes to breast cancer tumorigenicity by regulating stemness, at least in part through the control of DNMT3b expression.

  17. MiR-221 Promotes Capan-2 Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells Proliferation by Targeting PTEN-Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhuo Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs have emerged as critical regulators of cancer cell proliferation. The effect of miR-221 on cancer cell growth could be significantly changeable in different cell lines. Although miR-221 was reported to promote the cell growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells, its role in Capan-2 cell line is largely unknown. Methods: Capan-2 cells were transfected with miR-221 mimics, inhibitors, or negative controls. Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to determine cell viability. EdU staining and cell cycle analysis were used to measure cell proliferation. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of PTEN and phospho-Akt. The PI3K-Akt pathway activator SC-79 and inhibitor LY294002 were used to perform the rescue experiment in determining cell proliferation. Results: Overexpressing miR-221 significantly increased cell vitality and promoted cell proliferation and G1-to-S phase transition of the cell cycle in Capan-2 cells, while inhibition of miR-221 decreased that. The protein level of PTEN in Capan-2 cells was downregulated by overexpressing miR-221, while upregulated by inhibiting miR-221. Consistently, enhanced phosphorylation of AktSer473 was observed in miR-221 overexpressed Capan-2 cells, and the opposite result was found in miR-221 inhibited cells. LY294002 restored the pro-proliferation effect of miR-221 on Capan-2 cells, while SC-79 had no additional effect on cell proliferation in Capan-2 cells transfected with miR-221 mimics. Conclusion: Our study indicates that miR-221 is an oncogenic miRNA which promotes Capan-2 cells proliferation by targeting PTEN-Akt pathway.

  18. MicroRNA-221 inhibits CDKN1C/p57 expression in human colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai SUN; Wei WANG; Jun-jie ZENG; Cheng-tang WU; Shang-tong LEI; Guo-xin LI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the regulatory effect of microRNA-221 (miR-221) on CDKN1C/p57 expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC).Methods: Thirty four CRC and adjacent non-tumorous tissue samples were collected individually. Total RNA and protein were isolatedand from these samples and four human CRC-derived cell lines (including HT-29, Lovo, SW-480 and Caco2). MiR-221 expression was examined using real-time RT-PCR. CRC cells were treated with or without anti-p57-siRNA prior to the addition of premiR-221 or anti-miR-221. The mRNA and protein levels of CDKN1C/p57 were examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. CRC cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively.The CDKN1C/p57 3'-UTR fragment was amplified using PCR from the genomic DNA of human colon cells and inserted into a luciferase reporter construct. The reporter construct was then transfected into CRC cells together with pre-miR-221 or anti-miR-221, and the luciferase activity in the transfected cells was examined.Results: MiR-221 expression was significantly up-regulated in 90% of CRC samples compared to that in the adjacent non-tumorous tissue, and the expression level was positively correlated to an advanced TNM stage and local invasion. There was no significant difference in CDKN1C/p57 mRNA expression between CRC and corresponding non-tumorous tissues, whereas CDKN1C/p57 protein expression was markedly decreased in the CRC samples. A significant inverse correlation between miR-221 and CDKN1C/p57expression was found in CRC cells. Moreover, a miR-221-specific inhibitor significantly increased CDKN1C/p57 protein expression in CRC cells. Anti-miR-221 markedly inhibited CRC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. This inhibitory effect was abolished by pretreatment with a nti-p57-siRNA, suggesting that the inhibition was mediated by CDKN1C/p57. A significant increase of the luciferase activity was observed in CRC cells co-transfected with

  19. 7p22.1 microdeletions involving ACTB associated with developmental delay, short stature, and microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Keiko; Narai, Satoshi; Togawa, Masami; Doumoto, Tomotsune; Sangu, Noriko; Vanakker, Olivier M; de Paepe, Anne; Edwards, Matthew; Whitehall, John; Brescianini, Sally; Petit, Florence; Andrieux, Joris; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    There are no published reports of patients harboring microdeletions involving the 7p22.1 region. Although 7p22.1 microdeletions are rare, some reports have shown microduplications encompassing this region. In this study, we report five patients with overlapping deletions of the 7p22.1 region. The patients exhibited clinical similarities including non-specific developmental delay, short stature, microcephaly, and other distinctive features. The shortest region of overlap within the 7p22.1 region includes five genes, FBXL18, ACTB, FSCN1, RNF216, and ZNF815P. Of these genes, only ACTB is known to be associated with an autosomal dominant trait. Dominant negative mutations in ACTB are responsible for Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1. We analyzed ACTB expression in immortalized lymphocytes derived from one of the patients and found that it was reduced to approximately half that observed in controls. This indicates that ACTB expression is linearly correlated with the gene copy number. We suggest that haploinsufficiency of ACTB may be responsible for the clinical features of patients with 7p22.1 microdeletions.

  20. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the margin stock as collateral,” contained in paragraph (2)(iv) of the definition of indirectly... because of fluctuations in market value of the stock, but instead was payable on one or more fixed... stock as collateral. 221.117 Section 221.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  1. 5 CFR 591.221 - How does OPM compute the consumer expenditure weights it uses to combine price indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM compute the consumer expenditure weights it uses to combine price indexes? 591.221 Section 591.221 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... the consumer expenditure weights it uses to combine price indexes? OPM uses the following...

  2. Correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertini Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer and its metastatic progression is mainly directed by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, a phenomenon supported by specific transcription factors and miRNAs. Methods In order to investigate a possible correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221, we performed Slug gene silencing in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and evaluated the expression of genes involved in supporting the breast cancer phenotype, using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and wound healing assays were employed to determine a functional link between these two molecules. Results We showed that Slug silencing significantly decreased the level of miR-221 and vimentin, reactivated Estrogen Receptor α and increased E-cadherin and TRPS1 expression. We demonstrated that miR-221 is a Slug target gene, and identified a specific region of miR-221 promoter that is transcriptionally active and binds the transcription factor Slug “in vivo”. In addition, we showed that in Slug-silenced cells, wich retained residual miR-221 (about 38%, cell migration was strongly inhibited. Cell migration was inhibited, but to a less degree, following complete knockdown of miR-221 expression by transfection with antagomiR-221. Conclusions We report for the first time evidence of a correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in breast cancer cells. These studies suggest that miR-221 expression is, in part, dependent on Slug in breast cancer cells, and that Slug plays a more important role than miR-221 in cell migration and invasion.

  3. 18 CFR 284.221 - General rule; transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution company served by an interstate pipeline may apply for a blanket certificate to perform certain... Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.221 General rule; transportation by interstate pipelines on behalf of others. (a)...

  4. Tetrasomy 21 pter {yields} q22.1 and Down syndrome: Molecular definition of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumer-Haas, C.; Schuffenhauer, S.; Walther, J.U. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Portsmann, T. [Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Korenberg, J.R.; Schipper, R.D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Down syndrome is usually caused by complete trisomy 21. Rarely, it is due to partial trisomy of the segment 21q22. We report on a 33-month-old girl with tetrasomy 21 pter {yields} q22.1 resulting from an extra chromosome idic(21)(q22.1). She has craniofacial traits typical of Down syndrome, including brachycephaly, third fontanel, upward slanting palpebral fissures, round face, and protruding tongue. Speech development is quite delayed whereas motor development is only mildly retarded. The molecular content of the extra isodicentric chromosome was defined by molecular genetic investigations using 13 single copy probes unique to chromosome 21, and SOD1 expression studies. The child was found to have 4 copies of the region defined by D21S16 (21cen) through D21S93 on 21q22.1 and two copies of the remaining region defined by SOD1 {yields} D21S55 {yields} D21S123. In view of the recent assignment of Down syndrome facial characters to the 21q22 region, defined in part by D21S55, it is significant that this child shows a subset of Down syndrome facial manifestations, without duplication of this region. These results suggest that genes contributing to the facial and some of the hand manifestations of Down syndrome also exist in the chromosomal region proximal to D21S55 in band 21q22.1. 34 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 50 CFR 221.74 - Has OMB approved the information collection provisions of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 221.74 Has OMB approved the information collection provisions of this subpart? Yes. This rule contains provisions that would collect information from... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Has OMB approved the...

  6. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  7. 50 CFR 221.50 - When and where will the hearing be held?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When and where will the hearing be held... Hearing Process Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 221.50 When and where will the hearing be held? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the hearing will be held at the time and place...

  8. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers. 989... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  9. miR-221和miR-222在胃癌中的表达及临床意义%Expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in Gastric Cancer and its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶; 闫竞一; 薛向阳; 武文一; 黄颖鹏; 朱冠保; 沈贤

    2011-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in gastric cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic features. [ Method ] The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in 32 cases of gastric cancer tissues and their matched non-tumor adjacent tissues was examined by stem-loop RT-PCR. And the correlation with clinicopathologic features was investigated. [ Resuits] The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P<0.05). The ratio of miR-221/miR-222 expression had significant difference (P=0.05). The expression of miR-222 was related to differentiation (P=0.046); the expression of miR-221 was related to lymph node metastasis(P=0.013). [Conclusion] The expressions of miR-221 and miR-222 in gastric cancer markedly up regulation,they are important markers for gastric cancer,and they may play different effect with different stages in gastric cancer.%[目的]探讨miR-221和miR-222在胃癌中的表达及与临床病理特征的关系.[方法]应用茎环RT-PCR方法检测32例胃癌及癌旁胃黏膜组织中miR-221和miR-222表达,分析miR-221和miR-222表达与胃癌临床病理指标的关系.[结果]胃癌组织miR-221和miR-222表达明显高于对应的正常胃黏膜组织(P<0.05),且胃癌与正常胃黏膜组织中miR-221和miR-222比值也有显著性差异(P=0.05).miR-222表达与胃癌分化程度相关(P=0.046);miR-221表达与淋巴结转移相关(P=0.013).[结论]miR-221和miR-222在胃癌中表达明显上调是胃癌的重要标志.但两者在胃癌发生发展的不同阶段,可能发挥不同的效应.

  10. Microrna-221 and microrna-222 modulate differentiation and maturation of skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Cardinali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression. They negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by translational repression and target mRNA degradation. miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in muscle development and in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing miRNA expression profiling of proliferating myoblasts versus differentiated myotubes, a number of modulated miRNAs, not previously implicated in regulation of myogenic differentiation, were identified. Among these, miR-221 and miR-222 were strongly down-regulated upon differentiation of both primary and established myogenic cells. Conversely, miR-221 and miR-222 expression was restored in post-mitotic, terminally differentiated myotubes subjected to Src tyrosine kinase activation. By the use of specific inhibitors we provide evidence that expression of miR-221 and miR-222 is under the control of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Both in myoblasts and in myotubes, levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 inversely correlated with miR-221 and miR-222 expression, and indeed we show that p27 mRNA is a direct target of these miRNAs in myogenic cells. Ectopic expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in myoblasts undergoing differentiation induced a delay in withdrawal from the cell cycle and in myogenin expression, followed by inhibition of sarcomeric protein accumulation. When miR-221 and miR-222 were expressed in myotubes undergoing maturation, a profound alteration of myofibrillar organization was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: miR-221 and miR-222 have been found to be modulated during myogenesis and to play a role both in the progression from myoblasts to myocytes and in the achievement of the fully differentiated phenotype. Identification of miRNAs modulating muscle gene expression is crucial for the understanding of the circuits

  11. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  12. MicroRNA-221/222 regulate ox-LDL-induced endothelial apoptosis via Ets-1/p21 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bing; Cao, Yuze; Yang, Huan; Xiao, Bo; Lu, Zhengqi

    2015-07-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is thought to play an essential role in atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs, acting as posttranscriptional regulators of protein-coding genes involved in vascular cell biology. MiRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miR-221/222) are known to be involved in the regulation of endothelial inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the function of miR-221/222 in ox-LDL-induced ECs apoptosis and atherosclerosis is still unknown. Here, we showed that miR-221/222 expression was markedly down-regulated in ox-LDL-induced apoptotic human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells. MiR-221/222 inhibition enhanced apoptosis in ECs, whereas over-expression of miR-221/222 could partly alleviate apoptotic cell death mediated by ox-LDL through suppression of Ets-1 and its downstream target p21. These findings suggest that manipulation of the miR-221/222-Ets-1-p21 pathway may offer a novel strategy for treatment of endothelial apoptosis and atherosclerosis.

  13. 甲状腺乳头状癌mir-221表达与BRAF突变的相关性研究%Correlation between mir-221 Expression and BRAF Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 戴璇璇; 周毅力; 苏星韵; 张筱骅; 王瓯晨

    2012-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the correlation between mir-221 expression and BRAF mutation and theirs clinical significance in papillary thyroid cancer(PTC). [Methods] The mir-221 expression of specimens obtained from 43 cases with PTC and cancer adjacent tissues were examined by Northern blot. The status of BRAF of PTC was analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. The correlation between mir-221 expression and BRAF status with clinicopathologic features was analyzed. [ Results ] The expression of mir-221 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in normal thyroid tissues (medium 0.855 vs. 0.549, P<0.001). The overexpression of mir-221 was correlated with TNM staging (P=0.002) and LN metastasis (P=0.042). BRAF mutation was found 53.49%(23/43) in all cases.The expression of mir-221 was significantly higher in BRAF mutation group than that in wild type group (P=0.024). [Conclusion] mir-221 and BRAF play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of PTC.The overexpres of mir-221 may correlate with the BRAF mutation in PTC.%[目的]探讨甲状腺乳头状癌(PTC)中mir-221表达和BRAF基因状态的相关性和临床意义.[方法]采用RNA核酸印迹(Northern blot)法检测43例PTC癌组织及其癌旁正常组织中mir-221表达,直接测序法检测PTC癌组织中BRAF基因状态,分析mir-221表达和BRAF基因状态的相关性及其与临床病理特征的关系.[结果]mir-221在PTC癌组织中的表达显著高于配对正常组织(中位值:0.855 vs 0.549,P<0.001);mir-221高表达与临床分期(P=0.002)及淋巴结转移(P=0.042)有关.BRAF基因在PTC癌组织中的突变率为53.49%(23/43).突变型BRAF的甲状腺癌患者组mir-221表达显著高于野生型BRAF患者组(P=0.024).[结论]mir-221与BRAF基因在PTC的发生、发展过程中起重要作用,mir-221表达升高与BRAF基因突变有一定相关性.

  14. Levels in 221Fr fed by the α decay of 225Ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson, G.; Gasparro, J.; Barci, V.; Sheline, R. K.

    2000-12-01

    The α decay of 225Ac to 221Fr was reinvestigated by γ-ray spectroscopic studies with HPGe detectors and 225Ac sources purified using continuous elution processes. Energies and intensities of about 120 γ-ray transitions were measured. Among these, 40 are reported for the first time. A 221Fr level scheme with 46 excited states and 124 transitions is proposed. The level structure is described in terms of a reflection asymmetric structure with parity doublet bands Kπ=1/2+/-, 3/2+/-, 5/2+/-, and 3/2+/- in order of increasing energy. Both strong and intermediate coupling models have been shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Deliverable 2.2.1 Use Scenarios in the Pilot Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2010-01-01

    and usage scenarios of service bundles to be implemented in the ISISEMD Pilot platform in each of the four regions during the pilot. The services/sub functions are presented as workflows and also described by presenting how the Graphical User Interface will be organized and designed thus reflecting how......Deliverable 2.2.1 - Use scenarios in the pilot services During the first phase of ISISEMD project (WP1) the user requirements analysis phase, mainly D1.1.1, has proposed a list of services organized in three groups (bundles as in Dow) and classified as mandatory or not mandatory and leading...... to different user scenarios. Afterwards services were analyzed, broken down in sub-functions. The outcome of this process represent a further input document guiding to identify and adapt the more suitable product and solution enabled to provide these required services. Deliverable D.2.2.1 describes guidance...

  16. 12 CFR 221.119 - Applicability of plan-lender provisions to financing of stock options and stock purchase rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this area. (c) Section 221.4(a) provides that a plan-lender may include a wholly-owned subsidiary of... affiliates). This clarifies the Board's intent that, to qualify for special treatment under that section,...

  17. A=225 implantation for $^{221}$Fr source for TRIUMF atom trap

    CERN Multimedia

    The FrPNC Collaboration is mounting an atom trap for parity violation experiments and precision spectroscopy on francium atoms at TRIUMF's ISAC facility. We would like to use ISOLDE's capability of simultaneously implanting A=225 (while another experiment runs online) to make a long-lived source feeding $^{221}$Fr for tests of the trap. $^{225}$Ra $\\beta$-decays to $^{225}$Ac, which then $\\alpha$-decays, producing 100 keV $^{221}$Fr t$_{1/2}$= 4.8 minute recoils. The implanted A=225 source would be shipped to TRIUMF, where it would be held for several minutes at a time a few mm from the same yttrium foil that normally receives the ISAC beam. SRIM calculations imply that 20% of the $^{221}$Fr will be implanted in a 1 cm diameter spot on the yttrium. Then the yttrium foil is moved to the trap and heated to release the Fr atoms, just as in normal ISAC online operation. A test implantation will be done at 10$^{7}$/sec production for 1 day, testing whether carbon cracking on the implantation foil in the mass separ...

  18. miR-221/222 Promotes S-Phase Entry and Cellular Migration in Control of Basal-Like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The miR-221/222 cluster has been demonstrated to function as oncomiR in human cancers. miR-221/222 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms by which miR-221/222 regulates breast cancer aggressiveness remain unclear. Here we detected a much higher expression of miR-221/222 in highly invasive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC cells than that in non-invasive luminal cells. A microRNA dataset from breast cancer patients indicated an elevated expression of miR-221/222 in BLBC subtype. S-phase entry of the cell cycle was associated with the induction of miR-221/222 expression. miRNA inhibitors specially targeting miR-221 or miR-222 both significantly suppressed cellular migration, invasion and G1/S transition of the cell cycle in BLBC cell types. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the down-regulation of two tumor suppressor genes, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibit 1B (CDKN1B, by miR-221/222. This is the first report to reveal miR-221/222 regulation of G1/S transition of the cell cycle. These findings demonstrate that miR-221/222 contribute to the aggressiveness in control of BLBC.

  19. Targeted delivery of chemically modified anti-miR-221 to hepatocellular carcinoma with negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wendian Zhang,1 Fangqi Peng,1 Taotao Zhou,1 Yifei Huang,2 Li Zhang,3 Peng Ye,4 Miao Lu,1 Guang Yang,5 Yongkang Gai,1 Tan Yang,1 Xiang Ma,1 Guangya Xiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, 5School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Gene therapy was established as a new strategy for treating HCC. To explore the potential delivery system to support the gene therapy of HCC, negatively charged liposomal delivery system was used to deliver miR-221 antisense oligonucleotide (anti-miR-221 to the transferrin (Tf receptor over expressed HepG2 cells. The liposome exhibited a mean particle size of 122.5 nm, zeta potential of -15.74 mV, anti-miR-221 encapsulation efficiency of 70%, and excellent colloidal stability at 4°C. Anti-miR-221-encapsulated Tf-targeted liposome demonstrated a 15-fold higher delivery efficiency compared to nontargeted liposome in HepG2 cells in vitro. Anti-miR-221 Tf-targeted liposome effectively delivered anti-miR-221 to HepG2 cells, upregulated miR-221 target genes PTEN, P27kip1, and TIMP3, and exhibited greater silencing efficiency over nontargeted anti-miR-221 liposome. After intravenous injection into HepG2 tumor-bearing xenografted mice with Cy3-labeled anti-miR-221 Tf-targeted liposome, Cy3-anti-miR-221 was successfully delivered to the tumor site and increased the expressions of PTEN, P27kip1, and TIMP3. Our results demonstrate that the Tf-targeted negatively charged liposome could be a potential therapeutic modality in the gene therapy of human HCC. Keywords: transferrin, gene, HCC, target delivery system, anionic liposome 

  20. Advance research on microRNA-221,microRNA-222 and malignant tumor%microRNA-221和microRNA-222与恶性肿瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春智; 康春生; 浦佩玉

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that particular microRNAs(miRNAs) function either as tumor suppres-sors or oncogenes, whose loss or overexpression, respectively, has diagnostic and prognostic significance.Mi-croRNA-221 and microRNA-222 are a cluster microRNAs of oncogenes.They are overexpressed in some malig-nant tumors, including glioblstoma, prostate carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and so on.By regulating particular target mRNAs, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 perform pro- oneogenie role.p27kip1 and p57kip2 are target genes of microRNA-221 and mieroRNA-222.MicroRNA-221 and microRNA-222 promote oncogensis and tumor grow by down-regulating p27kip1 and p57kip2 expression.%微RNA(micmRNA)-221和microRNA-222是成簇的microRNA,在恶性肿瘤中起促癌作用,在胶质母细胞瘤、前列腺癌、乳头状甲状腺癌等恶性肿瘤中高表达.microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过调控其特定的靶基因行使促癌作用.在所有预测的靶基因中,p27kip1和p57kip2是已被验证的靶基因,microRNA-221和microRNA-222通过下调p27kip1和p57kip2的表达来促进肿瘤的形成和生长.

  1. Dual Selectivity Expressed in [2+2+1] Dynamic Clipping of Unsymmetrical [2]Catenanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi

    2010-06-11

    A {pi}-templated dynamic [2+2+1] clipping protocol is established for the synthesis of [2]catenanes from two parts dialdehyde, two parts diamine and one part tetracationic cyclophane. It is further diversified for the selective formation of an unsymmetrical [2]catenane showing great translational selectivity by employing two different dialdehydes in a one-pot reaction. The dual selectivity and the dynamic nature are verified by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal structural studies and exchange experiments.

  2. Increased expression of microRNA-221 inhibits PAK1 in endothelial progenitor cells and impairs its function via c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Mao, Haian [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Chen, Jin-yuan [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524001 (China); Wen, Shengjun [Department of Anatomy and neurobiology, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Dan; Ye, Meng [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lv, Zhongwei, E-mail: zhongweilv126@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► MicroRNA-221 is upregulated in the endothelial progenitor cells of atherosclerosis patients. ► PAK1 is a direct target of microRNA-221. ► MicroRNA-221 inhibits EPCs proliferation through c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. -- Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with high mortality and occurs via endothelial injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) restore the integrity of the endothelium and protect it from atherosclerosis. In this study, we compared the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EPCs in atherosclerosis patients and normal controls. We found that miR-221 expression was significantly up-regulated in patients compared with controls. We predicted and identified p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a novel target of miR-221 in EPCs. We also demonstrated that miR-221 targeted a putative binding site in the 3′UTR of PAK1, and absence of this site was inversely associated with miR-221 expression in EPCs. We confirmed this relationship using a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-221 in EPCs significantly decreased EPC proliferation, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by decreased PAK1. Overall, these findings demonstrate that miR-221 affects the MEK/ERK pathway by targeting PAK1 to inhibit the proliferation of EPCs.

  3. Molecular association of cryptand 221D in NaCl-water solutions. A small-angle neutron scattering study

    OpenAIRE

    Caponetti, E.; Chillura Martino, D.; Floriano, M.; R TRIOLO

    1993-01-01

    Molecules of 5-Decyl-4,7,13,16,21-pentaoxa-1,10-diaza-bicyclo-[8.8.5.]tricosan (221D) and its sodium complex, with both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic portion, are expected to form aggregates in water solutions. This was confirmed by surface tension measurements. The aggregation behaviour was studied by small-angle neutron scattering at two different [NaCl]/[221D] molar ratios, such as to obtain, in one case, aggregates entirely made up of ionic monomers, and in the other, mixed micelles con...

  4. Molecular imaging of a cancer-targeting theragnostics probe using a nucleolin aptamer- and microRNA-221 molecular beacon-conjugated nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyeoung; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Lee, Minhyung; Jo, Mi-hee; Kim, Soonhag

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA, miR) have been reported as cancer biomarkers that regulate tumor suppressor genes. Hence, simultaneous detecting and inhibiting of miRNA function will be useful as a cancer theragnostics probe to minimize side effects and invasiveness. In this study, we developed a cancer-targeting therangostics probe in a single system using an AS1411 aptamer - and miRNA-221 molecular beacon (miR-221 MB)-conjugated magnetic fluorescence (MF) nanoparticle (MFAS miR-221 MB) to simultaneously target to cancer tissue, image intracellularly expressed miRNA-221 and treat miRNA-221-involved carcinogenesis. AS1411 aptamer-conjugated MF (MFAS) nanoparticles displayed a great selectivity and delivery into various cancer cell lines. The miR-221 MB detached from the MFAS miR-221 MB in the cytoplasm of C6 cells clearly imaged miRNA-221 biogenesis and simultaneously resulted in antitumor therapeutic effects by inhibiting miRNA function, indicating a successful astrocytoma-targeting theragnostics. MFAS miRNA MB can be easily applied to other cancers by simply changing a targeted miRNA highly expressed in cancers.

  5. Progress of miR-221/222 in tumor diagnosis and treatment%miR-221/222在肿瘤诊治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙斌; 李林法; 易贺庆

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs(miRNA)are a kind of small non -conding RNA,which negative regulate target genes expression at post -transcription level by binding 3'-untraslation region(3'UTR).Dysregulation of miRNA pro-files relate to cancer,immune disorders,cardiovascular disease,neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. miR -221 /222 are two similary miRNAs,which share the same promoter and have the same seed sequence.miR -221 /222 usually target to same target genes and co -regulate same processes and act as onco -miRNA roles.Howev-er,miR -221 /222 maybe act as suppressor in cancer which maybe dependent particular context.The roles of miR -221 /222 are reviewed in this article,will provide a comprehensive vision for comprehending the biological process of miR -221 /222 in carcinoma.%微小 RNA(microRNAs,miRNAs)是一类短链非编码 RNA,通过与编码基因的3′非翻译区(3′Un-traslation region,3′UTR)结合,发挥转录后负向调控靶基因表达的作用,进而调控相应的生物学功能。其异常表达与肿瘤、免疫失调、心血管疾病、神经退行性疾病和代谢疾病等多种疾病的发生、发展密切相关,并在疾病的治疗、药物代谢等过程发挥重要的作用。miR-221/222是两个序列和结构类似的 miRNA,且具有类似的生物学功能。miR-221/222在多种肿瘤和疾病中差异表达,主要发挥致癌 miRNA(Onco-miRNA)作用。但新近研究表明,在一定背景下 miR-221/222也发挥抑癌基因的作用。本研究对 miR-221/222在疾病中的角色进行综述,展现当前研究的 miR-221/222在肿瘤中的重要生物学功能和机制,为以 miRNA 为靶点的治疗研究提供相关信息。

  6. 儿童颅内肿瘤221例临床病理分析%Intracranial tumor in children:a clinicopathological analysis of 221 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪峰; 孔莹琴; 郭乔楠

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the clinical and pathological features of intracranial tumor in children. Methods 221 cases of in-tracranial tumors in children ( ages≤18 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Results The cases of intracranial tumor in children ac-counted for 7. 21% of total cases in our hospital during the same period. There is no documented gender bias. There were only 14 cases (6. 33%) with age less than 3 years old. The supratentorial tumors were 153 cases (69. 23%) and infratentorial tumors were 68 cases (30. 77%) . The most frequently affected sites were the cerebral hemispherse, sellar region, vermis and the fourth ventricle. There were 89 benign tumor and 132 malignant tumor in this series of cases. The most common five tumors were astrocytic tumors (30. 32%), embryonal tumors (19. 00%), craniopharyngiomas (11. 76%), ependymal tumors (8. 14%) and germ cell tumors (5. 88%). Conclusion The morbidity of intracranial tumors in children has increased in the recent years. The histological classifica-tion of intracranial tumors in children is multiple and it is essential to make a correct diagnosis.%目的:探讨儿童颅内肿瘤的临床病理学特征。方法对221例经外科手术切除、病理确诊的儿童(18岁及其以下)颅内肿瘤进行回顾性分析,并复习相关文献。结果本组病例占同期颅内肿瘤的7.21%,男女比为1.06∶1,男性患儿稍多。3岁以下患儿较少,其余各年龄组病例数大致相当。最常见首发症状为呕吐、头昏头痛、共济失调。发病部位:幕上153例(69.23%),幕下68例(30.77%)。幕上最常见为大脑半球和鞍区,幕下为小脑和第四脑室。 WHOⅠ级或良性肿瘤89例,占40.27%;恶性肿瘤132例,占59.73%,其中WHO Ⅳ级或其他高度恶性肿瘤61例,占27.60%。发病率位居前5位的肿瘤分别为星形细胞瘤、胚胎性肿瘤、颅咽管瘤、室管膜瘤、生殖细胞瘤。星形细胞瘤中弥漫型星形细胞瘤和毛

  7. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to purchase stock of American...) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. (a) The Board of Governors interpreted this part in connection with proposed loans by a...

  8. Elevation of miR-221 and -222 in the internal mammary arteries of diabetic subjects and normalization with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Chasity B; Lightell, Daniel J; Moss, Stephanie C; Bates, Michael; Parrino, Patrick E; Woods, T Cooper

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased intimal thickening and accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. We measured the expression of two microRNAs that promote intimal thickening, miR-221/222, and mRNA encoding a downstream target, p27(Kip1), in internal mammary artery (IMA) segments collected from 37 subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The segments were stratified into three groups: non-diabetic subjects (ND), diabetic subjects not on metformin (DMMet-), and diabetic subjects on metformin (DMMet+). The DMMet- group exhibited a significant increase in miR-221/222 and decrease in p27(Kip1) mRNA compared to both the ND and DMMet+ groups. miR-221/222 levels inversely correlated with metformin dose. VSMCs isolated from the IMAs of the DMMet- group proliferate at a faster rate than those of the ND and DMMet+ groups. Further studies into the importance of miR-221/222 in the increased intimal thickening observed in diabetic subjects is warranted.

  9. The microRNA-221/-222 cluster balances the antiviral and inflammatory response in viral myocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsten, Maarten; Heggermont, Ward; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Deckx, Sophie; Tijsma, Aloys; Verhesen, Wouter; van Leeuwen, Rick; Carai, Paolo; Thibaut, Hendrik-Jan; Custers, Kevin; Summer, Georg; Hazebroek, Mark; Verheyen, Fons; Neyts, Johan; Schroen, Blanche; Heymans, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Viral myocarditis (VM) is an important cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in young healthy adults; it is also an aetiological precursor of dilated cardiomyopathy. We explored the role of the miR-221/-222 family that is up-regulated in VM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that mi

  10. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  11. 春小麦品种青春221抗叶锈性遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军海; 陈万权

    2013-01-01

    为明确青春221中抗叶锈病基因的有效性及其遗传机制,以青春221为父本,分别与感病品种铭贤169和Thatcher以及小麦抗叶锈病近等基因系Lr1、Lr3和Lr23的载体品系杂交,获得F1、F1和R代群体后,分别在苗期和成株期进行抗病性测定。苗期,青春221对致病类型FGJ/QP、SHJ/GN和PHT/RP的抗病性分别由显性抗叶锈病基因LrJ、三一和Lr23控制,对致病类型BGD/HL的抗病性则由上述3对显性抗病基因独立或重叠作用控制,与Thatcher杂交后,青春221中的Lr23趋于隐性遗传并被Thatcher中的1对显性抑制基因抑制;成株期,青春221对优势致病类型PHT/RP和THT/TP混合菌种的抗病性由显性抗叶锈病基因Lr23控制,而L以和Lr3均不起作用。

  12. Decreased MicroRNA-221 is Associated with High Levels of TNF-α in Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Obese Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Chou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the regulation and involvement of miR-221 in the differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs. The relationships between miR-221 and pro-inflammatory markers and adipokines were also explored. Methods: Eight adipose tissues were obtained from four obese (mean body mass index (BMI =31.7 kg/m2 and four lean (mean BMI= 21.5 kg/m2 women. hASCs were induced to differentiate, and the related gene expression were measured in the hASC-differentiated adipocytes using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR. Results: During adipogenesis, miR-221 was significantly down-regulated; furthermore, miR-221 levels were lower in hASC-differentiated adipocytes from obese subjects than in the corresponding adipocytes from lean subjects. Higher TNF-α mRNA levels were associated with lower levels of miR-221. In addition, the miR-221 levels in the adipocytes were inversely correlated with BMI. Conclusion: Our results support the link between miR-221 and obesity development as well as obesity related inflammatory status.

  13. Down-regulation of MicroRNAs 222/221 in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with Deranged Core-Binding Factor Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Brioschi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL is a subgroup of acutemyeloid leukemia (AML characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF. The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most commonmutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR 222/221 targets the 3′ untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133+ stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21 or inv(16 CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117 display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21 AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-22:1 Pipelines and Associated Soils, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-042

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-12

    The 100-B-22:1 pipelines and associated soils were part of the 100-B Area water treatment facilities. The 100-B-22:1 waste site is limited to those pipelines that interconnected the 185-B Filter House, the 126-B-2 Clearwells, the 185-B Deaeration Plant, and the 190-B Process Pumphouse. None of the 100-B-22:1 pipelines carried environmentally significant contamination. In accordance with the historical information and field observations of this evaluation, the results support a reclassification of this site to No Action required to meet future rural-residential uses and be protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. MicroRNA-221 modulates RSV replication in human bronchial epithelium by targeting NGF expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumar Othumpangat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-life infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is associated with aberrant expression of the prototypical neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF and its cognate receptors in human bronchial epithelium. However, the chain of events leading to this outcome, and its functional implications for the progression of the viral infection, has not been elucidated. This study sought to test the hypothesis that RSV infection modulates neurotrophic pathways in human airways by silencing the expression of specific microRNAs (miRNAs, and that this effect favors viral growth by interfering with programmed death of infected cells. METHODOLOGY: Human bronchial epithelial cells infected with green fluorescent protein-expressing RSV (rgRSV were screened with multiplex qPCR arrays, and miRNAs significantly affected by the virus were analyzed for homology with mRNAs encoding neurotrophic factors or receptors. Mimic sequences of selected miRNAs were transfected into non-infected bronchial cells to confirm the role of each of them in regulating neurotrophins expression at the gene and protein level, and to study their influence on cell cycle and viral replication. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RSV caused downregulation of 24 miRNAs and upregulation of 2 (p<0.01. Homology analysis of microarray data revealed that 6 of those miRNAs exhibited a high degree of complementarity to NGF and/or one of its cognate receptors TrKA and p75(NTR. Among the selected miRNAs, miR-221 was significantly downregulated by RSV and its transfection in bronchial epithelial cells maximally inhibited gene and protein expression of NGF and TrKA, increased apoptotic cell death, and reduced viral replication and infectivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that RSV upregulates the NGF-TrKA axis in human airways by silencing miR-221 expression, and this favors viral replication by interfering with the apoptotic death of infected cells. Consequently, the targeted delivery of

  16. Swern Oxidation of Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-diol and Its Pyrazine-fused Derivatives: An Improved Synthesis of Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dione and An Unexpected Ring-Opening Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri Kobayashi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved synthesis of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dione by Swern oxidation of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-diol, and an unexpected ring-opening reaction by the Swern oxidation of pyrazine-fused congeners are described.

  17. Simultaneous detection and differentiation by multiplex real time RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 classic (clade 2.2.1 proper and escape mutant (clade 2.2.1 variant lineages in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafa Abdel-Satar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic status of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 in Egypt continues to devastate the local poultry industry and poses a permanent threat for human health. Several genetically and antigenically distinct H5N1 lineages co-circulate in Egypt: Strains of clade 2.2.1 proper replicate mainly in backyard birds causing the bulk of human infections, while a variant lineage within 2.2.1 (2.2.1v appears to be perpetuated mainly in commercial poultry farms in Egypt. Viruses of the 2.2.1v lineage represent drift variants escaping from conventional vaccine-induced immunity and some of these strains also escaped detection by commercial real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR protocols due to mismatches in the primers/probe binding sites. Results We developed therefore a versatile, sensitive and lineage-specific multiplex RT-qPCR for detection and typing of H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Analytical characterization was carried out using 50 Egyptian HPAIV H5N1 strains isolated since 2006 and 45 other avian influenza viruses (AIV. A detection limit of 400 cRNA copies per ml sample matrix was found. Higher diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex assay in comparison to other generic H5 or M-gene based RT-qPCR assays were found by examination of 63 swab samples from experimentally infected chickens and 50 AIV-positive swab samples from different host species in the field in Egypt. Conclusions The new multiplex RT-qPCR assay could be useful for rapid high-throughput monitoring for the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry in Egypt. It may also aid in prospective epidemiological studies to further delineate and better control spread of HPAIV H5N1 in Egypt.

  18. miR -221表达与甲状腺乳头状癌临床病理分期关系研究%The expression of miR-221 in thyroid tumor and its relationship with clincopathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志英; 徐虓; 吴英杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the miRNA - 221 expression in thyroid neoplasms and its clinical pathological features. Methods Rt- PCR method was used to show the miRNA - 221 in thyroid papillary carcinoma tissues as well as the expression in normal thyroid tissue samples, and analyze the expression of miRNA - 221 and the correlation of clinical pathological features of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Results The results showed that the miRNA - 221 expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma tissue is significantly higher than normal thyroid tissue( P ﹤ 0. 05). The miRNA - 221 expression level was significantly associated with thyroid papillary carcinoma tissue pathology classification( r = 0. 823,P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The miRNA - 221 showed high expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma tissues. The expression has correlation with thyroid papilla-ry carcinoma tissue pathology classification,which suggests that the miRNA - 221 play an important role in the occurrence and development of thy-roid papillary carcinoma.%目的:探讨 miRNA -221在甲状腺乳头状癌中的表达及其与临床病理特征的关系。方法采用逆转录 PCR方法检测 miRNA -221在甲状腺乳头状癌组织以及在正常甲状腺组织样本中的表达,并分析 miRNA -221的表达与甲状腺乳头状癌的临床病理特征的相关性。结果 miRNA -221在甲状腺乳头状癌组织中的表达明显高于正常甲状腺组织( P﹤0.05),miRNA -221的表达水平与甲状腺乳头状癌组织的病理分级具有显著相关性( r =0.823,P ﹤0.05)。结论miRNA -221在甲状腺乳头状癌组织中表达较高,且与甲状腺乳头状癌组织病理分级有相关性,miRNA -221在甲状腺乳头状癌的发生与发展有重要作用。

  19. De Novo Balanced Translocation t (7;16 (p22.1; p11.2 Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bayou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of de novo chromosomal aberrations in a population of persons with autism suggests a causal relationship between certain chromosomal aberrations and the occurrence of isolated idiopathic autism. We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in a male patient with autism, no physical abnormalities and a de novo balanced (7;16(p22.1;p16.2 translocation. G-banded chromosomes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH were used to examine the patient's karyotype as well as his parents'. FISH with specific RP11-BAC clones mapping near 7p22.1 and 16p11.2 was used to refine the location of the breakpoints. This is, in the best of our knowledge, the first report of an individual with autism and this specific chromosomal aberration.

  20. INSULIN RESISTANCE AND CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN 221 PATIENTS WITH POTENTIAL HYPERGLYCEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yang; Tian-de Li; Jin-song Wang; Guang Zhi; Wen-sheng Jin; Yong Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with potential hyperglycemia.Methods A total of 221 patients were recruited among those with potential hyperglycemia. All participants underwent physical examination, medical history interview, and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Venous blood was sampled for measurement of insulin and cholesterol levels. The intima-media thickness (IMT) in bilateral common carotid arteries was observed by B-mode ultrasound. Insulin resistance index was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).Subjects were stratified in quintiles according to HOMA-IR values. Risk factors and atherosclerotic parameters were analyzed.Results With HOMA-IR value increase, incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease increased, the levels of triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, 2 hour plasma glucose, and fasting insulin increased as well, while the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased. Meanwhile, all atherosclerotic parameters increased. Multivariate regression analysis showed that TG, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C levels, and In(HOMA-IR) were related to IMT, hence were risk factors for IMT increase.Conchsion Insulin resistance is implicated in atherogenesis.

  1. Neoplastic causes of nonacute facial paralysis: A review of 221 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, John P; Marzo, Sam J; Anderson, Douglas A; Sappington, Joshua M

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a retrospective review to assess the clinical presentation of patients with tumor-related nonacute complete peripheral facial weakness or an incomplete partial facial paresis and to provide an algorithm for the evaluation and management of these patients. Our study population was made up of 221 patients-131 females and 90 males, aged 14 to 79 years (mean: 49.7)-who had been referred to the Facial Nerve Disorders Clinic at our tertiary care academic medical center over a 23-year period with a documented neoplastic cause of facial paralysis. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on clinical signs and symptoms, radiologic and pathologic findings, and surgical approaches. All patients exhibited gradual-onset facial weakness or facial twitching. Imaging identified an extratemporal tumor in 128 patients (58%), an intratemporal lesion in 55 patients (25%), and an intradural mass in 38 (17%). Almost all of the extratemporal tumors (99%) were malignant, while 91% of the intratemporal and intradural tumors were benign. A transtemporal surgical approach was used in the 93 intratemporal and intradural tumor resections, while the 128 extratemporal lesions required a parotidectomy with partial temporal bone dissection. The vast majority of patients (97%) underwent facial reanimation. We conclude that gradual-onset facial paralysis or twitching may occur as a result of a neoplastic invasion of the facial nerve along its course from the cerebellopontine angle to the parotid gland. We caution readers to beware of a diagnosis of "atypical Bell's palsy."

  2. Investigation of $\\alpha$-decay rates of $^{221}$Fr, $^{224}$Ra and $^{226}$Ra in different environments

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested, and indicated experimentally, that $\\alpha$- decay half-lives are modified by solid state effects in the surrounding environment. We propose here to measure with high accuracy the $\\alpha$-decay half-life of $^{221}$Fr, $^{224}$Ra and $^{226}$Ra in insulators and metals. Furthermore we plan to investigate the temperature dependency of the half-life in these materials (room temperature, 4 K and 10 mK).

  3. Identification of targets of miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 in fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Sun, Manna; Jiang, Wenhua; Zhao, Jinkun; Liang, Chunyong; Zhang, Huilai

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) regulated by microRNA (miRNA)-221 and miRNA-222 that are associated with the resistance of breast cancer to fulvestrant. The GSE19777 transcription profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and includes data from three samples of antisense miRNA-221-transfected fulvestrant-resistant MCF7-FR breast cancer cells, three samples of antisense miRNA-222-transfected fulvestrant-resistant MCF7-FR cells and three samples of control inhibitor (green fluorescent protein)-treated fulvestrant-resistant MCF7-FR cells. The linear models for microarray data package in R/Bioconductor was employed to screen for DEGs in the miRNA-transfected cells, and the pheatmap package in R was used to perform two-way clustering. Pathway enrichment was conducted using the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis tool. Furthermore, a miRNA-messenger (m) RNA regulatory network depicting interactions between miRNA-targeted upregulated DEGs was constructed and visualized using Cytoscape. In total, 492 and 404 DEGs were identified for the antisense miRNA-221-transfected MCF7-FR cells and the antisense miRNA-222-transfected MCF7-FR cells, respectively. Genes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) were significantly enriched in the antisense miRNA-221-transfected MCF7-FR cells. In addition, components of the Wnt signaling pathway and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) were significantly enriched in the antisense miRNA-222-transfected MCF7-FR cells. In the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network, miRNA-222 was demonstrated to target protocadherin 10 (PCDH10). The results of the present study suggested that the PPP and Wnt signaling pathways, as well as CAMs and PCDH10, may be associated with the resistance of breast cancer to fulvestrant. PMID:27895744

  4. Dicer-Dependent Production of MicroRNA221 in Hepatocytes Inhibits p27 and is Required for Liver Regeneration in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Tsugawa, Daisuke; Ray, Kevin C; Dou, Yongchao; Karp, Seth J

    2017-02-23

    Dicer processes microRNAs (miRs) into active forms in a wide variety of tissues including the liver. To determine the role of Dicer in liver regeneration, we performed a series of in vivo and in vitro studies in a murine 2/3 hepatectomy model. Dicer was downregulated after 2/3 hepatectomy, and loss of Dicer inhibited liver regeneration associated with decreased cyclin A2 and miR-221, and increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. In vitro, miR-221 inhibited p27 production in primary hepatocytes and increased hepatocyte proliferation. Specific reconstitution of miR-221 in hepatocyte-specific Dicer null mice inhibited p27 and restored liver regeneration. In wild type mice, targeted inhibition of miR-221 using a cholesterol-conjugated anti-miR-221 inhibited hepatocyte proliferation after 2/3 hepatectomy. These results identify Dicer production of miR-221 as an essential component of a miRNA-dependent mechanism for suppression of p27 that controls the rate of hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy.

  5. 微小RNA-221对HepG2细胞增殖及其凋亡的影响%Effect of miR-221 on the viability and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡; 党裔武; 罗殿中

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨微小RNA-221(miR-221)对肝癌细胞株HepG2细胞增殖与凋亡的影响.方法 将miR-221阻遏物及模拟物转染至HepG2后,用实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测miR-221的表达水平;用细胞增殖试剂盒、Hoechst 33342及碘化丙啶(PI)双重染色、流式细胞仪及caspase3/7活性试剂盒检测HepG2细胞增殖与凋亡情况.对数据进行多样本的单因素方差分析,两两比较采用LSD法;相关性比较用Pearson检验.结果 RT-PCR结果显示,转染miR-221阻遏物后其表达受到抑制,而转染miR-221模拟物可促进其表达.细胞增殖试剂盒及Hoechst 33342/PI染色结果显示,48 h后miR-221阻遏物明显抑制HepG2细胞增殖(P<0.05),而miR-221模拟物促进HepG2细胞增殖(P<0.05),两种方法结果呈正相关(r=0.993,P<0.01).流式细胞仪检测细胞周期显示,miR-221模拟物组G1期细胞比例(47.6%±1.53%)明显低于空白对照组(59.00%±1.00%)及阴性对照组(58.00%±1.00%,F=81.77,P<0.01); S期细胞比例(20.33%±1.15%)明显高于空白对照组(11.00%±1.00%)及阴性对照组(12.00%±1.00%,F=70.90,P<0.01).Hoechst 33342/PI染色、流式细胞仪膜联蛋白V凋亡试剂盒检测均显示,转染miR-221阻遏物48 h后,细胞凋亡和坏死增加(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.Caspase-3/7试剂盒检测caspase-3/7活性变化结果显示,转染miR-221阻遏物24 h后,细胞caspase3/7活性明显增高(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.结论 miR-221可促进肝癌细胞生长增殖,抑制miR-221表达可诱导细胞凋亡.miR-221有望成为治疗肝癌新的分子靶点之一.%Objective To investigate the effect of microRNA-221 (miR-221) on cell viability and apoptosis ofhepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods MiR-221 inhibitors and mimics were transfected into HepG2 cells. The expression of miR-221 was detected by real time quantitative RT-PCR. CellTiter-blue cell viability kit, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) double staining assay, flow cytometry and Apo

  6. The Role of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Placental Protein 13 (PP13) in Pregnancy Evaluated with Recombinant PP13 and the DelT221 PP13 Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Marei Sammar; Shahar Nisamblatt; Ron Gonen; Berthold Huppertz; Sveinbjorn Gizurarson; George Osol; Hamutal Meiri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Placental protein 13 (PP13), a placenta specific protein, is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. A naturally occurring PP13 deletion of thymidine at position 221 (DelT221 or truncated variant) is associated with increased frequency of severe preeclampsia. In this study we compared the full length (wildtype) PP13 and the truncated variant. Methods Full length PP13 or its DelT221 variant were cloned, expressed and purified fro...

  7. Processing and operating experience of Ni{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic alloy IC-221M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Orth, J.E. [United Defense LP, Anniston, AL (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The cast Ni{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic alloy IC-221M is the most advanced in its commercial applications. This paper presents progress made for this alloy in the areas of: (1) composition optimization; (2) melting process development; (3) casting process; (4) mechanical properties; (5) welding process, weld repairs, and thermal aging response; and (6) applications. This paper also reviews the operating experience with several of the components. The projection for future growth in the applications of nickel aluminide is also discussed. (orig.) 22 refs.

  8. Genotype-phenotype correlation in migraine without aura focusing on the rs1835740 variant on 8q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Francke; Le, Han; Kirchmann, Malene

    2012-01-01

    A large two-stage GWAS by Antilla et al. reported the minor allele of rs1835740 on 8q22.1 to be associated with common types of migraine. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical correlate of the variant in migraine without aura (MO). Clinical data on 339 successfully...... genotyped MO patients (patients with attacks of migraine without aura and no attacks of migraine with aura) were obtained by an extensive validated semi-structured telephone interview performed by a physician or a trained senior medical student. Reliable, systematic and extensive data on symptoms, age...

  9. A genotype-phenotype analysis of the 8q22.1 variant in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esserlind, A-L; Kirchmann, M; Hauge, A W

    2012-01-01

    and migraine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of clinical characteristics in migraine with aura (MA) with the newly discovered minor allele A of rs1835740 at 8q22.1. Methods: Participants were recruited from the Danish Headache Center and from specialist practices during the periods 1999...... with substantial description of their clinical characteristics were included. Two hundred and fifty one were heterozygous and 40 were homozygote for the variant marker. Carriers of the rs1835740 variant showed a non-significant tendency towards having a higher frequency of aura symptoms and a non...

  10. Knockdown of miR-221 promotes the cisplatin-inducing apoptosis by targeting the BIM-Bax/Bak axis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Hao, Rutian; Cai, Yefeng; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Guanli

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in the initiation and progression of types of human cancer, including breast cancer. Recent research indicated that miRNAs are also related with the chemotherapy on cancers. In this study, the expression of miR-221 in breast cancer (BC) patients' serum and cancer tissues was found to be significantly up-regulated. The results of in vitro MTT assay indicated that although the anti-miR-221 oligonucleotide alone did not influence the viability of BC cell lines markedly, it significantly promoted the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (DDP) to BC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the gene of BIM (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death), a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, was up-regulated by the knockdown of miR-221. We found that the synergetic effect of anti-miR-221 on increasing the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 was BIM dependant. Furthermore, results of immunoprecipitation showed the up-regulated BIM directly combined with the Bax and Bak, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest the anti-miR-221 could promote the cisplatin-inducing apoptosis by targeting the Bim-Bax/Bak axis in breast cancer.

  11. Calcium phosphate-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced triple negative breast cancer treatment via co-delivery of paclitaxel and miR-221/222 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zilan; Kennell, Carly; Lee, Joo-Youp; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Tarapore, Pheruza

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a development of a novel calcium phosphate-polymer hybrid nanoparticle system is reported.The nanoparticle system can co-encapsulate and co-deliver a combination of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties (i.e., inhibitors for microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 (miRi-221/222) and paclitaxel (pac)).miRi-221/222 are hydrophilic and were encapsulated with calcium phosphate by co-precipitation in a water-in-oil emulsion.The precipitates were then coated with an anionic lipid, dioleoylphosphatidic acid (DOPA), to co-encapsulate hydrophobic paclitaxel outside the hydrophilic precipitates and inside the same nanoparticle.The nanoparticles formed by following this approach had a size of about ≤100nm and contained both lipid-coated calcium phosphate/miRi and paclitaxel.This nanoparticle system was found to simultaneously deliver paclitaxel and miRi-221/222 to their intracellular targets, leading to inhibit proliferative mechanisms of miR-221/222 and thus significantly enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel.

  12. miR-128b is a potent glucocorticoid sensitizer in MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells and exerts cooperative effects with miR-221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Hsieh, James; Rao, Prakash K; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-11-05

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate expression of target mRNAs. Our analysis of previously published data showed that expression of miR-128b and miR-221 is down-regulated in MLL-rearranged ALL relative to other types of ALL. Reexpression of these miRNAs cooperatively sensitizes 2 cultured lines of MLL-AF4 ALL cells to glucocorticoids. Target genes down-regulated by miR-128b include MLL, AF4, and both MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL fusion genes; miR-221 down-regulates CDKN1B. These results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-128b and miR-221 is implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and that restoration of their levels is a potentially promising therapeutic in MLL-AF4 ALL.

  13. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  14. Synthesis of new N-[4-(4-aryl- and 4-heteroaryl-1-piperazinyl)butyl]derivatives of 1-methyl-5-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboximide with an expected anxiolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, J; Zawadowski, T; Kuśmierczyk, J

    1998-01-01

    Preparation of a number of derivatives of 1-methyl-5-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboximide with a potential anxiolytic activity has been described. New analogs of Tandospirone i.e. derivatives of bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (10), were aimed at.

  15. Simulation of Microstructure Evolution of Ni75A12.9V22.1 Alloy with Progressive Aging Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng LI; Zheng CHEN; Qingbo LAI; Yongxin WANG

    2008-01-01

    The interrupted aging mechanisms were applied to Ni75Al2.9V22.1 alloy by using the microscopic phase-field simulation method. For the single phase region existing at high temperature, the low content alloy was used as the study object. With the progressive aging mechanisms, the metastable phase γ' of high temperature can be obtained from the low temperature two phase regions, and the quantity of γ' phase reduces with increasing temperature. The θ single phase morphology at high temperature regions will turn to be the γ'+θ two phase morphology at low temperature with the interrupted aging method. Despite of the different precipitation paths of γ' phase, the precipitation mechanisms are the same for the low temperature aging and high temperature interrupted aging.

  16. Optimisation of cheese whey enzymatic hydrolysis and further continuous production of antimicrobial extracts by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pazo, Noelia; da Silva Sabo, Sabrina; Salgado-Seara, José Manuel; Arni, Saleh Al; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey was optimised using the enzymes iZyme, Alcalase or Flavourzyme under different conditions. Hydrolysates supplemented with commercial nutrients were evaluated as fermentation broths to produce DL-3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) from phenylalanine (Phe) by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221. Optimised hydrolysates were obtained using Flavourzyme at 50 °C and 100 rpm during 12 h, and assayed in 250 ml Erlenemyer flasks using different proportions of vinasses as economic nutrient. The process was then scaled up using a 2 litres Bioreactor working under the continuous modality. Under the intermediate dilution rate of 0·0207 h-1 0·81 ± 0·026 mM of PLA and 38·8 ± 3·253 g/l of lactic acid were produced. A final evaluation revealed that lactic acid, and bacteriocins exerted the highest inhibitory effect among the extracted components of cell-free supernatants.

  17. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkai Dai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1 Background: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2 Methods: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01. Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3 Results: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  18. Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during Tumour Formation in Chickens Infected by Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenkai; Ji, Jun; Yan, Yiming; Lin, Wencheng; Li, Hongxin; Chen, Feng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Weiguo; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-12-11

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1) BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2) METHODS: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01). Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF) making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3) RESULTS: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection.

  19. Case of 7p22.1 Microduplication Detected by Whole Genome Microarray (REVEAL in Workup of Child Diagnosed with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Goitia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More than 60 cases of 7p22 duplications and deletions have been reported with over 16 of them occurring without concomitant chromosomal abnormalities. Patient and Methods. We report a 29-month-old male diagnosed with autism. Whole genome chromosome SNP microarray (REVEAL demonstrated a 1.3 Mb interstitial duplication of 7p22.1 ->p22.1 arr 7p22.1 (5,436,367–6,762,394, the second smallest interstitial 7p duplication reported to date. This interval included 14 OMIM annotated genes (FBXL18, ACTB, FSCN1, RNF216, OCM, EIF2AK1, AIMP2, PMS2, CYTH3, RAC1, DAGLB, KDELR2, GRID2IP, and ZNF12. Results. Our patient presented features similar to previously reported cases with 7p22 duplication, including brachycephaly, prominent ears, cryptorchidism, speech delay, poor eye contact, and outburst of aggressive behavior with autism-like features. Among the genes located in the duplicated segment, ACTB gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for the alteration of craniofacial development. Overexpression of RNF216L has been linked to autism. FSCN1 may play a role in neurodevelopmental disease. Conclusion. Characterization of a possible 7p22.1 Duplication Syndrome has yet to be made. Recognition of the clinical spectrum in patients with a smaller duplication of 7p should prove valuable for determining the minimal critical region, helping delineate a better prediction of outcome and genetic counseling

  20. Synthesis of new derivatives of 1,2,3,4,7-pentamethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene-5,6-dicarboximide with an expected anxiolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, J; Kuśmierczyk, J

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of a number of derivatives of 1,2,3,4,7-pentamethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene-5,6-dicarboximide with potential anxiolytic activity has been described. The aim of our study was to obtain new analogues of tandospirone, that is derivatives of cyclic imides [1].

  1. 5 CFR 839.221 - If my qualifying retirement coverage error was that I was put into FERS by mistake and then...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... error was that I was put into FERS by mistake and then, after the error was discovered, I chose my... Previous Election Opportunity § 839.221 If my qualifying retirement coverage error was that I was put into... now make another election? No, OPM regulations allow certain employees who were put in FERS in...

  2. Mössbauer study of the warrior figures of pottery in the grave site of the first Chinese emperor (221 B.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongtian, Sun; Xianjia, Pan; Guangyong, Qin; Guoqiao, Jin; Zhongyi, Yuan

    1988-12-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements at both room and liquid nitrogen temperature of potsherd samples of terracotta figures of warriors and horses excavated from within the pit at the grave site of the First Emperor (221 B.C.), lead us to conclude that the No. 4 potsherd sample was fired at a temperature of 980±50°C in a reducing atmosphere.

  3. miR-21 and 221 upregulation and miR-181b downregulation in human grade II-IV astrocytic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alfredo; Aguennouz, M'Hammed; La Torre, Domenico; Tomasello, Chiara; Cardali, Salvatore; Angileri, Filippo F; Maio, Francesca; Cama, Annamaria; Germanò, Antonino; Vita, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs can function both as tumor suppressors and as oncogenes. It has been demonstrated that in glioblastoma multiforme miR-21 and 221 are upregulated whereas miR-128 and 181 are downregulated. Expression of miR-21, 221, 128a, 128b, 128c, 181a, 181b, 181c was studied using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting for human astrocytic tumors with different grade of malignancy. miR-21 and 221 were overexpressed in glioma samples, whereas miRNA 181b was downregulated compared with normal brain tissue. miRNA-21 was hyperexpressed in all tumor samples whereas higher levels of miRNA-221 were found in high-grade gliomas. This study is the first analysis of miRNAs in astrocytic tumor at different stages of malignancy. The different expression pattern observed in tumors at different stages of malignancy is probably dependent on the cell-specific repertoire of target genes of tumors sharing different molecular pathways activity and suggests miRNAs may have also a place in diagnosis and staging of brain tumors.

  4. The expression of miR-221 in thyroid cancer and its relationship with clincopathological staging%miRNA-221表达与甲状腺乳头状癌临床病理分期的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志英; 徐虓; 吴英杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨miRNA-221在甲状腺乳头状癌中的表达及与临床病理特征的关系。方法选取甲状腺乳头状癌(30例)、甲状腺良性病变(25例)及正常甲状腺组织(25例)共80例。采用real-time PCR法检测miR-NA-221在甲状腺乳头状癌组织、良性病变组织及正常甲状腺组织样本中的表达,并分析miRNA-221的表达与甲状腺乳头状癌的临床病理特征的相关性。结果 miRNA-221在甲状腺乳头状癌组织中的表达明显高于甲状腺良性病变组织和正常甲状腺组织(P<0.05);miRNA-221的表达水平与甲状腺乳头状癌组织的病理分级具有明显的相关性(r=0.823,P<0.05)。结论 miRNA-221在甲状腺乳头状癌组织中表达升高,且与甲状腺乳头状癌的组织病理分级相关,miRNA-221在甲状腺乳头状癌的发生发展中有重要作用。%Objective To explore the miRNA-221 expression in thyroid neoplasms and its clinical pathological features. Method A total of 80 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma (30 cases), thyroid benign lesions (25 cases) and normal thyroid (25 cases) were included in this study. Real-time PCR was applied in detecting miRNA-221 ex-pression in thyroid papillary carcinoma, benign lesions and normal thyroid tissue samples, besides, the correlation be-tween miRNA-221 expression and clinical pathological features of thyroid papillary carcinoma was analyzed. Result The real-time PCR showed that the miRNA-221 expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma tissue is significantly high-er than that in either benign lesions or normal thyroid tissue (P<0.05), and the expression level was significantly asso-ciated with pathological staging of thyroid papillary carcinoma (r=0.823, P<0.05). Conclusion The miRNA-221 ex-pression is increased in thyroid papillary carcinoma tissues, and is correlated with the pathological staging of thyroid papillary carcinoma tissue, suggesting that the miRNA-221 is significantly engaged in the

  5. Cardiomyocyte protection by GATA-4 gene engineered mesenchymal stem cells is partially mediated by translocation of miR-221 in microvesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRs, a novel class of small non-coding RNAs, are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, and death. In this study, we found that miR-221 translocation by microvesicles (MVs plays an important role in cardioprotection mediated by GATA-4 overexpressed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult rat bone marrow MSC and neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes (CM were harvested as primary cultures. MSC were transduced with GATA-4 (MSC(GATA-4 using the murine stem cell virus (pMSCV retroviral expression system. Empty vector transfection was used as a control (MSC(Null. The expression of miRs was assessed by real-time PCR and localized using in situ hybridization (ISH. MVs collected from MSC cultures were characterized by expression of CD9, CD63, and HSP70, and photographed with electron microscopy. Cardioprotection during hypoxia afforded by conditioned medium (CdM from MSC cultures was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, MTS uptake by CM, and caspase 3/7 activity. Expression of miR-221/222 was significantly higher in MSC than in CM and miR-221 was upregulated in MSC(GATA-4. MSC overexpression of miR-221 significantly enhanced cardioprotection by reducing the expression of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA. Moreover, expression of PUMA was significantly decreased in CM co-cultured with MSC. MVs derived from MSC expressed high levels of miR-221, and were internalized quickly by CM as documented in images obtained from a Time-Lapse Imaging System. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that cardioprotection by MSC(GATA-4 may be regulated in part by a transfer of anti-apoptotic miRs contained within MVs.

  6. 水稻类树状突变体s2-21的遗传分析与精细定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Fine Mapping of Rice Leafy Head Mutant s2-21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海凤; 高洁; 孙伟; 张士永; 赵庆雷; 尹亮; 赵金凤; 李学勇; 袁守江

    2014-01-01

    叶序和出叶间隔期是叶片生长发育的基本生物学特性和水稻的重要农艺性状之一。对叶序或出叶间隔期突变体的研究,可以帮助我们了解叶片的形成机制。本研究通过甲基磺酸乙酯(EMS)诱变粳稻品种日本晴,获得一个稳定遗传的类树状突变体s2-21。该突变体出叶间隔期变短、节间缩短、植株矮化、分蘖数减少、叶片数增加、不能正常进行生殖生长。将该突变体与籼稻品种Dular杂交,遗传分析表明该突变体性状受1对隐性基因控制。通过InDel分子标记对s2-21/Dular F2群体进行遗传定位,将该基因初步定位在第1染色体InDel标记C1-15和S1-17之间。利用本实验已测序的籼稻品种Dular全基因组序列与NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)上提供的粳稻品种日本晴基因组序列比对,开发了6个新的InDel标记,最终将该基因定位在W25和W26之间约88 kb的区间内。测序结果表明该突变体中PLA2基因的第4个内含子的第5位碱基由G突变为A。%Phyllotaxy and plastochron are basic aspects of leaf development and the important agronomic traits of rice. The study of phyllotaxy or plastochron mutant will help us to understand the mechanism of leaf formation. In this study, a leafy head mutant s2-21 was isolated from an EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) mutagenized japonica cultivar Nipponbare. It was characterized by shorter intervals between leaves, shortened internodes, dwarf plants, decreased tiller number, and increased leaf number. It was also unable to transit from vegetative to reproductive growth. Genetic analysis with a F2 population of the mutant and an indica cultivar Dular showed that this trait is controlled by a single recessive nucleus gene, which was primarily mapped between two insertion-deletion (InDel) markers C1-15 and S1-17 on chromosome 1. For the fine mapping, new InDel markers were designed by utilizing information of genomic sequences from

  7. 共沉默miR-221-3p/222-3p表达抑制骨髓间充质干细胞增殖及促成软骨分化%Down-regulation of miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibits cell proliferation and promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫继红; 周德山; 杨姝; 孙海梅; 曹丹丹; 张秀英; 季凤清; 郭多; 吴波; 孙婷怡

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The use of mesenchymal stem cels in the field of tissue engineering for osteoarticular injury repair is a very promising tool since these cels are readily expandable and able to differentiate into chondrocytes. Abundant evidence suggests that microRNAs play critical roles in chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cels. OBJECTIVE:To observe the chondrogenic effect of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels transfected with lentiviral vectors bearing miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibition, thereby provding new strategies for cartilage injury. METHODS: miRNA microarray technology was applied to detect microRNAs expression profiles at three different stages of chondrogenic differentiation induction after transforming growth factor-β3 treatment and verified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels were infected with lentivirus bearing miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibition. After co-suppressing the expression of miR-221/222-3p, cel counting kit-8 was used to determine the cel proliferation, the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels towards chondrocytes was verified by type II colagen protein expression through immunohistochemistry and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was also elevated by sarranine O staining. RT-PCR was used to detect type II colagen and aggrecan mRNA expression at 21 days of chondrogenic induction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression of miR-221-3p/222-3p was inhibited after Lv-miR221-3p/222-3p inhibition co-transfected into bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels. microRNA microarray and RT-qPCR results showed that the expression of miR-221-3p/222-3p was declined significantly at the anaphase of chondrogenic differentiation. The expression levels of chondrogenic markers, Aggrecan and type II colagen were significantly increased in the miR-221-3p/222-3p inhibition group and cel proliferation was also inhibited significantly compared with non-transduced cels or transduced with the empty

  8. Differential cross-section measurements for elastic scattering of 22.1 keV photons by elements with 6{<=}Z{<=}81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Singh, N. E-mail: nsingh@pu.ac.in

    2002-08-01

    Elastic scattering differential cross-sections for the 22.1 keV photons (Ag-K{alpha} X-rays) have been measured for fifteen elements with 6{<=}Z{<=}81 at an angle of 133 deg. The measurements were performed using the {sup 109}Cd radioisotope as photon source and a Si(Li) detector. The measurements include the Ag element, where the elastic scattered photon yield was deduced from the observed 22.1 keV peak after subtracting the contribution of the fluorescent K{alpha} X-rays produced by the 88.03 keV {gamma}-ray and internal bremsstrahlung photons from the {sup 109}Cd radioisotope. The measured elastic scattering cross-sections have been compared with those evaluated using the form-factor and the second-order S-matrix formalisms.

  9. Differential cross-section measurements for elastic scattering of 22.1 keV photons by elements with 6<=Z<=81

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, A; Mehta, D; Singh, N

    2002-01-01

    Elastic scattering differential cross-sections for the 22.1 keV photons (Ag-K alpha X-rays) have been measured for fifteen elements with 6<=Z<=81 at an angle of 133 deg. The measurements were performed using the sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope as photon source and a Si(Li) detector. The measurements include the Ag element, where the elastic scattered photon yield was deduced from the observed 22.1 keV peak after subtracting the contribution of the fluorescent K alpha X-rays produced by the 88.03 keV gamma-ray and internal bremsstrahlung photons from the sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope. The measured elastic scattering cross-sections have been compared with those evaluated using the form-factor and the second-order S-matrix formalisms.

  10. Localization of a human homolog of the mouse Tiam-1 gene to chromosome 21q22.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiming Chen; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    Exon trapping was applied to genomic DNA from a chromosome 21-specific cosmid library (LL21NC02-Q) to clone portions of genes from this chromosome. Among a large number of trapped exons, three showed striking homology to different regions of the cDNA for the mouse T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis gene (Tiam-1) at both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence levels, suggesting that these three exons are part of a human homolog of the mouse Tiam-1 gene. We mapped this presumed human TIAM1 gene to chromosome 21 by using appropriate somatic cell hybrids, YACs, and cosmids. The TIAM1 gene localizes to YAC 760H5 of the I. Chumakov et al. YAC contig between markers D21S298 and D21S404 in band 21q22.1. This human gene (which is a member of the group of guanine nucleotide-dissociation stimulators that modulate the activity of Rho-like proteins) may be important in the development or metastasis of malignancies that are associated with abnormalities on chromosome 21, including the various forms of leukemia frequent in trisomy 21. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Characterization of maltotriose production by hydrolyzing of soluble starch with α-amylase from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Suk; Park, Dong-Ju; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2015-05-01

    A maltotriose-producing α-amylase, AmyA, from a newly isolated bacterial strain Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221 was purified and characterized in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, using the pCold I vector. The amyA gene encoded a 761-residue protein composed of a 33 amino acid secretion signal peptide. The purified α-amylase with a molecular mass of 80 kDa, approximately, shared a sequence motif characteristic of the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The enzyme was optimally active, at 50 °C in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), by the traditional one factor-at-a-time method. But the optimal conditions of time, temperature, and pH for production of maltotriose from soluble starch were 1.76 h, 44.95 °C, and pH 6.35 by response surface methodology, respectively. Maltotriose, as the major enzyme reaction product, was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The enzyme was found to be inhibited by the addition of 10 mM Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+), and EDTA, but exhibited extreme stability toward hexane. The K m and V max values for the hydrolysis of soluble starch were 1.08 mg/mL and 1.736 mmol maltotriose/mg protein/min, respectively.

  12. Dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China: main roles of conjugative plasmid pAZJ221 and transposon Tn2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Lin; Ji, Shu-Juan; Ruan, Zhi; Fu, Ying; Fu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Yan-Fei; Yu, Yun-Song

    2015-04-01

    Production of the OXA-23 carbapenemase is the most common reason for the increasing carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. This study was conducted to reveal the genetic basis of blaOXA-23 dissemination in Acinetobacter spp. in China. A total of 63 carbapenem-resistant OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter sp. isolates, representing different backgrounds, were selected from 28 hospitals in 18 provinces for this study. Generally, two patterns of plasmids carrying blaOXA-23 were detected according to S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. A ca. 78-kb plasmid, designated pAZJ221, was found in 23 Acinetobacter baumannii and three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates, while a novel ca. 50-kb plasmid was carried by only two other A. baumannii isolates. Three of these isolates had an additional copy of blaOXA-23 on the chromosome. Transformation of the two plasmids succeeded, but only pAZJ221 was conjugative. Plasmid pAZJ221 was sequenced completely and found to carry no previously known resistance genes except blaOXA-23. The blaOXA-23 gene of the remaining 35 isolates was chromosome borne. The blaOXA-23 genetic environments were correlated with Tn2009 in 57 isolates, Tn2008 in 5 isolates, and Tn2006 in 1 isolate. The MIC values for the carbapenems with these isolates were not significantly associated with the genomic locations or the copy numbers of blaOXA-23. Overall, these observations suggest that the plasmid pAZJ221 and Tn2009 have effectively contributed to the wide dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China and that horizontal gene transfer may play an important role in dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene.

  13. Severe intellectual disability, omphalocele, hypospadia and high blood pressure associated to a deletion at 2q22.1q22.3: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulatinho Milene

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH platforms have significantly improved the resolution of chromosomal analysis allowing the identification of genomic copy number gains and losses smaller than 5 Mb. Here we report on a young man with unexplained severe mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations comprising hypospadia and omphalocele, and episodes of high blood pressure. An ~ 6 Mb interstitial deletion that includes the causative genes is identified by oligonucleotide-based aCGH. Results Our index case exhibited a de novo chromosomal abnormality at 2q22 [del(2(q22.1q22.3dn] which was not visible at the 550 haploid band level. The deleted region includes eight genes: HNMT, SPOPL, NXPH2, LOC64702, LRP1B, KYNU, ARHGAP15 and GTDC1. Discussion aCGH revealed an ~ 6 Mb deletion in 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 in an as-yet unique clinical case associated with intellectual disability, congenital malformations and autism spectrum disorder. Interestingly, the deletion is co-localized with a fragile site (FRA2K, which could be involved in the formation of this chromosomal aberration. Further studies are needed to determine if deletions of 2q22.1 to 2q22.3 define a new microdeletion syndrome.

  14. EGFR Signaling Pathway and Related-miRNAs In Age-related Diseases: The Example of miR-221 and miR-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Presently, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer are the most clinically problematic age-related diseases worldwide. Although being distinct disorders, their developments share common cellular mechanisms. Oncogenesis and neurodegeneration arise from the deregulation of signaling pathways, as a consequence of the resulting imbalance in cellular homeostasis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR belongs to an important cellular signaling pathway, which regulates proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and migration. As transcriptional targets of EGFR, the microRNAs-221/222 (miR-221/222 are important expression regulators. Dysfunctions in their networks are associated with cellular disruptions. The transcriptional activation of these miRNAs seems to be involved in cell cycle, apoptosis, metastization and in the acquisition of resistance to therapies. The up-regulation of miR-221/222 is associated with increased expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and repression of cell cycle inhibitors, which are key molecules in oncogenesis and neurodegeneration processes. The interaction loop between proliferative signaling pathways and miRNA expression could reveal new targets for controlling the molecular behavior of age-related diseases.

  15. 低剂量氢醒对TK6淋巴母细胞生物学性状及miR-221表达影响%Influences of biological characteristics and the expression of milt-221 induce by low-level hydroquinone exposure in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林华; 梁小虎; 凌晓璇; 唐焕文

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨低剂童氮醌(HQ)对TK6淋巴母细胞的生物学性状及小分子非编码RNA(microRNA)-221(miR-221)表达的影响.方法 磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)溶解HQ,以PBS处理组为对照组,分别以2.5、5.0和10.0 μmol/L HQ染毒TK6细胞为处理组.应用CCK-8试剂盒检测细胞活力和细胞增殖,通过磷脂结合蛋白(Annexin V)/碘化丙啶(PI)标记的流式细胞技术检测细胞调亡,用实时荧光定童-聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)检测milR-221的表达改变.结果 细胞增殖以48 h最为明显,2.5、5.0和10.0 μmol/L组细胞增殖指数分别为1.33(P<0.05)、1.14(P<0.05)和1.12(P<0.05);milR-221表达改变以72h最为明显,2.5、5.0、10.0 p.μmol/L HQ组细胞milR-221表达量分别抑制了0.31倍(P<0.05)、0.39倍(P<0.05)和0.33倍(P<0.05).结论 低剂量HQ能抑制TK6细胞调亡和milR-221的表达,促进细胞增殖.%Objective To explore the influences of biological characteristics and the expression of small non-coding RNA (miR-221) induced by low-level hydroquinone (HQ) exposure in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Methods HQ dissolved in PBS buffer at the concentrations of 2. 5,5.0 and 10. 0μmol/L were respectively given to TK6 cells,and cells treated with PBS only were as the control. Cell viability and proliferation were detected with CCK-8 assay kit, the cell apoptosis assay was attained by Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay kit, while miR-221 expression was defined by reverse transcription real-time RT-PCR assay.Results Obvious alternation of cell growth occurred at 48 hours post HQ treatment, the proliferation indexes for 2. 5,5.0 and 10.0 μmol/L HQ were 1.33 (P<0.05),1. 14 (P<0.05) and 1.12 (P <0.05) ,respectively. The expression of miR-221 were inhibited by 0.31-(P<0.05) ,0. 39-(P<0.05) and 0. 33-fold (P<0. 05) in the groups of 2.5,5.0 and 10.0 μmol/L HQ,respectively at 72 hours post treatment. Conclusion Low-level HQ could inhibit TK6cell apoptosis and miR-221 expression,while promote cell growth.

  16. An unexpected formation of the novel 7-oxa-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene skeleton during the reaction of furfurylamine with maleimides and their bioprospection using a zebrafish embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Galvis, Carlos E; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V

    2013-01-21

    An unexpected intramolecular cyclization during the reaction of furfurylamine with maleimides is reported as a novel strategy for the efficient green synthesis of the 7-oxa-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene skeleton. Under the same reaction conditions, 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-enes were synthesized when furfurylamine was N-protected by the acetyl group. Both types of bicycloheptenes were screened using the zebrafish model system for genetics and developmental biology.

  17. 南宁地区221株淋球菌对青霉素、壮观霉素的敏感性测定%Sensitivity test of 221 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Nanning to penicillin and spectinomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 赵秀梅; 覃善列; 唐桂林

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解南宁地区淋球菌对青霉素、壮观霉素的敏感性。方法:我们于1996年至1999年对221株淋球菌临床分离株以琼脂稀释法测定青霉素、壮观霉素的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:7株(3.17%)为产青霉素酶淋球菌(PPNG)。青霉素MIC范围为0.008~16mg/L;2.71%菌株对青霉素敏感,36.20%为低敏,61.09%为耐药。其中1996至1999年各年耐药率分别为23.92%、37.10%、89.16%、90.00%。壮观霉素MIC范围2~>128mg/L;92.76%菌株对壮观霉素敏感,7.24%菌株为耐药;1999年未发现耐壮观霉素菌株。结论:南宁地区淋球菌对青霉素耐药比率较高,且呈逐年上升趋势。出现了耐壮观霉素的菌株。持续性监测青霉素、壮观霉素对临床合理用药十分重要。%Objective: To measure the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin and spetinomycin in Nan ning. Methods:221 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonokrrhoeae abtained from patients with gonorrhea in Nanning were tesed for their susceptiblities to penicillin and spectinomycin in vitro. The mininum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin and spectinomycin were determined by agar dilution method. Rusults: 7 strains (3.17%) were penicilinase producers (PPNG). The MIC ranges were from 0.008mg/L to 16mg/L for Penicillin. 2.71% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin,36.20% were less sensitive; 61.09% exhibited resistance to penicillin. The prevalence of resistant gonococci every year was 23.92%, 37.1%, 89.16%, 90% respectively in 1996~1999. The MIC ranges were from 2mg/L to>128mg/L for spectinomycin.92.76% of the isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin, 7.24% exhibited resistance to spectinomycin. None of the isolates were detected to be resistant of spectinomycin in 1999. Conclusion: A high proportion of goncoccal isolates remain resistant to penicillin, with the emergence of spectinomycin resistance strains in Nanning. For the

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel cold-adapted esterase, MtEst45, from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Suk eLee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase, MtEst45, was isolated from a fosmid genomic library of Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221. The encoding gene is predicted to have a mass of 45,564 Da and encodes 495 amino acids, excluding a 21 amino acid signal peptide. MtEst45 showed a low amino acid identity (approximately 23–24% compared with other lipolytic enzymes belonging to Family III, a closely related bacterial lipolytic enzyme family. MtEst45 also showed a conserved GXSXG motif, G131IS133YG135, which was reported as active site of known lipolytic enzymes, and the putative catalytic triad composed of D237 and H265. Because these mutants of MtEst45, which was S133A, D237N, and H265L, had no activity, these catalytic triad essential for the enzyme catalysis. MtEst45 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and purified via His-tag affinity chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of MtEst45 were estimated to be 8.17 and 46.27°C by response surface methodology, respectively. Additionally, MtEst45 was also active between 1–15°C. The optimal hydrolysis substrate for MtEst45 among p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C18 was p-nitrophenyl butyrate, and the Km and Vmax values were 0.0998 mM and 550 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. MtEst45 was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions; by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; and by β-mercaptoethanol. Ca2+ did not affect the enzyme’s activity. These biochemical properties, sequence identity, and phylogenetic analysis suggest that MtEst45 represents a novel and valuable bacterial lipolytic enzyme family and is useful for biotechnological applications.

  19. Early-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran: Report of the Demographic and Clinical Features of 221 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Nourian, Sayed-Mohammadamin; Nourian, Niloofaralsadat; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Sayahi, Farnaz; Saraf, Zahra; Fereidan-Esfahani, Mahboobeh

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that early-onset multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis (early-onset multiple sclerosis) approximately incorporates 3-5% of the multiple sclerosis population. In this report on early-onset multiple sclerosis, the authors aimed to define demographic, clinical and imaging features in a case-series of true-childhood multiple sclerosis and to compare its characteristics with juvenile multiple sclerosis. The authors inspected the records of multiple sclerosis patients who were registered by Isfahan MS Society. Clinical and demographic data of children with less than 16 years of age were reviewed retrospectively. Out of 4536 multiple sclerosis patients referred to the authors' center, 221 patients (4.8%) had multiple sclerosis starting at the age of 16 or less (11 true-childhood multiple sclerosis vs 210 juvenile-onset multiple sclerosis); the female to male ratio was 4.81:1. In the mean follow-up period of 6.2 years, 22 patients (10.5%) had positive family history of multiple sclerosis, 196 (88.6%) patients were classified as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the mean (± SD Expanded Disability Status Scale) was 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last evaluation. The most common initial presentation was optic nerve involvement (36.1%) and cerebellar sign and symptoms (14.6%). In all, 13 patients (5.8%) had experienced seizure in the course of multiple sclerosis. This study indicated that early-onset multiple sclerosis is not rare condition and overwhelmingly affects girls even at prepubertal onset. Physicians should consider multiple sclerosis in suspicious pediatric cases.

  20. Identification of a Novel Gene on 10q22.1 Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiger, Stephen P; Sullivan, Lori S; Bowne, Sara J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Blanton, Susan H; Wheaton, Dianna K; Avery, Cheryl E; Cadena, Elizabeth D; Koenekoop, Robert K; Fulton, Robert S; Wilson, Richard K; Weinstock, George M; Lewis, Richard A; Birch, David G

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome linkage mapping identified a region on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 with a maximum LOD score of 3.0 at 0 % recombination in a six-generation family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). All known adRP genes and X-linked RP genes were excluded in the family by a combination of methods. Whole-exome next-generation sequencing revealed a missense mutation in hexokinase 1, HK1 c.2539G > A, p.Glu847Lys, tracking with disease in all affected family members. One severely-affected male is homozygous for this region by linkage analysis and has two copies of the mutation. No other potential mutations were detected in the linkage region nor were any candidates identified elsewhere in the genome. Subsequent testing detected the same mutation in four additional, unrelated adRP families, for a total of five mutations in 404 probands tested (1.2 %). Of the five families, three are from the Acadian population in Louisiana, one is French Canadian and one is Sicilian. Haplotype analysis of the affected chromosome in each family and the homozygous individual revealed a rare, shared haplotype of 450 kb, suggesting an ancient founder mutation. HK1 is a widely-expressed gene, with multiple, abundant retinal transcripts, coding for hexokinase 1. Hexokinase catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose to glusose-6-phospate, the first step in glycolysis. The Glu847Lys mutation is in a highly-conserved site, outside of the active site or known functional sites.

  1. Isolation of Actinium from Neutron-irradiated Thorium-I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Isolation of Actinium from Neutron-irradiated Thorium-I¥YangWeifan;YuanShuanggui;MuWantong;ZhangXueqian;LiZhongweiandZhaoLili...

  2. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  3. RNA-Binding Protein Dnd1 Promotes Breast Cancer Apoptosis by Stabilizing the Bim mRNA in a miR-221 Binding Site

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    Feng Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins (RBPs and miRNAs are capable of controlling processes in normal development and cancer. Both of them could determine RNA transcripts fate from synthesis to decay. One such RBP, Dead end (Dnd1, is essential for regulating germ-cell viability and suppresses the germ-cell tumors development, yet how it exerts its functions in breast cancer has remained unresolved. The level of Dnd1 was detected in 21 cancerous tissues paired with neighboring normal tissues by qRT-PCR. We further annotated TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA expression profiles and found that the expression of Dnd1 and Bim is positively correlated (p=0.04. Patients with higher Dnd1 expression level had longer overall survival (p=0.0014 by KM Plotter tool. Dnd1 knockdown in MCF-7 cells decreased Bim expression levels and inhibited apoptosis. While knockdown of Dnd1 promoted the decay of Bim mRNA 3′UTR, the stability of Bim-5′UTR was not affected. In addition, mutation of miR-221-binding site in Bim-3′UTR canceled the effect of Dnd1 on Bim mRNA. Knockdown of Dnd1 in MCF-7 cells confirmed that Dnd1 antagonized miR-221-inhibitory effects on Bim expression. Overall, our findings indicate that Dnd1 facilitates apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bim via its competitive combining with miR-221 in Bim-3′UTR. The new function of Dnd1 may contribute to a vital role in breast cancer development.

  4. RNA-Binding Protein Dnd1 Promotes Breast Cancer Apoptosis by Stabilizing the Bim mRNA in a miR-221 Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Pan, Ying; Lu, Yi-Min; Zhu, Lei; Chen, Shuzheng

    2017-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and miRNAs are capable of controlling processes in normal development and cancer. Both of them could determine RNA transcripts fate from synthesis to decay. One such RBP, Dead end (Dnd1), is essential for regulating germ-cell viability and suppresses the germ-cell tumors development, yet how it exerts its functions in breast cancer has remained unresolved. The level of Dnd1 was detected in 21 cancerous tissues paired with neighboring normal tissues by qRT-PCR. We further annotated TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mRNA expression profiles and found that the expression of Dnd1 and Bim is positively correlated (p = 0.04). Patients with higher Dnd1 expression level had longer overall survival (p = 0.0014) by KM Plotter tool. Dnd1 knockdown in MCF-7 cells decreased Bim expression levels and inhibited apoptosis. While knockdown of Dnd1 promoted the decay of Bim mRNA 3'UTR, the stability of Bim-5'UTR was not affected. In addition, mutation of miR-221-binding site in Bim-3'UTR canceled the effect of Dnd1 on Bim mRNA. Knockdown of Dnd1 in MCF-7 cells confirmed that Dnd1 antagonized miR-221-inhibitory effects on Bim expression. Overall, our findings indicate that Dnd1 facilitates apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bim via its competitive combining with miR-221 in Bim-3'UTR. The new function of Dnd1 may contribute to a vital role in breast cancer development.

  5. RNA-Binding Protein Dnd1 Promotes Breast Cancer Apoptosis by Stabilizing the Bim mRNA in a miR-221 Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Pan, Ying; Lu, Yi-Min; Zhu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and miRNAs are capable of controlling processes in normal development and cancer. Both of them could determine RNA transcripts fate from synthesis to decay. One such RBP, Dead end (Dnd1), is essential for regulating germ-cell viability and suppresses the germ-cell tumors development, yet how it exerts its functions in breast cancer has remained unresolved. The level of Dnd1 was detected in 21 cancerous tissues paired with neighboring normal tissues by qRT-PCR. We further annotated TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mRNA expression profiles and found that the expression of Dnd1 and Bim is positively correlated (p = 0.04). Patients with higher Dnd1 expression level had longer overall survival (p = 0.0014) by KM Plotter tool. Dnd1 knockdown in MCF-7 cells decreased Bim expression levels and inhibited apoptosis. While knockdown of Dnd1 promoted the decay of Bim mRNA 3′UTR, the stability of Bim-5′UTR was not affected. In addition, mutation of miR-221-binding site in Bim-3′UTR canceled the effect of Dnd1 on Bim mRNA. Knockdown of Dnd1 in MCF-7 cells confirmed that Dnd1 antagonized miR-221-inhibitory effects on Bim expression. Overall, our findings indicate that Dnd1 facilitates apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bim via its competitive combining with miR-221 in Bim-3′UTR. The new function of Dnd1 may contribute to a vital role in breast cancer development.

  6. Rocky or Not, Here We Come: Further Revealing the Internal Structures of K2-21b+c Through Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Dragomir, Diana; Fabrycky, Daniel; Kreidberg, Laura; Mills, Sean; Petigura, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The provenance of planets 1.5 - 2 times the size of the Earth is one of the biggest unresolved mysteries from the Kepler mission. Determining the nature and origins of these exoplanets relies not only on measuring their radii, but also requires knowledge about their masses, atmospheric compositions, and interior structures. With this information, we can more confidently estimate planet mass distributions from measured radii, distinguish between rocky and non-rocky compositions, and better constrain the occurrence rate of Earth-like planets. Last year, Co-I Petigura announced the discovery of a two-transiting-planet system, K2-21, with bodies of 1.6 and 1.9 Earth-radii. The latter is expected to have a volatile-rich atmosphere, but the former lies squarely on the rocky/non-rocky composition boundary. These exoplanets orbit their relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star in a near 5:3 resonance and, based on our successful Spitzer observations, exhibit measurable transit timing variations (TTVs). Complete knowledge about their interactions will reveal constraints on the planets' masses, which is important because significant stellar activity makes RV mass measurements impractical. We propose to continue measuring precise transit times of K2-21b and K2-21c with Spitzer and combine that information with existing K2 timing constraints to determine their masses. Understanding the planets' masses is a critical, first step to ultimately determining their atmospheric compositions and internal structures. These planets will provide an excellent test to current statistical arguments that suggest there is a turning point in composition from rocky, true-to-name super-Earths to volatile-rich sub-Neptunes in the range of 1.5 - 2 Earth-radii.

  7. Rocky or Not, Here We Come: Revealing the Internal Structures of K2-21b+c Through Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Dragomir, Diana; Fabrycky, Daniel; Kreidberg, Laura; Mills, Sean; Petigura, Erik

    2015-10-01

    The provenance of planets 1.5 -- 2 times the size of the Earth is one of the biggest unresolved mysteries from the Kepler mission. Determining the nature and origins of these exoplanets relies not only on measuring their radii, but also requires knowledge about their masses, atmospheric compositions, and interior structures. With this information, we can more confidently estimate planet mass distributions from measured radii, distinguish between rocky and non-rocky compositions, and better constrain the occurrence rate of Earth-like planets. Co-I Petigura recently announced the discovery of a two-transiting-planet system, K2-21, with bodies of 1.6 and 1.9 Earth-radii. The latter is expected to have a volatile-rich atmosphere, but the former lies squarely on the rocky/non-rocky composition boundary. These exoplanets orbit their relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star in a near 5:3 resonance and likely exhibit transit timing variations (TTVs) that can be resolved by Spitzer. Knowledge about their TTVs, in turn, will reveal constraints on the planets' masses, which is important because significant stellar activity makes RV mass measurements impractical. We propose to measure precise transit times of K2-21b and K2-21c with Spitzer and combine that information with existing K2 timing constraints to determine their masses. Understanding the planets' masses is a critical, first step to ultimately determining their atmospheric compositions and internal structures. These planets will provide an excellent test to current statistical arguments that suggest there is a turning point in composition from rocky, true-to-name super-Earths to volatile-rich sub-Neptunes in the range of 1.5 -- 2 Earth-radii.

  8. Analysis of one-sun monocrystalline rear-contacted silicon solar cells with efficiencies of 22.1%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, J.; Schumacher, J. O.; Warta, W.; Glunz, S. W.

    2002-04-01

    21.4% efficient rear-contacted cells (RCC) with interdigitated contact grids processed at the Fraunhofer ISE on 1.25 Ω cm float-zone (FZ) silicon are analyzed in detail. The comprehensive description does not only include a two-dimensional numerical device simulation, but also a detailed analysis of the optical carrier generation using optical ray tracing and determination of the losses due to distributed metal resistance and perimeter currents employing circuit simulation. Bulk and surface recombination losses are separated, combining carrier lifetime and open-circuit voltage measurements with numerical device simulation. The interface surface recombination velocity of the thermally oxidized emitter covering the front surface is deduced to be 1500 cm/s and the bulk diffusion length within the 1.25 Ω cm FZ silicon base is 1200 μm. Despite this excellent bulk diffusion length, the simulations reveal that at a maximum power point 80% of the total recombination is due to Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in the base. It was determined that losses due to the distributed metal resistance within the contact grid (including nongeneration losses) caused an fill factor decrease of 1% absolute. Loss currents flowing out of the cell perimeter caused an additional fill factor loss of 1.5% absolute. It was predicted that changing the surface concentration of the front and rear emitter diffusion from 5×1018 to 1×1018 cm-3, while keeping the sheet resistance constant, effected a relative improvement of 3% in the efficiency of the RCC structure. In fact, this modification has lead to an increase in the realized cell efficiency from 21.4% to 22.1% (VOC=697.6 mV, JSC=39.8 mA/cm2, and FF=79.4%), i.e., a relative improvement of 3.3%. This cell has an efficiency of 18.6% (VOC=696.5 mV, JSC=33.9 mA/cm2, and FF=78.8%) if illuminated from the rear side.

  9. The role of the carbohydrate recognition domain of placental protein 13 (PP13 in pregnancy evaluated with recombinant PP13 and the DelT221 PP13 variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Sammar

    Full Text Available Placental protein 13 (PP13, a placenta specific protein, is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. A naturally occurring PP13 deletion of thymidine at position 221 (DelT221 or truncated variant is associated with increased frequency of severe preeclampsia. In this study we compared the full length (wildtype PP13 and the truncated variant.Full length PP13 or its DelT221 variant were cloned, expressed and purified from E-Coli. Both variants were administrated into pregnant rats at day 8 of pregnancy for slow release (>5 days through osmotic pumps and rat blood pressure was measured. Animals were sacrificed at day 15 or day 21 and their utero-placental vasculature was examined.The DelT221 variant (11 kDA lacked exon 4 and a part of exon 3, and is short of 2 amino acids involved in the carbohydrate (CRD binding of the wildtype (18 kDA. Unlike the wildtype PP13, purification of DelT221 variant required special refolding. PP13 specific poly- clonal antibodies recognized both PP13 and DelT221 but PP13 specific monoclonal antibodies recognized only the wildtype, indicating the loss of major epitopes. Wildtype PP13 mRNA and its respective proteins were both lower in PE patients compared to normal pregnancies. The DelT221 mutant was not found in a large Caucasian cohort. Pregnant rats exposed to wildtype or DelT221 PP13 variants had significantly lower blood pressure compared to control. The wildtype but not the DelT221 mutant caused extensive vein expansion.This study revealed the importance of PP13 in regulating blood pressure and expanding the utero-placental vasculature in pregnant rats. PP13 mutant lacking amino acids of the PP13 CRD domain fails to cause vein expansion but did reduce blood pressure. The study provides a basis for replenishing patients at risk for preeclampsia by the full length but not the truncated PP13.

  10. X-linked mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and hypogonadism maps to Xp22.1-p21.3 in a Belgian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Zanni, Ginevra; Holvoet, Maureen; Borghgraef, Martine; Chelly, Jamel; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2005-01-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a heterogeneous disorder that can be classified as either non-specific (MRX), when mental retardation is the only feature, or as syndromic mental retardation (MRXS). Genetic defects underlying XLMR are being identified at a rapid pace, often starting from X-chromosomal aberrations and XLMR families with a well-defined linkage interval. Here, we present a new family with a syndromic form of XLMR, including mild mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and hypogonadism. Two-point linkage analysis with 24 polymorphic markers spanning the entire X chromosome was carried out. We could assign the causative gene to a 6 cM interval in Xp22.1-p21.3, with a maximum LOD score of 2.61 for markers DXS989 and DXS1061 at theta = 0.00. No mutations were found in the presented family for two known MRX genes mapping to this interval, ARX and IL1RAPL-1. These data indicate that the interval Xp22.1-p21.3 contains at least one additional MRXS gene.

  11. A new case of 8q22.1 microdeletion restricts the critical region for Nablus mask-like facial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debost-Legrand, Anne; Eymard-Pierre, Eleonore; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Gouas, Laetitia; Goumy, Carole; Giollant, Michel; Ayed, Wiem; Tchirkov, Andreï; Francannet, Christine; Vago, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Microdeletions of 8q21.3-8q22.1 have been identified in all patients with Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS). A recent report of a patient without this specific phenotype presented a 1.6 Mb deletion in this region that partially overlapped with previously reported 8q21.3 microdeletions, thus restricting critical region for this syndrome. We report on another case of an 8q21.3 deletion revealed by array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) in a 4-year-old child with global developmental delay, autism, microcephaly, but without Nablus phenotype. The size of the interstitial deletion was estimated to span 5.2 Mb. By combining the data from previous reports on 8q21.3-8q22.1 deletions and our case, we were able to narrow the critical region of Nablus syndrome to 0.5 Mb. The deleted region includes FAM92A1, which seems to be a potential candidate gene in NMLFS.

  12. 喉返神经缺损后损伤近端神经组织miR-221和PTEN表达变化%Changes of miR-221 and PTEN expressive activities in the proximal end nervous tissue of defected recurrent laryngeal nerve among rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    英信江; 丁健; 董频; 谢芳; 王保鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究大鼠喉返神经缺损后损伤近端神经组织中miR-221和PTEN达水平变化与神经修复过程的相关性。方法建立大鼠喉返神经缺损模型,应用Real time RT-PCR技术分别于第0d(对照组)、1d、4d和7d时检测喉返神经缺损后损伤近端神经组织的miR-221和PTEN表达活性水平,评估其活性表达变化与神经修复过程的相关性。结果喉返神经缺损后第0d、d1、d4和d7,损伤处近端神经组织中miR-221表达量分别为0.067±0.005、0.073±0.004、0.116±0.006和0.148±0.003;PTEN表达量分别为0.115±0.008、0.103±0.003、0.056±0.006和0.032±0.002;与对照组比较,第4d和第7d miR-221表达水平均上调,而PTEN则呈下调趋势,差异均有显著性统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论大鼠喉返神经缺损后,损伤近端神经组织中miR-221表达上调,并可能通过调控PTEN表达水平而对神经组织修复过程发挥促进作用。%Objective To investigate the expressive activity changes of miR-221 and PTEN in the proximal end nervous tissue of defected recurrent laryngeal nerve among rats. Methods Damage mode of recurrent laryngeal nerve disjunction was established among rats at first, and then, real time RT-PCR technique was utilized to determine the expressive levels of miR-221 and PTEN in the proximal end nervous tissue of disjuncted recurrent laryngeal nerve at 0 day, day 1, day 4 and day 7 respectively, with the healthy nervous tissue as normal control (day 0) to evaluate the possible association of miR-221 and PTEN expressive activities with recurrent laryngeal nerve reparation. Results The expressive levels of miR-221 in the proximal end nervous tissue of disjuncted recurrent laryngeal nerve were 0.067±0.005, 0.073±0.004, 0.116±0.006 and 0.148±0.003 at d0, d1, d4 and d7 respectively, while, that of PTEN were 0.115±0.008, 0.103±0.003, 0.056±0.006 and 0.032±0.002 at these time points respectively. When compared with that of

  13. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  14. A Rare Interstitial Duplication of 8q22.1–8q24.3 Associated with Syndromic Bilateral Cleft Lip/Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ferreira Rezek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of 8q interstitial duplication derived from maternal balanced translocations in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate in syndromic form associated with other congenital malformations. G-banding cytogenetic analysis revealed a chromosomal abnormality in the form of the karyotype 46,XX der(22t(8;22(q22.1;p11.1mat. Chromosome microarray analysis evidenced a 49 Mb duplicated segment of chromosome 8q with no pathogenic imbalances on chromosome 22. Two siblings also carry the balanced translocation. We have compared this case with other “pure” trisomies of 8q patients reported in the literature and with genome wide association studies recently published. This work highlights the involvement of chromosome 8q in orofacial clefts.

  15. Inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1) in a man with mental retardation, short stature, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism: clinical study and mutation analysis of the NXF5 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frints, S.G.; Jun, L.; Fryns, J.P.; Devriendt, K.; Teulingkx, R.; Berghe, L. van den; Vos, B. de; Borghgraef, M.; Chelly, J.; Portes, V. des; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Hamel, B.C.J.; Ropers, H.H.; Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Raynaud, M.; Moraine, C.; Marynen, P.; Froyen, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 59-year-old male (patient A059) with moderate to severe mental retardation (MR) and a pericentric inversion of the X-chromosome: inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1). He had short stature, pectus excavatum, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism. Until now, no other patients with similar clinic

  16. A new hemoglobin variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T] with a double base mutation at the same codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed.

  17. miR-106b、miR-20a和miR-221在早期胃癌中表达的研究%A study on miR-106b, miR-20a and miR-221 expressions in early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡辉; 袁媛; 韦雪; 魏丽; 王晓鹏; 郝云飞; 张迎梅; 郭天康

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the exprssion of miR-106b,miR-20a and miR-221 in early development of gastric cancer.Methods The plasma expression of 15 selected microRNAs (miR-1,miR-106a,miR-106b,miR-17-5p,miR-20a,miR-21,miR-221,miR-27a,miR-34,miR-376c,miR-378,miR-423-5p,miR-451,miR-486,miR-744) in 30 gastric cancer (GC) patients and 30 age-and gendermatched healthy controls were measured and then the differences of those micro-RNAs expressions in other 60 GC patients and 60 matched controls were evaluated by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to test the sensitivity and specificity of GC diagnosis using these identified plasma microRNAs.Results Three plasma microRNAs miR-106b,miR-20a,and miR-221,were significantly elevated in GC patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.05).Furthermore,the areas under the ROC curves using miR-106b,miR-20a,and miR-221 for GC diagnosis were 0.773 (95% CI 0.776-0.841),0.859 (95% CI 0.805-0.914),and 0.796 (95% CI 0.726-0.866),respectively.These three microRNAs were on a statistically significant elevation in GC patients compared with healthy controls at each of the four stages.However,there were no significant differences in the plasma levels of the three microRNAs among the four TNM stages (P > 0.05).Conclusions Plasma miR-106b,miR-20a,and miR-221 may be used as biomarkers for the detection of early GC.%目的 探讨血浆微小RNA在早期胃癌中的表达情况,研究其在胃癌发生发展中的意义.方法 本研究首先对30例胃癌患者和30例健康对照人群血浆中的15种微小RNA(miR-1、miR-106a、miR-106b、miR-17-5p、miR-20a、miR-21、miR-221、miR-27a、miR-34、miR-376c、miR-378、miR-423-5p、miR-451、miR-486、miR-744)进行检测,然后通过定量逆转录聚合酶链反应来确定另外60例胃癌患者和60例健康对照人群的血浆微小RNA是否存在差异.通过受试者工作特征

  18. Adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells is modulated by microRNA-155, microRNA-221, and microRNA-222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skårn, Magne; Namløs, Heidi M; Noordhuis, Paul; Wang, Meng-Yu; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Myklebost, Ola

    2012-04-10

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are capable of limited self-renewal and multilineage differentiation in vitro. Several studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), post-transcriptional modifiers of mRNA stability and protein translation, play crucial roles in the regulation of these complex processes. To gain knowledge regarding the role of miRNAs in human adipocyte differentiation, we examined the miRNA expression profile of the immortalized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line hMSC-Tert20. Such a model system has the advantage of a reproducible and consistent phenotype while maintaining important properties of the primary donor cells, including the potential to differentiate to adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. We identified 12 miRNAs that were differentially expressed during adipogenesis, of which several have been previously shown to play important roles in adipocyte biology. Among these, the expression of miRNA-155, miRNA-221, and miRNA-222 decreased during the adipogenic program of both immortalized and primary hMSCs, suggesting that they act as negative regulators of differentiation. Interestingly, ectopic expression of the miRNAs significantly inhibited adipogenesis and repressed induction of the master regulators PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that miRNA-155, miRNA-221, and miRNA-222 have an important function in human adipocyte differentiation, and that their downregulation is necessary to relieve the repression of genes crucial for this process.

  19. The regulation roles of miR-125b, miR-221 and miR-27b in porcine Salmonella infection signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Gao, Weihua; Yang, Jun; Liang, Xiongyan; Luo, Jingbo; Huang, Tinghua

    2016-08-01

    miRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules typically 18-22 nucleotides long that can suppress the expression of their target genes. Several laboratories have attempted to identify miRNAs from the pig that are involved in Salmonella infection. These bioinformatics strategies using the newly available genomic sequence are generally successful. Here, we report an in silico identification of miRNAs in pig focusing on the Salmonella infection pathway, and further investigated the differential expression of those miRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR during pre- and post-natal stage of Salmonella inoculation from the peripheral blood of commercially breed pigs. We identified 29 miRNAs that have predicted targets in the Salmonella infection pathway and nine of them were not yet described in pig. In addition, the expression of nine selected miRNAs was validated in the peripheral blood by northern blotting. Through expression analyses, differences were found between pre- and post-natal stages of Salmonella inoculation for miR-221, miR-125b and miR-27b-all of them were suppressed 2 days after Salmonella inoculation. The predicted targets of those three miRNAs were validated by luciferase reporter assays. We show that FOS is a direct target of miR-221, miR-125b can suppress MAPK14, and miR-27b can target IFNG. These findings will be helpful in understanding the function and processing of these miRNAs in Salmonella infection. The miRNA differentially expressed in the peripheral blood of commercial breed pigs suggest that it can be used as genetic markers for salmonella infection resistance in pigs.

  20. Identifying candidate genes for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) in the critical region X(p22.1-p22.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, L.A.; Freedner, N.L.; Maizoub, J.A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) is the most common inherited form of rickets, characterized by a proximal renal tubular phosphate leak leading to phosphate-wasting and abnormal 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism. The primary defect is unknown, and the candidate gene approach has thus far been unsuccessful in identifying the gene. The HYP locus has been mapped to X(p22.1-p22.2) and more recently to a 500,000 base pair region spanned by two YACs, E01138 and A0472. In an effort to identify the HYP gene in the 500 kb region, we are taking the direct selection approach. Since the tissue expressing the HYP gene is unknown, we are using cDNA libraries from a number of tissues for direct selection, including kidney, liver, thyroid, brain, spinal cord, total fetus, bone, and an osteosarcoma cell line. The tissue cDNA is hybridized to the YACs A0472 and EO1138 (obtained courtesy of Fiona Francis, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London) in the presence of quenchers, which block repeated and ribosomal sequences on the YACs. A selected library is created from the tissues cDNAs that hybridize to the YACs. The selected cDNA library is first screened to eliminate inserts containing repeated and ribosomal sequences. The presence of the inserts on the YAC and on X(p22.1-p22.2) is then verified using mapping panels. Candidate cDNAs that make it through this analysis are sequenced. Our first attempts at making selected libraries resulted in a number of contaminants. Three separate libraries are currently under construction, using the following combinations of tissue cDNA libraries: (1) kidney, liver, and thyroid; (2) brain, spinal cord, and total fetus; and (3) bone and an osteosarcoma cell line. We will discuss transcripts obtained from these libraries.

  1. miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernest K Amankwah; Evelyn Anegbe; Hyun Park; Julio Pow-Sang; Ardeshir Hakam; Jong Y Park

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in both obesity and prostate cancer recurrence,but the association between the expression of these miRNAs and obesity in prostate cancer recurrence is unknown.In this study,we examined the effect of the interaction between obesity and miR-21,miR-221 or miR-222 expression on prostate cancer recurrence among 28 recurrent and 37 non-recurrent prostate cancer cases,miRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age at diagnosis,clinical stage and Gleason score were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for recurrence free survival.A significantly (P=0.014) higher proportion of recurrent cases (78.6%) than non-recurrent cases (48.6%) had a low expression of miR-21 and the difference was more prominent in obese than non-obese patients.Multivariate analysis showed that the expression of miR-21 was an independent risk factor for recurrence in obese (HR=6.15,95% CI=1.04-36.48,P=0.045),but not in non-obese (HR=1.28,95% CI=0.30-5.49,P=0.74) cases.A significant association with recurrence was not observed for the expression of miR-221 and miR-222.In summary,our findings show that miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and suggest that the differential expression of miR-21 is more prominent in obese than in non-obese cases.Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  2. miR-29b, miR-205 and miR-221 enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in HuH28 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells. RESULTS: HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221 restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221 or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b, also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.

  3. miR-221在胰管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤患者血浆中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩非; 王春友

    2012-01-01

    已有研究证实微小RNA( miRNA)在人类肿瘤中表达异常,其中miR-221在结直肠癌中表达显著增高,可能作为肿瘤标志物[1].我们采用定量聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)法检测胰管内乳头黏液性肿瘤(IPMN)和胰腺导管腺癌患者血浆中miR-221的表达,探讨其作为IPMN诊断标志物的可能性.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL STABILITY OF PMR POLYIMIDES USING 7-OXA-BICYCLO[2,2,1]HEPT-5-ENE-2, 3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE AS END CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-liang Gong; Yan-feng Li; Hai-xia Yang; Xiao-long Wang; Shu-jiang Zhang; Shi-yong Yanga

    2011-01-01

    An anhydride monomer containing ether oxide bridge,7-oxa-bicyclo[2,2,1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride (ONA),was successfully synthesized by Diels-Alder reaction of furan and maleic anhydride.The ONA was also studied as an end-cap for the polymerization of monomer reactant (PMR) type polyimides.Three molecular weight levels of the ONA end-capped PMR resins were evaluated.The effects of process conditions of these novel PMR resins on thermal and mechanical properties were investigated.It was demonstrated that the imidized prepolymers using the end-cap have good processability,and the cured polyimide specimens exhibited good thermal stability.The initial decomposition temperature,Td (ca.580℃) and glass transition temperature,Tg (330℃) of the novel resin (PI-20),prepared under optimum process conditions,compare favorably with the Td (ca.620℃) and Tg (ca.348℃) of the state-of-the-art resin (PI'-20),respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the IBM T221 16 x 10 Aspect Ratio, 22.2-Inch Diagonal 3840 x 2400 Pixel LCD Color Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    II.6-1 and II.6-2. As a result of input from a member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 ( AAPM IBM T221 22.2-Inch...0.18 1.9 114 216 23.64 0.19 1.1 92 153 11.48 0.18 1.9 114 217 23.83 0.19 1.1 92 154 11.66 0.18 1.8 115 218 24.02 0.19 1.0 93 155 11.84 0.18...92 153 12.32 0.2 2.0 114 217 26.22 0.16 0.8 92 154 12.51 0.19 1.8 115 218 26.42 0.2 1.0 93 155 12.71 0.2 1.9 115 219 26.64 0.22 1.1 93

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of some lanthanide(III nitrate complexes of ethyl 2-[2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropylazo]-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiophenecarboxyate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEMPAKAM JANARDHANAN ATHIRA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl 2-[2-(1-acetyl-2-oxopropylazo]-4,5-dimethyl-3-thiophenecarboxyate was synthesized by coupling diazotized ethyl 2-amino-4,5-dimethylthiophene-3-carboxylate with acetylacetone. Based on various spectral studies and elemental analysis, an intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded azo-enol structural form was assigned for the ligand. This ligand is versatile in forming a series of lanthanide(III complexes, viz., lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III and gadolinium(III, which were characterized through various spectral studies, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance and thermal analysis. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as a neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through one of the azo nitrogen atoms, the ester carbonyl and the enolic oxygen of the acetylacetone moiety, without deprotonation. Molar conductance values adequately supported their non-electrolytic nature. The ligand and lanthanum(III complex were subjected to X-ray diffraction studies. In addition, the lanthanum(III complex underwent a facile transesterification reaction on refluxing with methanol for a long period. The thermal behaviour of the lanthanum(III complex was also examined

  7. Differential cross-section measurements for inelastic scattering of 22.1 keV photons by elements with 4<=Z<=69

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, A; Puri, S; Mehta, D; Singh, N

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering differential cross-sections for the 22.1 keV photons have been measured in Be, C, Mg, Al, S, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Y, Zr, Ag, In, Sn, Te, Gd, Dy, Ho and Tm elements at an angle of 133 deg. . The measurements were performed under vacuum using an annular source of sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope as photon source and a planar HPGe detector. The measured inelastic scattering cross-sections are compared with those calculated using the Klein-Nishina cross-section for Compton scattering by stationary free electrons and the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock incoherent-scattering function. A good agreement is found for all the elements under investigation except for sub 3 sub 9 Y (B sub K =17.038 keV) and sub 4 sub 0 Zr (B sub K =17.998 keV) elements, where the measured cross-sections are approx 25% lower than the calculated ones; B sub K is the K-shell binding energy of the element.

  8. Differential cross-section measurements for inelastic scattering of 22.1 keV photons by elements with 4{<=}Z{<=}69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajay; Shahi, J.S.; Puri, Sanjiv; Mehta, D.; Singh, Nirmal E-mail: nsingh@pu.ac.in

    2002-08-01

    Inelastic scattering differential cross-sections for the 22.1 keV photons have been measured in Be, C, Mg, Al, S, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Y, Zr, Ag, In, Sn, Te, Gd, Dy, Ho and Tm elements at an angle of 133 deg. . The measurements were performed under vacuum using an annular source of {sup 109}Cd radioisotope as photon source and a planar HPGe detector. The measured inelastic scattering cross-sections are compared with those calculated using the Klein-Nishina cross-section for Compton scattering by stationary free electrons and the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock incoherent-scattering function. A good agreement is found for all the elements under investigation except for {sub 39}Y (B{sub K}=17.038 keV) and {sub 40}Zr (B{sub K}=17.998 keV) elements, where the measured cross-sections are {approx}25% lower than the calculated ones; B{sub K} is the K-shell binding energy of the element.

  9. Inherited and de novo deletion of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene locus at 16q22.1----q22.3 in a patient with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natt, E; Westphal, E M; Toth-Fejel, S E; Magenis, R E; Buist, N R; Rettenmeier, R; Scherer, G

    1987-12-01

    Tyrosinemia II is an autosomal-recessively inherited condition caused by deficiency in the liver-specific enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT; EC 2.6.1.5). We have restudied a patient with typical symptoms of tyrosinemia II who in addition suffers from multiple congenital anomalies including severe mental retardation. Southern blot analysis using a human TAT cDNA probe revealed a complete deletion of both TAT alleles in the patient. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the patient and his family showed one deletion to be maternally inherited, extending over at least 27 kb and including the complete TAT structural gene, whereas loss of the second TAT allele results from a small de novo interstitial deletion, del 16 (pter----q22.1::q22.3----qter), in the paternally inherited chromosome 16. Three additional loci previously assigned to 16q22 were studied in our patient: haptoglobin (HP), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and the metallothionein gene cluster MT1,MT2. Of these three markers, only the HP locus was found to be codeleted with the TAT locus on the del(16) chromosome.

  10. Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand [2.2.1]and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhari, Nayan S.; Sanghavi, Bankim J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Karna, Shashi P. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ATTN: RDRL-WM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Srivastava, Ashwini K., E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400 098 (India)

    2010-12-30

    An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a cryptand [2.2.1](CRY) and carbon nanotube (CNT) modified paste electrode (CRY-CNT-PE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of bismuth. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronocoulometry (CC). It was observed that by employing CRY-CNT-PE, a 9-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s/V) was proportional to the Bi(III) concentration in the range of 5.55 x 10{sup -8} to 9.79 x 10{sup -11} M (r = 0.9990) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 3.17 x 10{sup -11} M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of bismuth in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as a simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limits and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for bismuth analysis in commercial and real samples using CRY-CNT-PE and those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  11. Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step.

  12. 伴有ins(8;21)(q22;q22.1q22.3)髓系白血病的荧光原位杂交研究%Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on a myeloid leukemia patient with ins (8;21) (q22;q22.1q22.3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚芳; 马勤芬; 薛永权; 白淑潇; 张俊; 姚利; 王勇; 仇惠英; 沈娟; 潘金兰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with the insertion (8;21) (q22; q22.1q22.3). A 33-year-old Chinese woman was referred to our hospital. Hematologic data showed WBC 42.7 ~ 109/L with monocytosis (monocyte counts 7.296 X 109/L). Bone marrow aspirate was hypercellular with 4.5% monoblasts and 7.5% promonocytes. At first she was diagnosed with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) according to the FAB criteria. Initially the patient received supportive care only, but her general condition rapidly became worse three months later. The monoblasts and promonocytes in the bone marrow rose to 20.50%. After two cycles of combined chemotherapy she obtained complete remission. Methods Chromosome specimens were prepared by short-term culture of bone marrow cells. Karyotype analysis was carried out by R-banding technique. Three fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed using AML1-ETO dual color, dual fusion probe, whole chromosome painting 8 and 21 probes, and cen-8 and Tel 21qter probes, respectively. Reverse transcription polyrnerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assay for detecting the AML1-ETO fusion transcript was also performed. Results Conventional cytogeuetie analysis showed a karyotype of 46,XX,ins(8;21) (q22;q22.1q22.3)[7]/46,XX[3]. FISH tests confirmed the insertion. RT-PCR analysis detected the AML1-ETO fusion transcript. Conclusion We consider that this patient should be rediagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia according to the criteria proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) and that FISH and RT-PCR play an important role in verification of the ins(8;21).%目的 对1例临床诊断为慢性粒单核细胞白血病患者进行荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situhybridization,FISH)研究.方法 将患者骨髓细胞24 h培养后按常规方法制备染色体.采用R显带技术进行染色体核型分析;采用AML1-ETO双色双融合探针、8号和21号整条染色体涂染探针、8号染色体着丝粒探针和21号

  13. Common variants on 2p16.1, 6p22.1 and 10q24.32 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H; Yan, H; Li, J; Li, Z; Zhang, X; Ma, Y; Mei, L; Liu, C; Cai, L; Wang, Q; Zhang, F; Iwata, N; Ikeda, M; Wang, L; Lu, T; Li, M; Xu, H; Wu, X; Liu, B; Yang, J; Li, K; Lv, L; Ma, X; Wang, C; Li, L; Yang, F; Jiang, T; Shi, Y; Li, T; Zhang, D; Yue, W

    2016-12-06

    Many schizophrenia susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations. However, until recently, schizophrenia GWASs in non-European populations were limited to small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with schizophrenia. To identify genetic risk variations for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population, we performed a two-stage GWAS of schizophrenia comprising 4384 cases and 5770 controls, followed by independent replications of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional 4339 schizophrenia cases and 7043 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Furthermore, we conducted additional analyses based on the results in the discovery stage. The combined analysis confirmed evidence of genome-wide significant associations in the Han Chinese population for three loci, at 2p16.1 (rs1051061, in an exon of VRK2, P=1.14 × 10(-12), odds ratio (OR)=1.17), 6p22.1 (rs115070292 in an intron of GABBR1, P=4.96 × 10(-10), OR=0.77) and 10q24.32 (rs10883795 in an intron of AS3MT, P=7.94 × 10(-10), OR=0.87; rs10883765 at an intron of ARL3, P=3.06 × 10(-9), OR=0.87). The polygenic risk score based on Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia GWAS data modestly predicted case-control status in the Chinese population (Nagelkerke R(2): 1.7% ~5.7%). Our pathway analysis suggested that neurological biological pathways such as GABAergic signaling, dopaminergic signaling, cell adhesion molecules and myelination pathways are involved in schizophrenia. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are needed to establish the biological context and potential clinical utility of these findings.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.212.

  14. 脑胶质瘤患者血清miR-21、miR-221、miR-222和miR-10b的相对表达量及临床意义%The Relative Expression of Serum miR-21 ,miR-221 ,miR-222 and miR-10b in Patients with Glioma and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建军; 李春生

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中miR-21、miR-221、miR-222和miR-10b对脑胶质瘤恶性程度的鉴别价值.方法 采用Real-timePCR技术检测34例低级别脑胶质瘤患者和50例高级别脑胶质瘤患者miR-21、miR-221、miR-222和miR-10b的相对表达量,使用受试者工作特征曲线(receiver operating characteristic curve,ROC)评价其诊断价值.结果 与低级别脑胶质瘤组相比,高级别脑胶质瘤组血清miR-10b、miR-21和miR-221的相对表达量均显著升高,且差异具有统计学意义,miR-222相对表达量的差异无统计学意义.ROC曲线评价血清miR-10b、miR-21和miR-221对于脑胶质瘤恶性程度的诊断价值,miR-10b的曲线下面积(area under curve,AUC)值最大,为0.722(0.694,0.751),对于低级别脑胶质瘤的诊断敏感性和特异性分别为79.41%和78.00%.使用二元Logistic回归分析评价血清miR-10b、miR-21和miR-221联合检测对于脑胶质瘤恶性程度的诊断价值,其曲线下面积为0.915(0.855,0.977),对于低级别脑胶质瘤的诊断敏感性和特异性分别为85.29%和88.00%.与miR-10b、miR-21和miR-221单独检测的诊断价值相比,其曲线下面积均有显著提高(P=0.026、P=0.012、P=0.008).结论 miR-10b、miR-21和miR-221联合诊断可以为临床脑胶质瘤患者的鉴别诊断提供一种潜在的辅助诊断方法.

  15. Inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1) in a man with mental retardation, short stature, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism: clinical study and mutation analysis of the NXF5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Jun, Lin; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Devriendt, Koen; Teulingkx, Rudi; Van den Berghe, Lut; De Vos, Bernice; Borghgraef, Martine; Chelly, Jamel; Des Portes, Vincent; Van Bokhoven, Hans; Hamel, Ben; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Kalscheuer, Vera; Raynaud, Martine; Moraine, Claude; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2003-06-15

    We describe a 59-year-old male (patient A059) with moderate to severe mental retardation (MR) and a pericentric inversion of the X-chromosome: inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1). He had short stature, pectus excavatum, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism. Until now, no other patients with similar clinical features have been described in the literature. Molecular analysis of both breakpoints led to the identification of a novel "Nuclear RNA export factor" (NXF) gene cluster on Xq22.1. Within this cluster, the NXF5 gene was interrupted with subsequent loss of gene expression. Hence, mutation analysis of the NXF5 and its neighboring homologue, the NXF2 gene was performed in 45 men with various forms of syndromic X-linked MR (XLMR) and in 70 patients with nonspecific XLMR. In the NXF5 gene four nucleotide changes: one intronic, two silent, and one missense (K23E), were identified. In the NXF2 gene two changes (one intronic and one silent) were found. Although none of these changes were causative mutations, we propose that NXF5 is a good candidate gene for this syndromic form of XLMR, given the suspected role of NXF proteins is within mRNA export/transport in neurons. Therefore, mutation screening of the NXF gene family in phenotypically identical patients is recommended.

  16. Crystal structures of nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper and chloro-(2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Paholnitcaia, A. Yu. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Petrenko, P. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Tsapkov, V. I., E-mail: vtsapkov@gmail.com [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Poirier, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (Canada); Gulea, A. P. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Two crystal modifications of nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper (I and II) and two modifications of chloro-(2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) copper (III and IV) have been synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. In structures I and II, the copper atoms coordinate a monodeprotonated molecule of the organic ligand, nitrate ions, and a water molecule. In crystals of I, the complexes are monomeric, whereas complexes II are linked via nitrate ions to form polymeric chains. In both structures the coordination polyhedron of the copper atom can be described as a distorted tetragonal bipyramid—(4 + 1 + 1) in I and (4 + 2) in II. These coordination polyherdra have different compositions. In structures III and IV, the metal atoms coordinate a monodeprotonated (2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazole molecule and chloride ions. In III the complex-forming ion has square-planar coordination geometry, whereas structure IV consists of centrosymmetric dimers with two bridging chlorine atoms. It was found that nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper possesses antitumor activity.

  17. A genome-wide association study identifies pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gloria M.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Fuchs, Charles S.; Kraft, Peter; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Klein, Alison P.; LaCroix, Andrea; Li, Donghui; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Bamlet, William R.; Berg, Christine D.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Bracci, Paige M.; Canzian, Federico; Clipp, Sandra; Cotterchio, Michelle; de Andrade, Mariza; Duell, Eric J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hassan, Manal; Howard, Barbara; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; Lynch, Shannon M.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Parikh, Hemang; Patel, Alpa V.; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Riboli, Elio; Rodriguez, Laudina; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Zhaoming; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in 3,851 cases and 3,934 controls drawn from twelve prospective cohort studies and eight case-control studies. Based on a logistic regression model for genotype trend effect that was adjusted for study, age, sex, self-described ancestry and five principal components, we identified eight SNPs that map to three loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33. Two correlated SNPs, rs9543325 (P=3.27×10−11; per allele odds ratio, OR 1.26, 95% CI=1.18-1.35) and rs9564966 (P=5.86×10−8; per allele OR 1.21, 95% CI=1.13-1.30) map to a non-genic region on chromosome 13q22.1. Five SNPs on 1q32.1 map to NR5A2; the strongest signal was rs3790844 (P=2.45×10−10; per allele OR 0.77, 95% CI=0.71-0.84). A single SNP, rs401681 (P=3.66×10−7; per allele OR 1.19, 95% CI=1.11-1.27) maps to the CLPTM1L-TERT locus on 5p15.33, associated with multiple cancers. Our study has identified common susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer that warrant follow-up studies. PMID:20101243

  18. Stereochemistry and mechanism of the reduction of some bicyclo (2-2-1-) heptane-2-ones by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia; Stereochimie et mecanisme de la reduction de quelques bicyclo (2-2-1) heptanones-2 par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombeau, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A systematic experimental study of the reduction of four bicyclo(2-2-1)hepta n-2-ones by dissolved alkaline and alkaline-earth metals in liquid ammonia is reported. Chapter one: models of metal-ammonia solutions and mechanisms of the reduction of ketones by these solutions are rapidly recalled. Chapter two: results obtained in the thermodynamic equilibration of three pairs of epimeric alcohols which formally derive from three of the starting ketones are presented. Chapter three: deals with the results obtained in the reduction of the ketones in the absence or the presence of a proton source. A new interpretation of these results is given and is based upon two different effects: - the torsional interaction created by the bridgehead substituent on the C-O bond which favours the formation of the endo alcohol; - the difference of steric hindrance between the two sides (exo and endo) defined by the plane of the carbonyl group of the starting molecule, which favours the attack of the metal cation from one side or the other, and therefore the formation of the exo or the endo epimer. This mechanism is generalised in a model which is tested by means of some examples published in the literature. It then appears able to construe correctly the obtained results. (author) [French] Une etude experimentale systematique de la reduction de quatre bicyclo-(2-2-1)heptanones-2 par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide a ete effectuee. 1er chapitre: on y rappelle rapidement les modeles proposes pour la structure des solutions metalliques dans l'ammoniac liquide, ainsi que les mecanismes de reduction des cetones par ces solutions. 2eme chapitre: on y presente les resultats obtenus lors de l'equilibration thermodynamique de trois couples d'alcools epimeres derivant de trois des cetones reduites. 3eme chapitre: il concerne les resultats obtenus lors de la reduction des cetones en l'absence ou en presence de donneurs de protons. Une

  19. 北京市东城区221名1~12岁健康儿童肺炎链球菌携带状况研究%Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 221 healthy children aged 1 - 12 years in Dongcheng district, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸明芝; 吴疆; 黄辉; 吕敏; 张玉萍; 周云; 李侠; 闫威; 翟力军; 孙宏莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the nasopharyngeal carriage status of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children aged 1-12 years and the serotype and the antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Methods From October 2010 to June 2011 ,nasopharyngeal swabs were collected every two months from randomly selected 221 healthy children aged 1-12 years in Dongcheng district to isolate Streptococcus pneumoniae and identify the serotypes and test antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Results A total of 220 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 32 serotypes were isolated, the cumulative carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the healthy children was 57. 47% . The serotype coverage rate of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine was 36. 82% and the serotype coverage rate of polysaccharide polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine was 64.55%. The antibiotic resistant strains accounted for 3.64%. Conclusion Healthy children aged 1-12 years are at high risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. It is necessary to establish effective surveillance system and develop Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine which is suitable to use in China.%目的 了解1 ~12岁健康儿童鼻咽部肺炎链球菌携带情况,及该菌血清型、耐药情况,为制定防治策略提供参考依据.方法 2010年10月至2011年6月,选取北京市东城区221名1~12岁健康儿童,每2个月采集鼻咽拭子标本1次,进行肺炎链球菌培养、血清分型及耐药性检测.结果 1 ~12岁健康儿童肺炎链球菌累计携带率为57.47%;分离到32个血清型共220株肺炎链球菌,7价肺炎球菌结合疫苗的血清型覆盖率为36.82%,23价肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖疫苗的血清型覆盖率为64.55%;耐药菌株占3.64%.结论 1~ 12岁健康儿童存在着较高肺炎链球菌疾病的风险,有必要建立科学的监测体系,研制出适合国情的肺炎链球菌疫苗.

  20. Biological activity of novel N-substituted amides of endo-3-(3-methylthio-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid and N-substituted amides of 1-(5-methylthio-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)cyclohexane-2-carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuta-Stec, Anna; Kosikowska, Urszula; Chodkowska, Anna; Pitucha, Monika; Malm, Anna; Jagiełło-Wójtowicz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    N-Substituted amides of endo-3-(3-methylthio-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid and 1-(5-methylthio-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)cyclohexane-2-carboxylic acid were prepared by the condensation reaction of endo-S-methyl-N1-(bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarbonyl)isothiosemicarbazide and S-methyl-N1-(cyclohexane-2,3-dicarbonyl)isothiosemicarbazide with primary amines. The synthesized compounds were screened for their microbiological and pharmacological activities.

  1. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a recurrent unbalanced translocation (4;21) (p16.3;q22.1): Relevance to the Wolf-Hirschhorn and Down syndrome critical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastio, G.; Perone, L.; Guzzetta, V. [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    We report on an aneuploidy syndrome due to the unbalanced segregation of a familial translocation (4;21)(p16.3;q22.1) causing a partial 4p monosomy and a partial 21q trisomy. The three affected children presented with severe failure to thrive, short stature, microcephaly, profound hypotonia, and mental retardation. The face, very similar in the three children, is characterized by frontal bossing, upslanting of the palpebral fissures, short nose, and deep set ears, giving the overall appearance of the Down syndrome. The molecular study has defined the aneuploid segment on both 4p and 21q. Most of the Down syndrome critical region was found to be trisomic, while only part of the candidate Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region was deleted, suggesting that this region is not critical for the major malformations characteristic for WHS. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleissa, Khalid A.; Almasoud, Fahad I.; Islam, Mohammed S. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); L' Annunziata, Michael F. [IAEA Expert, Montague Group, P.O. Box 5033, Oceanside, CA 92052-5033 (United States)], E-mail: mlannunziata@cox.net

    2008-12-15

    The activities of {sup 228}Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO{sub 2} and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter {sup 228}Ra({sup 228}Ac), the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by {sup 228}Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9{+-}0.1% was measured for {sup 228}Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317{+-}0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of {sup 228}Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for {sup 228}Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure {sup 228}Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used.

  3. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used.

  4. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  5. Cloning of the cDNA for the human ATP synthase OSCP subunit (ATP5O) by exon trapping and mapping to chromosome 21q22.1-q22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiming [Geneva Univ. Medical School (Switzerland); Morris, M.A.; Rossier, C. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Exon trapping was used to clone portions of potential genes from human chromosome 21. One trapped sequence showed striking homology with the bovine and rat ATP synthase OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein) subunit. We subsequently cloned the full-length human ATP synthase OSCP cDNA (GDB/HGMW approved name ATP50) from infant brain and muscle libraries and determined its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence (EMBL/GenBank Accession No. X83218). The encoded polypeptide contains 213 amino acids, with more than 80% identity to bovine and murine ATPase OSCP subunits and over 35% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sweet potato sequences. The human ATP5O gene is located at 21q22.1-q22.2, just proximal to D21S17, in YACs 860G11 and 838C7 of the Chumakov et al. YAC contig. The gene is expressed in all human tissues examined, most strongly in muscle and heart. This ATP5O subunit is a key structural component of the stalk of the mitochondrial respiratory chain F{sub 1}F{sub 0}-ATP synthase and as such may contribute in a gene dosage-dependent manner to the phenotype of Down syndrome (trisomy 21). 39 refs., 5 figs.

  6. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the z=2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, T K Daisy

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(J=3-2) line emission in the strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z=2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z=0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of S_cont = 7.4 +/- 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J=3-2) line intensity of I_(CO(3-2)) = (12.6 +/- 2.0) Jy km s^-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of L'(CO(3-2)) = (3.4 +/- 0.7) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) K km s^-1 pc^2 for the SMG, where mu_L is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of M_gas = (2.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) Msun. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1^{+1.1}_{-1.3} K, a dust mass of M_du...

  7. Water-stable helical structure of tertiary amides of bicyclic β-amino acid bearing 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane. Full control of amide cis-trans equilibrium by bridgehead substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Masahiro; Otani, Yuko; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2010-10-27

    Helical structures of oligomers of non-natural β-amino acids are significantly stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between main-chain amide moieties in many cases, but the structures are generally susceptible to the environment; that is, helices may unfold in protic solvents such as water. For the generation of non-hydrogen-bonded ordered structures of amides (tertiary amides in most cases), control of cis-trans isomerization is crucial, even though there is only a small sterical difference with respect to cis and trans orientations. We have established methods for synthesis of conformationally constrained β-proline mimics, that is, bridgehead-substituted 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-endo-carboxylic acids. Our crystallographic, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and CD spectroscopic studies in solution revealed that a bridgehead methoxymethyl substituent completely biased the cis-trans equilibrium to the cis-amide structure along the main chain, and helical structures based on the cis-amide linkage were generated independently of the number of residues, from the minimalist dimer through the tetramer, hexamer, and up to the octamer, and irrespective of the solvent (e.g., water, alcohol, halogenated solvents, and cyclohexane). Generality of the control of the amide equilibrium by bridgehead substitution was also examined.

  8. 共青团干部公共服务动机对组织承诺的影响研究——以北京市221名专职团干部为分析对象%A Research on the Effects of Communist Youth League Cadres' Public Service Motivation on Organizational Commitment——Based on the Analysis of 221 Communist Youth League Cadres in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝军; 钟坚龙

    2014-01-01

    公务人员的工作动机是公共行政管理中最古老的和讨论最多的话题之一.本研究以北京市221名专职共青团干部作为研究对象,对他们的公共服务动机和组织承诺状况进行了调查.在此基础上,通过相关分析与回归分析探讨了团干部的公共服务动机与其组织承诺之间的关系.研究结果表明,团干部服务动机水平对其组织承诺情况呈现显著的正向影响.其中,公仆热忱度和公仆牺牲度二个维度对组织承诺具有较好的预测力.

  9. No associations found between the genes situated at 6p22.1, HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1 in Japanese patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Maiko; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takebayashi, Yuto; Shibata, Nobuto; Baba, Hajime; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Nakamura, Yukako; Aleksic, Branko; Yoshimi, Akira; Okochi, Tomo; Ikeda, Masashi; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Takeda, Masatoshi; Arai, Heii

    2012-06-01

    Recent GWAS demonstrated an association between candidate genes located at region 6p22.1 and schizophrenia. This region has been reported to house certain candidate SNPs, which may be associated with schizophrenia at HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1. These genes may presumably be associated with pathophysiology in schizophrenia, namely epigenetics and psychoneuroimmunology. A three-step study was undertaken to focus on these genes with the following aims: (1) whether these genes may be associated in Japanese patients with schizophrenia by performing a 1st stage case-control study (514 cases and 706 controls) using Japanese tagging SNPs; (2) if the genetic regions of interest for the disease from the 1st stage of analyses were found, re-sequencing was performed to search for new mutations; (3) finally, a replication study was undertaken to confirm positive findings from the 1st stage were reconfirmed using a larger number of subjects (2,583 cases and 2,903 controls) during a 2nd stage multicenter replication study in Japan. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan PCR method for the selected nine tagging SNPs. Although three SNPs situated at the 3' side of PGBD1; rs3800324, rs3800327, and rs2142730, and two-window haplotypes between rs3800327 and rs2142730 showed positive associations with schizophrenia, these associations did not have enough power to sustain significance during the 2nd stage replication study. In addition, re-sequencing for exons 5 and 6 situated at this region did not express any new mutations for schizophrenia. Taken together these results indicate that the genes HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1 were not associated with Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  10. QTL Information Table: 221 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ture C)Interval DHL CT9993-5-10-1-M IR62266-42-6-2 B RM201 RG667 pha Nguyen, V.T., Nguyen, B.D., Sarkarung, ...S., Martinez, C., Paterson, A.H., and Nguyen, H.T. (2002). Mapping of genes controlling aluminum tolerance i

  11. 50 CFR 665.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... panuhunuhu stareye parrotfish Calotomus carolinus. Sphyraenidae (Barracuda) kawele`a, kaku Heller's barracuda Sphyraena helleri. Kaku great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda. Turbinidae green snails turban shells Turbo spp..., lionfishes Scorpaenidae. pa o'o blennies Blenniidae. Kaku barracudas (Those species not listed as...

  12. 14 CFR 221.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a ticket office or travel agent for the purpose of purchasing, or considering the purchase of... carrier, or tariff publishing agent of such a carrier filing tariffs on its behalf in conformity with this... point of origin to destination. It may be a local fare, a joint fare, or combination of...

  13. CopperCore 2.2.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Changes in this release: This version contains: added support for Apache Derby database (aka IBM Cloudscape), moved JBoss specific code from general code base to own package, improved TimerSchedule setup, fixed a number of bugs.

  14. Reference: 221 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ell cycle. In addition, RAD51 is required for meiosis and its Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog is important... cell cultures, the RAD51 paralog RAD51C is also important for mitotic homologous...ortant for recombination and DNA repair in the mitotic c...chromosome (homolog) pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RAD51 gene is known to be imp

  15. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Harrison, Ind. (6) Junction City, Ark.-La. (7) Kansas City, Mo.-Kansas City, Kans. (8) Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. (9) St. Louis, Mo.-East St. Louis, Ill. (10) Texarkana, Ark.-Tex. (11) Texhoma, Tex.-Okla....

  16. 44 CFR 206.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defined by section 1201 of the Higher Education Act of 1965. (b) Force account means an applicant's own labor forces and equipment. (c) Immediate threat means the threat of additional damage or destruction from an event which can reasonably be expected to occur within five years. (d) Improved property...

  17. 49 CFR 221.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mandatory directives issued as authority for the conduct of a railroad operation outside of yard limits. (f... Flashing Signal Lights, November, 1964. (i) Qualified person means any person who has the skill to...

  18. Sentencia no. c-221/94

    OpenAIRE

    Constitucional, Corte

    2010-01-01

    Drogradicción. Comportamiento personal. Dentro de un sistema penal liberal y democrático, como el que tiene que desprenderse de una Constitución del mismo sello, debe estar proscrito el peligrosismo, tan caro al positivismo penal, hoy por ventura ausente de todos los pueblos civilizados. Porque a una persona no pueden castigarla por lo que posiblemente hará, sino por lo que efectivamente hace. A menos que el ser drogadicto se considere en sí mismo punible, así ese comportamiento no trascienda...

  19. Effects of dietary L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate supplementation during late gestation of sows on the miR-15b/16, miR-221/222, VEGFA and eNOS expression in umbilical vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X D; Wu, X; Yin, Y L; Liu, Y Q; Geng, M M; Yang, H S; Blachier, Francois; Wu, G Y

    2012-06-01

    Placental vascular formation and blood flow are crucial for fetal survival, growth and development, and arginine regulates vascular development and function. This study determined the effects of dietary arginine or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation during late gestation of sows on the microRNAs, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in umbilical vein. Twenty-seven landrace×large white sows at day (d) 90 of gestation were assigned randomly to three groups and fed the following diets: a control diet and the control diet supplemented with 1.0% L-arginine or 0.10% NCG. Umbilical vein of fetuses with body weight around 2.0 kg (oversized), 1.5 kg (normal) and 0.6 kg (intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR) were obtained immediately after farrowing for miR-15b, miR-16, miR-221, miR-222, VEGFA and eNOS real-time PCR analysis. Compared with the control diets, dietary Arg or NCG supplementation enhanced the reproductive performance of sows, significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma arginine and decreased plasma VEGF and eNOS (P<0.05). The miR-15b expression in the umbilical vein was higher (P<0.05) in the NCG-supplemented group than in the control group. There was a trend in that the miR-222 expression in the umbilical vein of the oversized fetuses was higher (0.05

  20. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  1. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  2. Combined Influence of EGF+61G>A and TGFB+869T>C Functional Polymorphisms in Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression and Overall Survival: The Link to Plasma Circulating MiR-7 and MiR-221/222 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana L.; Dias, Francisca; Ferreira, Marta; Gomes, Mónica; Santos, Juliana I.; Lobo, Francisco; Maurício, Joaquina; Machado, José Carlos; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) is responsible for the activation of intracellular signal transducers that act on cell-cycle progression, cell motility, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. However, cells can block these effects activating opposite signaling pathways, such as the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) pathway. Thus changes in expression levels of EGF and TGFB1 in renal cells might modulate the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development, in consequence of changes in regulatory elements of signaling networks such as the microRNAs (miRNAs). Our purpose was to investigate the synergic role of EGF+61G>A and TGFB1+869T>C polymorphisms in RCC development. Genetic polymorphisms were studied by allelic discrimination using real-time PCR in 133 RCC patients vs. 443 healthy individuals. The circulating EGF/EGFR-MAPK-related miR-7, miR-221 and miR-222 expression was analyzed by a quantitative real-time PCR in plasma from 22 RCC patients vs. 27 healthy individuals. The intermediate/high genetic proliferation profile patients carriers present a significantly reduced time-to-progression and a higher risk of an early relapse compared with the low genetic proliferation profile carriers (HR = 8.8, P = 0.038) with impact in a lower overall survival (Log rank test, P = 0.047). The RCC patients presented higher circulating expression levels of miR-7 than healthy individuals (6.1-fold increase, P<0.001). Moreover, the intermediate/high genetic proliferation profile carriers present an increase in expression levels of miR-7, miR-221 and miR-222 during the RCC development and this increase is not observed in low genetic proliferation profile (P<0.001, P = 0.004, P<0.001, respectively). The stimulus to angiogenesis, cell-cycle progression and tumoral cells invasion, through activation of EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway in intermediate/high proliferation profile carriers is associated with an early disease progression, resulting in a poor overall survival. We also

  3. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  4. Production of actinium, thorium and radium isotopes from natural thorium irradiated with protons up to 141 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, S.V.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Matushko, V.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Kalmykov, S.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2012-07-01

    Cross sections of {sup 225}Ac, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 227}Th and {sup 228}Th in thorium-232 targets irradiated with protons in the energy range 21-141 MeV have been measured. Based on these data, production yields of {sup 225}Ac and {sup 223}Ra in thick thorium targets have been calculated. It is possible to produce in proton energy range 60-140 MeV about 96 GBq (2.6 Ci) {sup 225}Ac per 10-d irradiation with 100 {mu}A proton beam current and 10-d decay, and much higher amount of {sup 223}Ra. The impurities of {sup 227}Ac and {sup 224}Ra are important and need to be assessed for further medical applications. (orig.)

  5. 40 CFR 264.221 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into the liner (but not into the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water) during the... the attenuative capacity and thickness of the liners and soils present between the impoundment and... waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, ground water, or surface water at...

  6. 40 CFR 265.221 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, ground water, or surface water... contaminated liner material, and contaminated soil to the extent practicable. If all contaminated soil is not... each replacement of an existing surface impoundment unit must install two or more liners, and...

  7. 22 CFR 22.1 - Schedule of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... request of direct hire U.S. Government personnel, Peace Corps volunteers, or their dependents stationed or... commissions to take testimony: (a) Scheduling/arranging appointments for depositions, including depositions...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which authority... in the Government Filing File and the Filing Advice Status File, and shall be referenced in such a... notice. (b) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to the electronic tariff for...

  10. 77 FR 30351 - Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... such a program be based on public- private partnership (PPP) principles and maximize the use of private... effective public-private partnership equipage incentive program. This notice is for the initial meeting....

  11. Dicty_cDB: CFF221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nr*swscrswrsl*h*ssinfrnw*chpwsnacsqs*rrryc yh*tnsqwwwsc*lwchpihylhsprsclgw*d*rritkrrypiqyw*ipirckl*sqnk r*cr...ccpcl cwsssky*wsws*iswypnr*swscrswrsl*h*ssinfrnw*chpwsnacsqs*rrryc yh*tnsqwwwsc*l

  12. 28 CFR 2.21 - Reparole consideration guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reparole consideration guidelines. 2.21....21 Reparole consideration guidelines. (a)(1) If revocation is based upon administrative violation(s... analogy with listed federal offense behaviors. (b) The guidelines for parole consideration specified at...

  13. 36 CFR 223.221 - Establishing minimum rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sale of special forest products or groups of special forest products. Products must be sold for appraised value or minimum rates, whichever is higher. No products may be sold or harvested for less than... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing §...

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFF221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( EU679414 |pid:none) Tetranychus cinnabarinus heat shoc... 331 4e-89 ( P09446 ) RecName: Full=Heat shock ...70 kDa protein A; &T21394(T21... 330 5e-89 EU679412_1( EU679412 |pid:none) Tetranychus cinnabarinus heat sho

  15. Dicty_cDB: SFC221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Caberne...uence. 64 5e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera

  16. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) exemption is claimed. Also, special rules for meal time apply in the case of firefighters (§ 553.223). Part... time even where the radio must be left on so that the officer can respond to emergency calls. Of...

  17. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such minimum... illustrated as follows: An employment agreement provides a minimum of 3 hours' pay at time and one-half for... Friday, inclusive, in a workweek beginning on Monday, and are paid overtime compensation at time and...

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHN221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAACTCCTGCTTGGAAAACTAAACAATTACGTGTTNATAATG sequence update 2002. 9.10 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---ESSDTEKLMANET...cyhykylysitnynynilsiisfktkn*ftk*y**klssl vpf**rifinl*ndkrnlpknsclen*titcx* Frame B: ---ESSDTEKLMANET

  19. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Instrument and... 74 FR 62696, Dec. 1, 2009. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow... frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has...

  20. AIMSsim Version 2.2.1, System Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    2005 Greenley & Associates Oliver Schoenborn, Bassem Mikhael Apr – Oct 2005 Greenley & Associates Oliver Schoenborn Dec 2005 – Jul 2006 CAE...useful when the FlyPanel is not available. Note that the emulator is only available to the staff at Greenley & Associates: it is an aid to

  1. AIMSsim Version 2.2.1, User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Jennifer Jeon Jan – Apr 2004 DRDC Toronto Michael Perlin May 2004 – Jan 2005 CMC Electronics Oliver Schoenborn Feb – Mar 2005 Greenley & Associates...Oliver Schoenborn, Bassem Mikhael Mar – Oct 2005 Greenley & Associates Oliver Schoenborn Dec 2005 – Jul 2006 CAE Professional Services

  2. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... judgment in making all decisions called for under this part, including but not limited to selections... was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational basis, the Administrator... Administrator may reject any such decision by a manufacturer if it is not based on good engineering judgment...

  3. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., including, but not being limited to, light, heat, and janitor service shall be provided rent free in...

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Monthly Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 2.2-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) of monthly mean High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) flux at the top of the atmosphere...

  5. 7 CFR 2.21 - Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanical arts (7 U.S.C. 321-326a). (vii) Administer... Science Award for research or advanced studies in the food and agricultural sciences (7 U.S.C. 3153... universities working with scientists at international agricultural research centers in other nations...

  6. Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbink, Ellen; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new theoretical framework that explains the engagement in child labor of children in developing countries. This framework distinguishes three levels (household, district and nation) and three groups of explanatory variables: Resources, Structure and Culture. Each of the three groups refers to another strand of the literature;…

  7. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... previously held by LETECK Z VODY a.s.; LET Aeronautical Works). Alenia Aeronautica Transport Airplane. ] B-N...). The Boeing Company Transport Airplane. Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Transport...

  8. Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Hele; Repo, Päivikki; Von Gastrow, Guillaume; Ortega, Pablo; Calle, Eric; Garín, Moises; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The nanostructuring of silicon surfaces—known as black silicon—is a promising approach to eliminate front-surface reflection in photovoltaic devices without the need for a conventional antireflection coating. This might lead to both an increase in efficiency and a reduction in the manufacturing costs of solar cells. However, all previous attempts to integrate black silicon into solar cells have resulted in cell efficiencies well below 20% due to the increased charge carrier recombination at t...

  9. Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Hele; Repo, Päivikki; von Gastrow, Guillaume; Ortega, Pablo; Calle, Eric; Garín, Moises; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2015-07-01

    The nanostructuring of silicon surfaces—known as black silicon—is a promising approach to eliminate front-surface reflection in photovoltaic devices without the need for a conventional antireflection coating. This might lead to both an increase in efficiency and a reduction in the manufacturing costs of solar cells. However, all previous attempts to integrate black silicon into solar cells have resulted in cell efficiencies well below 20% due to the increased charge carrier recombination at the nanostructured surface. Here, we show that a conformal alumina film can solve the issue of surface recombination in black silicon solar cells by providing excellent chemical and electrical passivation. We demonstrate that efficiencies above 22% can be reached, even in thick interdigitated back-contacted cells, where carrier transport is very sensitive to front surface passivation. This means that the surface recombination issue has truly been solved and black silicon solar cells have real potential for industrial production. Furthermore, we show that the use of black silicon can result in a 3% increase in daily energy production when compared with a reference cell with the same efficiency, due to its better angular acceptance.

  10. Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Hele; Repo, Päivikki; von Gastrow, Guillaume; Ortega, Pablo; Calle, Eric; Garín, Moises; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2015-07-01

    The nanostructuring of silicon surfaces--known as black silicon--is a promising approach to eliminate front-surface reflection in photovoltaic devices without the need for a conventional antireflection coating. This might lead to both an increase in efficiency and a reduction in the manufacturing costs of solar cells. However, all previous attempts to integrate black silicon into solar cells have resulted in cell efficiencies well below 20% due to the increased charge carrier recombination at the nanostructured surface. Here, we show that a conformal alumina film can solve the issue of surface recombination in black silicon solar cells by providing excellent chemical and electrical passivation. We demonstrate that efficiencies above 22% can be reached, even in thick interdigitated back-contacted cells, where carrier transport is very sensitive to front surface passivation. This means that the surface recombination issue has truly been solved and black silicon solar cells have real potential for industrial production. Furthermore, we show that the use of black silicon can result in a 3% increase in daily energy production when compared with a reference cell with the same efficiency, due to its better angular acceptance.

  11. 37 CFR 1.221 - Voluntary publication or republication of patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES... published under § 1.211, must include a copy of the application in compliance with the Office electronic... or the copy of the application does not comply with the Office electronic filing system...

  12. 12 CFR 221.118 - Bank arranging for extension of credit by corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corporation of an “unsecured” bank loan to exercise an option to purchase stock of the corporation is an... to the bank. The corporation would issue to the bank a guaranty of the loan and hold the purchased... of their options through an unsecured bank loan guaranteed by the company, thereby facilitating...

  13. 24 CFR 221.795 - Displacement-below market interest rate mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (households, businesses, nonprofit organizations, and farms) as a result of a project assisted under this part... to move permanently but who must relocate temporarily to permit rehabilitation or other work for the.... The Owner shall maintain data on the race, ethnic, gender, and disability status of displaced...

  14. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YNL189W, YGL221C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urified mitochondria in high-throughput studies Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey as bait ...a factor (rpoD gene product); the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studie

  15. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YML064C, YGL221C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows with this prey...ied mitochondria in high-throughput studies Rows with this prey as prey Rows with this prey as prey (2) Rows

  16. Chronic degenerative diseases in elderly: physiotherapeutic data - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Keylla Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the most frequent chronic diseases in the elderly population of a private clinic of Physiotherapy. Methods: We assessed medical records of clients who received treatment at a Physiotherapy clinic in the period 2005 to 2008, looking for chronic diseases as diagnosis and/or related to them. Of these, we selected those which contained birth date and/or aged sixty-five years or above. An instrument like a check list, developed by the researchers, identified: quantity, gender, medical diagnosis and comorbidities. For quantification of variables we applied simple percentage calculation. Results: In the study period, there were four hundred fifty-eight records, of which forty-nine corresponded to the survey’s inclusion criteria. The majority 59.2% (n=29 referred to the year 2008; 26.6% (n=13 being males and 73.4% (n=36 females. The most commonly found diagnosis comprised osteoarthritis 57.1% (n=28, fracture and/or history of fractures 24.4% (n=12 and other diagnosis 48.9% (n=24. Associated chronic diseases included diabetes mellitus 18.3% (n=9 and systemic hypertension 57.1% (n=23. Conclusion: Chronic degenerative diseases in elderly have received increasing attention from health professionals; osteoarthritis being the most common diagnosis in this study, followed by fracture and/or history of fractures. The comorbidities represented a greater negative impact in the quality of life of elderly.

  17. 12 CFR 221.4 - Employee stock option, purchase, and ownership plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ownership plans. (a) Plan-lender; eligible plan. (1) Plan-lender means any corporation, (including a wholly-owned subsidiary, or a lender that is a thrift organization whose membership is limited to employees and former employees of the corporation, its subsidiaries or affiliates) that extends or maintains credit...

  18. Random harmonic analysis program, L221 (TEV156). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Graham, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer program capable of calculating steady state solutions for linear second order differential equations due to sinusoidal forcing functions is described. The field of application of the program, the analysis of airplane response and loads due to continuous random air turbulence, is discussed. Optional capabilities including frequency dependent input matrices, feedback damping, gradual gust penetration, multiple excitation forcing functions, and a static elastic solution are described. Program usage and a description of the analysis used are presented.

  19. Calibration of ground-based lidar instrument WLS7-221

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given WLS7 Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertaint......This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given WLS7 Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  20. Cefodizime (HR 221) potentiation of human neutrophil oxygen-independent bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, M T; Amit, N; Babin-Chevaye, C; Hakim, J

    1987-03-01

    The enhanced bactericidal activity of human neutrophils induced by cefotaxime and cefodizime, two methoxy-imino-amino- 2-thiazolyl cephalosporins, is linked to the cell stimulation of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent killing systems, respectively. Cefotaxime enhances both the killing and the oxidative response of neutrophils to opsonized particulate stimuli (bacteria for both activities and opsonized zymosan for the oxidative burst). These effects were not observed with non-opsonized particles (bacteria or zymosan) or soluble stimuli. On the contrary, cefodizime enhances killing of opsonized and non-opsonized bacteria by neutrophils regardless of treatment with phenylbutazone which blocks neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Cefodizime does not universally alter the oxidative burst induced by various stimuli, but has been shown to enhance the bactericidal activity of crude extracts of neutrophil granules. The data suggest that cefodizime and non O2-dependent killing systems of neutrophils cooperate in killing bacteria.

  1. P2-21: Searching for Multiple Targets Using the iPad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Thornton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Search for multiple targets is constrained by both retrospective (i.e., where you've been and prospective (i.e., where you're planning to go components of performance. Previous studies using the Multi-Item Localisation (MILO task have demonstrated that participants accurately remember and discount locations they have already visited and that they plan future actions up to 2 or 3 items ahead (Thornton & Horowitz, 2004 Perception & Psychophysics 66 38–50. A prominent feature of the MILO serial-reaction time (SRT function is a highly elevated, that is slowed, response, to T1 compared to T2 and all the other items. This “prospective gap” is typically between 600 ms and 1000 ms. Here we present three experiments that use the MILO iPad app to explore this “prospective gap”. In Experiment 1, we “shuffled” the position of future targets each time a response was made. This blocks planning and thus slows all responses to the level of first target, effectively eliminating the gap. In Experiment 2, participants responded to eight identical targets, removing the need to plan a specific sequence of actions. In this situation, absolute response time is greatly reduced and the T1–T2 gap shrinks to around 350 ms. In Experiment 3, participants repeated their search through the same array 10 times. Under these circumstances, the gap systematically reduced from 1300 ms on trial 1 to 300 ms on trial 10. Together, these results suggest that the previously observed prospective gap is a combination of set-up time for registering a new visual layout, response preparation, and sequence planning.

  2. 50 CFR 22.1 - What is the purpose of this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific, educational, and depredation control purposes; for the religious purposes of American Indian... transportation into or out of the United States of bald and golden eagle parts for scientific, educational,...

  3. Autophosphorylation of JAK2 on tyrosines 221 and 570 regulates its activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, Lawrence S; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Steen, Hanno;

    2004-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase JAK2 is a key signaling protein for at least 20 receptors in the cytokine/hematopoietin receptor superfamily and is a component of signaling by insulin receptor and several G-protein-coupled receptors. However, there is only limited knowledge of the physical structure of JAK2 ...

  4. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Death Puzzle at 221B Baker Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-04-01

    This story describes a chemical mystery with an emphasis on medicinal chemistry and qualitative analysis. It is the tenth article in a series presenting a scientific problem in mystery format in the context of the popular and beloved characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. There is a break in the story where the reader (students and teachers) can ponder and solve the mystery. Sherlock Holmes then provides his solution.

  5. HTGT-Turbotech II. Subproject 1.221: aerodynamic excitation of transonic turbine stages. Final report; HTGT-Turbotech II. Teilprojekt 1.221: Aerodynamische Anregung von transsonisch durchstroemten Turbinenstufen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetter, H.; Urban, B.; Bauer, H.

    1999-12-01

    For experimental investigations on shock-induced flutter in a linear transonic turbine cascade an elastic suspension system has been developed so that only aerodynamic coupling occurs in the system. The test facility uses super-heated steam as working fluid and enables Mach and Reynolds numbers to vary independently. The investigated cascade consists of seven prismatic blades. The profiles are taken from the tip section of a transonic low pressure steam turbine blade. Each blade is suspended by an elastic spring system which allows the respective blade to vibrate in a mode similar to the real blade's first bending mode. The examination mainly deals with the oscillatory behavior of the blades with respect to a variation in the isentropic outlet Mach number. In addition, the complex shock-boundary-layer interactions on the blades' suction sides are described. Flow computations are run by a finite volume Navier-Stokes solver that accounts for moving boundaries. A volume grid generator is integrated into the flow solver producing combined O- and H-type grids. Turbulence is modeled by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model using wall functions because of performance reasons. Some acceleration techniques for unsteady flow computations are investigated. Shock oscillations which occur on a DCA profile are simulated. For the simulation of the experimental setup the blade motions are prescribed. (orig.) [German] Fuer ein Spitzenschnittprofil einer ND-Endstufenschaufel sowie eine Gasturbinenschaufel wurden lineare Gitter bestehend aus jeweils sieben elastisch aufgehaengten Schaufeln entwickelt. Die Konstruktion der Aufhaengung gewaehrleistet, dass die Schaufeln lediglich durch aerodynamische Effekte zu freien Schwingungen angeregt werden koennen und in ihrem Schwingungsverhalten der ersten Biegeschwingung ihrer Originalschaufeln entsprechen. Ein gestimmtes und ungestimmtes ebenes Gitter wurde in einem Dampfversuchsstand mit Heissdampf durchstroemt, wobei das Flatterverhalten der Schaufeln von Dehnungsmessstreifen auf den Schaufeltraegern und die auftretenden Stossoszillationen mit Hilfe einer Hoch-Geschwindigkeits-Schlierenoptik, einer Laserschranke, applizierten Foliensensoren und instationaeren Drucksensoren erfasst wurde. Im transsonischen Bereich tritt beim ND-Spitzenschnittprofil ein hohes Anregungspotential durch Stossbewegungen auf. Beim Gasturbinengitter sind die Schwingungsamplituden auf Grund einer hohen Daempfung der elastischen Schaufelhalter geringer. Ein Rechenprogramm zur Simulation der transsonischen, reibungsbehafteten Stroemung durch axiale Turbomaschinen wurde auf die Behandlung bewegter Profile angepasst und fuer instationaere Stroemungssimulationen beschleunigt. Ein k-{epsilon}-Turbulenzmodell mit Wandfunktionen wurde implementiert und ein elliptisches 3D-Gittergenerierungsverfahren in den Stroemungsloeser integriert. An einem Doppelkreisbogenprofil wurden Stossoszillationen nachgerechnet. Die experimentell ermittelten Messdaten dienen als Validierungsgrundlage fuer die numerische Simulation der instationaeren Stroemung durch Schaufelreihen mit schwingenden Profilen. (orig.)

  6. SU-E-J-221: A Novel Expansion Method for MRI Based Target Delineation in Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, B [Alliance Oncology, Newburyport, MA (United States); East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Feng, Y [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Shores, R [Alliance Oncology, Greenville, MS (United States); Fung, C [Beth Isreal Deaconess Medical Center, Radiation Oncology, Newburyport, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare a novel bladder/rectum carveout expansion method on MRI delineated prostate to standard CT and expansion based methods for maintaining prostate coverage while providing superior bladder and rectal sparing. Methods: Ten prostate cases were planned to include four trials: MRI vs CT delineated prostate/proximal seminal vesicles, and each image modality compared to both standard expansions (8mm 3D expansion and 5mm posterior, i.e. ∼8mm) and carveout method expansions (5mm 3D expansion, 4mm posterior for GTV-CTV excluding expansion into bladder/rectum followed by additional 5mm 3D expansion to PTV, i.e. ∼1cm). All trials were planned to total dose 7920 cGy via IMRT. Evaluation and comparison was made using the following criteria: QUANTEC constraints for bladder/rectum including analysis of low dose regions, changes in PTV volume, total control points, and maximum hot spot. Results: ∼8mm MRI expansion consistently produced the most optimal plan with lowest total control points and best bladder/rectum sparing. However, this scheme had the smallest prostate (average 22.9% reduction) and subsequent PTV volume, consistent with prior literature. ∼1cm MRI had an average PTV volume comparable to ∼8mm CT at 3.79% difference. Bladder QUANTEC constraints were on average less for the ∼1cm MRI as compared to the ∼8mm CT and observed as statistically significant with 2.64% reduction in V65. Rectal constraints appeared to follow the same trend. Case-by-case analysis showed variation in rectal V30 with MRI delineated prostate being most favorable regardless of expansion type. ∼1cm MRI and ∼8mm CT had comparable plan quality. Conclusion: MRI delineated prostate with standard expansions had the smallest PTV leading to margins that may be too tight. Bladder/rectum carveout expansion method on MRI delineated prostate was found to be superior to standard CT based methods in terms of bladder and rectal sparing while maintaining prostate coverage. Continued investigation is warranted for further validation.

  7. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Part 16-Procedures Relating to Takeover and Relicensing of Licensed Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 15 of part I of the Federal Power Act, as amended, enacted by Public Law 90-451, 82 Stat. 616... Federal Power Act. This statement shall include estimates of: (1) Fair value; (2) net investment; and (3) severance damages. (This subsection is not applicable to State, municipal, or nonlicensee applicants.)...

  8. Interdisciplinarity in work process at a Psychosocial Attention Center - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salete Bessa Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the work process of mental health professionals from a Psychosocial Attention Center (CAPS, from the knowledge and the practices applied in the production of care and its interface with user’s demands and the service offering. Methods: A case study with qualitative approach. Twenty-eight subjects joined in and were divided into three groups: I (eleven mental health workers, II (eleven users e III (six family members. The semistructured interview was used besides systematic observation, in the search for data about the work process of the professionals of the Psychosocial Attention Center, the relationship between team and user, offering and demand, access, technologies of care, knowledge and practices and interdisciplinarity. The investigation was based upon critical content analysis and was oriented by the flowchart analyzer. Results: The service organization and its work process are directed to the immediate supply of the population’s demands, which depicts a care based on prescriptive practices. Thus, the flow of assistance and the service offering complement each other in the need of a procedure and in its exhaustive offering by the service, dissolving interdisciplinary conductions of intervention shared with the user. Conclusion: Mental health care is still surrounded by biomedical hegemony centered in procedures directed to pharmacological prescription. Despite this reality, the work centered on the user and the utilization of soft technologies – communication, link, welcoming – begin to take part of the daily CAPS service offering, although it is only present in specific activities of certain procedures.

  9. 40 CFR 180.221 - O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pea, field, hay 0.1 Do. Pea, field, vines 0.1 Do. Peppermint, tops 0.1 Do. Plantain 0.1 Do. Sorghum..., fruiting, group 8 0.1 Do. Vegetable, leafy 0.1 Do. Vegetable, root crop 0.1 Do. Vegetable, seed and pod...

  10. 12 CFR 221.116 - Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to replenish working capital used to... Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares. (a) In a situation... period of time the result would be the same. Accordingly, the Board concluded that bank loans made...

  11. 50 CFR 221.1 - What is the purpose of this part, and to what license proceedings does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inclusion in a hydropower license issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) under subchapter..., pursuant to 7 CFR 1.601 et seq. or 43 CFR 45.1 et seq., as applicable. (4) The regulations in subparts A... prescribed by NMFS under section 18. (c) Reservation of authority. Where NMFS notifies FERC that it...

  12. 26 CFR 1.221-2 - Deduction for interest due and paid on qualified education loans before January 1, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hospital, or a health care facility that offers postgraduate training. (2) Qualified higher education... paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Example 2. Collapsed loans. To finance his education, Student Q...

  13. 50 CFR 221.42 - When must a party supplement or amend information it has previously provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS... set for completion of discovery, each party must file an updated version of the list of witnesses and... of the evidence would disrupt the orderly and efficient hearing of the case; (iv) The importance...

  14. Positive replication and linkage disequilibrium mapping of the Chromosome 21q22.1 malaria susceptibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Walley, Andrew; Aucan, Christophe; Loke, Hsin; White, Nicholas J.; Peto, Tim; Khor, Lih K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Day, Nick; Scott, Anthony; Berkley, James A.; Marsh, Kevin; Peshu, Norbert; Maitland, Kathryn; Williams, Thomas N.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Four cytokine receptor genes are located on Chr21q22.11, encoding the α and β subunits of the interferon alpha receptor (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2), the β subunit of the interleukin 10 receptor (IL10RB), and the second subunit of the interferon gamma receptor (IFNGR2). We previously reported that two variants in IFNAR1 were associated with susceptibility to malaria in Gambians. We now present an extensive fine-scale mapping of the associated region utilizing 45 additional genetic markers obtained from public databases and by sequencing a 44kb region in and around the IFNAR1 gene in 24 Gambian children (12 cases/ 12 controls). Within the IFNAR1 gene a newly studied C→G single nucleotide polymorphism (IFNAR1 272354c-g) at position −576 relative to the transcription start was found to be more strongly associated with susceptibility to severe malaria. Association was observed in three populations: in Gambian (P=0.002), Kenyan (P=0.022) and Vietnamese (P=0.005) case control studies. When all three studies were combined, using the Mantel-Haenszel test, the presence of IFNAR1 −576G was associated with a substantially elevated risk of severe malaria (N=2444, OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.17-1.64; P=1.7×10−4). This study builds on previous work to further highlight the importance of the type I interferon pathway in malaria susceptibility and illustrates the utility of typing SNPs within regions of high linkage disequilibrium in multiple populations to confirm initial positive associations. PMID:17703179

  15. Positive replication and linkage disequilibrium mapping of the Chromosome 21q22.1 malaria susceptibility locus

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Walley, Andrew; Aucan, Christophe; Loke, Hsin; White, Nicholas J.; Peto, Tim; Khor, Lih K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Day, Nick; Scott, Anthony; Berkley, James A.; Marsh, Kevin; Peshu, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Four cytokine receptor genes are located on Chr21q22.11, encoding the α and β subunits of the interferon alpha receptor (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2), the β subunit of the interleukin 10 receptor (IL10RB), and the second subunit of the interferon gamma receptor (IFNGR2). We previously reported that two variants in IFNAR1 were associated with susceptibility to malaria in Gambians. We now present an extensive fine-scale mapping of the associated region utilizing 45 additional genetic markers obtained fro...

  16. 14 CFR 221.105 - Special notice of limited liability for death or injury under the Warsaw Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... travel agent for further information. ... or place of destination is in the United States, the following statement in writing: Advice to... destination or a stop in a country other than the country of departure are advised that the provisions of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.221-1 - Deduction for interest paid on qualified education loans after December 31, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general, an eligible educational institution means any college, university, vocational school, or other... education expenses—(i) In general. Qualified higher education expenses means the cost of attendance (as... attendance is determined by the eligible educational institution and includes tuition and fees...

  18. 24 CFR 248.221 - Approval of a plan of action that involves termination of low income affordability restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly rental payment in any year that exceeds the increase in the Consumer Price Index or 10 percent...); the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101-6107); section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act...

  19. Genome-wide association study of migraine implicates a common susceptibility variant on 8q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Verneri; Stefansson, Hreinn; Kallela, Mikko;

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a common episodic neurological disorder, typically presenting with recurrent attacks of severe headache and autonomic dysfunction. Apart from rare monogenic subtypes, no genetic or molecular markers for migraine have been convincingly established. We identified the minor allele of rs1...

  20. The hydrotherapy in the treatment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gadelha Severino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a serious, disabling disease, presenting the pulmonary function test with abnormalities in the expiratory flow. Under this denomination, it comprises the chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. The hydrotherapy involves the physical therapy with aquatic exercises and has being used because it is a pleasant activity with positive results. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare the performance of the patients with COPD treated with hydrotherapy associated to pulmonary rehabilitation with those treated only with pulmonary rehabilitation, being held in the cardiopulmonary rehabilitation center of Messejana Hospital, in Fortaleza - Ceará. The sample consisted of 10 patients, independently of sex and age, randomly divided into two groups. The evaluation instrument was the upper limbs incremental test observing the following parameters: the cardiac frequency (FC, the respiratory frequency (f, the degree of dyspnea, the tiredness of the upper limbs, the maximum burden reached and the oxygen saturation (SatO2. The parameters FC (p=0.04, f (p=0.046 e SatO2 (p=0.008 presented an average improvement of 33.33% above those of the patients that were just in the pulmonary rehabilitation. The other evaluated parameters also presented positive results, but with p>0.05. In conclusion, the results obtained with the pulmonary rehabilitation associated to the hydrotherapy overcome those found just with the pulmonary rehabilitation treatment, allowing an increase in the physical conditioning and improvement in the functional activities; although, due to the reduced number of cases, new researches should be held to confirm this exploratory study.

  1. 12 CFR 250.221 - Issuance and sale of short-term debt obligations by bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wholly-owned nonbanking subsidiaries. (b) The thrift notes would bear the name of the holding company, which in the case presented, was substantially similar to the name of its affiliated banks. It was... affiliated with a company “engaged principally” in such activity. Since the continued issuance and sale...

  2. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  3. 12 CFR 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution to joint venture as extension of... joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to the contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses. (a) The Board considered the question whether a joint...

  4. Benzothiazol-2-amine–3-methoxycarbonyl-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title 1:1 adduct, C7H6N2S·C9H10O5, all non-H atoms of the benzothiazol-2-amine molecule are essentially coplanar, with a maximum deviation of 0.0286 (9 Å for the S atom. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds connect two molecules of each type into centrosymmetric four-component clusters.

  5. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  6. GALEX observations of the UV surface brightness and color profiles of the Local Group elliptical galaxy M32 (NGC221)

    CERN Document Server

    De Paz, A G; Sohn, Y J; Lee, Y W; Seibert, M; Rich, R M; Bianchi, L; Barlow, T A; Byun, Y I; Donas, J; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Heckman, T M; Jelinsky, P N; Malina, R F; Martin, D C; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S G; Schiminovich, D; Siegmund, O H W; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B Y; Wyder, T K

    2004-01-01

    M32, the compact elliptical-galaxy companion to the Andromeda spiral galaxy has been imaged by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) in two ultraviolet bands, centered at ~1500 (FUV) and 2300 Angstroms (NUV). The imaging data have been carefully decomposed so as to properly account for the complicated background contamination from the disk of M31. We have derived the surface brightness and color profiles finding a slightly positive color gradient of Delta(FUV-B)/Delta log(r)=+0.15+/-0.03 within one effective radius. Earlier data from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope suggested that M32 had an extremely large (negative) FUV-optical color gradient (Delta(FUV-B)/Delta log(r)<-2), inverted with respect to the majority of gradients seen in giant elliptical galaxies. Our new results show that, despite of its very low UV-upturn, M32 has similar UV properties to those observed in luminous elliptical galaxies.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV to IR fluxes of 221 early-type galaxies (Amblard+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.; Temi, P.; Im, S.; Fanelli, M.; Serra, P.

    2016-06-01

    We base our work on a sample of 225 early-type galaxies from Temi et al. 2009 (cat. J/ApJ/707/890). We present a large fraction of their SED from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (Tables 1-4). We concentrate primarily on six instruments which span these wavelengths and have extensive sky coverage: Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX; see Bianchi et al. 2001, cat. II/312) for the UV part, SDSS (see SDSS-DR9 in cat. V/139) for the optical, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Cutri et al. 2003, cat. II/246) and IRAC-Spitzer for the NIR and MIR, and MIPS-Spitzer and IRAS for the mid and FIR. We also use public data from Herschel-SPIRE when available (see Table4). (5 data files).

  8. 33 CFR 221.1 - Investigation and supervision of hydropower projects under the Federal Power Act (ER 1140-2-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... full public interest review pursuant to 33 CFR part 320 and the application of the Environmental... recommending design, construction and operation factors that the applicant must consider in its studies in... responsibilities. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all field operating agencies having Civil...

  9. Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene and its 7-syn-substituted derivatives. A DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy I. Okovytyy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stereochemical aspects of epoxidation of norbornene and its 7-syn-substituted derivatives by performic acid were investigated. Geometry and thermodynamic parameters of transition states and prereactive complexes were computed at the UBHandHLYP/6-31G(d level of theory. It is shown that the transition states have a pronounced biradical character and a nearly coplanar orientation of the C=C bond and the molecule of performic acid. Transition state analysis revealed that, in the case of the syn-7-hydroxy derivative, the preference for the exo-approach of the oxidant can be explained by the stabilization of transition state with hydrogen bonding. In contrast, a chlorine atom or a methyl group at the 7-syn position facilitated the formation of endo-epoxides due to steric repulsion between the substituent and the oxidant.

  10. Copy number gain at 8q12.1-q22.1 is associated with a malignant tumor phenotype in salivary gland myoepitheliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Röser, K.; Löning, T.; Ylstra, B.; Meijer, G.A.; van Wieringen, W.N.; van de Wiel, M.A.; Carvalho, B.; Kok, K.; Leemans, C.R.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2009-01-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial tumors are relatively uncommon tumors with an unpredictable clinical course. More knowledge about their genetic profiles is necessary to identify novel predictors of disease. In this study, we subjected 27 primary tumors (15 myoepitheliomas and 12 myoepithelial carcinoma

  11. Copy Number Gain at 8q12.1-q22.1 is Associated with a Malignant Tumor Phenotype in Salivary Gland Myoepitheliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vekony, Hedy; Roeser, Kerstin; Loening, Thomas; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijer, Gerrit A.; van Wieringen, Wessel N.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Kok, Klaas; Leemans, C. Rene; van der Waal, Isaaec; Bloemena, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial tumors are relatively uncommon tumors with an unpredictable clinical course. More knowledge about their genetic profiles is necessary to identify novel predictors of disease. In this study, we subjected 27 primary tumors (15 myoepitheliomas and 12 myoepithelial carcinoma

  12. Crystal structure of tetrabutylammonium bromide–1,2-diiodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene–dichloromethane (2/2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,2-diiodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (o-DITFB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (n-Bu4NBr from dichloromethane yielded pure white crystals of a halogen-bonded compound, C16H36N+·Br−·C6F4I2·0.5CH2Cl2 or [(n-Bu4NBr(o-DITFB]·0.5CH2Cl2. The compound may be described as a quaternary system and may be classified as a salt–cocrystal solvate. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of solvent, two o-DITFB molecules, two cations (n-Bu4N+ and two crystallographically distinct bromide ions [θI...Br-...I = 144.18 (1 and 135.35 (1°]. The bromide ion is a bidentate halogen-bond acceptor which interacts with two covalently bonded iodines (i.e. halogen-bond donors, resulting in a one-dimensional polymeric zigzag chain network approximately along the a axis. The observed short contacts and angles are characteristic of the non-covalent interaction [dC—I...Br = 3.1593 (4–3.2590 (5 Å; θC—I...Br = 174.89 (7 and 178.16 (7°]. It is noted that iodine acts as both a halogen-bond donor and a weak CH hydrogen-bond acceptor, while the bromide ions act as acceptors for weak CH hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds.

  13. 2-{[2-(1-Methyl-2,2-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazin-4-ylidenehydrazin-1-ylidene]methyl}phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H15N3O3S, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 8.18 (11° and the C=N—N=C torsion angle is 178.59 (14°. The conformation of the thiazine ring is an envelope, with the S atom displaced by 0.8157 (18 Å from the mean plane of the other five atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.045 Å. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, weak C—H...O interactions link the molecules, with all three O atoms acting as acceptors.

  14. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Mixed TRU Waste Streams: SR-W026-221F-HET-A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-10-02

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for the heterogeneous debris mixed transuranic waste streams generated in the FB-Line after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997.

  15. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  16. An Xp22.1-p22.2 YAC contig encompassing the disease loci for RS, KFSD, CLS, HYP and RP15 : Refined localization of RS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vosse, E; Bergen, AAB; Meershoek, EJ; Oosterwijk, JC; Gregory, S; Bakker, B; Weissenbach, J; Coffey, AJ; vanOmmen, GJB; DenDunnen, JT

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate the positional cloning of the genes involved in retinoschisis (RS), keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD), Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH, locus name HYP) and X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration (locus name RP 15), we have extended t

  17. FURLAN, M. (2014. NOVYJ ETIMOLOGICZESKIJ SLOVAR’SLOVENSKOGO YAZYKA. PROBNYJ VYPUSK [NEW ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE SLOVENIAN LANGUAGE. TRIAL ISSUE]. LJUBLJANA: 2013, 221 P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kurkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospectus provides a theoretical and practical foundation for the principles of the new Etymological dictionary of the Slovenian language on the basis of achievements in etymological research. The prospectus includes a historical overview of etymological thought in Slovenia and defines the role of Ramovš’s and Bezlaj’s works in the history of Slovenian etymological science. The key structural unit of the dictionary is an etymologeme, which is defined as follows: one etymon = one dictionary entry = one etymologeme. Subject of etymological analysis would include vocabulary of literary language, lexical dialectisms, toponyms. The author illustrates the principles of the new dictionary with a sample of 146 entries. Rich in new ideas, the dictionary would expand our knowledge on etymological relationships of the Slovenian language and become an original reference work on Slovenian etymology.

  18. Generalized Polarization Effect and B(E2,2+1→0+g.s.) in Neutron Rich Even Carbon Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The generalized polarization effects on electric quadrupole transitions is proposed and studied by the microscopic particle-vibration model. The static polarization effects on neutron and proton vertex are

  19. The 8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome or Nablus mask-like facial syndrome : Report on two patients and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Werner, Marion; Dagan, Judith; Abeliovich, Devorah; Lerer, Israela

    2009-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMFLS) is a rare microdeletion syndrome with a mask-like facial appearance as the most characteristic feature. In 2000, Teebi, was the first to report on a 4 years old boy affected with NMFLS. Since then two additional patients have been reported. Three years later,

  20. Separated exclusive kaon production cross sections up to Q2=2.1 GeV2 and the kaon form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignotto, Marco; Horn, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are a key observable in probing hadronic structure, providing us with important information about underlying physical quantities related to nonperturbative QCD. Light mesons composed of a valence quark-antiquark pair can be described by a single electric form factor and have been shown to be a great laboratory for these studies. Using electroproduction experiments, a successful program was developed at Jefferson Laboratory for probing the charged pion form factor in the regime of Q2 up to 2.45 GeV2. This provided a first glimpse at a possible transition from the nonperturbative to the perturbative regime, and also information on the structure of the pion. The kaon is the next lightest existing hadron, providing an interesting channel for assessing the strangeness degree of freedom with mesons. Although the kaon is relatively unexploited to date, there are promising results from experiments of the 6 GeV era of Jefferson Laboratory with potential for kaon form factor extractions. In this talk we will present the recent analysis of the t-channel kaon cross section and discuss the relative contribution of longitudinal and transverse photons to the cross section up to Q2 values of 2.1 GeV2 and prospects for form factor extractions. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY-1306227 and PHY-1306418 and by the JSA Graduate Fellowship.

  1. THE THERMAL AND ABLATIVE DEGRADATION OF SOME EPOXY RESINS CURED WITH METHYL BICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTENE-2,3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE (NMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABLATION), (* EPOXY RESINS , (*PYROLYSIS, EPOXY RESINS ), CYCLOALKENES, ANHYDRIDES, CATALYSTS, ADDITIVES, CROSSLINKING(CHEMISTRY), REACTION KINETICS, DEGRADATION, AGING(MATERIALS), INFRARED SPECTRA, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS.

  2. Mössbauer study of fired Lishan clay and terra-cotta warriors and horses of Qin dynasty (221 B.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangyong; Li, Shi

    1992-04-01

    The sherds of terra-cotta warriors and horses and Lishan clay were characterized by Mossbauer spectroscopy, XRD, XRF, NAA, thermal and chemical analyses. Lishan clay was testified as the original material of terracotta warriors and horses, the kilning of these warriors and horses was first carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere, and then changed to a predominantly reducing atmosphere. With refiring experiments, the temperatures of Q3 and Q4 samples were determined to be 830±50 and 980±50°C respectively. Transformations of Lishan clay were determined by firing in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The Mossbauer parameters of Lishan clay, which was taken after 2 24h firing, were changing up to 12h.

  3. Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress.......We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress....

  4. 2.2.1. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and crystal structure of [ReV(O2(pyz4][ReII(NOBr4(pyz] (pyz = pyrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pacheco, Alicia Cuevas, Javier González-Platas, Carlos Kremer*

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A novel Re(V-Re(II nitrosyl complex, [Re(O2(pyz 4][Re(NOBr4(pyz] (pyz = pyrazine was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra. This product is obtained in the initial steps of the reaction of (NBu4[Re(NOBr4(EtOH] with pyrazine. Both, the cation and the anion are mononuclear complexes. The Re(V atom in the cation is six-coordinate with four nitrogen atoms from pyrazine ligands, and two oxo ligands. The Re(II anion is also six-coordinate, with four bromide ligands, a linear nitrosyl group and one nitrogen from pyrazine. The spectroscopic studies are discussed and compared with those already reported separately for the cation and the anion. Supporting information: X-Ray (CIF file

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 20 - Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category 1(TBq) Category 1(Ci) Category 2(TBq) Category 2(Ci) Actinium-227 20 540 0.2 5.4 Americium-241 60... 2 54 Strontium-90 1,000 27,000 10 270 Thorium-228 20 540 0.2 5.4 Thorium-229 20 540 0.2 5.4...

  6. Monofunctionalization of Calix[4]arene Tetracarboxylic Acid at the Upper Rim with Isothiocyanate Group: First Bifunctional Chelating Agent for Alpha-Emitter Ac-225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ji, Min; Fisher, Darrell R; Wai, Chien M

    1999-09-01

    A procedure is reported for synthesizing a novel, water-soluble bifunctional chelating agent derived from calix[4]arene. This chelate features tetracarboxylic acid groups at the lower rim as an actinium-225 ionophore, and an isothiocyanate functional group at the upper rim for labeling of the N-terminus of monoclonal antibodies through thiourea linkage.

  7. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  8. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.221 Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Izumi Sakamoto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveis estudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%, espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commercial laying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400 ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day- 1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical composition of hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in the diet resulted in similar productive performance and egg quality compared to the control diet.

  9. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  10. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications; Comportement des radionucleides des familles de l'uranium dans les eaux superficielles du site de la Crouzille (Limousin): implications geochimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of {sup 235}U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, Sections-The data set is a polygon feature consisting of 221 polygons representing section boundaries. It was created to maintain the location of township and range sections., Published in 1995, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1995. It is described as 'Sections-The data set is a...

  12. Multibeam collection for KN221-03: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-08-03 to 2014-09-02, departing from Reykjavik, Iceland and returning to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for KN221-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-07-06 to 2014-08-01, departing from Reykjavik, Iceland and returning to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for KN221-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-09-07 to 2014-09-28, departing from Reykjavik, Iceland and returning to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for KN221-01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2014-06-19 to 2014-07-03, departing from Woods Hole, MA and returning to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Decreased levels of miR-224 and the passenger strand of miR-221 increase MBD2, suppressing maspin and promoting colorectal tumor growth and metastasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer accounts for 130,000 new cancer cases and approximately 56,000 deaths each year in the United States, and it is estimated that half of Western population can expect to develop at least one colorectal tumor by age 70. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules, DNA products, functio...

  17. Methods in Forest Canopy Research, Edited by Margaret D. Lowman, Timothy D. Schowalter, Jerry F. Franklin, University of California Press, 2012; 221 Pages. Price: £41.95, ISBN 978-0520-27371-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poised between soil and sky, forest canopies represent a critical point of exchange between the atmosphere and the earth, yet until recently, they remained a largely unexplored frontier. For a long time, problems with access and the lack of tools and methods suitable for monitoring these complex bioscopes made canopy analysis extremely difficult. Fortunately, canopy research has advanced dramatically in recent decades. Methods in Forest Canopy Research is a comprehensive overview of these developments for explorers of this astonishing environment. The authors describe methods for reaching the canopy and the best ways to measure how the canopy, atmosphere, and forest floor interact. They address how to replicate experiments in challenging environments and lay the groundwork for creating standardized measurements in the canopy — essential tools for understanding our changing world.

  18. The Banister Allen Plantation (38AB102) and Thomas B. Clinkscales Farm: (38AB221) Data Recovery in the Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area Abbeville County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    and other organic remains, insufficient for in-depth study of demographic, cultural or nutritional/pathological/stress ( osteological ) population...remains, insufficient for In-depth study of demographic, cultural or nutritional/ pathological/stress ( osteological ) population characters. Com- parison...Department of Anthropology, University of South Carolina, provided human osteological analysis for the project. Carr & Associates, Columbia, South

  19. http://www.seasinop.com.br/revista/index.php?journal=SEA&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=221&path%5B%5D=pdf_93

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Escobar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bar soap is a cosmetic personal care product most consumed in the world. The incorporation of actives to these products provides greater refinement to the formulation. Oils are incorporated in order to increase the moisturize and hydration of the skin. Stability tests are conducted to demonstrate the product's behavior during its period of validity and are essential when there is development of new formulations. The objective of this work was to produce bar soaps containing pequi oil and evaluate its stability through physicochemical testing. They developed three primary formulations with different pequi oil concentrations (1, 3 and 5% w/w, which were evaluated for strength and absorption to water, durability, melting, foaming, crack formation and pH . The best results were obtained with the incorporation of 3% (w/w of oil. After determination of the optimal concentration of oil, a new formulation was developed containing 3% of pequi oil and the stability tests were remade. It was found that the soaps showed good stability. Thus, it can be shown that the pequi oil can be used for preparation of bar soaps and that they have stability within the parameters studied

  20. 7-Isopropylidene-N2,N3,N5,N6-tetramethoxy-N2,N3,N5,N6-tetramethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sahlmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular structure of the title compound, C22H32N4O8, displays a twofold symmetry of the molecule including the methoxy and methyl substituents, no crystallographic twofold symmetry is observed in the X-ray structure analysis. The carbonyl O atoms alternately point to different sides of the plane defined by the carbonyl C atoms. Two methoxy groups are oriented inside the molecules cavity. The H atoms of two methyl groups are disordered over two orientations and were refined using a split model.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA Studies on a Series of (R)-2-((2-(1H-Indol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-1-Phenylethan-1-ol with Human β₃-Adrenergic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apablaza, Gastón; Montoya, Luisa; Morales-Verdejo, Cesar; Mellado, Marco; Cuellar, Mauricio; Lagos, Carlos F; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Chung, Hery; Pessoa-Mahana, Carlos David; Mella, Jaime

    2017-03-05

    The β₃ adrenergic receptor is raising as an important drug target for the treatment of pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, and cardiac diseases among others. Several attempts to obtain selective and high affinity ligands have been made. Currently, Mirabegron is the only available drug on the market that targets this receptor approved for the treatment of overactive bladder. However, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in USA and the MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) in UK have made reports of potentially life-threatening side effects associated with the administration of Mirabegron, casting doubts on the continuity of this compound. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gather information for the rational design and synthesis of new β₃ adrenergic ligands. Herein, we present the first combined 2D-QSAR (two-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship/Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis) study on a series of potent β₃ adrenergic agonists of indole-alkylamine structure. We found a series of changes that can be made in the steric, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor, lipophilicity and molar refractivity properties of the compounds to generate new promising molecules. Finally, based on our analysis, a summary and a regiospecific description of the requirements for improving β₃ adrenergic activity is given.

  3. (3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-olato-κ2O,Obis[2-(2-pyridylphenyl-κ2C1,N]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Luo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ir(C11H8N2(C17H19O2], has an octahedral coordination geometry around the IrIII atom, retaining the cis-C,C,trans–N,N chelate disposition of the two 2-phenylpyridine ligands. The chelate rings are nearly mutually perpendicular [the interplanar angles range from 85.48 (17 to 89.17 (19°]. The two 2-(2-pyridylphenyl ligands are approximately planar, with the plane of the phenyl ring being inclined to that of the pyridine ring by 2.3 (3 and 5.1 (3° in the two ligands. The interplanar angle between the phenyl ring in 3-benzoyl-camphor and the IrO2C3 chelate ring is 35.5 (2°.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, solvatochromism and biological properties of 2,2'-((1E,1'E)-((1,2,5-oxadiazole-3,4-diyl)bis (azanylylidene))bis(methan-ylylidene))bis(4-(phenyldiazenyl)phenol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakanejadifard, Ali; Azarbani, Farideh; Saki, Zeinab; Kakanejadifard, Sahar; Zabardasti, Abedin

    2014-11-11

    Azo-azomethine dyes 2-((4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-ylimino)methyl)-4-(phenyl diazenyl)phenols (2a-h) have been synthesized by condensation reaction of 3,4-diamino-1,2,5-oxadiazole with 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(aryldiazenyl)]benzaldehyde (1a-h) in methanol. The structures of dyes have been characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. UV-Vis absorption spectra indicated enol-keto tautomeric and positive solvatochromism in compounds 2a-h which is dependent on the substitution, solvent, pH and environment temperature. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro antioxidant activity by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Compounds substituted with electron donating groups, such as, alkyl and methoxy groups showed moderate antioxidant activity. The in vitro antibacterial activity of all compounds was determined by disk diffusion method. The test compounds showed varying degree of inhibition against B. cereus and S. aureus strains.

  5. 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA Studies on a Series of (R-2-((2-(1H-Indol-2-ylethylamino-1-Phenylethan-1-ol with Human β3-Adrenergic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Apablaza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The β3 adrenergic receptor is raising as an important drug target for the treatment of pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, and cardiac diseases among others. Several attempts to obtain selective and high affinity ligands have been made. Currently, Mirabegron is the only available drug on the market that targets this receptor approved for the treatment of overactive bladder. However, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration in USA and the MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in UK have made reports of potentially life-threatening side effects associated with the administration of Mirabegron, casting doubts on the continuity of this compound. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gather information for the rational design and synthesis of new β3 adrenergic ligands. Herein, we present the first combined 2D-QSAR (two-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship/Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis study on a series of potent β3 adrenergic agonists of indole-alkylamine structure. We found a series of changes that can be made in the steric, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor, lipophilicity and molar refractivity properties of the compounds to generate new promising molecules. Finally, based on our analysis, a summary and a regiospecific description of the requirements for improving β3 adrenergic activity is given.

  6. Self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials state-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tittelboom, Kim; Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing materials are man-made materials which have the built-in capability to repair damage. Failure in materials is often caused by the occurrence of small microcracks throughout the material. In self-healing materials phenomena are triggered to counteract these microcracks. These processes are ideally triggered by the occurrence of damage itself. Thus far, the self-healing capacity of cement-based materials has been considered as something "extra". This could be called passive self-healing, since it was not a designed feature of the material, but an inherent property of it. Centuries-old buildings have been said to have survived these centuries because of the inherent self-healing capacity of the binders used for cementing building blocks together. In this State-of-the-Art Report a closer look is taken at self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials. It is shown what options are available to design for this effect rather than have it occur as a "coincidental extra".

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Gclust Server: 55201 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 55201 HSA_52840095 Cluster Sequences - 221 NP_060062.1 intersex-like ; no annotatio...equences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences - Sequence length 221 Representative annotation NP_060062.1 intersex

  9. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  10. Analysis of the Yrast Bands with q-Deformed Moment of Inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiang-Zheng; RUAN Tu-Nan

    2001-01-01

    The rigid-rotor with a q-deformed moment of inertia is introduced to describe the nuclear rotational spectra. With the representations of quantum algebra, the normal deformed and superdeformed bands are naturally differentiated by softness. The yrast normal deformed bands in rare earth and actinium regions, as well as the yrast superdeformed bands in A-190 and 150 regions are investigated. The calculated results agree with experimental data qualitatively well, and the values of the parameters are physically reasonable. This indicates that the fixed deformation, the stretching effect and the many body statistics effect are three possible dominant factors to govern nuclear rotational bands.

  11. Transition wavelengths and unresolved transition array statistics of ions with Z = 72-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, D, E-mail: Deirdre.Kilbane@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2011-08-28

    Potential extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation sources have been identified, using the flexible atomic code (FAC), as emission peaks arising from the 4d-4f and 4p-4d transitions in Pd-like to Rb-like ions of hafnium through actinium. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated and for increasing nuclear charge, these strong emitters are seen to separate and move to shorter wavelengths. Each source is characterized using the unresolved transition array model. They are proposed to complement the currently used nitrogen and argon sources in the 'water window', and as possible successors to tin in next-generation lithography.

  12. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  13. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  14. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  15. Crystal structure of cis-bis-{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-tri-methyl-2-oxobi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thio-semicarbazidato-κ(3) O,N (1),S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent mol-ecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Vanessa Senna; Bresolin, Leandro; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2015-12-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenyl-thio-semicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The Cd(II) ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral environment by two deprotonated thio-semicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected via pairs of N-H⋯S and C-H⋯S inter-actions, building centrosymmetric dimers. One of the ligands is disordered in the campher unit over two sets of sites with site-occupancy factors of 0.7 and 0.3. The structure contains additional solvent mol-ecules, which are disordered and for which no reasonable split model was found. Therefore, the data were corrected for disordered solvent using the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] in PLATON. Since the disordered solvents were removed by data processing, and the number of solvent entities was a suggestion only, they were not considered in the chemical formula and subsequent chemical or crystal information.

  16. Inhibitory effect of meth-ferulic acid on the HBV DNA in HepG2.2.1 cells%甲基阿魏酸在HepG2.2.15细胞培养中对HBV DNA的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇文; 李丽; 唐爱存; 李梅; 张士军

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究甲基阿魏酸(meth-fendic acid,MFA)在HepG2.2.15细胞中对HBV DNA合成的抑制作用.方法:采用四甲基噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测MFA对HepG2.2.15细胞的半数毒性浓度(TC50)和最大无毒浓度(TC0);在TC0基础上观察5个不同浓度药物作用于HepG2.2.15细胞,分别在第4d和8d收集细胞培养上清液,采用实时荧光定量PCR法检测上清液HBV DNA的含量.结果:TC0=6.6μg/ml,TC50=179.7μg/ml,MFA对HepG2.2.15细胞毒性较低.无毒浓度下的MFA在HepG2.2.15细胞培养中可有效地减少HBV DNA的拷贝数.结论:MFA在HepG2.2.15细胞培养中能有效的抑制HBV DNA的复制,且毒性较低.

  17. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information, and impact of e-resources on information behaviour. Subjects were also asked to provide three suggestions on improving access to scientific information.Main Results – The amount of reading and number of electronic journals and other sources consulted among the scholars who participated in this study has increased. Three-quarters of survey respondents consult more journals and read more articles. The scholars reported that they are grateful for the increase in electronic information and its enhanced ease of access, and are not overwhelmed by it. Their reading has become more discriminatory, though, with many reporting “skimming” much of what they read to save time. Scholars keep up-to-date in three main ways: web browsing of journal issues, library database searches, and TOC e-mail alerts. More than 90% of survey respondents reported conducting database searches. Google and Google Scholar were often mentioned ahead of specific library database names. In determining value and relevance of an article, its author and abstract are key for scholars. In addition, personal information management techniques used by scholars were all over the board. The three main methods were use of print or electronic folders, reference management software, and no system. Many of the academics felt their information management systems were “rudimentary” (p. 225.The request for suggestions and comments on the questionnaire was not answered by “most of the sample” (p. 226. Those who did respond to this request asked for more library resources. The main complaint expressed by scholars concerned the difficulty and complexity of finding journal article content using the Library website (e.g., varying databases, difficulty of interpreting what journal electronic and print holdings are available. Because of this, a number of scholars used Google to find library-subscribed content.Conclusion – By having greater and easier access to e-journals, scholars accessing the CBUC read more articles from more disciplines. Scholars would prefer a simpler library interface to search for online content. Due to the complexity of finding article content, they use web search tools like Google and Google Scholar to get to what they need faster. The authors of this study believe research should be conducted on the use of the Consortium’s metasearch tool to reduce the complexity. Research should also be conducted on value-added features of search interfaces for particular disciplines.

  18. CJEU - Judgment of 23.9.2013 (grand chamber) - Case c-221/11 leyla Demirkan v Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Association agreement with Turkey - Article 41 of the additional protocol -freedom to provide services - Visa requirement: Turkey association agreement does not cover passive reception of services and Turkish nationals wishing to enter the Schengen area cannot benefit from this freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matera, C.

    2014-01-01

    With the Demirkan case the CJEU was called upon to clarify the scope of Article 41(1) of the Additional protocol to the EU - Turkey Association Agreement and affirm whether the Soysal and Savatli ruling was also applicable to the passive reception of services and, more specifically, to tourists. The

  19. Evaluation of the protection induced by avian influenza vaccines containing a 1994 Mexican H5N2 LPAI seed strain against a 2008 Egyptian H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to clade 2.2.1 by means of serological and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terregino, Calogero; Toffan, Anna; Cilloni, Filippo; Monne, Isabella; Bertoli, Elena; Castellanos, Lilia; Amarin, Nadim; Mancin, Marzia; Capua, Ilaria

    2010-06-01

    Since 2006 Egypt has been facing an extensive epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) with a huge number of outbreaks both in rural and intensively reared poultry areas. The use of efficacious vaccines in this country has been, and still remains, essential for the control and possible eradication of HPAI. The present study was performed to establish whether the administration of inactivated vaccines containing an H5 virus belonging to a different lineage to the Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses guarantees protection from clinical signs, provides significant immune response and is able to achieve a reduction of viral shedding in the face of a challenge with a contemporary H5N1 virus isolated in Egypt. Despite the genetic and antigenic differences between the vaccine strain (H5N2/Mexico) and the challenge strain (H5N1/Egypt), confirmed by molecular and serological (haemagglutination inhibition) tests, it was established that the immune response induced by these conventional vaccines is sufficient to prevent infection in the majority of birds challenged with a contemporary H5N1 Egyptian strain. The data reported in this study also indicate that there may be a low degree of correlation between haemagglutination inhibition titres, clinical protection and reduction of shedding.

  20. Relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among urban populations in Ningxia, China . Journal of Zhejiang University (Agric . & Life Sci .), 2013,39(2):215-221%宁夏城市居民营养素摄入量与代谢综合征相关危险因素调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏宇; 张娜; 李琳; 陶秀娟; 杨建军; 张毓洪; 赵燚

    2013-01-01

    Summary It is well documented that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of metabolic syndrome ( MS) remains inconclusive . Several studies on the relationship between MS and energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet ( proteins , fats , carbohydrates) may play an important contributing role to MS in adults . So , this study aims to investigate the possible relationship between MS and energy intake , percentage energy intake from macronutrients among urban populations in Ningxia , China . According to different economic levels from 2011 to 2012 , 2 465 subjects ( age:18‐75 years) were selected using stratified cluster random sampling in Yinchuan , Wuzhong , Zhongwei , Guyuan , and Shizuishan in Ningxia , China . Dietary intake was assessed using 24‐h food records and a validated food frequency questionnaire . Body mass , height , waist circumference , blood pressure , triglyceride ( TG ) , high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL‐C ) , and blood glucose were measured . Logistic regression models were adjusted for age , smoking , drinking , and physical activity factors . The results showed that there were 647 MS cases in all subjects . According to the diagnosis criteria of MS , the incidence of MS was 26 .2% ( men:281 cases (25% ) ;women:366 cases ( 27 .3% ) ) , no significant difference in sex composition ( P>0 .05) . As a way of lifestyle , there was no significant difference in smoking , drinking , exercise between MS group and control group ( P>0 .05) ;significant difference was found in tertian dietary intake of protein and fat energy percentage between MS group and control group ( P0.05);MS组与对照组间吸烟、饮酒、锻炼等生活方式构成的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);MS组与对照组间日膳食摄入蛋白质及脂肪能量百分比差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);MS组与对照组间的体质指数、腰围、收缩压、舒张压、空腹血糖、胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白差异有统计学意义( P<0.05). Logistic多因素分析表明,蛋白质、脂肪及碳水化合物的能量占总摄入能量的百分比过多是城市居民代谢综合征的重要危险因素,其中高蛋白质组:相对危险程度比值比( odds ratio , OR)=1.417;高脂肪组:OR=1.647;高碳水化合物组:OR=1.810;因此,应采取膳食营养干预措施来有效预防MS .

  1. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-11-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gb=NM_001033969 /gi=77020290 /ug=Mdm.221 /len=5710 1e-04 30% MCLWLPLSLWGLSLWLSLPVSLPLVLSLWLSLSLSFSLSLSLS...LPLSPSLYISLSLWSLITVGVYVYGAVSQRLQGGPGLKGSGSNVVSDSXLCHLSVSLCLSVSLSLSLSLSISLSLSVSLSVSLSVHLSVSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLS...LSLSLSVSVSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSVSLSLSLCLSLCLSLCLCLCLSLCPSLCLSLSLSLSISLSLSVSLCLSVSPSLPSSLLLSVSVSVSLSLSLSLSPLSLSPPFFNQ ...

  2. Gene : CBRC-MDOM-03-0159 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available b=NM_001033969 /gi=77020290 /ug=Mdm.221 /len=5710 3e-05 31% MSTTTNLSSFYFSYLVRRTSASHILFSLSLPVLRVVSLS...PPLSPAIFLSILSHSQYLSSLSLLCPLCLWVSSLSLSISLSLSLSLSSLLSLSLFSLSLFLSLSISLSLFSPLSLSLSLSLLSPLSLLSLSLSSLLSLSLSFSLSLSLSLSLSLS...LSSLLSLSLSSLSLSLSLSLFLSLSPLSSLSLSFSLSLSLSLSSLLSLSLCLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLRNPINPTHLYFLFWSLRDKEGERVIS ...

  3. A porphyrin-based metal–organic framework as a pH-responsive drug carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenxin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hu, Quan [Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Jiang, Ke; Yang, Yanyu [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, Yuanjing [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qian, Guodong, E-mail: gdqian@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-05-15

    A low cytotoxic porphyrin-based metal–organic framework (MOF) PCN-221, which exhibited high PC12 cell viability via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)−2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, was selected as an oral drug carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) was chosen as the model drug molecule which was absorbed into inner pores and channels of MOFs by diffusion. PCN-221 showed high drug loading and sustained release behavior under physiological environment without “burst effect”. The controlled pH-responsive release of drugs by PCN-221 revealed its promising application in oral drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: The porous crystals PCN-221 with pore openings (MOF) PCN-221 was prepared exhibiting low cytotoxicity. PCN-221 showed high drug Methotrexate loading and controlled pH-responsive release of Methotrexate. - Highlights: • A porphyrin-based metal–organic framework (MOF) PCN-221 was prepared showing low cytotoxicity. • PCN-221 showed high drug Methotrexate loading. • PCN-221 showed controlled pH-responsive release of Methotrexate.

  4. 76 FR 44279 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Clinchco, VA, and Coal Run, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Clinchco, VA, and Coal Run, KY AGENCY: Federal...''), upgrading its Station WPKE-FM, Coal Run Kentucky, from Channel 276A to Channel 221C3. DATES: Effective... 221C3 at Coal Run, Kentucky, are 37-23-57 NL and 82-23-42 WL, and for Channel 276A at Clinchco,...

  5. Thermophysical and Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center (TEPIAC). A Continuing Systematic Program on Data Tables of Thermophysical and Electronic Properties of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Seismic Wave Velocity 221 8.0. Nomenclature 221 8.1. Introduction 222 8.2. Experimental Methods 222 8.3. Relation between Velocity and Elastic...PA St. Paul, MN Baltimore, MD Westinghouse Electric Corp. Pittsburgh, PA Westinghouse Electric Research Lab. West Lafayette, IN Westinghouse Hanford

  6. 7 CFR 2.63 - Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Economics. 2.63 Section 2.63 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.63 Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics. Pursuant to § 2.21(a), subject to reservations in § 2.21(b), and subject to...

  7. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16of, ASASSN-16ok, and ASASSN-16om as Type Ia SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Salinas, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    We obtained optical spectra of ASASSN-16of (ATel #9815), ASASSN-16ok (ATel #9826), and ASASSN-16om (ATel #9827), on UT 2016 December 22.3, 22.1, and 22.1, respectively, with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope.

  8. 77 FR 54923 - Minor Boundary Revision at Big Thicket National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Big Thicket National Preserve AGENCY: National Park..., pursuant to the Act of October 11, 1974 (Pub. L. 93- 439, 88 Stat. 1245), the boundary of Big Thicket...; Tract 219-12, 6.45 acres; Tract 219- 13, 177.28 acres; Tract 221-15, 8.51 acres; Tract 221-16,...

  9. GETDB: 103497 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S subset, PNS subset? dorsal aorta dorsal epi, cns, tr associated cells internal - - comment...1:A, comment2:21C4 d1 d2 - - - Show 103497 DGRC Number 103497 Link to Original Genotype...nal Lethality - Also known as - Original Comments comment1:A, comment2:21C4 Disc (Image) d1 d2 Disc (number)

  10. GETDB: 104784 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of cells sg dorsal crescent in leg, sg, DT internal - - comment1:A, comment2:21C4...in leg, sg, DT Adult GFP internal Lethality - Also known as - Original Comments comment1:A, comment2:21C4 Di

  11. Equational Programming (A Study in Executable Algebraic Formal Specification).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-05

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science . Volume 86: Proceedings of the 1979 Copenhagen Winter School on Abstract Software...Dexter Kozen (editor), Lecture Notes in Computer Science . Volume 164: Proceedings, Logics of Programming Workshop, pages 221-256. Springer-Verlag...Programming Workshop, edited by Edward Clarke and Dexter Kozen, volume 164, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes *. , in Computer Science , pages 221-256,

  12. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Bull_Aust_Inst_Maritime_Archaeol_22_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Bull_Aust_Inst_Maritime_Archaeol_22_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  13. Kvaalide kvainimine / Daniel C. Dennett ; tõlk. Bruno Mölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dennett, Daniel C., 1942-

    1997-01-01

    Järgneb Akadeemia 1998, nr. 1, lk. 189-221. Lk. 209-221 järelsõna: B. Mölder. Dennett ja kvaalid. Sisald. bibliogr. Tõlke allikas: Quining Qualia. In: Conciousness in Contemporary Science. - Oxford, 1988, lk. 42-77

  14. Android Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    2 2.2.1 HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP...simply copying a file in its entirety with no latency constraints). 2.2.1 HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) As its name suggests, the HyperText ...Transfer Protocol (HTTP) was originally designed to transfer files containing formatted text written in the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) across a

  15. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  16. AcEST: DK949220 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4. 5' end sequence. DK949220 CL9Contig1 Show DK949220 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0005_G14 Library TST38 Length 666... Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0005_G14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK949220...141), Expect = e-124 Identities = 215/221 (97%), Positives = 220/221 (99%) Frame = +3 Query: 3 KTHINIVVIGHVD... Expect = e-123 Identities = 213/221 (96%), Positives = 220/221 (99%) Frame = +3 Query: 3 KTHINIVVIGHVDSGKST...F1A PE=3 SV=1 Length = 447 Score = 441 bits (1134), Expect = e-123 Identities = 214/221 (96%), Positives = 220

  17. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2007-01-02

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  18. Towards high-resolution laser ionization spectroscopy of the heaviest elements in supersonic gas jet expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, R.; Barzakh, A.; Bastin, B.; Beerwerth, R.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Grawe, H.; de Groote, R.; Delahaye, P.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaffney, L. P.; Ghys, L.; Gins, W.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Loiselet, M.; Lutton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martínez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Raeder, S.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Thomas, J-C; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2017-01-01

    Resonant laser ionization and spectroscopy are widely used techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities to produce pure beams of exotic nuclei and measure the shape, size, spin and electromagnetic multipole moments of these nuclei. However, in such measurements it is difficult to combine a high efficiency with a high spectral resolution. Here we demonstrate the on-line application of atomic laser ionization spectroscopy in a supersonic gas jet, a technique suited for high-precision studies of the ground- and isomeric-state properties of nuclei located at the extremes of stability. The technique is characterized in a measurement on actinium isotopes around the N=126 neutron shell closure. A significant improvement in the spectral resolution by more than one order of magnitude is achieved in these experiments without loss in efficiency. PMID:28224987

  19. Temporal Variations in Surface Concentrations of Terrestrial Lead 210 and Uranium 235 Radionucleides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, M.

    We have started to measure the surface concentrations of terrestrial radionucleides of lead 210 and uranium 235 in Tokyo (N35, E139) in 2002. Lead 210 which is a daughter nucleus of Rn-222 (uranium series) emits 46 keV gamma-ray with a half-life of 22.4 years, while uranium 235 (actinium series) emits a gamma-ray at 186 keV with a half-life of 0.7 billion years. The present measurement of the surface concentration of lead 210 exhibits two peaks in spring and fall, similar to the beryllium 7 seasonal variations, while the uranium 235 concentration does not vary with time within statistical errors. These two terrestrial radionucleides exhibit different temporal variations on the surface. We discuss possible explanations for the differences in the temporal variations from a point of view of differences in their altitude distribution.

  20. 两种稀土产品中放射性核素分析研究%ANALYSIS OF RADIONUCLIDES IN TWO RARE EARTH PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周程; 孙恋君

    2009-01-01

    利用高纯锗γ谱仪对两个稀土产品氯化镧和氯化钇的样品进行能谱分析,研究经湿法冶炼工艺后的稀土产品中放射性核素的活度变化.结果表明,样品中存在天然放射性钍系和锕-铀系的核素,以及天然放射性核素~(138)La和~(176)Lu,但两个样品中所含的放射性核素不相同.氯化镧产品中锕-铀系和钍系核素放射性未达平衡,其主要子体~(224)Ra和~(227)Th的含量随时间发生明显变化,约60天达到平衡;而氯化钇产品没有这种现象.%This paper describes a study on raidoactivity change of rare-earth products after hydrometallurgy technology,using HPGe gamma spectrometer to analyze two rare earth products (LaCl_3 and YCl_3).The results show that in the two samples exist natural radionuclides of thorium series and actinium-uranium series as well as other natural radionuclides 138 La and 176 Lu.In the sample of lanthanum chloride the radioactivity of actinium-uranium series and thorium series has not reached balance,the contents of their main progenies ~(226)Ra and ~(227)Th obviously changes with the time,reaching balance 60 days later,while YCl_3 keeps stability.

  1. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water.

  2. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  3. Modeling Oxidation Kinetics of SiC-Containing Refractory Diborides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    depleted zone, we obtain: JCO 12j j ¼ 3 2 JCO221j j; JSiO12j j ¼ 1 2 JCO221j j; JSiO12j j ¼ 2 3 fs JO232j j JCO221j j ¼ fs DCO212 RT 105 PCO2...i2 PCO2i1 l12 ; JCO 12j j ¼ fs DCO12 RT 105 PCOi1 PCOi2 l12 (5) In these expressions, J is the flux in moles per unit area per unit time, D the

  4. Expression and biochemical properties of a protein serine/threonine phosphatase encoded by bacteriophage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, S

    1993-01-01

    The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the open reading frame 221 (orf221) of bacteriophage lambda exhibited a high degree of similarity to the catalytic subunits of a variety of protein serine/threonine phosphatases belonging to PP1, PP2A, and PP2B groups. Cloning and expression of the orf221 gene in Escherichia coli provided direct evidence that the gene codes for a protein serine/threonine phosphatase. The single-subunit recombinant enzyme was purified in soluble form and shown to po...

  5. A porphyrin-based metal-organic framework as a pH-responsive drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenxin; Hu, Quan; Jiang, Ke; Yang, Yanyu; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Qian, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    A low cytotoxic porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) PCN-221, which exhibited high PC12 cell viability via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, was selected as an oral drug carrier. Methotrexate (MTX) was chosen as the model drug molecule which was absorbed into inner pores and channels of MOFs by diffusion. PCN-221 showed high drug loading and sustained release behavior under physiological environment without "burst effect". The controlled pH-responsive release of drugs by PCN-221 revealed its promising application in oral drug delivery.

  6. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September...

  7. Drug: D04289 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04289 Drug Lung-surfactant; Surfacten (TN) Therapeutic category: 2219 Lang-surfact...al organs 22 Respiratory organ agents 221 Respiratory stimulants 2219 Others D04289 Lung-surfactant PubChem: 17398045 ...

  8. Hijacking User Uploads to Online Persistent Data Repositories for Covert Data Exfiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    stealing information from a network by piggybacking on user-generated network traffic. Specifically, steganography drop boxes and passive covert channels...15 2.2. Steganography ...18 2.2.1. Steganography History ............................................................ 18

  9. Serum Kreatinin Seviyelerinin Perkutan Nefrolitotripside Kanama Uzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Can sener

    2015-06-01

    Sonuc: Calismamizda kreatinin degerlerinin PNL sonrasi kanama icin bir risk faktoru oldugu, serum kreatinin degerlerinin yuksekligi olan hastalarda, olmayanlara oranla hematokrit dususunun daha fazla oldugu gorulmektedir. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 221-225

  10. GETDB: 103569 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t - epi stripe gut ex, distal part of leg disc - lethal - comment1:A, comment2:21...x, distal part of leg disc Adult GFP - Lethality lethal Also known as - Original Comments comment1:A, comment

  11. 75 FR 35505 - Notice of Public Meeting; Northeast California Resource Advisory Council and Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...: Nancy Haug, BLM Northern California District manager, (530) 221-1743; or Joseph J. Fontana, BLM public... reasonable accommodations, should contact the BLM as provided above. Dated: June 14, 2010. Joseph J....

  12. 75 FR 3246 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... California District manager, (530) 221-1743; or BLM Public Affairs Officer Joseph J. Fontana, (530) 252-5332... accommodations, should contact the BLM as provided above. Dated: January 12, 2010. Joseph J. Fontana,...

  13. 76 FR 30965 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Haug, BLM Northern California District manager, (530) 221-1743; or Joseph J. Fontana, public affairs... as provided above. Dated: May 17, 2011. Joseph J. Fontana, Public Affairs Officer. BILLING CODE...

  14. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    .... City of McKinney Engineering Department, 221 North Tennessee Street, McKinney, TX 75069. City of Plano City Hall, Engineering Department, 1520 Avenue K, Plano, TX 75074. City of Richardson Civic...

  15. Remote sensing: A green illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, Kamel; François, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    An analysis reveals that satellite-observed increases in canopy greenness during dry seasons, which were previously interpreted as positive responses of Amazon forests to more sunlight, are in fact an optical artefact. See Letter p.221

  16. 77 FR 36501 - Applications for New Awards: Technical Assistance and Dissemination To Improve Services and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... delivered (Fixsen, Blas , Horner, & Sugai, 2009). Examples of implementation components include professional..., 22(1), 13-20. Fixsen, D.L., Blase, K.A., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009). Developing the capacity...

  17. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  18. Anton Hansen Tammsaare Tõde / Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Veidemann, Rein. Isiku tunnistus. Tallinn : SE & JS, 2006, lk. 221-224; Venek.: Pravda Antona Hansena Tammsaare / tlk. Marina Tervonen // Veidemann, Rein. Kollokvium po estonskoi literatute. Tallinn : Izd. "KPD", 2007, lk. 21-25

  19. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSA585 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2000. 2.21 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---kllklsfyflvllls*c*gvslplcfallssssdnl... Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---kllklsfyflvllls*c*gvslplcfallssssdnlelh*rcsssilrvnpshsyat lsnv*AVFNQ

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 31887 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_897625.1 1117:581 1118:602 1129:221 84588:1309 hypothetical protein SYNW1532 Syn...echococcus sp. WH 8102 MMPIPFLLLLAAWLGVGTVQGGAWCDDQQAGIGSYDPQRSEIALCTERIRSKGRSIDEVVRHELFHAVQHLFGRDGRSFLNDSQITVLVHRFMDDREVMAVISLYPSDEINSELEARLMSRLVPNEVIGGALLAGRLVQQAPQQGPIGSLRAYLLGD ...

  2. Immune Response Genotypes and Risk of Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma. 4) To determine if these associations vary by the presence or absence of Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) in the tumor. TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES...we have begun data collection. To date we have obtained and processed blood and saliva samples for DNA from 221 patients plus their parents to serve...Angeles County. To date we have collected samples and extracted DNA from 221 cases and their family members (parents and/or siblings). KEY

  3. 在福尔摩斯"家"中做客%Be a Guest at Sherlock's "homes"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚平

    2007-01-01

    @@ 在英国伦敦,有两处地址在世界上最为有名,一是唐宁街10号的首相官邸,一是贝克街221B号的歇洛克·福尔摩斯住宅.有人说,地球上知道贝克街221B的人其实远比知道唐宁街的人还要多.

  4. East European Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Ergonomics Analysis" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976, 9/3, 121-126 Positions defined on some essential conceptual and dmethodological questions relating to...Bartha "The Scientific-Technical Revolution and Ergonomics" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1978, 11/4, 217-221. Review of theoretical and practical problems of...Quantification of Means of Production" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976 9/4 221-223. Actions taken in the course of Comecon ergonomic cooperation, difficulties in a

  5. Research and Development on Inhalation Toxicologic Evaluation of Red Phosphorus/Butyl Rubber Combustion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    PtODUCyS " PROJECW NWMBER 016139 m l lilt STDY 79-$ CONCENTRATION - C3 Tmbua.ated AnimalL Data PROJCT ID: 221-00 GR1J: C3 SIX; UL3 DAYS: ALL * F~~ATES...STUDIES wITH RP/BR COMBUSTION PRODUCTS PROJECT NUMBER L06139 PHASE III, STUDY 79-SF Cov art -- 3. akt crn oE G ’ooms a MLcvco PROJECT ID: 221-009 GROUP: 23

  6. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  7. Isolation of rhodotorula mucilaginosa from coal and the characteristics as coal surface modifier%煤炭中胶红酵母的分离及对煤的表面改性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立艳; 朱书全; 卢瑶; 王中奇; 杨哲

    2012-01-01

    以神华宝日希勒褐煤为分离源,筛选分离得到一株能够有效改变煤表面特性的菌株SMC221,并研究其对肥煤和尾煤的作用特性.菌株鉴定结果表明SMC221为胶红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa).与传统疏水性草分枝杆菌相比,SMC221对煤表面的改性作用更强:SMC221可选择性地吸附于煤表面,在pH值3~5时,肥煤与SMC221细胞之间发生强烈的静电相互作用,肥煤疏水性变大,浮选选择性增强;对尾煤则是通过菌体架桥作用促使尾煤向不稳定体系转移.菌体细胞对煤的附着正交试验表明,影响附着量的因素依次为:pH值>煤样粒度>接触时间>菌液浓度,其中pH值决定了细胞与煤表面带电性的差异;当SMC221浓度为150×10-6时,肥煤浮选回收率为75%,尾煤絮凝回收率为94%.%A strain designated SMC221 which was screened and separated from Shenhua Baorixile lignite can effectively change the coal surface characteristics. The characteristics which interacted with fat coal and trail coal were evaluated. Strain identification results show that the strain SMC221 is Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Compared to traditional hy-drophobic Mycobacterium phlei,SMC221 has stronger surface improving effects. The results of zeta potential and contact angle of coal samples show that SMC221 can selectively adsorb onto the surface of coal. In the pH range of 3 ~5 , the strong electrostatic between fat coal and SMC221 cell caused the fat coal to be more hydrophobic, which could enhance the flotation efficiency of fat coal. The effect of SMC221 cell on trail coal is to make the coal aggregate transfer to an unstable system such as compact floes through bacteria bridges. Cell adsorbing capacity on the coal surface was measured through orthogonal experiment, and the results show that the order of influence factors is pH> coal particle size>contact time >concentration of bacilli. The pH determines the charging difference between cell and surface of

  8. Rutherford's curriculum vitae, 1894-1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M

    1995-06-01

    A single page, handwritten document was discovered when the Macdonald Physics building of McGill University in Montreal was gutted in 1978. This proved to be the draft of Ernest Rutherford's curriculum vitae (C.V.) covering the years 1894-1907, probably written in the autumn of 1906 when Rutherford was preparing to leave McGill. The C.V. contains 21 headings in chronological order, referring to research and other activities of Rutherford and his coauthors (especially Soddy and Barnes), plus a further set of headings relating to the associated investigations of Rutherford's team, including Eve and Hahn. A transcript of the document is provided, although in several places, Rutherford's handwriting is difficult to interpret, and the significance of his abbreviations is not always clear. Each of the items in the C.V. is discussed briefly in this review, in the light both of Rutherford's personal career and of the contribution of his team to the development and understanding of radioactivity. This contribution included the cause and nature of radioactivity (with Soddy), energy aspects of radioactive decay (with Barnes), elucidation of the uranium-radium, thorium and actinium series (Godlewski and Hahn), the radioactivity of the earth and atmosphere (Eve), the nature of the gamma rays (Eve) and, perhaps most important of all, the nature and properties of the alpha particle (Rutherford himself). The latter investigations led directly to Rutherford's later work in Manchester, including the nuclear model of the atom and artificial disintegration of the nucleus.

  9. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulagin, N.A., E-mail: nkulagin@bestnet.kharkov.u [Kharkiv National University for Radio Electronics, Avenue Shakespeare 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr{sup +4} ions in oxides, Cu{sup +2} in HTSC, Nd{sup +2} in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10{sup -9} m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. Level scheme of Cr{sup 4+} ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} m.

  10. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  11. An Ion Exchange Study of Possible Hydridized 5f Bonding in theActinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.M.; Street, Jr., K.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1951-08-28

    A study has been made of the elution behavior of curium(III), americium(III), plutonium(III), actinium(III), plutonium(IV), neptunium(IV), uraniuM(IV), thorium(IV), neptunium(V), plutonium (VI), uranium (VI), lanthanum(III), cerium(III), europium(III), ytterbium(III), ytterium(III), strontium(II), barium(II), radium(II), cesium(I) with 3.2 M, 6.2 M, 9.3 M, and 12.2 M HCl solutions from Dowex-50 cation exchange resin columns. These elutions show that in high concentrations of hydrochloric acid the actinides form complex ions with chloride ion to a much greater extent than the lanthanides. The strengths of the tripositive actinide complex ions apparently go in the order plutonium > americium> curium, although their ionic radii also decrease in this same order. To explain these results, a partial covalent character may be ascribed to the bonding in the transuranium complex ions. It is shown that a reasonable structure for such covalent bonding involves hybridization of the 5f orbitals in the actinide elements.

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  13. Pulse-shape discrimination and energy quenching of alpha particles in Cs$_2$LiLaBr$_6$:Ce$^{3+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Mesick, Katherine E; Stonehill, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Cs$_2$LiLaBr$_6$:Ce$^{3+}$ (CLLB) is an elpasolite scintillator that offers excellent linearity and gamma-ray energy resolution and sensitivity to thermal neutrons with the ability to perform pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) to distinguish gammas and neutrons. Our investigation of CLLB has indicated the presence of intrinsic radioactive alpha background that we have determined to be from actinium contamination of the lanthanum component. We measured the pulse shapes for gamma, thermal neutron, and alpha events and determined that PSD can be performed to separate the alpha background with a moderate figure of merit of 0.98. We also measured the electron-equivalent-energy of the alpha particles in CLLB and simulated the intrinsic alpha background from $^{227}$Ac to determine the quenching factor of the alphas. A linear quenching relationship $L_{\\alpha} = E_{\\alpha} \\times q + L_0$ was found at alpha particle energies above 5 MeV, with a quenching factor $q = 0.71$ MeVee/MeV and an offset $L_0 = - 1.19$ MeVee.

  14. Liquid Scintillation Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes: A Review of the Impact of Background Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Matthew; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2016-03-09

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is a versatile and commonplace method for radiometric measurement of charged particle emitting radionuclides. The LSC method provides utility in a range of environmental science applications including hydrological studies of water transport, anthropogenic releases of radionuclides into the environment, and vertical mixing rates within oceans. Instrumental measurement background is one limiting factor of radiometric measurement sensitivity. As part of the development of a custom low background LSC system located in a shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a number of measurement applications of LSC have been considered and are summarized here. The focus is on determining which aspects of such measurements would gain the greatest benefit from the reduction of LSC backgrounds by a factor of 10-100 relative to values reported in the literature. Examples of benefits include lowering the minimum detectable activity, reducing the sample size required, and shortening the elapsed timeline of the processing and analysis sequence. In particular tritium, strontium, and actinium isotopes are examined as these isotopes cover a range of requirements related to the LSC measurement method (e.g., 3H: low energy; Sr: spectral deconvolution; Ac: alpha/beta discrimination).

  15. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  16. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  17. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference.

  18. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Nadia; Fagundes, Rosane Correa, E-mail: nadia.segre@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM-SP/CEA/LARE), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar. Lab. Radioecologico; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  19. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1).

  20. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  1. Effects of acute hypercapnia with and without acidosis on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, L M; Rzezinski, A; Silva, J D; Maron-Gutierrez, T; Ornellas, D S; Henriques, I; Capelozzi, V L; Teodoro, W; Morales, M M; Silva, P L; Pelosi, P; Garcia, C S N B; Rocco, P R M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Twenty-four hours after paraquat injection, 28 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=7/group): (1) normocapnia (NC, PaCO2=35-45 mmHg), ventilated with 0.03%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; (2) hypercapnic acidosis (HC, PaCO2=60-70 mmHg), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; and (3) buffered hypercapnic acidosis (BHC), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2 and treated with sodium bicarbonate (8.4%). The remaining seven animals were not mechanically ventilated (NV). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.003), IL-1β (pacidosis, reduced lung inflammation and lung and kidney cell apoptosis.

  2. Inorganic chemistry. Synthesis and characterization of P₂N₃⁻: an aromatic ion composed of phosphorus and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velian, Alexandra; Cummins, Christopher C

    2015-05-29

    Aromaticity is predominantly associated with carbon-rich compounds but can also occur in all-inorganic ones. We report the synthesis of the diphosphatriazolate anion, a rare example of a planar aromatic inorganic species. Treatment of azide (N3(-)) in tetrahydrofuran solution with P2A2 (A = C14H10), a source of P2, produced P2N3(-), which we isolated as its [Na-kryptofix-221](+) salt in 22% yield and characterized by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Salts [Na-kryptofix-221] [P2N3] and [Na-kryptofix-221] [P2(15)NN2] were analyzed by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, (15)N and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The formation of the P2N3(-) anion was investigated using density functional theory, and its aromatic character was confirmed by NICS (nucleus-independent chemical shift) and QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) methods.

  3. Liver lead concentrations in raptors in New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansley, William; Murphy, Lisa A

    2011-08-01

    Lead exposure in New Jersey raptors was assessed by analyzing liver samples from carcasses obtained from wildlife rehabilitators. Samples were collected from 221 individuals representing 13 species. Concentrations were within the range of normal background exposure in 12 species. One red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with clinical poisoning (7.4 μg/g wet weight), which represents an incidence of 1% (1/104) in that species and 0.5% (1/221) in the overall sample. A second red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with subclinical exposure (2.1 μg/g wet weight). The combined incidence of elevated exposure (subclinical exposure + clinical poisoning) was 2% (2/104) in red-tailed hawks and 1% (2/221) in the overall sample.

  4. Role of Ca2+ and L-Phe in regulating functional cooperativity of disease-associated "toggle" calcium-sensing receptor mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR regulates Ca(2+ homeostasis in the body by monitoring extracellular levels of Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+]o and amino acids. Mutations at the hinge region of the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain (VFTD produce either receptor inactivation (L173P, P221Q or activation (L173F, P221L related to hypercalcemic or hypocalcemic disorders. In this paper, we report that both L173P and P221Q markedly impair the functional positive cooperativity of the CaSR as reflected by [Ca(2+]o-induced [Ca(2+]i oscillations, inositol-1-phosphate (IP1 accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 activity. In contrast, L173F and P221L show enhanced responsiveness of these three functional readouts to [Ca(2+]o. Further analysis of the dynamics of the VFTD mutants using computational simulation studies supports disruption in the correlated motions in the loss-of-function CaSR mutants, while these motions are enhanced in the gain-of-function mutants. Wild type (WT CaSR was modulated by L-Phe in a heterotropic positive cooperative way, achieving an EC50 similar to those of the two activating mutations. The response of the inactivating P221Q mutant to [Ca(2+]o was partially rescued by L-Phe, illustrating the capacity of the L-Phe binding site to enhance the positive homotropic cooperativity of CaSR. L-Phe had no effect on the other inactivating mutant. Moreover, our results carried out both in silico and in intact cells indicate that residue Leu(173, which is close to residues that are part of the L-Phe-binding pocket, exhibited impaired heterotropic cooperativity in the presence of L-Phe. Thus, Pro(221 and Leu(173 are important for the positive homo- and heterotropic cooperative regulation elicited by agonist binding.

  5. Entrapment and Sustained Release of Hydrophobic Drugs with Different Molecular Weights from PHBHHx-PEG Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Fan; LU Xiao-yun; REN Kai; MA Jian-gang

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles are more and more frequently used in drug delivery systems, which represent one of the most rapidly developing areas. In our previous study, a novel natural hybrid polyester, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) end-capped poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx-PEG) was directly produced by Aeromonas hydrophila fermentation. In this study, the performance of the novel biodegradable PHBHHx-PEG copolyester as a sustained release carrier for hydrophobic drugs with different molecular weights and the in vitro sustained release profile were investigated. 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu, Mw=130.1), TGX221 (Mw=364.4), and Rapamycin (RAP, Mw=914.2) were used as the model drugs. PHBHHx-PEG nanoparticles entrapped with 5-Fu, TGX221 and RAP were fabricated by a modified emulsification/solvent evaporation method, respectively. The average diameter of 5-Fu, TGX221, and RAP loaded PHBHHx-PEG nanoparticles was between 198.2-217.4 nm, and the entrapment efficiency of the three drugs was 62.5%, 93.4% and 91.9%, respectively. The in vitro release profiles of 5-Fu, TGX221 and RAP from PHBHHx-PEG nanoparticles were different. 5-Fu showed faster release rate and an obvious initial burst release phase. TGX221 and RAP were demonstrated to be released more slowly and steadily. The release percentages of 5-Fu, TGX221 and RAP were 97.7%, 85.1%and 74.7%after releasing for 72 h. PHBHHx-PEG is a kind of promising material as a carrier for the entrapment and delivery of hydrophobic drugs especially for those drugs with high molecular weight.

  6. Enhanced extraction efficiency of fluorescent SiC by surface nanostructuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    Antireflective structures were fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC for white LEDs to enhance the extraction efficiency. Average surface reflectance decreased from 22.1% to 5.1% over a broad range, and luminescence intensity was enhanced by 41%.......Antireflective structures were fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC for white LEDs to enhance the extraction efficiency. Average surface reflectance decreased from 22.1% to 5.1% over a broad range, and luminescence intensity was enhanced by 41%....

  7. Association and expression analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial tumor necrosis factor alpha gene with mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sanjeev; Bhushan, Bharat; Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amit; Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    A total of 129 crossbred cows were selected to explore the genotypic and expression profiling of partial TNF-α gene and its association with mastitis susceptibility. Two exon spanning region of TNF-α gene (221 bp and 239 bp) were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The different genotypic analysis by SSCP revealed that 221 bp fragment was monomorphic, whereas 239 bp was polymorphic. Association studies revealed that AA genotypes of 239 bp were more prevalent in mastitis group and the mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly (P mastitis resistance selection in dairy cattle.

  8. Numerical simulation of super-square patterns in Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kahouadji, L; Tuckerman, L S; Shin, S; Chergui, J; Juric, D

    2015-01-01

    We report the first simulations of the Faraday instability using the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in domains much larger than the characteristic wavelength of the pattern. We use a massively parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. Simulations performed in rectangular and cylindrical domains yield complex patterns. In particular, a superlattice-like pattern similar to those of [Douady & Fauve, Europhys. Lett. 6, 221-226 (1988); Douady, J. Fluid Mech. 221, 383-409 (1990)] is observed. The pattern consists of the superposition of two square superlattices.

  9. Separation of intron 22 inversion type 1 and 2 of hemophilia A by modified inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tzu-Yu; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2014-12-01

    An inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) combined with short-end capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was developed for genotyping of intron 22 inversion Type 1 (Inv22-1) and Type 2 (Inv22-2) of hemophilia A (HA). Severe HA cases are affected by intron 22 inversion around 45-50%. Inv22-1 has higher frequency than Inv22-2. The aim of this study is to distinguish them by genotyping. In order to improve Inv22 genotyping efficiency, five primers were designed and applied to differentiate the wild type, Inv22-1, Inv22-2 and carrier. Three amplicons of 405, 457 and 512 bp were recognized for wild type; 333, 457 and 584 bp for Inv22-1; 385, 405 and 584 bp for Inv22-2. The Inv22-1 carrier has 5 amplicons including 333, 405, 457, 512, 584 bp and Inv22-2 carrier is differentiated by 385, 405, 457, 512 and 584 bp. The amplicons between Inv22-1 and Inv22-2 carriers are only different in 333 bp for Inv22-1 carrier and 385 bp for Inv22-2 carrier. Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was used for separation within 5 min. The separation voltage was set at 8 kV (cathode at detector), and the temperature was kept at 25°C. The sieving matrix was 89 mM Tris, 89 mM boric acid, 2mM EDTA containing 0.4% (w/v) HPMC and 1 μM of YO-PRO(®)-1 Iodide. Total of 50 HA patients (including 35 non-Inv22, 14 Inv22-1, and one Inv22-2 patients) and 7 HA carriers were diagnosed in the application. Seven random samples (5 patients and 2 carriers) were subjected to comparison and gave identical results of DNA sequencing and this modified IS-PCR.

  10. Flavor-Universal Form of Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities in Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Minakata, Hisakazu

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new perturbative framework to describe neutrino oscillation in matter with the unique expansion parameter \\epsilon, which is defined as \\Delta m^2_{21} / \\Delta m^2_{ren} with the renormalized atmospheric \\Delta m^2_{ren} \\equiv \\Delta m^2_{31} - s^2_{12} \\Delta m^2_{21}. It allows us to derive the maximally compact expressions of the oscillation probabilities in matter to order \\epsilon in the form akin to those in vacuum. This feature allows immediate physical interpretation of the formulas, and facilitates understanding of physics of neutrino oscillations in matter. Moreover, quite recently, we have shown that our three-flavor oscillation probabilities P(\

  11. The Reagan Defense Budget: Prospects and Pressures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    policy and to stimulate U.S. economic growth; and ( ii ) the urgent requirement to build up America’s defense capabilities. The former theme is a traditional...Paris in the Fall of 1981: a ver- sion of it will appear in the Ramses conference proceedings. -2- Unfortunately, it now seems as though these two...Proposed OMB Cut Alternatives (August) Level I 221.9 183.6 247.3 219.2 278.4 246.9 Level II 221.4 183.4 238.5 217.4 276.9 243.5 Level III 216.0 182.0

  12. A Super Performance Bandgap Voltage Reference with Adjustable Output for DC-DC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a super performance bandgap voltage reference for DC-DC converter with adjustable output. It generates a wide range of voltage reference ranging from sub- 1V to 1.221 7 V and has a low temperature coefficient of 2.3 × 10 - 5/K over the temperature variation using the current feedback and resistive subdivision. In addition, the power supply rejection ration of the proposed bandgap voltage reference is 78 dB. When supply voltage varies from 2.5 V to 6 V, output VREF is 1.221 685 ± 0.055 mV.

  13. Dicty_cDB: CFG770 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A clone PP_LEa0014A23f, mRNA sequence. 74 8e-12 2 AF333116 |AF333116.1 Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor-lik...ipic semialdehyde dehydrogen... 221 7e-58 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgo

  14. Dicty_cDB: SFJ544 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 42 3e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor protein homolog [human, kidney, Peptid...ne) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 221 3e-56 AY847462_1( AY847462 |pid:non

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFC550 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rkiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 221 1e-56 AY847462_1( AY847462 |pid:none) Acan...6_1( AF323586 |pid:none) Oryza sativa aldehyde dehydrogenas... 222 5e-57 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Ste

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFG476 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kiella histriomuscorum turgor ... 221 1e-56 AY847462_1( AY847462 |pid:none) Acant..._1( AF323586 |pid:none) Oryza sativa aldehyde dehydrogenas... 222 5e-57 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Ster

  17. AM: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Discovery in Mathematics as Heuristic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    common-sense, but rather a divination of the regular behavior he expects of mathematical beings. -- Bourbaki This facet turned out to be a "dud", and...Science, Vol 1, No 1, January 1977. Bourbaki , N., The Architechture of Mathematics, American Mathematics Monthly, v. 57, pp. 221-232, Published by the

  18. Impacts of Digital Imaging versus Drawing on Student Learning in Undergraduate Biodiversity Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basey, John M.; Maines, Anastasia P.; Francis, Clinton D.; Melbourne, Brett

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of documenting observations with digital imaging versus hand drawing in inquiry-based college biodiversity labs. Plant biodiversity labs were divided into two treatments, digital imaging (N = 221) and hand drawing (N = 238). Graduate-student teaching assistants (N = 24) taught one class in each treatment. Assessments…

  19. Herwig++ Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, M; Gigg, M A; Grellscheid, D; Hamilton, K; Latunde-Dada, O; Platzer, S; Richardson, P; Seymour, M H; Sherstnev, A; Tully, J; Webber, Bryan R

    2009-01-01

    Herwig++ is the successor of the event generator HERWIG. In its present version 2.2.1 it provides a program for full LHC event generation which is superior to the previous program in many respects. We briefly summarize its features and describe present work and some future plans.

  20. 78 FR 56234 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance with the Select Agent Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... possessing, using, or transferring biological agents and toxins. The purpose of the webcast is to provide... Justice's Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Criminal Justice Information Services. Changes to Section..., ``Enhancing Controls on Dangerous Biological Agents and Toxins'' (sections 201 through 221), provides for...

  1. 77 FR 15788 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-G-ID-573 Comments: 11,000 sq. ft.; current use: office Illinois 1LT A.J. Ellison Army Reserve Wood...-CA-1673-AG Comments: 2.07 acres, mineral rights, utility easements Drill Site 4 null Ford City CA... Comments: 2.21 acres, mineral rights, utility easements Drill Site 6 null Ford City CA 93268...

  2. 77 FR 35993 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ....; current use: office Illinois 1LT A.J. Ellison Army Reserve ] Wood River IL 62095 Landholding Agency: GSA... Property Number: 54201040004 Status: Surplus GSA Number: 9-B-CA-1673-AG Comments: 2.07 acres, mineral...: 54201040005 Status: Surplus GSA Number: 9-B-CA-1673-AB Comments: 2.21 acres, mineral rights, utility...

  3. 2006 Public Opinion Survey on Education in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Zapf, Jason S.; Chien, Rosanne W.

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Public Opinion Survey on Education in Indiana gauged the attitudes and perceptions of a representative sample of Hoosiers on such key educational issues as kindergarten and pre-kindergarten programs, No Child Left Behind and P.L. 221, school funding and taxes, teacher quality, school choice and charter schools, and the achievement gap in…

  4. Reproducibility of beta-cell function estimates in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjessing, H J; Damsgaard, E M; Matzen, L E

    1988-01-01

    urinary C-peptide excretion was 22.1%. Because fasting plasma C-peptide correlated closely with plasma C-peptide 6 min after glucagon (test 1: r = .70, P less than .01; test 2: r = .76, P less than .01), it seems that these two values can be used equally well as assessment of beta-cell function in NIDDM...

  5. 24 CFR 761.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... violent crime shall have the meaning provided in 42 U.S.C. 11905(2). Drug treatment means a program for... 221(d)(4) market rate projects with tenant-based assistance contracts and section 8 projects with... that includes the applicant's developments. Problems associated with drug-related and violent...

  6. Beta-catenin: A Potential Survival Marker of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Richards , Cancer Res 66, 1964 (Feb 15, 2006). 15. N. Lam, M. A. Chesney, J. Kimble, Curr Biol 16, 287 (Feb 7, 2006). 16. J. Zhang et al., Nature 425... Dawkins , H. J. (1998). Estrogen receptor-negative epithelial cells in mouse mammary gland development and growth. Differentiation 62, 221-226. Zhang, Y

  7. Fallout Patterns from Operation HARDTACK, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-05-01

    ISO - 09 The Area 9 ground zero, which is about 6 mfls front the L= position FOLOW DIFFUSE CLOUD 2- a hearing of abcu 357 degrees, wan reported to hae...LAPSE RATE (Dqreaas (Knoll) hou 28.00028000 thenush- 220- 22 Lt Iln =y.en 26.000 CLOUD TOP 26000 222 - 22 after the 221 22 y which 24,0001

  8. EST Table: FS871345 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS871345 E_FL_fner_45D02_R_0 10/09/28 99 %/220 aa ref|NP_001040402.1| preimplantation... protein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51322.1| preimplantation protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/11 80 %/221 aa FBpp02346

  9. AcEST: BP911794 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -N-debenzoyl-2'-deoxytaxol N-benzoyltran... 39 0.019 sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransfera... 180 KLPFHLVDFGWGKP 221 +L F+ DFGWG P Sbjct: 366 RLGFYEADFGWGGP 379 >sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O

  10. Maternal use of antiepileptic drugs and the risk of major congenital malformations: a joint European prospective study of human teratogenesis associated with maternal epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.B. Samren (Bettina); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); S. Koch; V.K. Hiilesma; H. Klepel; A.H. Bardy; B. Mannegetta; A.W. Deichl; E. Gaily; M.L. Granstrom; H. Meinardi; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D. Lindhout (Dick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To quantify the risks of intrauterine antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure in monotherapy and polytherapy. METHODS: Data from five prospective European studies totaling 1,379 children were pooled and reanalyzed. Data were available for 1,221 children exposed to AED during pregnancy

  11. 75 FR 53274 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Deferral of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...'Abruzzo S.p.A. Mexico: Purified Carboxymethylcellulose, A-201-834, 7/1/09-6/30/10 Quimica Amtex, S.A. de C.... 1675(a)) and 19 CFR 351.221(c)(1)(i). Dated: August 25, 2010. Gary Taverman, Acting Deputy...

  12. New analogues of epiboxidine incorporating the 4,5-dihydroisoxazole nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallanoce, Clelia; Magrone, Pietro; Bazza, Paola;

    2009-01-01

    A group of novel 4,5-dihydro-3-methylisoxazolyl derivatives, structurally related to epiboxidine (=(1R,4S,6S)-6-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane), was prepared via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of acetonitrile oxide to different olefins. Target compounds 1a and 1b, 2a and 2b, 3, 4, ...

  13. Control of Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    wind turbine blades," Wind Energy, Vol. 13, 2009, pp. 221-237. Mejia, 0. D. L. , Moser, R. D. , and Brzozowski, D.P. , "Effects of Trailing-Edge...thruster was designed to produce the greatest force possible given the tight size constraints. Because there was no restriction on the axial length of the

  14. No evidence for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L in women with androgenetic hydatidiform moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutational spectrum of NLRP7 and KHDC3L (C6orf221) in women with sporadic and recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (AnCHM) and biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) to address the hypothesis that autosomal recessive mutations in these gene...

  15. Odontocete Movements off the Island of Kauai: Results of Satellite Tagging and Photo-Identification Efforts in January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    structure of island-associated dolphins: evidence from mitochondrial and microsatellite markers for common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus... malfunction . The Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) boundary is shown. 7    21.8 21.9 22 22.1 22.2 -160 -159.9 -159.8 -159.7 -159.6 -159.5 La tit

  16. 77 FR 42754 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... adjusted to a constant maturity of 10 years. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yong Sun, Department of... issued pursuant to section 221(g)(4) of the Act) will bear interest at the rate in effect on the date the... interest rate will be the rate borne by debentures issued with respect to any insured loan or...

  17. 76 FR 47225 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... adjusted to a constant maturity of 10 years. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yong Sun, Department of... issued pursuant to section 221(g)(4) of the Act) will bear interest at the rate in effect on the date the... interest rate will be the rate borne by debentures issued with respect to any insured loan or...

  18. QTL Information Table: 703 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SR C)Interval RIL Lemont Teqing A RM263 RM221 pha Huang, Z., Yu, T., Su, L., Yu, S.B., Zhang, Z.H., and Zhu, Y.G. (2004). Identificat...ion of chromosome regions associated with seedling vigor in rice. Yi Chuan Xue Bao 31, 596-603. ...

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLE320 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY524011 |pid:none) Paulownia tomentosa deficiens (DEF... 33 6.1 protein upda...2 mRNA, p... 221 2e-56 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens deficiens (DEF) mR... 34 4.7 AY524011

  20. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years. METHO...

  1. Damage Mechanisms/Failure Mechanics of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    cutting method was used to minimize material waste, not because * carbon-carbon is difficult to machine . 2.2 Tension Testing 2.2.1 Specimen Configuration...was made to bond the strain gages to fiber bundles if possible rather than to a layer of matrix material. Ex- tensometers were also employed to measure

  2. Specification/Verification of Temporal Properties for Distributed Systems: Issues and Approaches. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Philip A. Bernstein and Nathan Goodman. Concurrency control in distributed database systems. ACM Computing Surveys, 13(2):185-221, June 1981. [5] K. J...Sequential Processe8. Series in Computer Science. PrenticeHall International, Englewood Cliff, NJ, 1985. 96 [24] A. L. Hopkins Jr., T. Basil Smith, III, and J

  3. 43 CFR 45.1 - What is the purpose of this part, and to what license proceedings does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 18. (c) Reservation of authority. Where DOI notifies FERC that it is reserving its authority to... authorize the Secretary of the Interior to condition hydropower licenses issued by the Federal Energy... to 7 CFR 1.601 et seq. or 50 CFR 221.1 et seq., as applicable. (4) The regulations in subparts A...

  4. 77 FR 42801 - Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...The FAA is conducting a public meeting on August 7 regarding program design and implementation of an equipage incentives program for commercial aircraft and general aviation to equip their aircraft with Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) capabilities, pursuant to the FAA's authority in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (sec. 221). The purpose of this meeting is to serve as......

  5. Moisture source for summer monsoon rainfall over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.

    that the average evaporation and precipitation rates over the Arabian Sea during SW monsoon season are 2.78 and 2.21 (X 10 sup(10) tons/day) respectively. This suggests that the possible contribution from evaporation towards the moisture transport across the west...

  6. MEASURING QUALITY-OF-LIFE WITH THE SICKNESS IMPACT PROFILE - A PILOT-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HULSEBOS, RG; BELTMAN, FW; MIRANDA, DD; SPANGENBERG, JFA

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-study was done to investigate the applicability of the sickness impact profile (SIP) in ex-ICU patients. For this study 221 consecutively admitted patients were reviewed retrospectively after excluding children, deceased patients and readmissions. SIP was assessed in these patients by either

  7. 古钱币一瞥(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China was one of the first countries to use money. In the late Neolithic Period, livestock and natural cowries were used as a form of currency. In the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (ca. 16th century-221 BC), unwrought weight metals and cast coins appeared with the rise of commodity exchanges.

  8. Approaching Pedagogical Language Knowledge through Student Teachers: Assessment of Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…

  9. 7 CFR 2.16 - Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maps of latest coverage; (D) Promoting interchange of technical information and techniques to develop....), except those functions delegated in § 2.21(a)(8)(xi). (xiii) Administer energy management activities as... reimbursable agreements relating to agricultural research, extension, or teaching activities (7 U.S.C....

  10. Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiation Therapy In Head And Neck Cancers- A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejaswini B

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion:CHART achieves good locoregional response in stages III and IV of head and neck cancer. The acute mucosal reactions were within acceptable limits. The compliance to the treatment was good. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(3.000: 218-221

  11. Hybrid Shape Memory Alloy Composites for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    generating such a stress state, the superior mechanical properties of the ceramic phase will be utilized. Past numerical investigations on SMA fibers in...Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 221 (Special Issue), 2007, pp. 535-552. 4. Anderson, A., Pedersen , D., Sivertsen, A., and Sangesland, S., “Detailed Study of

  12. Financiarización de los tipos de cambio en México /

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Hernández, Antonio

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Economía, presenta Antonio Mendoza Hernández ; asesor Gregorio Vidal Bonifaz. 221 páginas : diagramas. Doctorado en Economía UNAM, Facultad de Economía, 2011

  13. ADDRESSING THE DEFICIT: Updating the Budgetary Implications of Selected GAO Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Insurance Policies and 219 Deferred Annuities Federal Agency Reporting to the Internal Revenue Service 221 Independent Contractor Tax Compliance 222...Federal agency reporting to the Internal Revenue Service Receipts Direct Improve efficiency Independent contractor tax compliance Receipts Direct Improve...annuities Federal agency reporting to the Internal Revenue Service Independent contractor tax compliance Deductibility of home equity loan interest

  14. Engineering Design Handbook. Breech Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Ref. 93) and MIL-S- described in par. 2-21 and a sample analysis of a 500, Steel, Chrome- Nickel -Molybdenum, Bars and threaded connection is...Ordnance, (November-December 1971). Arsenal, Watervliet, NY, 1971. 3-47 I DANCOM-P 0ඇI b - *FEIRENCZS (coutd) 29. E. B. Haugen and D. H. Mutti

  15. XLMR in MRX families 29, 32, 33 and 38 results from the dup24 mutation in the ARX (Aristaless related homeobox gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Andrée

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked mental retardation (XLMR is the leading cause of mental retardation in males. Mutations in the ARX gene in Xp22.1 have been found in numerous families with both nonsyndromic and syndromic XLMR. The most frequent mutation in this gene is a 24 bp duplication in exon 2. Based on this fact, a panel of XLMR families linked to Xp22 was tested for this particular ARX mutation. Methods Genomic DNA from XLMR families linked to Xp22.1 was amplified for exon 2 in ARX using a Cy5 labeled primer pair. The resulting amplicons were sized using the ALFexpress automated sequencer. Results A panel of 11 families with X-linked mental retardation was screened for the ARX 24dup mutation. Four nonsyndromic XLMR families – MRX29, MRX32, MRX33 and MRX38 – were found to have this particular gene mutation. Conclusion We have identified 4 additional XLMR families with the ARX dup24 mutation from a panel of 11 XLMR families linked to Xp22.1. This finding makes the ARX dup24 mutation the most common mutation in nonsyndromic XLMR families linked to Xp22.1. As this mutation can be readily tested for using an automated sequencer, screening should be considered for any male with nonsyndromic MR of unknown etiology.

  16. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  17. Integrated Eye Tracking and Neural Monitoring for Enhanced Assessment of Mild TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    and Clinical Psychology , Uniformed Services University. Ettenhofer, M.L. (January, 2016). “Development and Evaluation of Neurocognitive Eye...Functional abnormalities in symptomatic concussed athletes: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 2004. 22(1): p. 68-82. 3. McAllister, T., et al., Brain activation

  18. The development of a short measure of physical function for hip OA HOOS-Physical Function Shortform (HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M

    2008-01-01

    :1.23. The final model included five HOOS items. From the easiest to most difficult, the items (logit) were as follows: sitting (1.832), descending stairs (0.729), getting in/out of bath or shower (0.255), twisting/pivoting on loaded leg (-0.221) and running (-2.595). The separation index was 0.80. CONCLUSION...

  19. AcEST: DK952239 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 30 7.0 sp|Q8I7Z8|HAM_DROME Transcription factor hamlet OS=Drosophila me... 30...FSIVMPFVAPLRILSNKGYIYASLKTHPLK 221 >sp|Q8I7Z8|HAM_DROME Transcription factor hamlet OS=Drosophila melanogast

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06052-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 22_1( AF021822 |pid:none) Scaptodrosophila lebanonensis supe... 58 5e-07 ( P93407 ) RecName: Full=Superoxide...tase [Cu-Zn]; EC... 55 5e-06 AF021824_1( AF021824 |pid:none) Hirtodrosophila pictiventris super... 55 5e-06

  1. 75 FR 67551 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Rayed Bean and Snuffbox as Endangered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... (Yeager et al. 1994, p. 221). Unionids have an unusual mode of reproduction. Their life cycle includes a... Habitat-- Activities associated with urbanization can be detrimental to stream habitats (Couch and... detrimental to mussel habitat by altering various hydrological factors, including: Increased volumes of...

  2. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. olume 22, Number 1, January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    5% are resistant to fi ve or more antibiotic Th is report reviews the incidence of cases of typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections based...20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 20 10 20 11 20 12 1581 221 5 illnesses hospitalizations deaths CS244210A Don’t play chicken with

  3. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmstadt, G.L.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Ahmed, S.; Feldman, C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Baqui, A.H.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc

  4. 78 FR 42960 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... the electronic methods require several months of effort. (Response) There will be initial costs to... estimate that there will be a total of approximately 221 PET drugs produced, with a total recordkeeping... physical facilities. We estimate that it would take approximately 1 hour to establish and maintain...

  5. Social Movement Mobilization and Hydrocarbon Policy in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    exported gas to Mexico and the United States for more than 20 times the amount it would pay to Bolivia’s government.139 Protestors also demanded greater...220 Postero, Now We Are Citizens, 45. 221 Ibid. 222 Francisco Pifarré, Historia de un Pueblo, quoted in Postero, Now We Are Citizens, 45. 223

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 6/1/2001 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.221N, 162 02.697W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. AcEST: DK948146 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne and TPR repeat-containing pr... 30 8.2 sp|A2R3F3|SHE9_ASPNC Sensitive to high expression protein 9 homo.....QLQPEQGAAYVTYGQTLARNGS 710 Query: 221 R 219 R Sbjct: 711 R 711 >sp|A2R3F3|SHE9_ASPNC Sensitive

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of human parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yung Chul; Kim, Won; Park, Joong-Ki

    2011-08-01

    The genome length of the Ascaris lumbricoides, human parasitic roundworm, is 14,281 bp with a nucleotide composition of 22.1% A, 49.8% T, 7.8% C, and 20.3% G. The genome consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  9. 75 FR 17402 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Applications for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... following five changes in project land classification: Thornley Subdivision in Berkeley County (-218... commercial lease area; Dingle Pond Area in Berkeley County (-221), 3.4 acres from ``Forest Management'' to ``USFWS'' to correct a ] classification error; and Cross Area in Berkeley County (-222), approximately...

  10. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  11. 76 FR 40741 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... 2011, this notice announces that the risk categories ] incurring positive credit subsidy obligations... positive credit subsidy risk categories: (1) Section 221(d)(3) new construction/substantial rehabilitation... Housing Programs, Health Care Facilities and Hospitals and Credit Subsidy Obligations for Fiscal Year...

  12. Reflections of Design-Oriented Pedagogy for Sustainable Learning: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Henriikka; Enkenberg, Jorma

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the expansion of design-oriented pedagogy that encourages approaching global phenomena such as sustainable development from the perspective of local environments, cultures and associated ways of doing things. It aims to determine how project members and teachers from eight different European countries (n = 221) who had…

  13. Environmental Assessment Addressing Gate Complex Construction at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    species. Scott AFB is encouraged to monitor facilities slated for demolition for bat species that establish maternity colonies in anthropogenic...2014 221,760 No change I3. Construct Aircraft Deicing Pad , which would include an underground storage tank, a drainage system, and permanent lighting

  14. First Aid for Orienteering in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ian

    1990-01-01

    Compares injuries incurred by participants of Scottish six-day 1989 orienteering event, of 1990 Jan Kjellstrom memorial event, and previous events. Reports 2.21 injuries per 100 performances at 1989 event, and 1.42 injuries at Kjellstrom. Ankle sprains and cuts most common injuries. Injury differences described as season-related. Discusses…

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 6/1/2001 63-64M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.221N, 162 02.697W), between 63 and 64 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. AcEST: BP921278 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uitin-protein ligase Arkadia OS=Pon... 31 1.7 sp|Q925Q8|DACH2_MOUSE Dachshund homolog 2 OS=Mus musculus GN=D...HAFHSQISSHATSHPVAPPPPTHLAST 716 Query: 221 EAP 229 AP Sbjct: 717 AAP 719 >sp|Q925Q8|DACH2_MOUSE Dachshund

  17. 75 FR 70371 - Medicare Program; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for Calendar Year 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Health and Human Services Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 409, 418, 424 et al... , No. 221 / Wednesday, November 17, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... is the workforce impact--will health care workers take their talents to other care sectors because...

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/15/2002 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.221N, 162 02.697W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 6/1/2001 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.221N, 162 02.697W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Cramble meal: evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein content which provides potential a

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Matter - the TPRC Data Series. Volume 12. Thermal Expansion Metallic Elements and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    alloys--erawy--Molybdeum--M.1ybdmm alloys--Neodymium-- Nickel--Nickel alloys-Niobum-Niobium alloys--Palladiua--Palladum alloys- Platin-- Platium alloys...98 220 Palladium-Silver Pd-Ag................962 221* Platiu-Rhodium Pt-Rh..................987 222 Platium -Rutbentum Pt-Ru

  2. MOOCs and the AI-Stanford Like Courses: Two Successful and Distinct Course Formats for Massive Open Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C. Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    Open online courses (OOC) with a massive number of students have represented an important development for online education in the past years. A course on artificial intelligence, CS221, at the University of Stanford was offered in the fall of 2011 free and online which attracted 160,000 registered students. It was one of three offered as an…

  3. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1995-01-01

    AGUIRRE-HUDSON, B. & P.A. WOLSELEY. 1994. Bibliography of South-east Asian Lichenology 1810-1992. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 76: 313-350. GALLOWAY, D.J., M.W. SAMSUDIN & A. LATIFF. 1994. A bibliography of Malaysian lichenology. Mal. Appl. Biol. 22: 215-221.

  4. 7 CFR 1.601 - What is the purpose of this subpart, and to what license proceedings does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart will be conducted by one of the other Departments, pursuant to 43 CFR 45.1 et seq. or 50 CFR 221.1... license proceedings does it apply? 1.601 Section 1.601 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... of this subpart, and to what license proceedings does it apply? (a) Hearing process. (1)...

  5. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Learning (ICML), 2007. [63] Bruce G. Lindsay. Composite likelihood methods. Contemporary Mathematics, pages 221–239, 1988. 189 [64] Yan Liu, Jaime ...Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), pages 737–744, 2005. [107] Erik F. Tjong Kim Sang and Sabine Buchholz. Introduction to the CoNLL-2000 shared task

  6. Is the Evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Linked to Restriction-Modification Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2016-01-01

    -modification (RM) systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RM systems were linked to the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. The study included 221 Salmonella enterica genomes, of which 68 were de novo sequenced and 153 were public available genomes from ENA. The data set covered 97...

  7. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... COMPONENT E-C 522.1940 (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). COMPONENT E-S (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 118-123 COMPONENT 200 (estradiol benzoate... and testosterone propionate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 200-221 COMPONENT TE-IS...

  8. "Semiosfäär", 1982 : kommentaariks / Kalevi Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Kalevi, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Kommenteeritakse Juri Lotmani mõiste "semiosfäär" esmakordset eestikeelset trükitekstis kasutamist ning mõiste "käitumise sfäär" määratlemist VIII teoreetilise bioloogia kevadkooli teesidevihikus 1982. aastal. Vt. ka: Lotman, Juri. Kaks lähenemisviisi käitumisele // Acta Semiotica Estica. III. Lk. 221

  9. Generation of Synthetic SAR Imagery for ATR Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Identification Experiment (pp. 22-1 – 22-10). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-SET-096, Paper 22. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http...2002. [4] Fries: „ Messung und Modellierung der Leistung von Kantenoperatoren“, Fraunhofer Institute, Karlsruhe,2003. Figure 22

  10. 12 CFR 204.124 - Repurchase agreement involving shares of a money market mutual fund whose portfolio consists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations... by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (title I of Pub. L. 96-221) imposes Federal reserve requirements...). Regulation D—Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions exempts from the definition of deposit...

  11. 12 CFR 204.123 - Sale of Federal funds by investment companies or trusts in which the entire beneficial interest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.123 Sale of... 1980 (Title I of Pub. L. 96-221) imposes Federal Reserve requirements on transaction accounts and... what types of obligations shall be deemed a deposit. Regulation D—Reserve Requirements of...

  12. Squad-Level Soldier-Robot Dynamics: Exploring Future Concepts Involving Intelligent Autonomous Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Tracker and GPS to navigate route successfully. 1 Multiple language translation capability – speak in English and robot translates. 1 Recharging...C HERNANDEZ 3040 NW AUSTIN RD RM 221 FORT SILL OK 73503-9043 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY – HRED (PDF) RDRL HRM AV W CULBERTSON 91012

  13. Investigating the Usefulness of Operator Aids for Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicles Performing Reconnaissance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Finally, if an unexpected Jersey wall appeared as an obstacle, a new route was needed to be planned (“reroute”). COAs were executed by speaking aloud...RM 221 FORT SILL OK 73503-9043 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY – HRED (PDF) RDRL HRM AV W CULBERTSON 91012 STATION AVE FORT HOOD TX 76544

  14. Systems Engineering Approach and Metrics for Evaluating Network-Centric Operations for U.S. Army Battle Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    2) applications reflect doctrine, (3) “ speaks ” the user’s language, (4) minimizes user memory load, (5) remains consistent between different modules...EXCELLENCE FIELD ELEMENT RDRL HRM AF C HERNANDEZ 3040 NW AUSTIN RD RM 221 FORT SILL OK 73503-9043 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY – HRED (PDF

  15. Person-Organization Fit and Contextual Performance: Do Shared Values Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Scott A.; Svyantek, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    In a study of 221 employees, perceptions of organizational culture and discrepancy between ideal and actual culture predicted both task performance and contextual (altruism, conscientiousness, organizational citizenship) performance. Organizational warmth, organizational competence, and reward were significant predictors of contextual performance.…

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 6/1/2001 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.221N, 162 02.697W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. File list: NoD.Kid.05.AllAg.Kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Kid.05.AllAg.Kidney mm9 No description Kidney Kidney ERX096865,ERX221027,ERX221...031,ERX096850 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Kid.05.AllAg.Kidney.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Kid.10.AllAg.Kidney [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Kid.10.AllAg.Kidney mm9 No description Kidney Kidney ERX221027,ERX096865,ERX221...031,ERX096850 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Kid.10.AllAg.Kidney.bed ...

  19. Shanghai Shoreline Evolution Interpreted from Historical Atlas and Remote Sensing Imagery Over the Past 2,200 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, H.; Wang, W.; Qiao, G.

    2016-06-01

    Shanghai, the axis of economic development in China and holding the most prosperous metropolis in the world, is located at Yangtze Estuary which is susceptible to shoreline changes affected by different factors, such as sediment supply and sea level changes, making it very important to study the shoreline changes over long time period. This paper presents the Shanghai shoreline evolution process from BC 221 up to 2015, by employing both the cartographic data (historical atlas) and the remote sensing images. A series of image processing techniques were applied to seamlessly register the historical atlas and satellite images to the same orthophoto base map, followed by the semi-automatic extraction of shoreline from images. Results show that since BC 221, the Shanghai shoreline has been witnessing distinct progradation, and the rate of shoreline advance varied in different areas. The average shoreline change in southern Yangtze Estuary was about 2,573 km2 (accretion) between BC 221 and 1948 with a 40 km progradation, while the shoreline in northern Hangzhou Bay kept relatively steady after 1671. Overall, 3,119 km2 of Shanghai area was added between BC 221 and 1948 with an average rate of 75 km2/50yr, and the addition went to 4,372 km2 in 2015. In this paper, the possible drives of the shoreline evolution was discussed. This study is important for understanding the coastal dynamics in Shanghai over a long time period for the management and development of coastal environments.

  20. Saturation Mutagenesis and the Enzyme Properties of the Alpha-Amylase from Geobacillus sp.%地芽孢杆菌Geobacillus sp.GXS1α-淀粉酶的饱和突变及酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛蓓; 裴建新; 王治宾; 罗章; 韦宇拓

    2013-01-01

    采用半理性设计方法,在网站Geno3D上以PDB数据库中B.stearothermophilus麦芽糖淀粉酶(BSMA)的三维结构为模板,对AMY(α-淀粉酶)进行三维结构同源建模(二者氨基酸的同源性为33%).比较同源建模预测的3D结构和模板BSMA的3D结构关键位点,在此基础上通过计算机辅助设计软件ProSa2003,根据能量变化确定了AMY三个饱和突变位点:D192、E221和D289.利用兼并引物对AMY的假定活性中心位点D192、E221和D289的氨基酸分别进行饱和突变,定点(饱和)突变库筛选得到4个有活力的突变子D192A、E221N、E221L和D289L,并对突变酶的酶学性质进行初步研究.