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Sample records for actinide removal project

  1. The removal of actinide metals from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.D.; Howell, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A process is specified for removing actinide metals (e.g. uranium) from solutions. The solution is contacted with a substrate comprising the product obtained by reacting an inorganic solid containing surface hydroxyl groups (e.g. silica gel) with a compound containing a silane grouping, a nitrogen-containing group (e.g. an amine) and other specified radicals. After treatment, the actinide metal is recovered from the substrate. (U.K.)

  2. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  3. Projected benefits of actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Goldstein, M.

    1976-05-01

    Possible benefits that could accrue from actinide separation and transmutations are presented. The time frame for implementing these processes is discussed and the expected benefits are qualitatively described. These benefits are provisionally quantified in a sample computation

  4. European Europart integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Hudson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This poster presents the objectives of EUROPART, a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous FP5 programs named PARTNEW and PYROREP. The two main axes of research within EUROPART will be: The partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from high burn-up UO x fuels and multi-recycled MOx fuels; the partitioning of the whole actinide family for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (and in connection with the studies to be performed in the EUROTRANS integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organised into five Work Packages (WP). Four WP are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparation. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WP, listed hereafter: development of actinide partitioning methods, study of the basic chemistry of trans-curium elements in molten salts, study of the conditioning of the wastes, some system studies. Moreover, a strong management team will be concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe. Training and education of young researchers will also pertain to the project. EUROPART has also established collaboration with US DOE and Japanese CRIEPI. (authors)

  5. Actinide removal from aqueous solution with activated magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochen, R.L.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    An actinide aqueous waste treatment process using activated magnetite has been developed at Rocky Flats. The use and effectiveness of various magnetites in lowering actinide concentrations in aqueous solution are described. Experiments indicate that magnetite particle size and pretreatment (activation of the magnetite surface with hydroxyl ions greatly influence the effective use of magnetite as an actinide adsorbent. With respect to actinide removal, Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was more effective over a broader pH range than was NaOH-activated magnetite. About 50% less Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was required to lower plutonium concentration from 10 -4 to 10 -8 g/l. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  6. Removal of actinides from selected nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The US Department of Energy awarded Oak Ridge National Laboratory a program to develop a cost-risk-benefit analysis of partitioning long-lived nuclides from waste and transmuting them to shorter lived or stable nuclides. Two subtasks of this program were investigated at Rocky Flats. In the first subtask, methods for solubilizing actinides in incinerator ash were tested. Two methods appear to be preferable: reaction with ceric ion in nitric acid or carbonate-nitrate fusion. The ceric-nitric acid system solubilizes 95% of the actinides in ash; this can be increased by 2 to 4% by pretreating ash with sodium hydroxide to solubilize silica. The carbonate-nitrate fusion method solubilizes greater than or equal to 98% of the actinides, but requires sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Two additional disadvantages are that it is a high-temperature process, and that it generates a lot of salt waste. The second subtask comprises removing actinides from salt wastes likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. A preliminary feasibility study of solvent extraction methods has been completed. The use of a two-step solvent extraction system - tributyl phosphate (TBP) followed by extraction with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant (DHDECMP) - appears to be the most efficient for removing actinides from salt waste. The TBP step would remove most of the plutonium and > 99.99% of the uranium. The second step using DHDECMP would remove > 99.91% of the americium and the remaining plutonium (> 99.98%) and other actinides from the acidified salt waste. 8 figures, 11 tables

  7. 512-S Facility, Actinide Removal Process Radiological Design Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. Detailed quotations of the requirements for applicable regulatory documents can be found in the Radiological Design Summary Report Implementation Guide. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, per Engineering Standard 01064, ''shall consider / shall evaluate'' indicates that the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. This report describes how the Building 512-S, Actinide Removal Process meets the required radiological design criteria and requirements based on 10CFR835, DOE Order 420.1A, WSRC Manual 5Q and various other DOE guides and handbooks. The analyses supporting this Radiological Design Summary Report initially used a source term of 10.6 Ci/gallon of Cs-137 as the basis for bulk shielding calculations. As the project evolved, the source term was reduced to 1.1 Ci/gallon of Cs-137. This latter source term forms the basis for later dose rate evaluations

  8. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  9. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  10. Actinide removal from wastewater applying waste minimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covey, J.R.; Midkiff, W.S.; Cadena, F.

    1992-01-01

    A major concern at LANL is the large volume of low level radioactive sludge that is generated by the current treatment technology. The plant meets current discharge limits but annually produces 200 55-gallon drums of sludge (approximately 60 tons) during the process of removing only few grants of radioactive isotopes. Most of the sludge results from the coagulants, iron and lime, added at the plant at a concentration of 10,000 parts-per-million (ppm). If the principal actinides in the influent could be separated and reduced to pure metallic form, the annual volume of plutonium would be about the size of a marble and the americium would be about the size of a BB. Waste minimization will be a key design criteria for the new facility. Records of total suspended solids (TSS) in the influent average about 1000 Kg per year (approximately 1 ton). Therefore, the theoretical sludge volume reduction is near 98%. Research is underway to develop and evaluate technologies that achieve the desired removal efficiency with a minimum of produced waste volume

  11. Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, L.; Fuger, J.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of the actinides is explained on the basis of their electronic structure. The actinide elements, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and laurencium are included. For all except the last three elements, the points of discussion are oxidation states, Gibbs energies and potentials, and potential diagram for the element in acid solution; and thermodynamic properties of these same elements are tabulated. References are cited following discussion of each element with a total of 97 references being cited. 13 tables

  12. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  13. Removal of actinides from high-level wastes generated in the reprocessing of commercial fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; Leuze, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    Progress is reported on a technical feasibility study of removing the very long-lived actinides (uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) from high-level wastes generated in the commercial reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The study was directed primarily at wastes from the reprocessing of light water reactor (LWR) fuels and specifically to developing satisfactory methods for reducing the actinide content of these wastes to values that would make 1000-year-decayed waste comparable in radiological toxicity to natural uranium ore deposits. Although studies are not complete, results thus far indicate the most promising concept for actinide removal includes both improved recovery of actinides in conventional fuel reprocessing and secondary processing of the high-level wastes. Secondary processing will be necessary for the removal of americium and curium and perhaps some residual plutonium. Laboratory-scale studies of separations methods that appear most promising are reported and conceptual flowsheets are discussed. (U.S.)

  14. Removal of actinide elements from high level radioactive waste by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chongli; Yang Dazhu; He Longhai; Xu Jingming; Zhu Yongjun

    1992-03-01

    The modified TRPO process for removing actinide elements from synthetic solution, which was taken from reprocessing of power reactor nuclear fuel, was verified by cascade experiment. Neptunium valence was adjusted in the process for improving neptunium removing efficiency. At 1 mol/L concentration of HNO 3 of feed solution and after a few stages of extraction with 30% t=TRPO kerosene, over 99.9% of Am, Pu, Np and U could be removed from HAW (high level radioactive waste) solution. The stripping of actinides loaded in TRPO are accomplished by high concentration nitric acid, oxalic acid and sodium carbonate instead of amino carboxylic complexing agents used in previous process. The actinides stripped were divided into three groups, which are Am + RE, Np + Pu, and U, and the cross contamination between them is small. Behaviours of F.P. elements are divided into three types which are not extracted, little extracted and extracted elements. The extracted elements are rare earth and Pd, Zr and Mo which are co-extracted with actinides. The separation factor between actinides and other two types of F.P.elements will increase if more scrubbing sections are added in the process. The relative concentration profile of actinide elements and Tc in various stages as well as the distribution of actinides and F.P. elements in the process stream solutions are also presented

  15. ACSEPT. The current European project on actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Bouvet, S.; Caravaca, C.

    2011-01-01

    ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation) is a European research project dedicated to the development of advanced separation processes for transuranium elements (TRU) in the P and T context. 34 partners from 12 European countries plus Japan and Australia contribute to this project for 130 men years over a period of four years (2008-2012). General objective is developing hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical actinide separation processes suitable for both heterogeneous and homogeneous recycling strategies. To make such a large project manageable, ACSEPT consists of four domains, DM1 (hydrometallurgy), DM2 (pyrometallurgy), DM3 (cross-cutting activities), and DM4 (training and education). DM1 and DM2 are sub-divided into work packages, covering fuel dissolution, core process and refabrication aspects. Both fundamental and process related issues are dealt with. (author)

  16. EUROPART: an European integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Baron, P.; Hudson, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The EUROPART project is a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, from 10 countries, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6, together with CRIEPI from Japan and ANSTO from Australia. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of the treatment of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous European FP5 programs named PARTNEW, CALIXPART and PYROREP, respectively. The two main axes of research within EUROPART are: 1/ the partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from wastes issuing from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX fuels and multi-recycled MOX fuels, 2/ the partitioning of the whole actinide family of elements for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (this work will be connected to the studies to be performed within the EUROTRANS European integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organized in five Work Packages (WP). Four are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods and of solid extractants, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparations. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WPs, listed hereafter: (i) study of the basic chemistry of transuranium elements and of some fission products in molten salts (chlorides, fluorides), (ii) development of actinide partitioning methods, (iii) study of the conditioning of the salt wastes, (iv) system studies. Moreover, a strong management team is concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe

  17. Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

  18. FY2011 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Hatarik, R.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for SNM. This project entails isomer identification and characterization and neutron population studies. This document summarizes activities from its third year - completion of the isomer identification characterization experiments and initialization of the neutron population experiments. The population and decay of the isomeric state in 235U remain elusive, although a number of candidate gamma rays have been identified. In the course of the experiments, a number of fission fragment isomers were populated and measured (Ressler 2010). The decays from these isomers may also provide a suitable signature for the presence of fissile material. Several measurements were conducted throughout this project. This report focuses on the results of an experiment conducted collaboratively by PNNL, LLNL and LBNL in December 2010 at LBNL. The measurement involved measuring the gamma-rays emitted from an HEU target when bombarded with 11 MeV neutrons. This report discussed the analysis and resulting conclusions from those measurements. There was one strong candidate, at 1204 keV, of an isomeric signature of 235U. The half-life of the state is estimated to be 9.3 μs. The measured time dependence fits the decay time structure very well. Other possible explanations for the 1204-keV state were investigated, but they could not explain the gamma ray. Unfortunately, the relatively limited statistics of the measurement limit, and the lack of understanding of some of the systematic of the experiment, limit

  19. Removal of actinides from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions with bidentate organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1975-08-01

    The neutral bidentate organophosphorus reagents DBDECMP (dibutyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate) and its dihexyl analogue DHDECMP are candidate extractants for removal of actinides from certain acidic waste streams produced at the U. S. ERDA Hanford and Idaho Falls sites. Various chemical and physical properties including availability, cost, purification, alpha radiolysis, and aqueous phase solubility of DBDECMP and DHDECMP are reviewed. A conceptual flowsheet employing a 15 percent DBDECMP (or DHDECMP)--CCl 4 extractant for removal (and recovery) of Am and Pu from Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility acid waste stream (CAW solution) was successfully demonstrated in laboratory-scale mixer-settler tests; this extraction scheme can be used to produce an actinide-free waste. A 30 percent DBDECMP-xylene flowsheet is being tested at the Idaho Falls site for removal of U, Np, Pu, and Am from Idaho Chemical Processing Plant first-cycle high-level raffinate to produce an actinide-free (less than 10 nCi alpha activity/gram) waste. (auth)

  20. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated

  1. Evaluation and testing of sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Romanovski, V.V.; Veeck, A.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate and test the complexing ability of a variety of promising new complexing agents synthesized by Professor Kenneth Raymond`s group at the University of California, Berkeley (ESP-CP TTP Number SF16C311). Some of these derivatives have already shown the potential for selectivity binding Pu(IV) in a wide range of solutions in the presence of other metals. Professor Raymond`s group uses molecular modeling to design and synthesize ligands based on modification of natural siderophores, or their analogs, for chelation of actinides. The ligands are then modified for use as liquid/liquid and solid/liquid extractants. The authors` group at the Glenn T. Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science (ITS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory determines the complex formation constants between the ligands and actinide ions, the capacity and time dependence for uptake on the resins, and the effect of other metal ions and pH.

  2. Actinide separation by electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusselman, S.P.; Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Grimmett, D.L.; Roy, J.J.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Takahashi, N.

    1995-01-01

    TRUMP-S is a pyrochemical process being developed for the recovery of actinides from PUREX wastes. This paper describes development of the electrochemical partitioning step for recovery of actinides in the TRUMP-S process. The objectives are to remove 99 % of each actinide from PUREX wastes, with a product that is > 90 % actinides. Laboratory tests indicate that > 99 % of actinides can be removed in the electrochemical partitioning step. A dynamic (not equilibrium) process model predicts that 90 wt % product actinide content can be achieved through 99 % actinide removal. Accuracy of model simulation results were confirmed in tests with rare earths. (authors)

  3. SACSESS – the EURATOM FP7 project on actinide separation from spent nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourg Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of actinides by their separation from spent nuclear fuel, followed by transmutation in fast neutron reactors of Generation IV, is considered the most promising strategy for nuclear waste management. Closing the fuel cycle and burning long-lived actinides allows optimizing the use of natural resources and minimizing the long-term hazard of high-level nuclear waste. Moreover, improving the safety and sustainability of nuclear power worldwide. This paper presents the activities striving to meet these challenges, carried out under the Euratom FP7 collaborative project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes. Emphasis is put on the safety issues of fuel reprocessing and waste storage. Two types of actinide separation processes, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical, are considered, as well as related aspects of material studies, process modeling and the radiolytic stability of solvent extraction systems. Education and training of young researchers in nuclear chemistry is of particular importance for further development of this field.

  4. Actinide behavior in the Integral Fast Reactor. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ({sup 237}Np, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and weapons grade plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for seven day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs.

  5. Actinide behavior in the Integral Fast Reactor. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ( 237 Np, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 243 Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and weapons grade plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for seven day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs

  6. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO 3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO 3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  7. Project research on nuclear physical and chemical characteristics of actinide nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamana, Hajimu; Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Seiichi; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Uehara, Akihiro; Shirai, Osamu; Moriyama, Hirotake; Nagai, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shinohara, Atsushi; Kurata, Masaki; Myochin, Munetaka; Nakamura, Shoji; Matsuura, Haruaki

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and nuclear physical characteristics of actinide elements have been investigated using the experimental methods and instruments of this laboratory. This laboratory has a facility in which the transuranium elements (TRU) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) can be dealt with. The utility of this facility has been expected. The investigation on the actinide elements and its fission products have been carried out as a project research from both view points of science and technology. The research reports during three years (2005-07) are described here. (M.H.)

  8. Permanganate Treatment of Savannah River Site Simulant Wastes for Strontium and Actinide Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the use of sodium permanganate and strontium nitrate to remove the actinides and radio-strontium from Savannah River Site (SRS) waste supernate. We examined the quantities of chemical feed reagents along with increased mixing and the excess of organic reductant. Additionally, we examined two processing schemes including that applicable to either the Salt Waste Processing Facility or the Alpha Removal Process (ARP) (5.6 M sodium ion concentration) conditions and the conditions for an In-Tank application (7.5 M sodium ion concentration). Our results support the following conclusions: The process met minimum required decontamination factors (DFs) within the tested parameter sets for strontium and plutonium in both the ARP and In-Tank application. The strontium DFs far exceeded the required values within the tested parameter sets. Within the ARP application, the use of peroxide as the reductant for permanganate produced higher plutonium DFs than the use of sodium formate. Reductant concentration and degree of mixing strongly influenced radionuclide decontamination. In the formate application under the ARP process, increasing the reductant concentration and mixing energy resulted in higher Sr and Pu decontamination

  9. South American Source Removal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, Alejandro V.

    2017-01-01

    Main objective of the project: •Thanks to Canada funding and IAEA technical assistance the main objective is to remove 29 disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), from 5 member states in Latin America region (Bolivia - Ecuador - Paraguay – Peru – Uruguay) to an authorized recipient for their final management. •It includes packaging of the DSRS and the DU working shields, customs arrangement for the export from the respective countries and import to the final destination in the Authorized Recipient’s country, transportation, deposit and hand over to an Authorized Recipient

  10. Removal of actinides from high activity wastes by solvent extraction: outline of the research work at Ispra J.R.C. laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1976-07-01

    The development of an advanced waste management alternative such as the actinide nuclear incineration requires an almost quantitative removal of actinides from waste streams. Within the framework of the Ispra JRC Waste Disposal R and D programme, actinide separation studies were directed towards solvent extraction and precipitation methods. To develop a tentative waste partitioning flow-sheet based on solvent extraction, two conceptual process flow-sheet for actinide removal were evaluated on the basis of the currently used actinide recovery processes, i.e. removal after waste adjustment to low-acidity conditions and direct actinide removal from acidic wastes, as they are generated in actual reprocessing plants. No improvements have been devised for actinide recoveries within the conventional Purex reprocessing operations and a currently agreed value has been assumed for neptunium recovery (90%). According to these basic orientations some organic extractants have been selected for testing as promising candidates for waste partitioning and laboratory studies, designed to develop a satisfactory partitioning flow-sheet, have been proposed and described

  11. Removal of actinides from dissolved ORNL MVST sludge using the TRUEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z.; Chase, C.W.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transuranium extraction process for partitioning actinides from actual dissolved high-level radioactive waste sludge. All tests were performed at ambient temperature. Time and budget constraints permitted only two experimental campaigns. Samples of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25 were rinsed with mild caustic (0.2 M NaOH) to reduce the concentrations of nitrates and fission products associated with the interstitial liquid. In one campaign, the rinsed sludge was dissolved in nitric acid to produce a solution containing total metal concentrations of ca. 1.8 M with a nitric acid concentration of ca. 2.9 M. About 50% of the dry mass of the sludge was dissolved. In the other campaign, the sludge was neutralized with nitric acid to destroy the carbonates, then leached with ca. 2.6 M NaOH for ca. 6 h before rinsing with the mild caustic. The sludge was then dissolved in nitric acid to produce a solution containing total metal concentrations of ca. 0.6 M with a nitric acid concentration of ca. 1.7 M. About 80% of the sludge dissolved. The dissolved sludge solution form the first campaign began gelling immediately, and a visible gel layer was observed after 8 days. In the second campaign, the solution became hazy after ca. 8 days, indicating gel formation, but did not display separated gel layers after aging for 20 days. Batch liquid-liquid equilibrium tests of both the extraction and stripping operations were conducted. Chemical analyses of both phases were used to evaluate the process. Evaluation was based on two metrics: the fraction of TRU elements removed from the dissolved sludge and comparison of the results with predictions made with the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM). The fractions of Eu, Pu, Cm, Th, and U species removed from aqueous solution in only one extraction stage were > 95% and were close to the values predicted by the GTM. Mercury was also found to be strongly extracted, with a one-stage removal of > 92%

  12. Actinide Capture and Fission Cross Section Measurements Within the Mini-Inca Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Mini-INCA project is devoted to precise description of the transmutation chain of Actinides within high thermal neutron fluxes. It uses the High Flux Reactor of ILL (Laue Langevin Institute) as an intense thermal neutron source to measure capture and fission cross sections. Two irradiation channels are dedicated for those measurements offering a diversity of fluxes ranging from pure thermal neutrons to 15% epithermal neutrons with intensities as high as 1*10 15 n/cm 2 /s. Standard nuclear techniques for measurements, such as α and γ-spectroscopy of irradiated samples, have been extended in order to stand all constraints due to the irradiation in high fluxes. In particular new types of fission micro-chambers have been developed to follow online the evolution of one actinide and to measure its fission cross section in reference to 235 U(n,F) standard reaction. This type of neutron detector will be used within the MEGAPIE target to on-line characterise the neutron flux and to study the potentiality of such target in terms of incineration. (author)

  13. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent

  14. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  15. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. (Parsons (United Kingdom))

    1998-01-01

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H[sub 2]S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H[sub 2]S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. [Parsons (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H{sub 2}S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H{sub 2}S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Incineration of actinide targets in a pressurized water reactor spin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.; Bergeron, J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) with uranium fuel to limit the inventory growth of minor actinides (237 neptunium, and americium) produced by the French nuclear powerplants is studied. Targets containing an actinide oxide mixed to an inert matrix are loaded in some reactors. After being irradiated along with the fuel, the target is specially reprocessed. The remaining actinide and the plutonium which is produced, added to fresh actinide, are recycled in new targets. The radiotoxicity balance, with and without incineration, is examined considering that only the losses coming from the target reprocessing treated as waste. A scenario arbitrarily based on 18 years of operation results in a reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste by a factor between 10 and 20, depending on the actinide considered. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  19. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  20. Plutonium and minor actinides management in thermal high - temperature reactors - the EU FP6 project puma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (HTR) can fulfil a very useful niche for the purposes of Pu and Minor Actinide (MA) incineration due to its unique and unsurpassed safety features, as well as to the attractive incentives offered by the nature of the coated particle (CP) fuel. No European reactor of this type is currently available, but there has been, and still is, considerable interest internationally. Decisions to construct such a reactor in China and in South Africa have already been made or are about to be made. Apart from the unique and unsurpassed safety features offered by this reactor type, the nature of the CP fuel offers a number of attractive characteristics. In particular, it can withstand burn-ups far beyond that in either LWR or FR systems. Demonstrations as high as 75% FIMA have been achieved. The coated particle itself offers significantly improved proliferation resistance, and finally with a correct choice of the kernel composition, it can be a very effective support for direct geological disposal of the fuel. The overall objective of the PUMA project, a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the European Union 6th Framework (EU FP6), is to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO 2 -free energy generation. A number of important issues concerning the use of Pu and MA in gas-cooled reactors have already been dealt with in other projects, or are being treated in ongoing projects, e.g. as part of EU FP6. However, further steps are required to demonstrate the potential of HTRs as Pu/MA transmuters based on realistic/feasible designs of CP Pu/MA fuel and the PUMA focuses on necessary

  1. Removal of actinide elements from liquid scintillation cocktail wastes using liquid-liquid extraction and demulsification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, K.; Landsberger, S.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    For many years liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC) wastes have been generated and stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). These wastes are stored in thousands of 10--20 m scintillation vials, many of which contain elements with Z > 88. Because storage space is limited, disposal of this waste is pressing. These wastes could be commercially incinerated if the radionuclides with Z>88 are reduced to sufficiently low levels. However, there is currently no deminimus level for these radionuclides, and separation techniques are still being tested. The University of Illinois is conducting experiments to separate radionuclides with Z > 88 from simulated LSC wastes by using liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) and demulsification techniques. The actinide elements are removed from the LSC by extraction into an aqueous phase after the cocktail has been demulsified. The aqueous and organic phases are separated and the organic phase, now free from radionuclides with Z > 88, can be sent to a commercial incineration facility. The aqueous phase may be treated and disposed of using existing techniques. The LLX separation techniques used solutions of sodium oxalate, aluminum nitrate, and tetrasodium EDTA at varying concentrations. These extractants were mixed with the simulated waste in a 1:1 volume ratio. Using 1.0M Na 4 EDTA salt solutions, decontamination ratios as high as 230 were achieved

  2. Partitioning technologies and actinide science: towards pilot facilities in Europe (ACSEPT project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Ouvrier, N.

    2010-01-01

    ACSEPT is an essential contribution to the demonstration, in the long term, of the potential benefits of actinide recycling to minimize the burden on the geological repositories. To succeed, ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to grouped actinide separation. A substantial review was undertaken either to be sure that the right molecule families are being studied, or, on the contrary, to identify new candidates. Results of the first hot tests allowed the validation of some process options. (ii) Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT is focused on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within EUROPART with specific attention to the exhaustive electrolysis in molten chloride (quantitative recovery of the actinides with the lowest amount of fission products) and to actinide back-extraction from an An-Al alloy. R and D efforts are also brought to key scientific and technical issues compulsory for building a complete separation process (head-end steps, salt treatment for recycling and waste management). (iii) By integrating all the experimental results within engineering and systems studies, both in hydro and pyro domains, ACSEPT will deliver relevant flowsheets and recommendations to prepare for future demonstration at a pilot level, in relation with strategies developed through the SNE-TP. In addition, a training and education programme is implemented to share the knowledge among the partitioning community and the future generations of researchers

  3. Final Project Report for ER15351 ''A Study of New Actinide Zintl Ions Materials''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter K. Dorhout

    2007-01-01

    The structural chemistry of actinide main-group metal materials provides the fundamental basis for the understanding of structural coordination chemistry and the formation of materials with desired or predicted structural features. The main-group metal building blocks, comprising sulfur-group, phosphorus-group, or silicon-group elements, have shown versatility in oxidation state, coordination, and bonding preferences. These building blocks have allowed us to elucidate a series of structures that are unique to the actinide elements, although we can find structural relationships to transition metal and 4f-element materials. In the past year, we investigated controlled metathesis and self-propagating reactions between actinide metal halides and alkali metal salts of main-group metal chalcogenides such as K-P-S salts. Ternary plutonium thiophosphates have resulted from these reactions at low temperature in sealed ampules. we have also focused efforts to examine reactions of Th, U, and Pu halide salts with other alkali metal salts such as Na-Ge-S and Na-Si-Se and copper chloride to identify if self-propagating reactions may be used as a viable reaction to prepare new actinide materials and we prepared a series of U and Th copper chalcogenide materials. Magnetic measurements continued to be a focus of actinide materials prepared in our laboratory. We also contributed to the XANES work at Los Alamos by preparing materials for study and for comparison with environmental samples

  4. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  5. A new look at actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Croff, A.G.; Rawlins, J.A.; Schulz, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will address the justification for reexamination of the value of recovering the minor actinides and certain fission products from spent light-water reactor fuels and describe some of the technical progress that has been made since the major studies of a decade ago. During this time, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have begun establishing detailed criteria and regulations for geologic repositories. An examination of the hazards of waste disposal relative to the EPA release standards reveals that removal of 99.9% of the actinides (Pu, Am, and Np) reduces these hazards quite close to the EPA standards after 300 years' decay of the strontium and cesium. It may be also useful to remove and separately manage and dispose of certain of the long-lived fission products, such as 99 Tc and 129 I. Much additional work is required to fully assess the appropriate target recoveries as the hazards and risks are more closely examined and as the standards are reworked and refined. The two decades before the projected start of the US repository may present a window of opportunity to introduce several better management practices that act to simplify the repository safety issues. From a technical standpoint, significant progress has been made on recovery of the actinides from aqueous wastes though use of the TRUEX process. Additional work is required to demonstrate the application of the process to spent LWR fuels, but it appears straightforward. In addition, work at the Argonne National Laboratory on the liquid-metal reactor metal fuel cycle shows the relative simplicity of recycle of the actinides in that fast reactor cycle. Much work remains to fully demonstrate that actinides from all secondary waste streams can be removed to the target levels from both the aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel and the pyro processes for the metal-fueled fast reactor. 9 refs., 2 figs

  6. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwater is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudo colloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC Mirage II project, in particular the complexation and colloids research area

  7. Actinides-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry

  8. Actinides-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  9. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Oriol, L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chartier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38 - Grenoble, (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 244}Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  10. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Oriol, L.; Chartier, F.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The 232 Th, 237 Np, 241 Am, and 244 Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  11. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, C

    2006-01-01

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science and Engineering (PS and E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of

  12. TMI defueling project fuel debris removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdge, B.

    1992-01-01

    The three mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident on March 28, 1979, presented the nuclear community with many challenging remediation problems; most importantly, the removal of the fission products within the reactor containment vessel. To meet this removal problem, an air-lift system (ALS) can be used to employ compressed air to produce the motive force for transporting debris. Debris is separated from the transport stream by gravity separation. The entire method does not rely on any moving parts. Full-scale testing of the ALS at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the capability of transporting fuel debris from beneath the LCSA into a standard fuel debris bucket at a minimum rate of 230 kg/min

  13. Annual report of the project CIS-03-95, `evaluation of actinide nuclear data`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm and {sup 246}Cm is made in the energy region from 10-5 eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). This is the annual report of the project CIS-03-95. (author)

  14. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  15. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  16. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  17. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2010-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using advanced laser-based highly sensitive spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been performed for the chemical speciation of actinide in an aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. (1) Development of TRLFS technology for chemical speciation of actinides, (2) Development of LIBD technology for measuring solubility of actinides, (3) Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, (4) Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, (5) Development of technology for the chemical speciation of actinides by CE, (6) Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, (7) Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces, (8) Determination of actinide source terms of spent nuclear fuel

  18. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  19. Project Plan For Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove SNM Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baseline to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviation to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process. The Remove SNM Materials project provides the necessary support and controls required for DOE-HQ, DOE-RL, BWHC, and other DOE Complex Contractors the path forward to negotiate shipped/receiver agreements, schedule shipments, and transfer material out of PFP to enable final deactivation

  20. The actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter of coordination compound chemistry is devoted to the actinides and starts with a general survey. Most of the chapter relates to thorium and uranium but protactinium, neptunium and plutonium are included. There are sections on nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and halogen ligands of the metals in their +3, +4, +5 and +6 oxidation states and of the transplutonium elements in their +2, +3, +4, and +5 oxidation states. (UK)

  1. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system

  2. Recent development in computational actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the Manhattan project in World War II, actinide chemistry has been essential for nuclear science and technology. Yet scientists still seek the ability to interpret and predict chemical and physical properties of actinide compounds and materials using first-principle theory and computational modeling. Actinide compounds are challenging to computational chemistry because of their complicated electron correlation effects and relativistic effects, including spin-orbit coupling effects. There have been significant developments in theoretical studies on actinide compounds in the past several years. The theoretical capabilities coupled with new experimental characterization techniques now offer a powerful combination for unraveling the complexities of actinide chemistry. In this talk, we will provide an overview of our own research in this field, with particular emphasis on applications of relativistic density functional and ab initio quantum chemical methods to the geometries, electronic structures, spectroscopy and excited-state properties of small actinide molecules such as CUO and UO 2 and some large actinide compounds relevant to separation and environment science. The performance of various density functional approaches and wavefunction theory-based electron correlation methods will be compared. The results of computational modeling on the vibrational, electronic, and NMR spectra of actinide compounds will be briefly discussed as well [1-4]. We will show that progress in relativistic quantum chemistry, computer hardware and computational chemistry software has enabled computational actinide chemistry to emerge as a powerful and predictive tool for research in actinide chemistry. (authors)

  3. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Contaminated concrete removal: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the removal of contaminated concrete from the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the decontamination activities in support of site release in the decommissioning of a nuclear power reactor. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  5. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances. (6th progress report, project summary). Period covered: January 1994 - July 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, K.R.; Rhee, D.S.; Scherbaum, F.; Buckau, G.; Kim, J.I.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Laszak, I.; Moulin, C.; Decambox, P.; Ruty, O. de; Marquardt, C.; Franz, C.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Dierckx, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.; Bidoglio, G.; Eliet, V.; Grenthe, I.

    1995-03-01

    The goal of the research project is to examine the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances and thermodynamically describe the binding based upon a simple complexation model. This program is a continuation of the activities of the colloid and complexation group (COCO) in the second phase of the EC-MIRAGE project. A number of different experimental methods are used to determine speciation. The metal ions examined are the trivalent lanthanides, UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + , Am 3+ , and Cm 3+ . The project is divided into three tasks: Task 1: complexation reactions of actinide ions with well characterized reference and site-specific humic and fulvic acids, Task 2: complexation reactions with major cations in natural groundwaters; Task 3: validation of the complexation data in natural aquatic systems by comparison of calculation with spectroscopic experiment. Five European community laboratories participated in the program: Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Fontenay-Aux-Roses and Saclay, Universitaet Mainz, Katolieke Universiteit Leuven, and Joint Research Centre, Ispra. The evaluated stability constants are similar for all laboratories when the same humic substance complexation model is applied. Humic acid is shown to reduce NpO 2 + to Np 4+ , while no reduction of UO 2 2+ is observed. Temperature effects are seen on the Np humate complex. Competition is observed between NpO 2 + and Ca 2+ , but not between the trivalent lanthanides and Ca 2+ . No influence of humic acid purification on the evaluated stability constants is seen. Using the evaluated constants, calculations are conducted for natural water systems which indicate the trivalent actinide humate complex to be an important species. (orig.)

  6. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Removal of piping and equipment and removal of primary system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is a technical synopsis of the removal of contaminated and non-contaminated piping and equipment from the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document dismantling activities in support of reactor decommissioning. 5 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  8. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  9. Proceedings of the seminar on the joint research project between JAERI and Universities. 'Actinide researches for 21st century - fusion between chemistry and engineering'. August 20-21, 1999, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The Seminar on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities was held in Tokai, August 20-21, 1999, to discuss future perspectives of the actinide researches for the nuclear fuel cycle. The papers related to the Joint Research Project on the Backend Chemistry were presented and discussed. The present report complies the papers contributed to the Seminar. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the seminar on the joint research project between JAERI and Universities. 'Actinide researches for 21st century - fusion between chemistry and engineering'. August 20-21, 1999, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The Seminar on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities was held in Tokai, August 20-21, 1999, to discuss future perspectives of the actinide researches for the nuclear fuel cycle. The papers related to the Joint Research Project on the Backend Chemistry were presented and discussed. The present report complies the papers contributed to the Seminar. (author)

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  12. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  13. Lessons learned at the Fernald thorium removal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, IT Corporation was awarded a subcontract through Rust Engineering Co. to provide decontamination and decommissioning services at the US Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near Fernald, Ohio. The work included the removal and repackaging of approximately 8,000 cubic feet of thorium oxide from several structures, including a silo, elevated bins, bucket elevators, and the silo understructure. The removal and repackaging project was undertaken because the integrity of the containment structures was questionable. Rust and Westinghouse (the operating contractor at FMPC) also felt that the repackaging and warehousing of the thorium would reduce occupational radiation exposure to site workers. Worker safety and environmental protection being of primary importance, the removal work was performed within specially-designed radiological containment facilities. The project presented challenges which, according to Westinghouse and Rust personnel, made it one of the most hazardous projects ever attempted at Fernald. Challenges included relations between non-union and union personnel, a strike by craft labor, interactions among DOE, EPA, and Westinghouse and their impact on a fixed-price contract, the impact of hazardous waste regulations, safe operations, and the contamination-free release of materials

  14. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using highly sensitive and advanced laser-based spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been applied for the chemical speciation of actinide in aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. Development of TRLFS technology for the chemical speciation of actinides, Development of laser-induced photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) system, Application of LIBD technology to investigate dynamic behaviors of actinides dissolution reactions, Development of nanoparticle analysis technology in groundwater using LIBD, Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, Spectroscopic speciation of uranium-ligand complexes in aqueous solution, Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces

  15. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T H [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  16. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  17. Actinide metal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage

  18. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  19. Actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Paul L. [Geochem Australia, Kiama, NSW (Australia); Ekberg, Christian [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry/Industrial Materials Recycling

    2016-07-01

    All isotopes of actinium are radioactive and exist in aqueous solution only in the trivalent state. There have been very few studies on the hydrolytic reactions of actinium(III). The hydrolysis reactions for uranium would only be important in alkaline pH conditions. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydrolysis species of uranium(VI) and its oxide and hydroxide phases can be determined from the stability and solubility constants. The hydrolytic behaviour of neptunium(VI) is quite similar to that of uranium(VI). The solubility constant of NpO{sub 2}OH(am) has been reported a number of times for both zero ionic strength and in fixed ionic strength media. Americium can form four oxidation states in aqueous solution, namely trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent. Desire, Hussonnois and Guillaumont determined stability constants for the species AmOH{sup 2+} for the actinides, plutonium(III), americium(III), curium(III), berkelium(III) and californium(III) using a solvent extraction technique.

  20. Actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    All isotopes of actinium are radioactive and exist in aqueous solution only in the trivalent state. There have been very few studies on the hydrolytic reactions of actinium(III). The hydrolysis reactions for uranium would only be important in alkaline pH conditions. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydrolysis species of uranium(VI) and its oxide and hydroxide phases can be determined from the stability and solubility constants. The hydrolytic behaviour of neptunium(VI) is quite similar to that of uranium(VI). The solubility constant of NpO 2 OH(am) has been reported a number of times for both zero ionic strength and in fixed ionic strength media. Americium can form four oxidation states in aqueous solution, namely trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent. Desire, Hussonnois and Guillaumont determined stability constants for the species AmOH 2+ for the actinides, plutonium(III), americium(III), curium(III), berkelium(III) and californium(III) using a solvent extraction technique.

  1. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  2. Robust membrane systems for actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Bluhm, Elizabeth A.; Abney, Kent D.; Ehler, Deborah S.; Bauer, Eve; Le, Quyen T.; Young, Jennifer S.; Ford, Doris K.; Pesiri, David R.; Dye, Robert C.; Robison, Thomas W.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Redondo, Antonio; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective in this project is to develop very stable thin membrane structures containing ionic recognition sites that facilitate the selective transport of target metal ions, especially the actinides

  3. New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides: CIEMAT contribution to the partnew project: EU contract n. FIKW-CT2000-0087: first semestral period 2001 september 2000-february 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report includes the work developed at CIEMAT into the partnew project: '' New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides, during the first semestral period (september 2000 to february 2001), CIEMAT is involved in the following task: the study of the actinides (AN) and lanthanides (LN) extracting properties of new compounds with chemical structure based on two malonamide groups linked to an aromatic platform. The study of new-bearing extractants with chemical structure similar to malonamides aforementioned, changing the 0 atoms by s atoms, and the determination of the selectivity of these new thiomalonamides for AN(III) extraction. (Author)

  4. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section of Uranium, Americium and Curium Isotopes. Progress report - Research Contract 14485, Coordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2009-12-01

    This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for 236 U, 242m Am, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm and 246 Cm done at this spectrometer. The work was partially supported through the IAEA research contract RC-14485-RD in the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project 'Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)'. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA-1182 (2007) and JIA-1212 (2009) reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian. Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. (author)

  5. Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.

    2012-04-01

    A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.

  6. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  7. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  8. Synthesis of tetravalent actinide chlorides. Versatile compounds for actinide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerz, Juliane [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    Anhydrous actinide tetrachlorides (AnCl{sub 4}) were synthesized under mild conditions to provide versatile compounds for actinide chemistry. They enable a direct access to actinide complexes with organic and inorganic ligands.

  9. Actinides reduction by recycling in a thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Martinez C, E.; Balboa L, H.

    2014-10-01

    This work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; firstly a production reference of actinides in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR reactor is established, after a fuel containing plutonium is modeled to also calculate the actinides production in MOX fuel type. Also it proposes a design of fuel rod containing 6% of actinides in a matrix of uranium from the tails of enrichment, then four standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by actinides rods to evaluate the production and transmutation thereof, the same procedure was performed in the fuel type MOX and the end actinide reduction in the fuel was evaluated. (Author)

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Climax, MN site. The objectives of the project are to evaluate (1) the effectiveness of Kinetico’s Macrolite®...

  11. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  12. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  13. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Ligands for Extracting Actinide Metal Ions from Porous Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Mark L.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous types of actinide-bearing waste materials are found throughout the DOE complex. Most of these wastes consist of large volumes of non-hazardous materials contaminated with relatively small quantities of actinide elements. Separation of these wastes into their inert and radioactive components would dramatically reduce the costs of stabilization and disposal. For example, the DOE is responsible for decontaminating concrete within 7000 surplus contaminated buildings. The best technology now available for removing surface contamination from concrete involves removing the surface layer by grit blasting, which produces a large volume of blasting residue containing a small amount of radioactive material. Disposal of this residue is expensive because of its large volume and fine particulate nature. Considerable cost savings would result from separation of the radioactive constituents and stabilization of the concrete dust. Similarly, gas diffusion plants for uranium enrichment contain valuable high-purity nickel in the form of diffusion barriers. Decontamination is complicated by the extremely fine pores in these barriers, which are not readily accessible by most cleaning techniques. A cost-effective method for the removal of radioactive contaminants would release this valuable material for salvage. The objective of this project is to develop novel, substituted diphosphonic acid ligands that can be used for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of actinide ions from solid wastes. Specifically, selected diphosphonic acids, which are known to form extremely stable complexes with actinides in aqueous and organic solution, are to be rendered carbon dioxide-soluble by the introduction of appropriate alkyl- or silicon-containing substituents. The metal complexation chemistry of these new ligands in SC-CO2 will then be investigated and techniques for their use in actinide extraction from porous solids developed

  14. Actinide(IV) and actinide(VI) carbonate speciation studies by PAS and NMR spectroscopies. Yucca Mountain Project: Milestone report 3031-WBS 1.2.3.4.1.3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.L.; Ekberg, S.A.; Morris, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pulsed-laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to study speciation of actinide(IV) and actinide(VI) ions (Np, Pu, Am) in aqueous carbonate solutions vs of pH, carbonate concentration, actinide content, and temperature. PAS focused on Pu(IV) speciation. Stability fields on a pH (8.4 to 12.0) versus total carbonate content (0.003 to 1.0 M) plot for dilute Pu(IV) carbonate species ([Pu] tot = 1 mM) were mapped. Four plutonium species, with absorption peaks at 486, 492, 500, and 512 nm were found. Loss of a single carbonate ligand does not account for the difference in speciation for the 486 and 492 nm absorption peaks, nor can any of the observed species be identified as colloidal Pu(IV). NMR data have been obtained for UO 2 2+ , PuO 2 2+ and AmO 2 2+ . This report focuses on results for PuO 2 2+ . The ligand exchange reaction between free and coordinated carbonate on the PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- systems has been examined by variable temperature 13 C NMR spectroscopy. In each of the six different PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- samples, two NMR signals are present, one for the free carbonate ligand and one for the carbonate ligand coordinated to a paramagnetic plutonium metal center. The single 13 C resonance line for coordinated carbonate is consistent with expectations of a monomeric PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- species in solution. A modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR pulse sequence was used for determining of ligand exchange parameters for paramagnetic actinide complexes. Eyring analysis at standard conditions provided activation parameters of ΔH = 38 KJ/M and ΔS = -60 J/K for the plutonyl triscarbonate system, suggesting an associative transition state for the plutonyl(VI) carbonate complex self-exc

  15. Research in actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH - , CO 3 2- , PO 4 3- , humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements

  16. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...

  17. A worldwide perspective on actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide interest has been evident over the past few years in reexamining the merits of recovering the actinides from spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel and transmuting them in fast reactors to reduce hazards in geologic repositories. This paper will summarize some of the recent activities in this field. Several countries are embarked on programs of reprocessing and vitrification of present wastes, from which removal of the actinides is largely precluded. The United States is assessing the ideas related to the fast reactor program and the potential application to defense wastes. 18 refs., 2 figs

  18. Development and Implementation of a Low-Cost ex-situ Soil Clean-up Method for Actinide Removal at the AWE Aldermaston Site, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, K.; Purdie, P.; Agnew, K.; Cundy, A.B.; Hopkinson, L.; Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development (and implementation) of a novel, low-cost electrokinetic soil clean-up method for treatment of Pu-labelled soil wastes at the AWE Aldermaston site, Berkshire, U.K. Nuclear weapons manufacture and maintenance, and related research and development activities, have been carried out at the Aldermaston site for over 50 years, and these historical operations have generated a number of contaminated land legacy issues, including soils which contain above background (although radiologically insignificant) specific activities of Pu. Much of the Pu-labelled soil has been removed (via soil excavation), and is held in containment units on site, prior to remediation / decommissioning. Based on initial small-scale laboratory trials examining the potential for Pu removal and directed migration under a low intensity electrical field, a two year project (funded by the former UK Department of Trade and Industry and AWE PLC) has been implemented, and is reported here, involving a focussed programme of laboratory trials followed by a full-scale field trial to examine the potential of low-cost electrokinetic techniques to reduce the activity of Pu in clay-rich site soils, and reduce site waste disposal costs. Pu (and U) exhibited relatively complex behaviour in the laboratory trials, with Pu forming mobile soluble oxy-anionic species under the high pHs generated by the electrokinetic treatment technique. Clear mobilisation of Pu and U (along with a range of other elements) was however observed, in a range of soil types. The relative efficiency of remobilization was element-dependant, and, in terms of heavy metal contaminants, radionuclides, and the stable analogues of radionuclides known to be problematic at other nuclear sites, was (from most to least mobile) Cl > Zn > Sr > U > Pu > Pb. Both Pu and U showed enhanced mobility when the low-cost soil conditioning agent citric acid was added prior to electrokinetic treatment. Full-scale field trials of

  19. Actinide separations by supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.; Chiarizia, R.

    1984-01-01

    The work has demonstrated that actinide removal from synthetic waste solutions using both flat-sheet and hollow-fiber SLM's is a feasible chemical process at the laboratory scale level. The process is characterized by the typical features of SLM's processes: very small quantities of extractant required; the potential for operations with high feed/strip volume ratios, resulting in a corresponding concentration factor of the actinides; and simplicity of operation. Major obstacles to the implementation of the SLM technology to the decontamination of liquid nuclear wastes are the probable low resistance of polypropylene supports to high radiation fields, which may prevent the application to high-level nuclear wastes; the unknown lifetime of the SLM; and the high Na content of the separated actinide solution

  20. ACTINET - EU network of excellence for actinide sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    2006-01-01

    ACTINET, the Network of Excellence for Actinide Sciences within the 6th EU Framework Program, was launched in March 2004 for an initial period of four years. A number of tools are available in ACTINET to serve the purposes of the project, i.e. stimulate and coordinate actinide research in Europe, promote integration, train young scientists and, in this way, ensure and enhance European competence. The large European actinide laboratories with their unique experimental and analytical equipment are available to scientists from Europe as so-called 'pool facilities' within the framework of joint research projects. Setting up a 'theoretical user lab' has turned out to be a promising way of exploiting the synergies of theory and experiment in various fields of actinide science. Joint research projects are supported within the network, working with actinides being made possible in the pool facilities. Training and instruction are ensured by seminars, workshops, and schools organized annually. In familiarizing young scientists with actinide work, ACTINET exercises training functions and contributes to ensuring and enhancing European competence in the field on the medium and long term. Even after only half of its term, ACTINET is developing into a live network, thus decisively contributing towards promoting, coordinating and integrating European actinide research. As actinides play a key role in the use of nuclear power, this benefits European industries, research centers, operators of nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities as well as licensing and regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  1. Actinide recovery from waste and low-grade sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Actinide and nuclear fuel cycle operations generate a variety of process waste streams. New methods are needed to remove and recover actinides. More interest is also being expressed in recovering uranium from oceans, phosphoric acid, and other low grade sources. To meet the need for an up-to-date status report in the area of actinide recovery from waste and low grade sources, these papers were brought together. The papers provide an authoritative, in-depth coverage of an important area of nuclear and industrial and engineering chemistry which cover the following topics: uranium recovery from oceans and phosphoric acid; recovery of actinides from solids and liquid wastes; plutonium scrap recovery technology; and other new developments in actinide recovery processes

  2. Heterogeneous all actinide recycling in LWR all actinide cycle closure concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondinelli, Luciano

    1980-01-01

    A project for the elimination of transuranium elements (Waste Actinides, WA) by neutron transmutation is developed in a commercial BWR with U-Pu (Fuel Actinides, FA) recycle. The project is based on the All Actinide Cycle Closure concept: 1) closure of the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, U-Pu coprocessing, 2) waste actinide disposal by neutron transmutation. The reactor core consists of Pu-island fuel assemblies containing WAs in target pins. Two parallel reprocessing lines for FAs and WAs are provided. Mass balance, hazard measure, spontaneous activity during 10 recycles are calculated. Conclusions are: the reduction in All Actinide inventory achieved by Heterogeneous All Actinide Recycling is on the order of 83% after 10 recycles. The U235 enrichment needed for a constant end of cycle reactivity decreases for increasing number of recycles after the 4th recycle. A diffusion-burnup calculation of the pin power peak factors in the fuel assembly shows that design limits can be satisfied. A strong effort should be devoted to the solution of the problems related to high values of spontaneous emission by the target pins

  3. PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, J.B.

    1963-11-01

    A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

  4. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  5. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  6. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  7. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SPRINGFIELD, OH. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at the Chateau Estates Mobile Home Park in Springfield, OH. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ AD-33 media in removing arsenic to meet t...

  9. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements

  10. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Bogle, M.A.; Brantley, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239 Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  11. Report of the panel on practical problems in actinide biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Practical problems are classified as the need to make operational decisions, the need for regulatory assessment either of individual facilities or of generic actions, and the overt appearance of radiobiological effects in man or radioactivity in man or the environment. Topics discussed are as follows: simulated reactor accident; long term effects of low doses; effects of repeated exposures to actinides; inhaled uranium mine air contaminants; metabolism and dosimetry; environmental equilibrium models; patterns of alpha dosimetry; internal dose calculations; interfaces between actinide biology and environmental studies; removal of actinides deposited in the body; and research needs related to uranium isotopes

  12. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  13. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  14. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  15. Actinide isotopic analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs

  16. Minor Actinide Separations Using Ion Exchangers Or Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

  17. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  18. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  19. Extraction chromatography of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    1978-01-01

    Extraction chromatography of actinides in the oxidation state from 2 to 6 is reviewed. Data on using neutral (tbp), basic (substituted ammonium salts) and acidic [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA)] extracting agents ketones, esters, alcohols and β-diketones in this method are given. Using the example of actinide separation using D2EHPA, discussed are factors influencing the efficiency of their chromatography separation (nature and particle size of the carrier materials, extracting agents amount on the carrier, temperature and elution rate)

  20. Actinide nanoparticle research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, Stepan N.; Denecke, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to cover actinide nano research. It is of interest both for fundamental research into the chemistry and physics of f-block elements as well as for applied researchers such as those studying the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal and developing remediation strategies. The authors cover important issues of the formation of actinide nano-particles, their properties and structure, environmental behavior of colloids and nanoparticles related to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, modeling and advanced methods of characterization at the nano-scale. (orig.)

  1. Radiochemistry and actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Peneloux, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of trace amounts of actinide elements by means of radiochemistry, is discussed. The similarities between radiochemistry and actinide chemistry, in the case of species amount by cubic cm below 10 12 , are explained. The parameters which allow to define what are the observable chemical reactions, are given. The classification of radionuclides in micro or macrocomponents is considered. The validity of the mass action law and the partition function in the definition of the average number of species for trace amounts, is investigated. Examples illustrating the results are given

  2. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassayre, L., E-mail: cassayre@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl{sub 2}/UAl{sub 3} molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.

  3. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassayre, L.; Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl 3 . A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl 3 alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl 2 /UAl 3 molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl 5 and UCl 6 . The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.

  4. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-01-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project

  5. Trends in actinide processing at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1993-09-01

    In 1989, the mission at the Hanford Site began a dramatic and sometimes painful transition. The days of production--as we used to know it--are over. Our mission officially has become waste management and environmental cleanup. This mission change didn't eliminate many jobs--in fact, budgets have grown dramatically to support the new mission. Most all of the same skilled crafts, engineers, and scientists are still required for the new mission. This change has not eliminated the need for actinide processing, but it has certainly changed the focus that our actinide chemists and process engineers have. The focus used to be on such things as increasing capacity, improving separations efficiency, and product purity. Minimizing waste had become a more important theme in recent years and it is still a very important concept in the waste management and environmental cleanup arena. However, at Hanford, a new set of words dominates the actinide process scene as we work to deal with actinides that still reside in a variety of forms at the Hanford Site. These words are repackage, stabilize, remove, store and dispose. Some key activities in each of these areas are described in this report

  6. Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle. I. Actinide recovery from aqueous salt wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martella, L.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of solvent extraction methods has been completed for removing actinides from selected salt wastes likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. The use of a two-step solvent extraction system, tributyl phosphate (TBP) followed by a bidentate organophosphorus extractant (DHDECMP), appears most efficient for removing actinides from salt waste. The TBP step would remove most of the plutonium and >99.99% of the uranium. The second step, using DHDECMP, would remove >99.91% of the americium, the remaining plutonium (>99.98%), and other actinides from the acidified salt waste

  7. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  8. Actinides, the narrowwest bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Riseborough, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    A table of elements is shown that demonstrates the crossover from superconductivity to magnetism as well as regions of mixed valence. In particular, the actinides must eventually show 4f-electron like mixed valence, after the 5f-electrons become localized. There also seems to be an adiabatic continuation between heavy fermion and mixed valence behavior

  9. Formation of actinides in irradiated HTGR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, A. M.

    1976-03-15

    Actinide nuclide concentrations of 11 spent AVR fuel elements were determined experimentally. The burnup of the spheres varied in the range between 10% and 100% fifa, the Th : U ratio was 5 : 1. The separation procedures for an actinide isolation were tested with highly irradiated ThO/sub 2/. Separation and decontamination factors are presented. Build-up of /sup 232/U was discussed. The AVR breeding rate was ascertained to be 0.5. The hazard potential of high activity waste was calculated. Actinide recovery factors were proposed in order to reduce the hazard potential of the waste by an actinide removal under consideration of the reprocessing technology which is available presently.

  10. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  11. Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal System-Project A.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRECECHTEL, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This revision of the Functions and Requirements Document updates the approved Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal Subproject WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-009, Rev. 0. It has been revised in its entirety to reflect the current scope of work for Debris Removal as canisters and lids under the K Basin Projects work breakdown structure (WBS). In this revision the canisters and lids will be consider debris and a new set of Functions and Requirements have been developed to remove the canisters and lids from the basin

  12. Actinide oxide photodiode and nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Milan; Usov, Igor

    2017-12-05

    Photodiodes and nuclear batteries may utilize actinide oxides, such a uranium oxide. An actinide oxide photodiode may include a first actinide oxide layer and a second actinide oxide layer deposited on the first actinide oxide layer. The first actinide oxide layer may be n-doped or p-doped. The second actinide oxide layer may be p-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is n-doped, and the second actinide oxide layer may be n-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is p-doped. The first actinide oxide layer and the second actinide oxide layer may form a p/n junction therebetween. Photodiodes including actinide oxides are better light absorbers, can be used in thinner films, and are more thermally stable than silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide.

  13. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  14. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  15. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G. Ivan; Christenson, John M.; Renier, J.P.; Marcille, T.F.; Casal, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs). A top-level objective of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis program element of the DOE NERI program is to investigate spent fuel treatment and recycling options for current light water reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, this project targets to expand the traditional scope of nuclear fuel management optimization into the following two complementary specific objectives: (1) To develop a direct coupling between the pin-by-pin within-bundle loading control variables and core-wide (bundle-by-bundle) optimization objectives, (2) to extend the methodology developed to explicitly encompass control variables, objectives, and constraints designed to maximize minor actinide incineration in BWR bundles and cycles. The first specific objective is projected to 'uncover' dormant thermal margin made available by employing additional degrees of freedom within the optimization process, while the addition of minor actinides is expected to 'consume' some of the uncovered thermal margin. Therefore, a key underlying goal of this project is to effectively invest some of the uncovered thermal margin into achieving the primary objective.

  16. Projections of emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Amanda; Buys, Gwen; Moxley, Janet; Malcolm, Heath; Henshall, Paul; Broadmeadow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Summary for policy makers: • The UK reports projections for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector to inform policy concerning domestic and international climate change commitments. The full projections data are available on the NAEI website (http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_id=927) • LULUCF activities can result in net annual emissions or removals of greenhouse gases, and changes in carbon stocks in the pools associated with LULUCF. This report prov...

  17. Projections of emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Buys, Gwen; Malcolm, Heath; Moxley, Janet; Matthews, Robert; Henshall, Paul

    2014-01-01

    • The UK is required to report projections for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector for carbon budgets under the UK Climate Change Act, for the European Union Monitoring Mechanism, and for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. LULUCF activities can result in net emissions or removals of greenhouse gases, and changes in carbon stocks in the pools associated with LULUCF. This report provides projections at the UK and Devolved Administration (DA) lev...

  18. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of polyhydroxamate chelators for selective complexation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, A.; Jacobs, H.; Koshti, N.; Stark, P.; Huber, V.; Dasaradhi, L.; Caswell, W.; Smith, P.; Jarvinen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific chelating polymers targeted for actinides have much relevance to problems involving remediation of nuclear waste. Goal is to develop polymer supported, ion specific extraction systems for removing actinides and other hazardous metal ions from wastewaters. This is part of an effort to develop chelators for removing actinide ions such as Pu from soils and waste streams. Selected ligands are being attached to polymeric backbones to create novel chelating polymers. These polymers and other water soluble and insoluble polymers have been synthesized and are being evaluated for ability to selectively remove target metal ions from process waste streams

  19. Preliminary design and neutronic analysis of a laser fusion driven actinide waste burning hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Duderstadt, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The laser fusion driven actinide waste burner (LDAB) system investigated uses partitioned fission power reactor generated actinide wastes dissolved in a molten tin alloy as feed material (or fuel). A novel fuel processing concept based on the high-temperature precipitation of ''actinide--nitrides'' from a liquid tin solution is proposed. This concept will allow for fission product removal to be performed entirely within the device at high burnup. No attempt has been made to optimize this system, but potential performance is impressive. The equilibrium LDAB design consumes 7.6 MT/y of actinide waste. This corresponds to the waste output from 136 light water reactors [1000 MW (electric)]. The mean life of an actinide atom in the LDAB is only 4.5 y; and actinides, once charged to the LDAB, might be reprocessed fewer times during irradiation than in previously proposed systems

  20. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  1. Photochemistry of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Bell, J.T.; Friedman, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    It has been found that all three major actinides have a useful variety of photochemical reactions which could be used to achieve a separations process that requires fewer reagents. Several features merit enumerating: (1) Laser photochemistry is not now as uniquely important in fuel reprocessing as it is in isotopic enrichment. The photochemistry can be successfully accomplished with conventional light sources. (2) The easiest place to apply photo-reprocessing is on the three actinides U, Pu, and Np. The solutions are potentially cleaner and more amenable to photoreactions. (3) Organic-phase photoreactions are probably not worth much attention because of the troublesome solvent redox chemistry associated with the photochemical reaction. (4) Upstream process treatment on the raffinate (dissolver solution) may never be too attractive since the radiation intensity precludes the usage of many optical materials and the nature of the solution is such that light transmission into it might be totally impossible

  2. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  3. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  4. Analytical chemistry of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, H.; Marty, P.

    2001-01-01

    Different characterization methods specifically applied to the actinides are presented in this review such as ICP/OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), ICP/MS (inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry), TIMS (thermal ionization-mass spectrometry) and GD/OES (flow discharge optical emission). Molecular absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis are also available to complete the excellent range of analytical tools at our disposal. (authors)

  5. Actinides: why are they important biologically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: actinide elements in energy systems; biological hazards of the actinides; radiation protection standards; and purposes of actinide biological research with regard to toxicity, metabolism, and therapeutic regimens

  6. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  7. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitrates and actinides with simultaneous separation of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is intended to reduce the acid and nitrate content of nitrate waste solutions, to reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, to remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation, without any danger of violent reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig./PW) [de

  8. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDRMIP: rationale and experimental protocol for CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Keller

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent IPCC reports state that continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate, threatening severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts. Slow progress in emissions reduction to mitigate climate change is resulting in increased attention to what is called geoengineering, climate engineering, or climate intervention – deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget or remove greenhouse gases such as CO2 from the atmosphere. When focused on CO2, the latter of these categories is called carbon dioxide removal (CDR. Future emission scenarios that stay well below 2 °C, and all emission scenarios that do not exceed 1.5 °C warming by the year 2100, require some form of CDR. At present, there is little consensus on the climate impacts and atmospheric CO2 reduction efficacy of the different types of proposed CDR. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDRMIP was initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDRMIP experiments, which are formally part of the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6. These experiments are designed to address questions concerning CDR-induced climate reversibility, the response of the Earth system to direct atmospheric CO2 removal (direct air capture and storage, and the CDR potential and impacts of afforestation and reforestation, as well as ocean alkalinization.>

  9. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDRMIP): rationale and experimental protocol for CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David P.; Lenton, Andrew; Scott, Vivian; Vaughan, Naomi E.; Bauer, Nico; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Chris D.; Kravitz, Ben; Muri, Helene; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    The recent IPCC reports state that continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate, threatening severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts. Slow progress in emissions reduction to mitigate climate change is resulting in increased attention to what is called geoengineering, climate engineering, or climate intervention - deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget or remove greenhouse gases such as CO2 from the atmosphere. When focused on CO2, the latter of these categories is called carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Future emission scenarios that stay well below 2 °C, and all emission scenarios that do not exceed 1.5 °C warming by the year 2100, require some form of CDR. At present, there is little consensus on the climate impacts and atmospheric CO2 reduction efficacy of the different types of proposed CDR. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDRMIP) was initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDRMIP experiments, which are formally part of the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). These experiments are designed to address questions concerning CDR-induced climate reversibility, the response of the Earth system to direct atmospheric CO2 removal (direct air capture and storage), and the CDR potential and impacts of afforestation and reforestation, as well as ocean alkalinization.>

  10. An overview of ALARA considerations during Yankee Atomic`s Component Removal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, B.; Babineau, G.; Colby, B.; Cox, B. [Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Rowe, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In Februrary 1992, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) permanently shutdown Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, after thirty-two years of efficient operation. Yankee`s plan decommissioning is to defer dismantlement until a low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility is available. The plant will be maintained in a safe storage condition until a firm contract for the disposal of LLRW generated during decommissioning can be secured. Limited access to a LLRW disposal facility may occur during the safe storage period. Yankee intends to use these opportunities to remove components and structures. A Component Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. A Componenet Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. The CRP includes removal of four steam generators, the pressurizer, and segmentation of reactor vessel internals and preparation of LLRW for shipment and disposal at Chem-Nuclear`s Barnwell, South Carolina facility. The CRP is projected to be completed by June 1994 at an estimated total worker exposure of less than 160 person-rem.

  11. Thermal neutron actinide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.

    1992-01-01

    During the 70's, the physicists involved in the cross section measurements for the low energy neutrons were almost exclusively interested in the resonance energy range. The thermal range was considered as sufficiently known. In the beginning of the 80's, reactor physicists had again to deal with the delicate problem of the power reactor temperature coefficient, essentially for the light water reactors. The measured value of the reactivity temperature coefficient does not agree with the computed one. The later is too negative. For obvious safety reasons, it is an important problem which must be solved. Several causes were suggested to explain this discrepancy. Among all these causes, the spectral shift in the thermal energy range seems to be very important. Sensibility calculations shown that this spectral shift is very sensitive to the shape of the neutron cross sections of the actinides for energies below one electron-volt. Consequently, reactor physicists require new and accurate measurements in the thermal and subthermal energy ranges. A part of these new measurement results were recently released and reviewed. The purpose of this study is to complete the preceding review with the new informations which are now available. In reactor physics the major actinides are the fertile nuclei, uranium 238, thorium 232 and plutonium 240 and the fissile nuclei, uranium 233, uranium 235 and plutonium 239. For the fertile nuclei the main datum is the capture cross section, for the fissile nuclei the data of interest are nu-bar, the fission and capture cross sections or a combination of these data such as η or α. In the following sections, we will review the neutron data of the major actinides for the energy below 1 eV

  12. Actinide burning in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the past few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing the integral fast reactor (IFR), an advanced liquid-metal reactor concept. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid-metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics, and waste management. A key feature of the IFR concept is its unique pyroprocessing. Pyroprocessing has the potential to radically improve long-term waste management strategies by exploiting the following attributes: 1. Minor actinides accompany plutonium product stream; therefore, actinide recycling occurs naturally. Actinides, the primary source of long-term radiological toxicity, are removed from the waste stream and returned to the reactor for in situ burning, generating useful energy. 2. High-level waste volume from pyroprocessing call be reduced substantially as compared with direct disposal of spent fuel. 3. Decay heat loading in the repository can be reduced by a large factor, especially for the long-term burden. 4. Low-level waste generation is minimal. 5. Troublesome fission products, such as 99 Tc, 129 I, and 14 C, are contained and immobilized. Singly or in combination, the foregoing attributes provide important improvements in long-term waste management in terms of the ease in meeting technical performance requirements (perhaps even the feasibility of demonstrating that technical performance requirements can be met) and perhaps also in ultimate public acceptance. Actinide recycling, if successfully developed, could well help the current repository program by providing an opportunity to enhance capacity utilization and by deferring the need for future repositories. It also represents a viable technical backup option in the event unforeseen difficulties arise in the repository licensing process

  13. Recovery of Actinides from Actinide-Aluminium Alloys: Chlorination Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Soucek, P.; Jardin, R.; Glatz, J.P.; Cassayre, L.

    2008-01-01

    A method for recovery of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed by electrochemical separation of metallic spent nuclear fuel on solid aluminium electrodes in molten chloride salts is described. The proposed route consists of three main steps: -) vacuum distillation of salt adhered on the electrodes, -) chlorination of An-Al alloy by pure chlorine gas and -) sublimation of formed AlCl 3 . A thermochemical study of the route was performed to determine important chemical reactions and to find optimum experimental conditions for all process steps. Vacuum distillation of the electrode is efficient for complete removal of remaining salt and most fission products, full chlorination of the An-Al alloys is possible at any working temperature and evaporation of AlCl 3 is achieved by heating under argon. Experiments have been carried out using U-Al alloy in order to define parameters providing full alloy chlorination without formation of volatile UCl 5 and UCl 6 . It was shown that full chlorination of An-Al alloys without An losses should be possible at a temperature approx. 150 deg. C. (authors)

  14. Recovery of Actinides from Actinide-Aluminium Alloys: Chlorination Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Soucek, P.; Jardin, R.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5503, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A method for recovery of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed by electrochemical separation of metallic spent nuclear fuel on solid aluminium electrodes in molten chloride salts is described. The proposed route consists of three main steps: -) vacuum distillation of salt adhered on the electrodes, -) chlorination of An-Al alloy by pure chlorine gas and -) sublimation of formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study of the route was performed to determine important chemical reactions and to find optimum experimental conditions for all process steps. Vacuum distillation of the electrode is efficient for complete removal of remaining salt and most fission products, full chlorination of the An-Al alloys is possible at any working temperature and evaporation of AlCl{sub 3} is achieved by heating under argon. Experiments have been carried out using U-Al alloy in order to define parameters providing full alloy chlorination without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. It was shown that full chlorination of An-Al alloys without An losses should be possible at a temperature approx. 150 deg. C. (authors)

  15. Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning of minor actinide from high level waste could have a substantial impact in lowering the radio toxicity associated with high level waste as well as it will reduce the burden on geological repository. In Indian context, the partitioned minor actinide could be routed into the fast breeder reactor systems scheduled for commissioning in the near period. The technological breakthrough in solvent development has catalyzed the partitioning programme in India, leading to the setting up and hot commissioning of the Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) at BARC, Tarapur. The engineering scale Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) has been retrofitted in an available radiological hot cell situated adjacent to the Advanced Vitrification Facility (AVS). This location advantage ensures an uninterrupted supply of high-level waste and facilitates the vitrification of the high-level waste after separation of minor actinides

  16. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VILLAGE ON THE PONDS IN DELAVAN, WI. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Vintage on the Ponds at Delavan, WI. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Kine...

  17. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal. U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sabin, MN. Six-Month Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sabin, MN. The main objective of the project is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico FM-248-AS ars...

  18. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Vintage on the Ponds in Delavan, WI Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Vintage on the Ponds in Delavan, WI. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of a Kinetico Macrolite® press...

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project following one year of operation at the Climax, Minnesota, site. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Kin...

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL AND ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT STEWART, MN. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Stewart, MN facility. The main objective of the project is to evaluate the effectiveness of Siemens¿ Type II AERALA...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BIG SAUK LAKE MOBILE HOME PARK IN SAUK CENTRE, MN. SIX MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park (BSLMHP) in Sauk Centre, MN. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the...

  3. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal and Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Stewart, MN, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the one-year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Stewart, MN facility. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness ...

  4. A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Removing Dams: Project-Level Policy and Scientific Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, B.

    2010-12-01

    More than 800 dams have been removed around the country, mostly “small” dams, under 25 feet in height. The total number of removals, however, is small relative to the number of deteriorating dams and the ecological impacts those structures continue to have on native riverine species and natural river function. The number of dam removal projects is increasing as aging dams continue to deteriorate and riverine species continue to decline. Practitioners and regulators need to find cost-effective project approaches that minimize short-term environmental impacts and maximize long-term benefits while keeping project costs manageable. Dam removals can be a regulatory challenge because they inherently have short-term impacts in order to achieve larger, self-sustaining, long-term benefits. These short-term impacts include sediment movement, construction access roads, and habitat conversion from lacustrine to riverine. Environmental regulations are designed to prevent degradation and have presented challenges for projects designed to benefit the environment. For example, a short-term release of sediment may exceed water quality standards for some period of time, but lead to a long-term beneficial project. Other regulatory challenges include permitting the loss of wetland area for increased native river function, or allowing the release of some level of contaminated sediment when the downstream sediment is similarly contaminated. Dam removal projects raise a range of engineering and scientific questions on effective implementation techniques such as appropriate sediment management approaches, construction equipment access approaches, invasive species management, channel/floodplain reconstruction, and active versus passive habitat rehabilitation. While practitioners have learned and refined implementation approaches over the last decade, more input is needed from researchers to help assess the effectiveness of those techniques, and to provide more effective techniques

  6. Recovery actinide values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Delphin, W.H.; Mason, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for partitioning and recovering actinide values from acidic waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels by adding hydroxylammonium nitrate and hydrazine to the waste solution to adjust the valence of the neptunium and plutonium values in the solution to the +4 oxidation state, thus forming a feed solution and contacting the feed solution with an extractant of di-hexoxyethyl phosphoric acid in an organic diluent whereby the actinide values, most of the rare earth values and some fission product values are taken up by the extractant. Separation is achieved by contacting the loaded extractant with two aqueous strip solutions, a nitric acid solution to selectively strip the americium, curium and rare earth values and an oxalate solution of tetramethylammonium hydrogen oxalate and oxalic acid or trimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate to selectively strip the neptunium, plutonium and fission product values. Uranium values remain in the extractant and may be recovered with a phosphoric acid strip. The neptunium and plutonium values are recovered from the oxalate by adding sufficient nitric acid to destroy the complexing ability of the oxalate, forming a second feed, and contacting the second feed with a second extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert diluent whereby the neptunium and plutonium values are selectively extracted. The values are recovered from the extractant with formic acid. (author)

  7. Actinide AMS at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenruecker, Rene [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Pavetich, Stefan [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); ANU, Canberra (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides such as {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were introduced into the environment by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, reactor accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities (Sellafield, La Hague), radioactive waste disposal, and accidents with nuclear devices (Palomares, Thule) [1]. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method to measure these actinides. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) facility is located at a 6 MV accelerator, which is shared with ion beam analytics and implantation users, preventing major modifications of the accelerator and magnetic analyzers. DREAMS was originally designed for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. To modify the system for actinide AMS, a Time-of-Flight (TOF) beamline at the high-energy side has been installed and performance tests are on-going. Ion beam and detector simulations are carried out to design a moveable ionization chamber. Especially, the detector window and anode dimensions have to be optimized. This ionization chamber will act as an energy detector of the system and its installation is planned as closely as possible to the stop detector of the TOF beamline for highest detection efficiency.

  8. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  9. Thermally unstable complexants/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.

    1996-01-01

    In situ immobilization is an approach to isolation of radionuclides from the hydrosphere that is receiving increasing attention. Rather than removing the actinides from contaminated soils, this approach transforms the actinides into intrinsically insoluble mineral phases resistant to leaching by groundwater. The principal advangates of this concept are the low cost and low risk of operator exposure and/or dispersion of the radionuclides to the wider environment. The challenge of this approach is toe accomplish the immobilization without causing collateral damage to the environment (the cure shouldn't be worse than the disease) and verification of system performance

  10. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea

  11. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple

  12. Cervical Spine Collar Removal by Emergency Room Nurses: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Forgione, Massimo; Lusignan, Francis; Lanoue, Marc-André; Drouin, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) is a clinical decision aid to facilitate the safe removal of cervical collars in the alert, orientated, low-risk adult trauma patient. Few health care settings have assessed initiatives to train charge nurses to use the CCR. This practice improvement project conducted in a secondary trauma center in Canada aimed to (1) train charge nurses of the emergency room to use the CCR, (2) monitor its use throughout the project period, and (3) compare the assessments of the charge nurses with those of emergency physicians. The project began with the creation of an interdisciplinary team. Clinical guidelines were established by the interdisciplinary project team. Nine charge nurses of the emergency room were then trained to use the CCR (3 on each 8-hour shift). The use of the CCR was monitored throughout the project period, from June 1 to October 5, 2016. The 3 aims of this practice improvement project were attained successfully. Over a 5-month period, 114 patients were assessed with the CCR. Charge nurses removed the cervical collars for 54 of 114 patients (47%). A perfect agreement rate (114 of 114 patients, 100%) was attained between the assessments of the nurses and those of physicians. This project shows that the charge nurses of a secondary trauma center can use the CCR safely on alert, orientated, and low-risk adult trauma patients as demonstrated by the agreement in the assessments of emergency room nurses and physicians. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentration of actinides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1976-06-01

    Considerable concern is now being expressed over the discharge of actinides into the environment. This report presents a brief review of the chemistry of the actinides and examines the evidence for interaction of the actinides with some naturally-occurring chelating agents and other factors which might stimulate actinide concentration in the food chain of man. This report also reviews the evidence for concentration of actinides in plants and for uptake through the gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  14. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  15. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  16. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  17. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.B.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  18. Possibilities for reduction of transverse projected emittances by partial removal of transverse to longitudinal beam correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.

    2014-09-01

    We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.

  19. Generation of actinide colloids and their sorption on rocks. A study on colloids in an ISTC (International Science and Technology Center) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Ai

    2005-01-01

    Results of experimental studies on generation of colloids and their sorption on rocks conducted in the ISTC (International Science and Technology Center) project No.1326 are presented, as well as a brief introduction of the project and a planned new project on colloidal migration near the Karachai Lake, Russia. (author)

  20. Radioactive liquid wastes lines removal project at Los Alamos (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.C.; Cox, E.J.; Hohner, D.P.; Valentine, A.M.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes the abandoned liquid waste lines removal operations conducted at Los Alamos in the period 1981 to 1986. Particular emphasis has been placed on as-left conditions, that is, on the location of sections of waste lines or contaminated soil which were left in place on the basis of ALARA decisions. Contaminated items were left when interfering utilities, roads, structures, or great depth made complete removal not cost effective or not safe. Left items were either not highly contaminated or they were not near the surface. Total cost of the project was $4.2 million. Approximately 5800 m 3 of contaminated waste was placed in the Solid Waste Management Site at TA-54 Area G. The project accomplished the removal of approximately 34,500 ft (6.5 miles) of abandoned waste lines under carefully controlled conditions. Procedures for excavation, waste disposal, personnel protection, and radiation monitoring are described. Environmental monitoring criteria and methods for determining acceptable levels of contamination in soils and on surfaces are discussed

  1. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  2. Casting of metallic fuel containing minor actinide additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Henslee, S.P.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A significant attribute of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is the transmutation of long-lived minor actinide fission products. These isotopes require isolation for thousands of years, and if they could be removed from the waste, disposal problems would be reduced. The IFR utilizes pyroprocessing of metallic fuel to separate auranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from nonfissionable constituents. These materials are reintroduced into the fuel and reirradiated. Spent IFR fuel is expected to contain low levels of americium, neptunium, and curium because the hard neutron spectrum should transmute these isotopes as they are produced. This opens the possibility of using an IFR to trnasmute minor actinide waste from conventional light water reactors (LWRs). A standard IFR fuel is based on the alloy U-20% Pu-10% Zr (in weight percent). A metallic fuel system eases the requirements for reprocessing methods and enables the minor actinide metals to be incorporated into the fuel with simple modifications to the basic fuel casting process. In this paper, the authors report the initial casting experience with minor actinide element addition to an IFR U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

  3. Formation of actinides in irradiated HTGR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M. dos.

    1976-03-01

    Actinide nuclide concentrations of 11 spent AVR fuel elements were determined experimentally. The burnup of the spheres varied in the range between 10% and 100% fifa, the Th : U ratio was 5 : 1. The separation procedures for actinide isolation were tested with highly irradiated ThO 2 . Separation and decontamination factors are presented. Actinide nuclide formation can be described by exponential functions of the type ln msub(nuclide) = A + B x % fifa. The empirical factors A and B were calculated performing a least squares analysis. Build-up of 232 U was discussed. According to the experimental results, 232 U is mainly produced from 230 Th, a certain amount (e.g. about 20% at a 10 5 MWd/t burnup) originated from a (n,2n) reaction of 233 U; a formation from 233 Th by a (n,2n) followed by a (n,γ) reaction was not observed. The AVR breeding rate was ascertained to be 0.5. The hazard potential of high activity waste was calculated. After a 1,000 years' storage time, the elements Pa, Am and Cm will no longer influence the total hazard index. Actinide recovery factors were proposed in order to reduce the hazard potential of the waste by an actinide removal in consideration of the reprocessing technology which is available presently. (orig.) [de

  4. Lanthanide/Actinide Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Aimee; Fontes, Christopher J.

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational wave observations benefit from accompanying electromagnetic signals in order to accurately determine the sky positions of the sources. The ejecta of neutron star mergers are expected to produce such electromagnetic transients, called macronovae (e.g. the recent and unprecedented observation of GW170817). Characteristics of the ejecta include large velocity gradients and the presence of heavy r-process elements, which pose significant challenges to the accurate calculation of radiative opacities and radiation transport. Opacities include a dense forest of bound-bound features arising from near-neutral lanthanide and actinide elements. Here we present an overview of current theoretical opacity determinations that are used by neutron star merger light curve modelers. We will touch on atomic physics and plasma modeling codes that are used to generate these opacities, as well as the limited body of laboratory experiments that may serve as points of validation for these complex atomic physics calculations.

  5. Relativistic studies in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Decontamination of the Scrap Removal Room at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridenbaker, W.A.; Clemons, L.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Scrap Removal Room (SRR) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The SRR is an area in the former reprocessing plant that is required for use in support of D and D for other plant areas. The SRR contained a 6.8 Mg (7.5-ton) crane for loading waste material into a shielded truck cask. It became radioactively contaminated during fuel reprocessing from 1966 to 1972. This report describes the work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of removing existing piping and equipment and of reducing radiation and contamination levels, to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable (ALARA) levels for the installation of new equipment. Also reported are pre- and post-radiological conditions, personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume collected, cost and schedule data, and lessons learned

  7. Orthogonal Projection-Based Harmonic Signal Removal for Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Andersen, Palle; Hoen, C.

    2019-01-01

    A presence of a high amplitude periodic signals in the output responses from operating structures often pose a challenge for output-only system identification and, in case of health monitoring, damage detection/localization methods. This paper introduces a pre-processing approach that removes...... the harmonic part from the output signals directly in the time domain. The new method uses orthogonal projections of the harmonic realization of the signal onto the raw time series within the stochastic subspace framework. Proposed algorithm is tested on two experimental examples. First, an aluminum plate...... excited with both random white and periodic excitations. Second, a full-scale industrial case of a ferry excited by a random environmental load with harmonic interference from a rotating machinery on-board. In both cases the proposed method removes the harmonics from the structural responses while leaving...

  8. Environmental research on actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers

  9. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  10. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  11. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  12. Simulation of slag control for the Plasma Hearth Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters. G.G.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the Plasma Hearth Project is to stabilize alpha-emitting radionuclides in a vitreous slag and to reduce the effective storage volume of actinide-containing waste for long-term burial. The actinides have been shown to partition into the vitreous slag phase of the melt. The slag composition may be changed by adding glass-former elements to ensure that this removable slag has the most desired physical and chemical properties for long-term burial. A data acquisition and control system has been designed to regulate the composition of five elements in the slag

  13. Actinides reduction by recycling in a thermal reactor; Reduccion de actinidos por reciclado en un reactor termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Martinez C, E.; Balboa L, H., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; firstly a production reference of actinides in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR reactor is established, after a fuel containing plutonium is modeled to also calculate the actinides production in MOX fuel type. Also it proposes a design of fuel rod containing 6% of actinides in a matrix of uranium from the tails of enrichment, then four standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by actinides rods to evaluate the production and transmutation thereof, the same procedure was performed in the fuel type MOX and the end actinide reduction in the fuel was evaluated. (Author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of templated ion exchange resins for the selective complexation of actinide ions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, G.M.; Uy, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The purpose of this research is to develop polymeric extractants for the selective complexation of uranyl ions (and subsequently other actinyl and actinide ions) from aqueous solutions (lakes, streams, waste tanks and body fluids). Selectivity for a specific actinide ion is obtained by providing polymers with cavities lined with complexing ligands so arranged as to match the charge, coordination number, coordination geometry, and size of the actinide metal ion. These cavity-containing polymers will be produced using a specific actinide ion (or surrogate) as a template around which monomeric complexing ligands will be polymerized. The polymers will provide useful sequestering agents for removing actinide ions from wastes and will form the basis for a variety of analytical techniques for actinide determinations.'

  15. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA - USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT DESERT SANDS MDWCA, NM SIX MONTH EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during, and the results obtained from, the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The object...

  16. DEMETERRES project: development of innovative technologies for removing radionuclides from contaminated solid and liquid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagvardieff, Pierre; Barré, Yves; Blin, Virginie; Faure, Sylvain; Fornier, Anne; Grange, Didier; Grandjean, Agnès; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henner, Pascale; Siroux, Brice; Leybros, Antoine; Messalier, Marc; Paillard, Hervé; Prévost, Thierry; Rennesson, Malvina; Sarrobert, Catherine; Vavasseur, Alain; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2017-09-01

    As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA) proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor …) and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction) which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.

  17. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}HA(II){sup 4-} complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log {beta}{sub 0.1} M = 24.57 {+-} 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C

  18. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, Gert; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 HA(II) 4- complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log β 0.1 M = 24.57 ± 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C, was found to be endothermic

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sabin, MN Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from January 30, 2006 to April 29, 2007 at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration site in Sabin, MN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the eff...

  20. Actinides and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The actinide series of elements begins with f-shell electrons forming energy bands, contributing to the bonding, and possessing no magnetic moments. At americium the series switches over to localized f electrons with magnetic moments. In metallic compounds this crossover of behavior can be modified and studied. In this continuum of behavior a few compounds on the very edge of localized f-electron behavior exhibit enormous electronic heat capacities at low temperatures. This is associated with an enhanced thermal mass of the conduction electrons, which is well over a hundred times the free electron mass, and is what led to the label heavy fermion for such compounds. A few of these become superconducting at even lower temperatures. The excitement in this field comes from attempting to understand how this heaviness arises and from the likelihood that the superconductivity is different from that of previously known superconductors. The effects of thorium impurities in UBe 13 were studied as a representative system for studying the nature of the superconductivity

  1. INDL/A IAEA Nuclear Data Library for evaluated neutron reaction data of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1982-05-01

    This Library contains evaluations performed by participants of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on the Intercomparison of Evaluations of Actinide Neutron Nuclear Data. The data are available on magnetic tape, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  2. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitric acid actinides simultaneously separating the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1984-01-01

    The invention should reduce the acid and nitrate content of waste solutions containing nitric acid as much as possible, should reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation and reduce the α radio-activity in the remaining solution, without having to worry about strong reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig.) [de

  3. Actinide speciation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear test explosions and nuclear reactor wastes and accidents have released large amounts of radioactivity into the environment. Actinide ions in waters often are not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and their solubility and migration behavior is related to the form in which the nuclides are introduced into the aquatic system. Chemical speciation, oxidation state, redox reactions, and sorption characteristics are necessary in predicting solubility of the different actinides, their migration behaviors and their potential effects on marine biota. The most significant of these variables is the oxidation state of the metal ion as the simultaneous presence of more than one oxidation state for some actinides in a solution complicates actinide environmental behavior. Both Np(V)O 2 + and Pu(V)O 2 + , the most significant soluble states in natural oxic waters, are relatively noncomplexing and resistant to hydrolysis and subsequent precipitation. The solubility of NpO 2 + can be as high as 10 -4 M while that of PuO 2 + is much more limited by reduction to the insoluble tetravalent species, Pu(OH) 4 , (pK sp ≥56) but which can be present in the pentavalent form in aqautic phases as colloidal material. The solubility of hexavalent UO 2 2+ in sea water is relatively high due to formation of carbonate complexes. The insoluble trivalent americium hydroxocarbonate, Am(OH)(CO 3 ) is the limiting species for the solubility of Am(III) in sea water. Thorium(IV) is present as Th(OH) 4 , in colloidal form. The chemistry of actinide ions in the environment is reviewed to show the spectrum of reactions that can occur in natural waters which must be considered in assessing the environmental behavior of actinides. Much is understood about sorption of actinides on surfaces, the mode of migration of actinides in such waters and the potential effects of these radioactive species on marine biota, but much more understanding of the behavior of the actinides in the environment is

  4. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  5. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.M.; Wilk, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA -- USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT ROLLINSFORD, NH, SIX MONTH EVALUTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Rollinsford Water and Sewer District facility in Rollinsford, NH. The objectives of the project are to...

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA, USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT RIMROCK, AZ, SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Rimrock, AZ. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Arsenic Package Uni...

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTION MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BROWN CITY, MI SIX MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project in Brown City, MI. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services (...

  9. Recycle of LWR actinides to an IFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, G.K.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Poa, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Large quantities of actinide elements are present in irradiated light water reactor fuel that is stored throughout the world. Because of the high fission to capture ratio for the transuranium (TRU) elements with the high energy neutrons in metal-fueled integral fast reactors (IFR), that reactor can consume these elements effectively. The stored fuel may represent valuable resource for the expanding application of fast power reactors. In addition, the removal of TRU elements from spent LWR fuel has the potential for increasing the capacity of high level waste facilities by reducing the heat load and may increase the margin of safety in meeting licensing requirement. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a pyrochemical process, which is compatible with the IFR fuel cycle for the recovery of TRU elements from LWR fuel. The proposed product is a metallic actinide ingot, which can be introduced into the electrorefining step of the IFR process. Two pyrochemical processes, that is, salt transport process and blanket processing study, are discussed in this paper. Also the experimental studies are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Separation of actinides by high-gradient magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, L.E.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-gradient magnetic filtration has been identified as a candidate solid/liquid separation technique for removing actinide particulate from waste streams. Although HGMS is not intended to reduce the activity in the waste stream to below 100 nCi/g, it does offer two significant advantages: (a) selective removal of TRU solids for subsequent secondary processing and (b) reduced operating complications during solvent extraction due to solids accumulation in the interfacial region. Removal of > 95 wt% of the plutonium and americium solids is expected regardless of the solids present and their properties. Verification tests will be performed to validate this assumption

  11. Thermal-hydraulics of actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Takano, Hideki; Ogawa, Toru; Osakabe, Masahiro.

    1989-07-01

    As a part of conceptual study of actinide burner reactors, core thermal-hydraulic analyses were conducted for two types of reactor concepts, namely (1) sodium-cooled actinide alloy fuel reactor, and (2) helium-cooled particle-bed reactor, to examine the feasibility of high power-density cores for efficient transmutation of actinides within the maximum allowable temperature limits of fuel and cladding. In addition, calculations were made on cooling of actinide fuel assembly. (author)

  12. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 projectile target combinations. The values produced by the present formula are also compared with experiments. The present pocket formula produces fusion barrier characteristics of actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  13. ALMR potential for actinide consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockey, C.L.; Thompson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. This reactor combines a high degree of passive safety characteristics with a high level of modularity and factory fabrication to achieve attractive economics. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor fueled with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and for makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR core by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behavior throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. Waste disposal impacts are discussed. (author)

  14. Thin layers in actinide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouder, T.

    1998-01-01

    Surface science research at the ITU is focused on the synthesis and surface spectroscopy studies of thin films of actinides and actinide compounds. The surface spectroscopies used are X-ray and ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS, respectively), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thin films of actinide elements and compounds are prepared by sputter deposition from elemental targets. Alloy films are deposited from corresponding alloy targets and could be used, in principle, as replicates of these targets. However, there are deviations between alloy film and target composition, which depend on the deposition conditions, such as pressure and target voltage. Mastering of these effects may allow us to study stoichiometric film replicates instead of thick bulk compounds. As an example, we discuss the composition of U-Ni films prepared from a UNi 5 target. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  16. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances. 1. progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.; Rhee, D.S.; Wimmer, H.; Decambox, P.; Mauchien, P.; Moulin, C.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Marquardt, C.; Riegel, J.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Diercks, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.; Bidoglio, G.; Righetto, L.

    1992-02-01

    The aim of the present research programme is to study the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances in natural aquifer systems and hence to quantify the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration. Aquatic humic substances commonly found in all groundwaters in different concentrations have a strong tendency towards complexation with actinide ions. This is one of the major geochemical reactions but hitherto least quantified. Therefore, the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration is poorly understood. In the present research programme the complexation of actinide ions with humic substances will be described thermodynamically. This description will be based on a model being as simple as possible to allow an easy introduction of the resulting constants into geochemical modelling of the actinide migration. This programme is a continuation of the activities of the COCO group in the second phase of the CEC-MIRAGE project. (orig.)

  17. Extraction chromatogrpahy of actinides, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1975-01-01

    This review on extraction chromatography of actinides emphasizes the important usage of neutral (Tributylphosphate), basic (substituted ammonium salts), and acidic (HDEHP) extractants, and their application to separations of actinides in the di-to hexavalent oxidation state. Furthermore, the actinide extraction by ketones, ethers, alcohols and β-diketones is discussed

  18. Actinides integral measurements on FCA assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1984-01-01

    Actinide integral measurements were performed on eight assemblies of FCA where neutron energy spectra were shifted systematically from soft to hard in order to evaluate and modify the nuclear cross section data of major actinides. Experimental values on actinide fission rates and sample reactivity worths are compared with the calculated values using JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-V (or IV) data sets. (author)

  19. Moessbauer effect studies with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1966-01-01

    Moessbauer resonance studies in the actinide elements offer a new technique for measuring solid-state properties to a region of the periodic chart where such information is relatively sparse. It is well known that the actinides, the elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103, form a transition series due to filling of the 5f electron shell, analogous to the rare-earth series in which the 4f shell is filled. Like the rare earths, the actinide metals and compounds are expected to exhibit a variety of interesting magnetic properties, but, unlike the rare earths, there have been few studies of the magnetic behaviour of actinides, and these properties are largely unknown. The chemical properties of the actinides have been studied somewhat more extensively, and, in contrast to the rare earths, form a multiplicity of stable valence states, especially in the lighter members of the series. It is just these properties, magnetic and chemical, for which the Moessbauer effect is a valuable probe, sensitive to the magnetic and electric environment of an atom. The rare-earth series has been a particularly fruitful region in terms of the number of elements which have been shown to exhibit the Moessbauer effect, and for this reason the exploitation of the Moessbauer effect to yield new solid-state and chemical information on the rare earths is a highly active field of research today. There is every reason to believe that the actinides can be similarly studied by the Moessbauer effect. 43 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO 2 + ) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO 2 + ; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO 2 + cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO 2 + species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO 2 + have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO 2 + cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + ·Th 4+ , PuO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 + ·Th 4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M -1

  1. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  2. Orbital effects in actinide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Actinide magnetism presents a number of important challenges; in particular, the proximity of 5f band to the Fermi energy gives rise to strong interaction with both d and s like conduction electrons, and the extended nature of the 5f electrons means that they can interact with electron orbitals from neighboring atoms. Theory has recently addressed these problems. Often neglected, however, is the overwhelming evidence for large orbital contributions to the magnetic properties of actinides. Some experimental evidence for these effects are presented briefly in this paper. They point, clearly incorrectly, to a very localized picture for the 5f electrons. This dichotomy only enhances the nature of the challenge

  3. A literature review of actinide-carbonate mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Chemical retardation of actinides in groundwater systems is a potentially important mechanism for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility intended to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic waste. Rigorous estimation of chemical retardation during transport through the Culebra Dolomite, a water-bearing unit overlying the WIPP, requires a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions between dissolved elements and mineral surfaces. This report represents a first step toward this goal by examining the literature for pertinent experimental studies of actinide-carbonate interactions. A summary of existing models is given, along with the types of experiments on which these models are based. Articles pertaining to research into actinide interactions with carbonate minerals are summarized. Select articles involving trace element-carbonate mineral interactions are also reviewed and may serve as templates for future research. A bibliography of related articles is included. Americium(III), and its nonradioactive analog neodymium(III), partition strongly from aqueous solutions into carbonate minerals. Recent thermodynamic, kinetic, and surface studies show that Nd is preferentially removed from solution, forming a Nd-Ca carbonate solid solution. Neptunium(V) is rapidly removed from solution by carbonates. Plutonium incorporation into carbonates is complicated by multiple oxidation states. Little research has been done on the radium(H) and thorium(IV) carbonate systems. Removal of uranyl ion from solution by calcite is limited to monolayer surface coverage

  4. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maginn, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  5. DEMETERRES project: development of innovative technologies for removing radionuclides from contaminated solid and liquid matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagvardieff Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor … and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.

  6. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  7. Burning actinides in very hard spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Shirley, G.W.; Prichard, A.W.; Trapp, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    The major unresolved problem in the nuclear industry is the ultimate disposition of the waste products of light water reactors. The study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a very hard spectrum actinide burner reactor (ABR). A 1100 MW/sub t/ ABR design fueled entirely with actinides reprocessed from light water reactor (LWR) wastes is proposed as both an ultimate disposal mechanism for actinides and a means of concurrently producing usable power. Actinides from discharged ABR fuel are recycled to the ABR while fission products are routed to a permanent repository. As an integral part of a large energy park, each such ABR would dispose of the waste actinides from 2 LWRs

  8. ENDF/B-V actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the actinides part of the ENDF/B-V nuclear data library released by the US National Nuclear Data Center. This library or selective retrievals of it, are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  9. Environmental research on actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  10. Photochemical reactions of actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of photochemical studies of actinide ions, which have been performed in our research group for past several years as follows: I) behavior of the excited uranyl(VI) ion; II) photo-reductions of the uranyl ion with organic and inorganic compounds; III) photo-oxidations of uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) in nitric acid solutions. (author)

  11. Angular overlap model in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative foundations of the Angular Overlap Model in actinides based on ab initio calculations of the crystal field effect in the uranium (III) (IV) and (V) ions in various crystals are presented. The calculations justify some common simplifications of the model and fix up the relations between the AOM parameters. Traps and limitations of the AOM phenomenology are discussed

  12. Angular overlap model in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (PL). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative foundations of the Angular Overlap Model in actinides based on ab initio calculations of the crystal field effect in the uranium (III) (IV) and (V) ions in various crystals are presented. The calculations justify some common simplifications of the model and fix up the relations between the AOM parameters. Traps and limitations of the AOM phenomenology are discussed.

  13. Accuracy Improvement of Neutron Nuclear Data on Minor Actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hideo; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Atsushi; Terada, Kazushi; Nakao, Taro; Nakamura, Shoji; Mizuyama, Kazuhito; Igashira, Masayuki; Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Sano, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Takamiya, Koichi; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Fukutani, Satoshi; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Hori, Jun-ichi; Yagi, Takahiro; Yashima, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Improvement of accuracy of neutron nuclear data for minor actinides (MAs) and long-lived fission products (LLFPs) is required for developing innovative nuclear system transmuting these nuclei. In order to meet the requirement, the project entitled as "Research and development for Accuracy Improvement of neutron nuclear data on Minor ACtinides (AIMAC)" has been started as one of the "Innovative Nuclear Research and Development Program" in Japan at October 2013. The AIMAC project team is composed of researchers in four different fields: differential nuclear data measurement, integral nuclear data measurement, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear data evaluation. By integrating all of the forefront knowledge and techniques in these fields, the team aims at improving the accuracy of the data. The background and research plan of the AIMAC project are presented.

  14. Japanese Fast Reactor Program for Homogeneous Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Nagata, Takashi; Kondo, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    In the present report, the homogeneous actinide recycling scenario of Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT) is summarized. First, the scenario of nuclear energy policy in Japan are briefly reviewed. Second, the basic plan of Japan to manage all minor actinide (MA) by recycling is summarized objectives of which are the efficiency increase of uranium resources, the environmental burden reduction, and the increase of nuclear non-proliferation potential. Third, recent results of reactor physics study related to MA-loaded FR cores are briefly described. Fourth, typical nuclear design of MA-loaded FR cores in the FaCT project and their main features are demonstrated with the feasibility to recycle all MA in the future FR equilibrium society. Finally, the research and development program to realize the MA recycling in Japan is introduced, including international cooperation projects. (authors)

  15. Project WAGR: The UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - removing the core and looking to completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benest, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has built and operated a wide range of nuclear facilities since the late 1940's. UKAEA's present mission is to restore the environment of these facilities in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. This restoration includes the decommissioning of a number of redundant research and power reactors, one of which is the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (WAGR). Following shut down, UKAEA decided to continue the prototype function of the reactor into the decommissioning phase to develop dismantling techniques and establish waste routes. The reactor core and pressure vessel are now being dismantled in a programme of 10 campaigns, seven of which have been completed since 1998. It is anticipated that the current programme will be completed by summer 2005. This paper outlines the history of the reactor, the operation of the waste-processing route, the installed dismantling equipment and the successful completion of the first seven campaigns. This earlier work has been described in a number of publications and conferences, so this paper concentrates on recent work to select and develop cutting equipment to dismantle the core support structures and the pressure vessel. The decommissioning of the Windscale Advance Gas-cooled reactor is being undertaken to demonstrate that a power reactor can be decommissioned shortly after shutdown. The removal of the core and pressure vessel has been broken down into a series of 10 campaigns associated with particular core components. The first 7 campaigns have been successfully completed and the 8., is expected to commence in September 2003 17 months earlier than planned. Dismantling methodologies and tools have been developed specifically for each of these campaigns. Full-scale mock-ups have been used to test the tools, train the operators and assess the duration of operations. However, despite successful trials, operational experience has shown that some of these tools have not

  16. Ten years of experience in extraction chromatographic processes for the recovery, separation and purification of actinides elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Bourges, J.; Koehly, G.

    1984-06-01

    Ten years ago the extraction chromatographic technique was developed for preparative purposes and is now applied for all chemicals separations needed for the production of actinides isotopes. That technique appears to be simple and flexible. It can be used for the production of microgram to kilogram amounts of actinide isotopes. This paper focuses on the experience gained and describes some peculiar production of actinide isotopes solved by using extraction chromatographic technique. After a review of extracting molecules and equipment, treatment of irradiated targets (preparation of Pu 238 and removal of neptunium, production of Am 243 and Cm 244), recovery of actinides from alpha aqueous wastes (preparation of Am 241) and recovery of decay products from aged actinide stocks (recovery of Am 241 from Pu stocks, of U 234 from Pu 238 stocks) are described

  17. Integrating removal actions and remedial actions: Soil and debris management at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E.; Yerace, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded

  18. Effective bias removal for fringe projection profilometry using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William Wai-Lam; Lun, Daniel Pak-Kong

    2012-08-20

    When reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) object height profile using the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) technique, the light intensity reflected from the object surface can yield abruptly changing bias in the captured fringe image, which leads to severe reconstruction error. The traditional approach tries to remove the bias by suppressing the zero spectrum of the fringe image. It is based on the assumption that the aliasing between the frequency spectrum of the bias, which is around the zero frequency, and the frequency spectrum of the fringe is negligible. This, however, is not the case in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel (to our knowledge) technique to eliminate the bias in the fringe image using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT). The new approach successfully identifies the features of bias, fringe, and noise in the DT-CWT domain, which allows the bias to be effectively extracted from a noisy fringe image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional methods and facilitates accurate reconstruction of objects' 3D models.

  19. Transuranium Removal from Hanford AN-107 Simulants using Sodium Permanganate and Calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.

    2000-01-01

    Removal of strontium from the complexant-containing wastes (AN-102 and AN-107) had previously been acceptably accomplished by isotopic dilution. Actinide removal using ferric co-precipitation, however, was very problematic from both a processing and a decontamination standpoint. Therefore, a series of tests were performed to identify other potential actinide removal agents and to test these agents at various concentrations

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The main objective of the...

  1. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor... original provisions of that temporary final rule, but adds two additional safety zones necessary for the...

  2. Actinide behavior in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Goal of this project is to determine the consumption of Np-237, Pu-240, Am-241, and Am-243 in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. These four actinides set the long term waste management criteria for spent nuclear fuel; if it can be demonstrated that they can be efficiently consumed in the IFR, then requirements for nuclear waste repositories can be much less demanding. Irradiations in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory's site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, will be conducted to determine fission and transmutation rates for the four nuclides. The experimental effort involves target package design, fabrication, quality assurance, and irradiation. Post irradiation analyses are required to determine the fission rates and neutron spectra in the EBR-II core

  3. The complex formation of selected actinides (U, Np, Cm) with microbial ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glorius, Maja

    2009-01-01

    One of the urgent tasks in the field of nuclear technology is the final storage of radioactive substances. As a part of the safety requirements the protection of humans and the environment from the danger of radioactive substances in case of the release from the final storage is essential. For performing long-term safety calculations the detailed understanding of the physico-chemical effects and influences which cause the mobilisation and transport of actinides are necessary. The presented work was a discrete part of a project, which was focused on the clarification of the influence of microorganisms on the migration of actinides in case of the release of actinides from a final storage. The influence of microbial produced substances on the mobilisation of selected actinides was studied thereby. The microbial produced substances studied in this project were synthesized by bacteria from the Pseudomonas genus under special conditions. Fluorescent Pseudomonads secrete bacterial pyoverdin-type siderophores with a high potential to complex and transport metals, especially iron(III). The aim of the project was to determine how and under which conditions the bioligands are able to complex also radioactive substances and therefore to transport them. For this work the alpha-emitting actinides uranium, curium and neptunium were chosen because their long-life cycle and their radiotoxicity are a matter of particular interest. This work dealed with the interaction of the actinides U(VI), Np(V) and Cm(III) with model ligands simulating the functionality of the pyoverdins. So, such bioligands can essentially influence the behaviour of actinides in the environment. The results of this work contribute to a better understanding and assessment of the influence of the microbial ligands to the mobilisation and migration of the radionuclides. The outcomes could be used to quantify the actinide-mobilising effect of the bioligands, which are released, for example, in the vicinity of a

  4. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  5. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  6. Analytical evaluation of actinide sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of actinides to various parameters such as cross sections, decay constants, flux and time is presented. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium series. The agreement between analytically obtained and computer evaluated sensitivities being always good, it is throught that the formulation includes all the important parameters entering in the evaluation of sensitivities. A study of the published data is made

  7. Assessment of Partitioning Processes for Transmutation of Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    To obtain public acceptance of future nuclear fuel cycle technology, new and innovative concepts must overcome the present concerns with respect to both environmental compliance and proliferation of fissile materials. Both these concerns can be addressed through the multiple recycling of all transuranic elements (TRUs) in fast neutron reactor. This is only possible through a process known as partitioning and transmutation scheme (P and T) as this scheme is expected to reduce the long term radio-toxicity as well as the radiogenic heat production of the nuclear waste. Proliferation resistance of separated plutonium could further be enhanced by mixing with self-generated minor actinides. In addition, P and T scheme is expected to extend the nuclear fuel resources on earth about 100 times because of the recycle and reuse of fissile actinides. Several Member States are actively pursuing the research in the field of P and T and consequently several IAEA publications have addressed this topic. The present coordinated research project (CRP) focuses on the potentials in minimizing the residual TRU inventories of the discharged nuclear waste and in enhancing the proliferation resistance of the future civil nuclear fuel cycle. Partitioning approaches can be grouped into aqueous- (hydrometallurgical) and pyroprocesses. Several aqueous processes based on sequential separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel have been developed and tested at pilot plant scale. In view of the proliferation resistance of the intermediate and final products of a P and T scheme, a group separation of all actinides together is preferable. The present CRP has gathered experts from different organisations and institutes actively involved in developing P and T scheme as mentioned in the list of contributors and also taken into consideration the studies underway in France and the UK. The scientific objectives of the CRP are: To minimize the environmental impact of actinides in the waste stream; To

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Absorptive Media-U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Desert Sands MDWCA, NM Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The objectives of the project were to evalu...

  9. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of an Aquatic Treatme...

  10. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at LEADS Head Start Building in Buckeye Lake, OH - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Licking Economic Action Development Study (LEADS) Head Start School in Buckeye Lake, Ohio. The objectives of the project were to evaluate...

  11. Chemistry of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.; Sherrow, S.A.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This task is concerned primarily with the fundamental chemistry of the actinide and fission product elements. Special efforts are made to develop research programs in collaboration with researchers at universities and in industry who have need of national laboratory facilities. Specific areas currently under investigation include: (1) spectroscopy and photochemistry of actinides in low-temperature matrices; (2) small-angle scattering studies of hydrous actinide and fission product polymers in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents; (3) kinetic and thermodynamic studies of complexation reactions in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions; and (4) the development of inorganic ion exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide separations. Recent results from work in these areas are summarized here

  12. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  13. Long-term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Whicker, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    'The mobility of actinides in surface soils is a key issue of concern at several DOE facilities in arid and semiarid environments, including Rocky Flats, Hanford, Nevada Test Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Key sources of uncertainty in assessing Pu mobility are the magnitudes of mobility resulting from three modes of transport: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depend on numerous environmental factors and they compete with one another, particularly for actinides in very shallow soils (∼ 1 mm). The overall goal of the study is to quantify the mobility of soil actinides from all three modes. The authors study is using field measurements, laboratory experiments, and ecological modeling to address these three processes at three DOE facilities where actinide kinetics are of concern: WIPP, Rocky Flats, and Hanford. Wind erosion is being measured with suite of monitoring equipment, water erosion is being studied with rainfall simulation experiments, vertical migration is being studied in controlled laboratory experiments, and the three processes are being integrated using ecological modeling. Estimates for clean up of soil actinides for the extensive tracts of DOE land range to hundreds of billion $ in the US. Without studies of these processes, unnecessary clean-up of these areas may waste billions of dollars and cause irreparable ecological damage through the soil removal. Further, the outcomes of litigation against DOE are dependent on quantifying the mobility of actinides in surface soils.'

  14. Nuclear fuel activity with minor actinides after their useful life in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear fuel used in nuclear power reactors has a life cycle, in which it provides energy, at the end of this cycle is withdrawn from the reactor core. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, a strong problem with this fuel is that when the fuel was irradiated in a nuclear reactor it leaves with an activity of approximately 1.229 x 10 15 Bq. The aim of the transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is to reduce the activity of high level waste that must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high level waste; these two achievements would reduce the number of necessary repositories, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is aimed at evaluating the activity of a nuclear fuel in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material, first establishing a reference of actinides production in the standard nuclear fuel of uranium at end of its burning in a BWR, and a fuel rod design containing 6% of actinides in an uranium matrix from the enrichment tails is proposed, then 4 standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by 4 actinide bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of the same, finally the reduction of actinide activity in the fuel is evaluated. (Author)

  15. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  16. Chemical aspects of actinides in the geosphere: towards a rational nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P; Sylwester, E

    2001-01-01

    A complete understanding of actinide interactions in the geosphere is paramount for developing a rational Nuclear and Environmental Materials Management Policy. One of the key challenges towards understanding the fate and transport of actinides is determining their speciation (i.e., oxidation state and structure). Since an element's speciation directly dictates physical properties such as toxicity and solubility, this information is critical for evaluating and controlling the evolution of an actinide element through the environment. Specific areas within nuclear and environmental management programs where speciation is important are (1) waste processing and separations; (2) wasteform materials for long-term disposition; and (3) aqueous geochemistry. The goal of this project was to develop Actinide X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy ( U S ) as a core capability at LLNL and integrate it with existing facilities, providing a multi-technique approach to actinide speciation. XAS is an element-specific structural probe which determines the oxidation state and structure for most atoms. XAS can be more incisive than other spectroscopies because it originates from an atomic process and the information is always attainable, regardless of an element's speciation. Despite the utility, XAS is relatively complex due to the need for synchrotron radiation and significant expertise with data acquisition and analysis. The coupling of these technical hurdles with the safe handling of actinides at a general user synchrotron facility such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRL) make such experiments even more difficult. As a result, XAS has been underutilized by programs that could benefit by its application. We achieved our project goals by implementing key state-of-the-art Actinide XAS instrumentation at SSRL (Ge detector and remote positioning equipment), and by determining the chemical speciation of actinides (Th, U, and Np) in aqueous solutions, wasteform cements, and

  17. Effects of slash removal in an experimental nitrogen gradient. Final report for the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Ring, Eva; Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten

    2000-04-01

    During four years after clear-felling, the effects of slash removal, including needles, were studied on a productive spruce site (site index G30) in the province of Vaermland, western Sweden. The study was made in an old fertilization experiment, in which at the most 2400 kg N/ha had been added during a twenty-year period. Despite the fact that the site is rich in nitrogen and that much slash was removed (100 ton d. m./ha), there were only very minor effects of the slash removal on the variables under study. These were the composition of soil water, the content of inorganic nitrogen in soil, the biomass of the field layer and the development of the planted spruce seedlings. The only statistically significant effect was that the content of nitrate was reduced in the humus layer. No data supported the idea that the previous fertilization influenced the effect of the slash removal, even though the fertilization had increased the content of total nitrogen in soil and the nitrogen leaching. Thus, we have not been able to repeat the observation from another Swedish study that slash removal reduces leaching of nitrogen and accompanying base cations, e. g. potassium. The effect of slash removal seems to depend on site conditions. Research is needed to reveal the variation in response and decisive factors. Our results, that the survival of spruce seedlings tends to be favoured by slash removal and that the early height growth is unaffected, are in accordance with results from previous studies. Our result, that the biomass of the total field layer is unaffected by slash removal, is not possible to compare with results from other studies, since these were mainly of a qualitative nature

  18. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  19. Environmental chemistry of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Linfeng

    1986-01-01

    The environmental chemistry of the actinide elements is a new branch of science developing with the application of nuclear energy on a larger and larger scale. Various aspects of the environmental chemistry of the actinide elements are briefly reviewed in this paper, such as its significance in the nuclear waste disposal, its coverage of research fields and possible directions for future study

  20. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  1. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  2. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  3. Review of actinide decorporation with chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/CETAMA), 30 - Marcoule (France); Amekraz, B.; Moulin, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Moulin, V. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares (DEN/DDIN/MR), 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France); Taran, F. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SMMCB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bailly, Th.; Burgada, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/LCSB/UMR 7033), 93 - Bobigny (France); Henge-Napoli, M.H. [CEA Valrho, Site de Marcoule (INSTN), 30 (France); Jeanson, A.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Bonin, L.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-10-15

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination (inhalation, ingestion or wound) with actinides represents a severe health risk to human beings. It is therefore important to provide effective chelation therapy or decorporation to reduce acute radiation damage, chemical toxicity, and late radiation effects. Speciation governs bioavailability and toxicity of elements and it is a prerequisite tool for the design and success of new ligands or chelating agents. The purpose of this review is to present the state-of-the-art of actinide decorporation within biological media, to recall briefly actinide metabolism, to list the basic constraints of actinide-ligand for development, to describe main tools developed and used for decorporation studies, to review mainly the chelating agents tested for actinides, and finally to conclude on the future trends in this field. (authors)

  4. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  5. Enhancing the actinide sciences in Europe through hot laboratories networking and pooling: from ACTINET to TALISMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)

  6. Simulations of the Thermodynamic and Diffusion Properties of Actinide Oxide Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactors is comprised of 95-99 percent UO 2 and 1-5 percent fission products and transuranic elements. Certain actinides and fission products are of particular interest in terms of fuel stability, which affects reprocessing and waste materials. The transuranics found in spent nuclear fuels are Np, Pu, Am, and Cm, some of which have long half- lives (e.g., 2.1 million years for 237 Np). These actinides can be separated and recycled into new fuel matrices, thereby reducing the nuclear waste inventory. Oxides of these actinides are isostructural with UO 2 , and are expected to form solid solutions. This project will use computational techniques to conduct a comprehensive study on thermodynamic properties of actinide-oxide solid solutions. The goals of this project are to: Determine the temperature-dependent mixing properties of actinide-oxide fuels; Validate computational methods by comparing results with experimental results; Expand research scope to complex (ternary and quaternary) mixed actinide oxide fuels. After deriving phase diagrams and the stability of solid solutions as a function of temperature and pressure, the project team will determine whether potential phase separations or ordered phases can actually occur by studying diffusion of cations and the kinetics of potential phase separations or ordered phases. In addition, the team will investigate the diffusion of fission product gases that can also have a significant influence on fuel stability. Once the system has been established for binary solid solutions of Th, U, Np, and Pu oxides, the methodology can be quickly applied to new compositions that apply to ternaries and quaternaries, higher actinides (Am, Cm), burnable poisons (B, Gd, Hf), and fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc) to improve reactivity

  7. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the &apos

  8. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Fuel Removal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI

  9. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page

  10. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89 / 90 Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. This approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 h. (author)

  11. Post Remedial Action Report, Lansdowne Radioactive Residence Complex, Dismantlement/Removal Project. Volume 1. Government Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    to molecules of-hydrogen peroxide (and other oxydizing agents) which may produce other chemical reactions abnormal to the cells functioning. t If...antique mahogany furniture were carried from the house down to the OSF and successfully decontaminated by removing the finish with isopropyl alcohol (Figs

  12. Actinide separation of high-level waste using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Kaminski, M.; Aase, S.B.; Brown, N.R.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Polymeric-coated ferromagnetic particles with an absorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted by tributyl phosphate (TBP) are being evaluated for application in the separation and the recovery of low concentrations of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can be recovered from the waste solution using a magnet. The effectiveness of the extractant-absorbed particles at removing transuranics (TRU) from simulated solutions and various nitric acid solutions was measured by gamma and liquid scintillation counting of plutonium and americium. The HNO 3 concentration range was 0.01 M to 6M. The partition coefficients (K d ) for various actinides at 2M HNO 3 were determined to be between 3,000 and 30,000. These values are larger than those projected for TRU recovery by traditional liquid/liquid extraction. Results from transmission electron microscopy indicated a large dependence of K d on relative magnetite location within the polymer and the polymer surface area. Energy disperse spectroscopy demonstrated homogeneous metal complexation on the polymer surface with no metal clustering. The radiolytic stability of the particles was determined by using 60 Co gamma irradiation under various conditions. The results showed that K d more strongly depends on the nitric acid dissolution rate of the magnetite than the gamma irradiation dose. Results of actinide separation from simulated high-level waste representative of that at various DOE sites are also discussed

  13. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  14. The actinide beamline - A new AMS facility at ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lee, P.J.; Mino, N.

    1998-01-01

    At the ANTARES accelerator a new beamline has been commissioned, incorporating new magnetic and electrostatic analysers, to optimise the efficiency for Actinides detection by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The detection of Actinides, particularly the isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium, provide unique signatures for nuclear safeguards purposes. We are currently engaged in a project to evaluate the application of AMS to the measurement of Actinides in environmental samples for nuclear safeguards. Measurement of 236 U is of particular interest as a means of tracing the anthropogenic component of uranium. 236 U is expected to be present in natural samples at an extremely low level ( 236 U: 238 U ratio ∼10 -10 ). It has recently been demonstrated that AMS has sufficient sensitivity to detect 236 U at this level. The principal components of the new beamline include: an electrostatic quadrupole, a 12 deg electrostatic deflector, a 90 deg electrostatic analyser, a multi-isotope detection system including ion counters and Faraday cups. The beamline was completed in September 1998 and initial tests have been performed with iodine samples

  15. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  16. Criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to discuss various criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals, the goals for actinide reduction must be defined themselves. In this context the term actinides is interpreted to mean plutonium and the so called ''minor actinides'' neptunium, americium and curium, but also protactinium. Some possible goals and the reasons behind these will be presented. On the basis of the suggested goals it is possible to analyze various types of devices for production of nuclear energy from uranium or thorium, such as thermal or fast reactors and accelerator driven system, with their associated fuel cycles with regard to their ability to reach the actinide reduction goals. The relation between necessary single cycle burn-up values, fuel cycle processing losses and losses to waste will be defined and discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to arrange the possible systems on order of performance with regard to their potential to reduce the actinide inventory and the actinide losses to wastes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Actinides burnup in a sodium fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Pineda A, R.; Martinez C, E.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The burnup of actinides in a nuclear reactor is been proposed as part of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, this process would close the fuel cycle recycling some of the radioactive material produced in the open nuclear fuel cycle. These actinides are found in the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power reactors at the end of their burnup in the reactor. Previous studies of actinides recycling in thermal reactors show that would be possible reduce the amounts of actinides at least in 50% of the recycled amounts. in this work, the amounts of actinides that can be burned in a fast reactor is calculated, very interesting results surge from the calculations, first, the amounts of actinides generated by the fuel is higher than for thermal fuel and the composition of the actinides vector is different as in fuel for thermal reactor the main isotope is the {sup 237}Np in the fuel for fast reactor the main isotope is the {sup 241}Am, finally it is concluded that the fast reactor, also generates important amounts of waste. (Author)

  18. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Neutron nuclear data evaluation for actinide nucleic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guochang; Yu Baosheng; Duan Junfeng; Ge Zhigang; Cao Wentian; Tang Guoyou; Shi Zhaomin; Zou Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides are playing an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle concepts, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Through describe the class of nuclear data and nuclear date library, and introduce the procedure of neutron nuclear data evaluation. 234 U(n, f) and 237 Np(n, 2n) reaction experimental data evaluation was evaluated. The fission nuclear data are updated and improved. (authors)

  1. Actinide chemistry in the far field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.; Morris, K.; Parkman, R.; Moyes, L.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental chemistry of the actinides is complicated due both to the extensive redox and coordination chemistry of the elements and also to the complexity of the reactive phases encountered in natural environments. In the far field, interactions with reactive surfaces, coatings and colloidal particles will play a crucial role in controlling actinide mobility. By virtue of both their abundance and reactivity; clays and other layer aluminosilicate minerals, hydrous oxides and organic matter (humic substances) are all identified as having the potential to react with actinide ions and some possible modes of interaction are described, together with experimental evidence for their occurrence. (author)

  2. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  3. Impurities that cause difficulty in stripping actinides from commercial tetraalkylcarbamoylmethylphosphonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahner, C.T.; Shoun, R.R.; McDowell, W.J.

    1977-09-01

    Dihexyl[(diethylcarbamoyl)methyl]phosphonate (DHDECMP) in diethylbenzene extracts actinides well from 6 M nitric acid solution, but commercially available DHDECMP contains impurities which interfere with stripping the actinides from the organic extract. DHDECMP purified by molecular distillation does not contain these impurities, but the pot residue contains increased concentrations of them. Heating the purified DHDECMP causes the formation of products which interfere with stripping in the same way, suggesting that high temperatures employed in the manufacture of DHDECMP may produce the offending impurities. These impurities can be separated from the heat-decomposed material or the pot residues by dilution with a large volume of hexanes (causing part of the impurities to separate as a second liquid phase) followed by equilibration of the hexane solution with dilute alkali. After the treatment with hexane and dilute alkali, the DHDECMP is readily recovered and functions well in the actinide extraction process. Dibutyl[(dibutylcarbamoyl)methyl]-phosphonate (DBDBCMP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)[(diethylcarbamoyl)-methyl]phosphonate (DEHDECMP) are purified less effectively by these methods. Similar separation methods using diethylbenzene or CCl 4 as solvent do not remove impurities as completely as the hexane process. Impurities can also be removed from a benzene solution of the DHDECMP pot residue by passing it through a column packed with silica gel or diethylaminoethyl cellulose. These impurities have been separated into fractions for analytical examination by use of various solvents and by column chromatography. Hexyl hydrogen [(diethylcarbamoyl)methyl]-phosphonate has been identified tentatively as a principal objectionable impurity. Dihexyl phosphoric acid and possibly dihexylphosphonate have been identified in other fractions

  4. ISU Team Project: An Integral View on Space Debris Mitigation and Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Philipp; Ricote Navarro, Carmon; Jehn, Rudiger; Gini, Andrea; Faure, Pauline; Adriaensen, Maarten; Datta, Iman; Hilbich, Daniel; Jacimovic, Aleksandar; Jacques, Lionel; Penent, Guilhem; Sinn, Thomas; Shioi, Hiroaki

    2013-08-01

    The issue of space debris poses challenges not only in technical, but also legal, political and economic dimensions. A sustainable solution needs to take into account all of them. This paper investigates such a potential solution in a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, it addresses the effectiveness of the existing debris mitigation guidelines, and identifies technical improvements for mitigation. It continues examining technical concepts for debris removal and performing proper cost-benefit trade-offs. The results of new simulations to assess the damage cost caused by space debris are presented. Based on these findings, an organizational framework and political recommendations are developed which will enable a sustainable use of space starting in 2020. The findings are compiled into a roadmap, which outlines 1) a path to the full adherence to debris mitigation guidelines and 2) the removal of ten large pieces of debris per year by a dedicated international organization, including expected expenditures necessary for its implementation.

  5. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park in Sauk Centre, MN Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the one-year arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park (BSLMHP) in Sauk Centre, MN. The objectives of the project are to evaluate (1) the effective...

  6. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  7. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  8. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms. Implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, the way how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides is assessed. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. The way how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility is described. Why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions is explained. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. Development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions is described. Throughout, the key research needs are identified. (author)

  9. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs

  10. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  11. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08

  12. Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site

  13. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances. 3. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rhee, D.S.; Buckau, G.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Decambox, P.; Franz, C.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Dierckx, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.

    1993-03-01

    The aim of the present research programme is to study the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances in natural aquifer systems and hence to quantify the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration. Aquatic humic substances commonly found in all groundwaters in different concentrations have a strong tendency towards complexation with actinide ions. This is one of the major geochemical reactions but hitherto least quantified. Therefore, the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration is poorly understood. In the present research programme the complexation of actinide ions with humic substances will be described thermodynamically. This description will be based on a model being as simple as possible to allow an easy introduction of the resulting reaction constants into geochemical modelling of the actinide migration. This programme is a continuation of the activities of the COCO group in the second phase of the CEC-MIRAGE project. The programme consists of the following three main tasks: Task 1: Complexation reactions of actinide ions with well characterized reference and site-specific humic and fulvic acids; Task 2: Competition reactions with major cations in natural groundwaters; Task 3: Validation of the complexation data in natural aquatic systems by comparison of calculation with spectroscopic experiment. (orig./EF)

  14. Dynamics of epiretinal membrane removal off the retinal surface: a computer simulation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Williamson, Tom H

    2013-09-01

    To use a computer simulation to discern the safest angle at which to peel epiretinal membranes. We used ANSYS V.14.1 software to analyse the dynamics involved in membrane removal off the retinal surface. The geometrical values were taken from optical coherence tomography of 30 eyes with epiretinal membranes. A range of Young's modulus values of 0.03, 0.01 and 0.09 MPa were assigned to the epiretinal membrane and to the retina separately. The ratio of maximum shear stress (MSS) recorded at the attachment pegs over that recorded at the membrane (P/E ratio) was determined at nine displacement angles (DA). Mean MSS values recorded at the attachment pegs, epiretinal membrane and retina were significantly different at 0.8668, 0.6091 and 0.0017 Pa consecutively (p<0.05). There was a significant negative linear correlation between DA and MSS recorded at the epiretinal membrane when the Young's modulus for the epiretinal membrane was higher than or equal to that for the attachment pegs and the retina. Nevertheless, there was a significant positive linear correlation between DA and P/E ratio when the Young's modulus for the epiretinal membrane was equal to or lower than that for the attachment pegs and the retina. Attachment pegs appear to be the most likely part to fail (tear) during removal procedures. Changing the direction at which the edge of the membrane is pulled can relocate the MSS within in the tissue complex. Safer and effective removal could be achieved by pulling epiretinal membranes onto themselves at 165° DA.

  15. Electronic structure and correlation effects in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report consists of the vugraphs given at a conference on electronic structure. Topics discussed are electronic structure, f-bonding, crystal structure, and crystal structure stability of the actinides and how they are inter-related

  16. Research for actinides extractants from various wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Cuillerdier, C.; Condamines, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the actinides solvent extraction research undertaken in Fontenay-aux-Roses. Two kinds of extractants are investigated; those usable for the improvement of the nowadays nuclear fuels reprocessing and those necessary for advanced fuels cycles which include the minor actinides (Np, Am) recovery for a further elimination through nuclear reactions. In the first class the mono and diamides, alternative to the organophosphorus extractants, TBP and polyfunctional phosphonates, showed promising properties. The main results are discussed. For the future efficient extractants for trivalent actinides-lanthanides group separations are suitable. The point about the actinides (III) - lanthanides (III) group separation chemistry and the development of some of these extractants are given

  17. Actinide isotopes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of actinide isotopes in the environment are important not only from the viewpoint of their radiological effects on human life, but also from the fact that they act as excellent biochemical and geochemical tracers especially in the marine environment. For several of the actinide isotopes there is still a lack of basic data on concentration levels and further investigations on their chemical and physical speciation are required to understand their behaviour in the marine environment. The measured and estimated activity concentration levels of artificial actinides are at present in general a few orders of magnitude lower than those of the natural ones and their concentration factors in biota are relatively low, except in a few species of macroalgae and phytoplankton. The contribution from seafood to total ingestion of actinides by the world population is a few per cent and, therefore, the dose to man from these long-lived radionuclides caused by seafood ingestion is usually low. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  19. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  20. Possible existence of backbending in actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Szymanski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities for the backbending effect to occur in actinide nuclei are studied using the pairing-self-consistent independent quasiparticle method. The Hamiltonian used is that of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus monopole pairing term. The results of the calculations explain why there is no backbending in most actinide nuclei and simultaneously suggest that in some light neutron deficient nuclei around Th and 22 Ra a backbending effect may occur

  1. Lattice effects in the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.C.; Cort, B.; Roberts, J.A.; Bennett, B.I.; Brun, T.O.; Dreele, R.B. von; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The light actinides show a variety of lattice effects that do not normally appear in other regions of the periodic table. The article will cover the crystal structures of the light actinides, their atomic volumes, their thermal expansion behavior, and their elastic behavior as reflected in recent thermal vibration measurements made by neutron diffraction. A discussion of the melting points will be given in terms of the thermal vibration measurements. Pressure effects will be only briefly indicated

  2. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  3. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  4. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 239/Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus; S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River

  5. Proposal for experiments with actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted in which critical masses for some actinide isotopes were calculated with the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) Transport computer code. Different spherical computer models were used for even- and odd-neutron nuclides. Critical masses obtained are tabulated for Np-237, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243, Pu-241, and Am-242m, together with indirect experimental data. Experimental data are needed for actinides with odd number of neutrons

  6. Interaction between actinides and protein: the calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulfert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Considering the environmental impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident, it is fundamental to study the mechanisms governing the effects of the released radionuclides on the biosphere and thus identify the molecular processes generating the transport and deposition of actinides, such as neptunium and uranium. However, the information about the microscopic aspect of the interaction between actinides and biological molecules (peptides, proteins...) is scarce. The data being mostly reported from a physiological point of view, the structure of the coordination sites remains largely unknown. These microscopic data are indeed essential for the understanding of the interdependency between structural aspect, function and affinity.The Calmodulin (CaM) (abbreviation for Calcium-Modulated protein), also known for its affinity towards actinides, acts as a metabolic regulator of calcium. This protein is a Ca carrier, which is present ubiquitously in the human body, may also bind other metals such as actinides. Thus, in case of a contamination, actinides that bind to CaM could avoid the protein to perform properly and lead to repercussions on a large range of vital functions.The complexation of Np and U was studied by EXAFS spectroscopy which showed that actinides were incorporated in a calcium coordination site. Once the thermodynamical and structural aspects studied, the impact of the coordination site distortion on the biological efficiency was analyzed. In order to evaluate these consequences, a calorimetric method based on enzyme kinetics was developed. This experiment, which was conducted with both uranium (50 - 500 nM) and neptunium (30 - 250 nM) showed a decrease of the heat produced by the enzymatic reaction with an increasing concentration of actinides in the medium. Our findings showed that the Calmodulin actinide complex works as an enzymatic inhibitor. Furthermore, at higher neptunium (250 nM) and uranium (500 nM) concentration the metals seem to have a poison

  7. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    actinide oxides . The work described here is an attempt to characterize the quality of crystals using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS). The...Upadhyaya, R. V. Muraleedharan, B. D. Sharma and K. G. Prasad, " Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders," Philosohical Magazine A, vol. 45... crystals . A strong foundation for actinide PALS studies was laid, but further work is required to build a more effective system. Positron Spectroscopy

  8. Separation of actinides and their transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Bathelier, M.; Cousin, M.

    1978-08-01

    Neutron irradiation of long-half-life actinides for transmutation into elements with shorter half-life is investigated as a means to reduce the long-term hazards of these actinides. The effectiveness of the method is analysed by applying it to fission product solutions from the first extraction cycle of fuel reprocessing plants. Basic principles, separation techniques and transmutation efficiencies are studied and discussed in detail

  9. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  10. CHEMICAL SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT 8183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaxton, D; Timothy Baughman, T

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for final closure. The two waste tanks chosen to undergo this process have previously leaked small amounts of nuclear waste from the primary tank into an underground secondary containment pan. CSR involves adding aqueous oxalic acid to the waste tank in order to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resultant acidic waste solution is then pumped to another waste tank where it will be neutralized and then stored awaiting further processing. The waste tanks to be cleaned have a storage capacity of 2.84E+06 liters (750,000 gallons) and a target sludge heel volume of 1.89E+04 liters (5,000 gallons) or less for the initiation of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the CSR process and to discuss the most significant technical issues associated with the development of CSR

  11. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then undergone radioactive decay to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal radionuclides remaining. It was therefore at first sight an attractive concept to recycle the actinides to nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. Thus, investigations of the feasibility and potential benefits and hazards of the concept of 'actinide partitioning and transmutation' were started in numerous countries in the mid-1970s. This final report summarizes the results and conclusions of technical studies performed in connection with a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, started in 1976, on the ''Environmental Evaluation and Hazard Assessment of the Separation of Actinides from Nuclear Wastes followed by either Transmutation or Separate Disposal''. Although many related studies are still continuing, e.g. on waste disposal, long-term safety assessments, and waste actinide management (particularly for low and intermediate-level wastes), some firm conclusions on the overall concept were drawn by the programme participants, which are reflected in this report

  12. Advances in computational actinide chemistry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqi; Wu, Jingyi; Chai, Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Multidisciplinary Initiative Center; Su, Jing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Div. of Nuclear Materials Science and Engineering; Li, Jun [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry and Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering

    2014-04-01

    The advances in computational actinide chemistry made in China are reviewed. Several areas relevant to chemistry of actinides in gas, liquid, and solid phases have been explored. However, we limit the scope to selected contributions in the chemistry of molecular actinide systems in gas and liquid phases. These studies may be classified into two categories: treatment of relativistic effects, which cover the development of two- and four-component Hamiltonians and the optimization of relativistic pseudopotentials, and the applications of theoretical methods in actinide chemistry. The applications include (1) the electronic structures of actinocene, noble gas complexes, An-C multiple bonding compounds, uranyl and its isoelectronic species, fluorides and oxides, molecular systems with metal-metal bonding in their isolated forms (U{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}) and in fullerene (U{sub 2} rate at C{sub 60}), and the excited states of actinide complexes; (2) chemical reactions, including oxidation, hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}, ligand exchange, reactivities of thorium oxo and sulfido metallocenes, CO{sub 2}/CS{sub 2} functionalization promoted by trivalent uranium complex; and (3) migration of actinides in the environment. A future outlook is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; McAlister, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti +3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1-2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ∼30-60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4-8 h with tracer yields of ∼85-95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort. (author)

  14. Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1989-06-01

    The progress in the research area of the community project MIRAGE: 'Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquatic systems' has been reviewed. This programme belongs to a specific research and technical development programme for the European Atomic Energy Community in the field of management and storage of radioactive waste. The review summarizes research progresses in subject areas: complexation with organics, colloid generation in groundwater and basic retention mechanisms in the framework of the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. The subject areas are being investigated by 23 laboratories under interlaboratory collaborations or independent studies. (orig.)

  15. Vitrification of actinide solutions in SRS separations facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichan, R.L.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The actinide vitrification system being developed at SRS provides the capability to convert specialized or unique forms of nuclear material into a stable solid glass product that can be safely shipped, stored or reprocessed according to the DOE complex mission. This project is an application of technology developed through funds from the Office of Technology Development (OTD). This technology is ideally suited for vitrifying relatively small quantities of fissile or special nuclear material since it is designed to be critically safe. Successful demonstration of this system to safely vitrify radioactive material could open up numerous opportunities for transferring this technology to applications throughout the DOE complex

  16. Separation of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes by supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Chiarizia, R.; Rickert, P.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes, SLM, consisting of a solution of 0.25 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and 0.75 M tributylphosphate (TBP) in decalin absorbed on thin microporous polypropylene supports, have been studied for their ability to perform selective separations and concentrations of actinide and lanthanide ions from synthetic acidic nuclear wastes. The permeability coefficients of selected actinides (Am, Pu, U, Np) and of some of the other major components of the wastes have been measured using SLMs in flat-sheet and hollow-fiber configurations. The results have shown that with the thin (25 μm) flat-sheet SLMs, using Celgard 2500 as support, the membrane permeation process is mainly controlled by the rate of diffusion through the aqueous boundary layers. With the thicker (430 μm) hollow-fiber SLMs, using Accurel hollow-fibers as support, the membrane permeation process is controlled by the rate of diffusion through both the SLM and the aqueous boundary layers. Hollow-fibers SLMs exhibited lower permeability coefficients and longer life-times. The experiments have shown that the actinides can be very efficiently removed from the synthetic waste solutions to the point that the resulting solution could be considered a non-transuranic waste (less than 100 mCi/g of disposed form). The work has demonstrated that actinide removal from synthetic waste solutions is a feasible chemical process at the laboratory scale level

  17. Reactor physics aspects of burning actinides in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1978-01-01

    A short review of the different recycling strategies of actinides other than fuel treated in the literature, is given along with nuclear data requirements for actinide build-up and transmutation studies. The effects of recycling actinides in a nuclear reactor on the flux distribution, the infinite neutron multiplication factor, the reactivity control system, the reactivity coefficients and the delayed neutron fraction are discussed considering a notional LWR or LMFBR as an Actinide Trasmutaton Reactor. Some operational problems of Actinide Transmutation reactors are mentioned, which are caused by the α-decay heat and the neutron sources of Actinide Target Elements

  18. Summary report of consultants meeting on Minor Actinide Nuclear Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plompen, A.; Mengoni, A.

    2007-10-01

    A Consultants Meeting on reaction cross section data for minor actinides was held at the IAEA Headquarters, in Vienna on 23 and 24 November, 2007. The main objective of the initiative was to define the detailed plan for the Co-ordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD) CRP. The details of the discussions which took place at the reported meeting include a review of the current activities in the field, a list of recommendations and a proposed timescale for the CRP. (author)

  19. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Al Mahamid, I.; Blandin, C.; Chabod, S.; Chartier, F.; Dupont, E.; Fioni, G.; Isnard, H.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Mutti, P.; Oriol, L.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The 241 Am and 232 Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  20. Comparison of the thermodynamic properties and high temperature chemical behavior of lanthanide and actinide oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.J.; Rauh, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the lanthanide and actinide oxides are examined, compared, and associated with a variety of high temperature chemical behavior. Trends are cited resulting from a number of thermodynamic and spectroscopic correlations involving solid phases, species in aqueous solution, and molecules and ions in the vapor phase. Inadequacies in the data and alternative approaches are discussed. The characterization of nonstoichiometric phases stable only at high temperatures is related to a network of heterogeneous and homogeneous equilibria. A broad perspective of similarity and dissimilarity between the lanthanides and actinides emerges and forms the basis of the projected needs for further study

  1. Removal of radon by aeration testing of various aeration techniques for small water works. For European Commission under Contract No FI4PCT960054 TENAWA project

    CERN Document Server

    Salonen, L; Mehtonen, J; Mjoenes, L; Raff, O; Turunen, H

    2002-01-01

    Capability of various aeration techniques to remove radon from water in small waterworks was studied as a part of project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water), which was carried out during 1997-1999 on a cost-shared basis (contract No. F14PCT960054) with The European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of the Directorate-General XII Radiation Protection Research Unit. In TENAWA project both laboratory and field experiments were performed in order to find reliable methods and equipment for removing natural radionuclides from ground water originating either from private wells or small waterworks. Because such techniques are more often needed in private households than at waterworks, the main emphasis of the research was aimed to solve the water treatment problems related to the private water supplies, especially bedrock wells. Radon was the most important radionuclide to be removed from water at waterworks whereas the removal of other radionuclides ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 4...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT OF USE REVERSE OSMOSIS. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the point of use arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate t...

  3. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  4. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Rollinsford, NH, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Rollinsford, New Hampshire. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ AD -33TM media ...

  5. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Hot Springs Mobile Home Park in Willard, Utah - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents activities performed for and results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Hot Springs Mobile Home Park (HSMHP) in Willard, UT. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of Adsorbsia™ GTO™...

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SPRING BROOK MOBILE HOME PARK IN WALES, ME SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Spring Brook Mobile Home Park in Wales, ME. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiv...

  7. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ ...

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Village of Waynesville, IL - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal drinking water treatment technology demonstration project at the Village of Waynesville, IL. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Peerless coagu...

  9. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sandusky, MI. Six-Month Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the City of Sandusky, MI facility. The objectives of the project are to evaluate 1) the effectiveness of Siemen...

  10. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Taos, NM, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Town of Taos in New Mexico. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services’ (STS) SORB 33™ ad...

  11. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Town of Arnaudville, LA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the United Water Systems’ facility in Arnaudville, LA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of K...

  12. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Woodstock Middle School in Woodstock, CT - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Woodstock Middle School in Woodstock, CT. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of Adsorbsia™ GTO™ me...

  13. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at the City of Okanogan, WA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the City of Okanogan, WA facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Filtronics’ FH-13 Ele...

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CHATEAU ESTATES MOBILE HOME PARK IN SPRINGFIELD, OH. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Chateau Estates Mobile Home Park at Springfield, OH. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the ef...

  15. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY PROCESS MODIFICATION TO COAGULATION/FILTRATION. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT LIDGERWOOD, ND. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Lidgerwood, North Dakota site. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of process modifications to an e...

  16. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Seely-Brown Village in Pomfret, CT - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Seely-Brown Village in Pomfret, CT. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of ArsenXnp adsorption media in...

  17. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT QUEEN ANNES COUNTY, MARYLAND SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the community of Prospect Bay at Grasonville in Queen Anne’s County, MD. The objectives of the project were to ev...

  18. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Geneseo Hills Subdivision, in Geneseo, IL Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Geneseo Hills Subdivision in Geneseo, IL. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies...

  19. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP)

  20. Actinide/crown ether chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benning, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A structural survey of actinide/crown ether compounds was conducted in order to investigate the solid state chemistry of these complexes. Several parameters - the metal size, crown type, counterion, solvent systems and reaction and crystallization conditions - were varied to correlate their importance in complexation. Under atmospheric conditions, two types of complexes were isolated, those containing only hydrogen-bonded crown interactions and instances where the crown interacts directly with the metal center. In both cases, water seems to play a very important role. When coordinated to the metal, water molecules exhibit the necessary donor properties required for the formation of hydrogen-bonded contacts. The water molecules also provide fierce competition with the crown ethers for metal-binding sites and in most cases prohibit the formation of complexes in which direct metal-ligand association exists. The results of this study indicate that direct interaction between the metal atoms and the crown ethers, in the presence of water, can only occur with polyether conformations which limit the steric replusions within the metal coordination sphere

  1. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J H

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  2. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  3. Project 'Installation of a stand at the horizontal channel of the MARIA Research Reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland, for the research of transmutation of minor actinides and fission products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a long range objective we would like to focus on management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS) in terms of long lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) transmutation. Transmutation of the radioactive waste (RW) is an important element within the technical objective of the optimal management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS). Analysis of possible ways of reduction of radioactive wastes by transmutation of radioactive long-lived fission products such as 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs and by burning up of transuranic nuclides implies that the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system should consist of three zones. The requirement of three zones comes out of the fact that each radioactive isotope to be reduced is to be located in a different spectrum of thermal, epithermal and high energy neutron fluxes. High flux thermal neutron environment (≥10 16 n/cm 3 ·s) is expected as the best way for the transmutation of most of the radioactive waste to stable or short-lived nuclides and for increasing the probability for fission such actinides as 237 Np and 238 Np. The concept of ADS system for energy production and for transmutation is quite new to some extent and from this reason it requires many theoretical and experimental studies. The research of transmutation is a very large area of study requiring a significant experimental and financial support, so it can be performed only within the international cooperation. Specifically, the proposed research within this CRP requires important means, in terms of high-energy proton beams, spallation targets, sub-critical assembly, measurement instrumentation, post-irradiation characterisation and its testing and, of course, manpower for the interpretation of results, modelling observed phenomena, and programme management. The personal involved in the research is to be a skilled personal of

  4. Potential agents for removal of actinides from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovski, V.V.; Whisenhunt, D.W.; Veeck, A.C.; Andersen, W.A.; Hoffman, D.C.; Jide, X.; White, D.; Raymond, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of Th(IV) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions by chelating ion exchange resins containing catechol, 1,2- hydroxypyridinone (1,2-HOPO) and 3,4-hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) functional groups, has been investigated. These polystyrene based materials show excellent kinetics for uptake of Th(IV) and have a high loading capacity. Liquid/liquid extractants have also been synthesized by addition of lipophilic side chains to the chelating groups (1,2-HOPO; 3,4-HOPO; 3,2-HOPO; catecholamide; terephthalamide). The initial evaluation of the extraction properties has been carried out

  5. Operating test report for project W-417, T-plant steam removal upgrade, waste transfer portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    This Operating Test Report (OTR) documents the performance results of the Operating Test Procedure HNF-SD-W417-OTP-001 that provides steps to test the waste transfer system installed in the 221-T Canyon under project W-417. Recent modifications have been performed on the T Plant Rail Car Waste Transfer System. This Operating Test Procedure (OTP) will document the satisfactory operation of the 221-T Rail Car Waste Transfer System modified by project W-417. Project W-417 installed a pump in Tank 5-7 to replace the steam jets used for transferring liquid waste. This testing is required to verify that operational requirements of the modified transfer system have been met. Figure 2 and 3 shows the new and existing system to be tested. The scope of this testing includes the submersible air driven pump operation in Tank 5-7, liquid waste transfer operation from Tank 5-7 to rail car (HO-IOH-3663 or HO-IOH-3664), associated line flushing, and the operation of the flow meter. This testing is designed to demonstrate the satisfactory operation-of the transfer line at normal operating conditions and proper functioning of instruments. Favorable results will support continued use of this system for liquid waste transfer. The Functional Design Criteria for this system requires a transfer flow rate of 40 gallons per minute (GPM). To establish these conditions the pump will be supplied up to 90 psi air pressure from the existing air system routed in the canyon. An air regulator valve will regulate the air pressure. Tank capacity and operating ranges are the following: Tank No. Capacity (gal) Operating Range (gal) 5-7 10,046 0 8040 (80%) Rail car (HO-IOH-3663 HO-IOH-3664) 097219,157 Existing Tank level instrumentation, rail car level detection, and pressure indicators will be utilized for acceptance/rejection Criteria. The flow meter will be verified for accuracy against the Tank 5-7 level indicator. The level indicator is accurate to within 2.2 %. This will be for information only

  6. KE Basin monorail modification for the sludge removal and packaging project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbeta, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The 105KE Basin currently stores over 1,100 metric tons of various N Reactor spent fuel in several canister forms, as well as several metric tons of sludge which must be removed. Modifications will consist of anchoring a permanent steel frame directly into the pit walls between existing columns and adding two travelling hoist rails, each capable of two directional motions. Each pit will have its own capability for targeting loads to any point inside the working areas of these pits. The structural frame designed for the monorail system at the Weasel and Tech-View pits was qualified as adequate for normal/operating loads, and dead plus live loads combined with seismic loads. The hoist operating live load is limited to 2,000 lb. The physical strength of the existing pit walls where the base plates are to be structurally anchored is unknown. The original structural drawings specified a minimum concrete strength of 3,000 lb/in 2 . A pullout test should be performed to verify the strength of this concrete base. To reduce radiation exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), installation and erection work inside the basin controlled area must be minimized; therefore, the pieces required for the modifications should be numbered in the fabrication shop, and erection should follow a procedure that corresponds to the assembly sequence indicated by the numbers. In conjunction with final erection, a mock-up activity should be conducted and base-plate locations verified to be within dimensional tolerances

  7. KE Basin monorail modification for the sludge removal and packaging project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbeta, C.B.

    1995-02-06

    The 105KE Basin currently stores over 1,100 metric tons of various N Reactor spent fuel in several canister forms, as well as several metric tons of sludge which must be removed. Modifications will consist of anchoring a permanent steel frame directly into the pit walls between existing columns and adding two travelling hoist rails, each capable of two directional motions. Each pit will have its own capability for targeting loads to any point inside the working areas of these pits. The structural frame designed for the monorail system at the Weasel and Tech-View pits was qualified as adequate for normal/operating loads, and dead plus live loads combined with seismic loads. The hoist operating live load is limited to 2,000 lb. The physical strength of the existing pit walls where the base plates are to be structurally anchored is unknown. The original structural drawings specified a minimum concrete strength of 3,000 lb/in{sup 2}. A pullout test should be performed to verify the strength of this concrete base. To reduce radiation exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), installation and erection work inside the basin controlled area must be minimized; therefore, the pieces required for the modifications should be numbered in the fabrication shop, and erection should follow a procedure that corresponds to the assembly sequence indicated by the numbers. In conjunction with final erection, a mock-up activity should be conducted and base-plate locations verified to be within dimensional tolerances.

  8. Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media: An Extension of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth Raymond

    2004-01-01

    The wastes present at DOE long-term storage sites are usually highly alkaline, and because of this, much of the actinides in these wastes are in the sludge phase. Enough actinide materials still remain in the supernatant liquid that they require separation followed by long-term storage in a geological repository. The removal of these metals from the liquid waste stream would permit their disposal as low-level waste and dramatically reduce the volume of high-level wastes

  9. Study of actinide paramagnetism in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autillo, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The physiochemical properties of actinide (An) solutions are still difficult to explain, particularly the behavioral differences between An(III) and Ln(III). The study of actinide paramagnetic behavior may be a 'simple' method to analyze the electronic properties of actinide elements and to obtain information on the ligand-actinide interaction. The objective of this PhD thesis is to understand the paramagnetic properties of these elements by magnetic susceptibility measurements and chemical shift studies. Studies on actinide electronic properties at various oxidation states in solution were carried out by magnetic susceptibility measurements in solution according to the Evans method. Unlike Ln(III) elements, there is no specific theory describing the magnetic properties of these ions in solution. To obtain accurate data, the influence of experimental measurement technique and radioactivity of these elements was analyzed. Then, to describe the electronic structure of their low energy states, the experimental results were complemented with quantum chemical calculations from which the influence of the ligand field was studied. Finally, these interpretations were applied to better understand the variations in the magnetic properties of actinide cations in chloride and nitrate media. Information about ligand-actinide interactions may be determined from an NMR chemical shift study of actinide complexes. Indeed, modifications induced by a paramagnetic complex can be separated into two components. The first component, a Fermi contact contribution (δ_c) is related to the degree of covalency in coordination bonds with the actinide ions and the second, a dipolar contribution (δ_p_c) is related to the structure of the complex. The paramagnetic induced shift can be used only if we can isolate these two terms. To achieve this study on actinide elements, we chose to work with the complexes of dipicolinic acid (DPA). Firstly, to characterize the geometrical parameters, a

  10. Actinide science. Fundamental and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, Gregory R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear test explosions and reactor wastes have deposited an estimated 16x10 15 Bq of plutonium into the world's aquatic systems. However, plutonium concentration in open ocean waters is orders of magnitude less, indicating that most of the plutonium is quite insolvable in marine waters and has been incorporated into sediments. Actinide ions in waters often are not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and their solubility and migration behavior is related to the form in which the nuclides were introduced into the aquatic system. Actinide solubility depends on such factors as pH(hydrolysis), E H (oxidation state), reaction with complexants (e.g. carbonate, phosphate, humic acid, etc.) sorption to surfaces of minerals and/or colloids, etc., in the water. The most significant of these variables is the oxidation sate of the metal ion. The simultaneous presence of more than one oxidation state for some actinides (e.g. plutonium) in a solution complicates actinide environmental behavior. Both Np(V)O 2 + and Pu(V)O 2 + , the most significant soluble states in natural oxic waters are relatively noncomplexing and resistant to hydrolysis and subsequent precipitation but can undergo reduction to the Pu(IV) oxidation state with its different elemental behavior. The solubility of NpO 2 + can be as high as 10 -4 M while that of PuO 2 + is more limited by reduction to the insoluble tetravalent species, Pu(OH) 4 , (pK SP - 56). The net solubility of hexavalent UO 2 2+ in sea water is also limited by hydrolysis; however, it has a relatively high concentration due to formation of carbonate complexes. The insoluble trivalent americium hydroxocarbonate, Am(CO) 3 (OH), is the limiting species for the solubility of Am(III) in sea water. Thorium is found exclusively as the tetravalent species and its solubility is limited by the formation of quite insoluble Th(OH) 4 . The chemistry of actinide ions in the environment is reviewed to show the spectrum of reactions that can occur in

  11. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  13. Band structure studies of actinide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the f-orbitals in an actinide system plays a crucial role in determining the electronic properties. It has long been realized that when the actinide separation is small enough for the f-orbitals to interact directly, the system will exhibit itinerant electron properties: an absence of local moment due to the f-orbitals and sometimes even superconductivity. However, a number of systems with the larger actinide separation that should imply local moment behavior also exhibit intinerant properties. Such systems (URh 3 , UIr 3 , UGe 3 , UC) were examined to learn something about the other f-interactions. A preliminary observation made is that there is apparently a very large and ansiotropic mass enhancement in these systems. There is very good reason to believe that this is not solely due to large electron--electron correlations but to a large electron--phonon interaction as well. These features of the ''non-magnetic'', large actinide separation systems are discussed in light of our results to date. Finally, the results of some recent molecular calculations on actinide hexafluorides are used to illustrate the shielding effects on the intra-atomic Coulomb term U/sub f-f/ which would appear in any attempt to study the formation of local moments. As one becomes interested in materials for which a band structure is no longer an adequate model, this screened U/sub ff/ is the significant parameter and efforts must be made to evaluate it in solid state systems

  14. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol

  15. Strategies for minority actinides transmutation in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of the strategies that can be followed in fast reactors designed for the fourth generation to reduce the inventory of minority actinides generated in current light water reactors, as the actinides generation in fast reactor.

  16. 1981 Annual Status Report. Plutonium fuels and actinide programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In this 1981 report the work carried out by the European Institute for Transuranium elements is reviewed. Main topics are: operation limits of plutonium fuels: swelling of advanced fuels, oxide fuel transients, equation of state of nuclear materials; actinide cycle safety: formation of actinides (FACT), safe handling of plutonium fuel (SHAPE), aspects of the head-end processing of carbide fuel (RECARB); actinide research: crystal chemistry, solid state studies, applied actinide research

  17. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  18. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs.

  19. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs

  20. Impact on geologic repository usage from limited actinide recycle in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, Roald A.; Bauer, Theodore H.; Hill, Robert N.; Stillman, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A project has been conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to evaluate the impact of limited actinide recycling in light water reactors on the utilization of a geologic repository where loading of the repository is constrained by the decay heat of the emplaced materials. In this study, it was assumed that spent PWR fuel was processed, removing the uranium, plutonium, americium, and neptunium, along with the fission products cesium and strontium. Previous work had demonstrated that these elements were responsible for limiting loading in the repository based on thermal constraints. The plutonium, americium, and neptunium were recycled in a PWR, with process waste and spent recycled fuel being sent to the repository. The cesium and strontium were placed in separate storage for 100-300 years to allow for decay prior to disposal. The study examined the effect of single and multiple recycles of the recovered plutonium, americium, and neptunium, as well as different processing delay times. The potential benefit to the repository was measured by the increase in utilization of repository space as indicated by the allowable linear loading in the repository drifts (tunnels). The results showed that limited recycling would provide only a small fraction of the benefit that could be achieved with repeated processing and recycling, as is possible in fast neutron reactors. (author)

  1. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  2. Interaction of actinides with natural microporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaelides, P.; Godelirsas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The existing studies mainly concern the sorption of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium from aqueous media by clay minerals and zeolites as well as the determination of the corresponding chemical processes taking place at the mineral-water interface. The investigation techniques applied for this purpose include, except the conventional wet-chemical and radiochemical methods, advanced spectroscopic methods such as extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques significantly contribute to the characterization of the reacted mineral waters and to the explanation of the structural and compositional characteristics of the sorbed actinide species. Theoretical models regarding the aqueous chemistry and speciation of the actinides have also been developed aiming the elucidation of the complex actinide sorption mechanisms. This contribution will critically review of the existing literature, present recently obtained unpublished results and discuss the necessity of future work in the field. (authors)

  3. Actinide distribution in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Radiochemical analysis of two half skeletons donated to the United States Transuranium Registry, one from an individual with an occupationally incurred deposition of 241 Am and the other with a deposition of 239 Pu, revealed an inverse linear relationship between the concentration of actinide in the bone ash and the fraction of ash. Two distinct relationships were noted, one for the cranium and the other for the remainder of the skeleton. The results suggest that the actinide content of the skeleton as a whole, Q, can be obtained with an uncertainty of +-50% from analysis of a single sample of any bone (except the cranium) by Q = [(830 C/sub sample/)/(0.61 - f/sub sample/)], in which C/sub sample/ refers to the actinide content per g of ash and f/sub sample/ the fraction of ash (i.e., ratio of dry to wet weight) in the sample. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Neutron scattering studies of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The electronic structure of actinide materials presents a unique example of the interplay between localized and band electrons. Together with a variety of other techniques, especially magnetization and the Mossbauer effect, neutron studies have helped us to understand the systematics of many actinide compounds that order magnetically. A direct consequence of the localization of 5f electrons is the spin-orbit coupling and subsequent spin-lattice interaction that often leads to strongly anisotropic behavior. The unusual phase transition in UO 2 , for example, arises from interactions between quadrupole moments. On the other hand, in the monopnictides and monochalcogenides, the anisotropy is more difficult to understand, but probably involves an interaction between actinide and anion wave functions. A variety of neutron experiments, including form-factor studies, critical scattering and measurements of the elementary excitations have now been performed, and the conceptual picture emerging from these studies will be discussed

  5. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography

    2013-03-01

    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  6. Research on Actinides in Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Park, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Hwan

    2010-04-01

    The electrochemical/spectroscopic integrated measurement system was designed and set up for spectro-electrochemical measurements of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media. A compact electrochemical cell and electrode system was also developed for the minimization of reactants, and consequently minimization of radioactive waste generation. By applying these equipment, oxidation and reduction behavior of lanthanide and actinide ions in molten salt media have been made. Also, thermodynamic parameter values are determined by interpreting the results obtained from electrochemical measurements. Several lanthanide ions exhibited fluorescence properties in molten salt. Also, UV-VIS measurement provided the detailed information regarding the oxidation states of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media

  7. Research on Actinides in Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Park, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Hwan

    2010-04-15

    The electrochemical/spectroscopic integrated measurement system was designed and set up for spectro-electrochemical measurements of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media. A compact electrochemical cell and electrode system was also developed for the minimization of reactants, and consequently minimization of radioactive waste generation. By applying these equipment, oxidation and reduction behavior of lanthanide and actinide ions in molten salt media have been made. Also, thermodynamic parameter values are determined by interpreting the results obtained from electrochemical measurements. Several lanthanide ions exhibited fluorescence properties in molten salt. Also, UV-VIS measurement provided the detailed information regarding the oxidation states of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media

  8. Ground-state electronic structure of actinide monocarbides and mononitrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually increa...

  9. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  10. Aqueous actinide complexes: A thermochemical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuger, J.; Khodakovsky, I.L.; Medvedev, V.A.; Navratil, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The scope and purpose of an assessment of the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous actinide complexes are presented. This work which, at present, is limited to inorganic ligands and three selected organic ligands (formate, acetate and oxalate), is part of an effort established by the International Atomic Energy Agency to assess the thermodynamic properties of the actinides and their compounds. The problems involved in this work are illustrated by discussing the present status of the assessment as related to a few complex species, (hydroxyl-, fluoride-, carbonate complexes). (orig.) [de

  11. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO 3 H 2 ) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described

  12. Molecular dynamics studies of actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) calculation was performed for actinide nitrides (UN, NpN, and PuN) in the temperature range from 300 to 2800 K to evaluate the physical properties viz., the lattice parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and heat capacity. The Morse-type potential function added to the Busing-Ida type potential was employed for the ionic interactions. The interatomic potential parameters were determined by fitting to the experimental data of the lattice parameter. The usefulness and applicability of the MD method to evaluate the physical properties of actinide nitrides were studied. (author)

  13. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  14. Static and dynamic deformations of actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.

    1985-09-01

    The zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations have been taken into account to calculate dynamical deformations for even-even actinide nuclei. The collective and intrinsic motions are separated according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed using the macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and the cranking model in the kinetic energy part. The BCS theory with a modified oscillator potential is applied to describe the intrinsic motion of nucleons. A new set of Nilsson potential parameters, which produces a much better description of the properties of light actinide nuclei, has also been found. (orig.)

  15. Spin–orbit coupling in actinide cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Martin, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The limiting case of Russell–Saunders coupling, which leads to a maximum spin alignment for the open shell electrons, usually explains the properties of high spin ionic crystals with transition metals. For actinide compounds, the spin–orbit splitting is large enough to cause a significantly reduced...... spin alignment. Novel concepts are used to explain the dependence of the spin alignment on the 5f shell occupation. We present evidence that the XPS of ionic actinide materials may provide direct information about the angular momentum coupling within the 5f shell....

  16. Interactions of Microbes found at Aespoe Underground Lab with Actinides such as Curium, Plutonium and Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, H.; Merroun, M.; Geipel, G.; Rossberg, A.; Hennig, C.; Selenska-Pobell , S.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Inst. fuer Radioc hemie, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]. e-mail: h.moll@fzd.de; Stumpf, Th. [Forschungszentru m Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) frequently occur in the deep granitic rock aquifers at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL), Sweden. The new SRB strain Desulfovibrio aespoeensis could be isolated. Results describing the basic interaction mechanisms of uranium, curium, and plutonium with cells of D. aespoeensis DSM 10631T will be presented. The interaction experiments with the actinides showed that the cells are able to remove all three actinides from the surrounding solution. The amount of removed actinide and the interaction mechanism varied among the different actinides. The main U(VI) removal occurred after the first 24 h. The contact time, pH and [U(VI)]initial influence the U removal efficiency. The presence of uranium caused a damaging of the cell membranes. TEM revealed an accumulation of U inside the bacterial cell. D. aespoeensis are able to form U(IV). A complex interaction mechanism takes place consisting of biosorption, bioreduction and bioaccumulation. In the case of {sup 242}Pu, solvent extractions, UV-vis- and XANES spectroscopy were used to determine the speciation of the Pu oxidation states. In the first step, the Pu(VI) and Pu(IV)-polymers are bound to the biomass. Solvent extractions showed that 97 % of the initially present Pu(VI) is reduced to Pu(V) due to the activity of the cells within the first 24 h. Most of the formed Pu(V) dissolves from the cell envelope back to the aqueous solution due to the weak complexing properties of this plutonium oxidation state. In the case of curium at a much lower metal concentration of 3x10{sup -7} M, a pure biosorption of Cm(III) on the cell envelope forming an inner-sphere surface complex most likely with organic phosphate groups was detected. To summarize, the strength of the interaction of D. aespoeensis with the selected actinides at pH 5 and actinide concentrations = 10 mg/L ([Cm] 0.07 mg/L) follows the pattern: Cm > U > Pu >> Np.

  17. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig

  18. Actinide nitride ceramic transmutation fuels for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, St.; McClellan, K.; Stanek, Ch.; Maloy, St.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The transmutation of plutonium and other minor actinides is an important component of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is currently considering mono-nitrides as potential transmutation fuel material on account of the mutual solubility of actinide mono-nitrides as well as their desirable thermal characteristics. The feedstock is most commonly produced by a carbothermic reduction/nitridisation process, as it is for this programme. Fuel pellet fabrication is accomplished via a cold press/sinter approach. In order to allow for easier investigation of the synthesis and fabrication processes, surrogate material studies are used to compliment the actinide activities. Fuel compositions of particular interest denoted as low fertile (i.e. containing uranium) and non-fertile (i.e. not containing uranium) are (PuAmNp) 0.5 U 0.5 N and (PuAm) 0.42 Zr 0.58 N, respectively. The AFCI programme is investigating the validity of these fuel forms via Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Phenix irradiations. Here, we report on the recent progress of actinide-nitride transmutation fuel development and production for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment. Furthermore, we highlight specific cases where the complimentary approach of surrogate studies and actinide development aid in the understanding complex material issues. In order to allow for easier investigation of the fundamental materials properties, surrogate materials have been used. The amount of surrogate in each compound was determined by comparing both molar concentration and lattice parameter mismatch via Vegard Law. Cerium was chosen to simultaneously substitute for Pu, Am and Np, while depleted U was chosen to substitute for enriched U. Another goal of this work was the optimisation of added graphite during carbothermic reduction in order to minimise the duration of the carbon removal step (i.e. heat treatment under H 2 containing gas). One proposed

  19. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  20. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  1. Coordination polymers: trapping of radionuclides and chemistry of tetravalent actinides (Th, U) carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falaise, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy obviously raises the question of the presence of radionuclides in the environment. Currently, their mitigation is a major issue associated with nuclear chemistry. This thesis focuses on both the trapping of radionuclides by porous solids called Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) and the crystal chemistry of the carboxylate of tetravalent actinides (AnIV). The academic knowledge of the reactivity of carboxylate of AnIV could help the understanding of actinides speciation in environment. We focused on the sequestration of iodine by aluminum based MOF. The functionalization (electron-donor group) of the MOF drastically enhances the iodine capture capacity. The removal of light actinides (Th and U) from aqueous solution was also investigated as well as the stability of (Al)-MOF under γ radiation. More than twenty coordination polymers based on tetravalent actinides have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of controlled hydrolysis promotes the formation of coordination polymers exhibiting polynuclear cluster ([U 4 ], [Th 6 ], [U 6 ] and [U 38 ]). In order to understand the formation of the largest cluster, the ex-situ study of the solvo-thermal synthesis of compound {U 38 } has also been investigated. (author)

  2. Quality assurance project plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This quality assurance project plan defines project organization and roles of responsibility, sampling and field procedures, sample documentation and chain-of-custody protocols, equipment calibration, analytical procedures, data reduction and validation, and internal quality control procedures for the former YS-860 Firing Ranges removal action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The ENTECH Team will maintain the highest standards to ensure strict compliance with this plan. Implementation of this plan will include consideration of the technical, as well as administrative, aspects of activities affecting quality. Plan implementation is based on the premise that quality controls selected for each element of work are consistent with the risk, importance, and health and safety considerations of performing the work. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal action at the former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification sampling, grading, and revegetation

  3. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This revision (Rev. 1) updates the schedule and designation of responsibilities for the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks contents removal project. Ongoing and planned future activities include: cold testing of the sluicing and pumping system; readiness assessment; equipment relocation and assembly; isotopic dilution of fissile radionuclides; sluicing and transfer of the tanks contents; and preparation of the Removal Action Completion Report. The most significant change is that the sluicing and pumping system has been configured by and will be operated by CDM Federal Programs Corporation. In addition, a new technical lead and a new project analyst have been designated within Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. The schedule for tanks contents removal has been accelerated, with transfer of the final batch of tank slurry now scheduled for March 31, 1998 (instead of November 10, 1998). The OHF sluicing and pumping project is proceeding as a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The purpose of the project is to remove the contents from five inactive underground storage tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9. The tanks contain an estimated 52,700 gal of liquid and sludge, together comprising a radioactive inventory of approximately 30,000 Ci

  4. Conceptual methods for actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.; Bond, W.D.; Tedder, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The conceptual processing sequence under consideration is based on a combination of modified Purex processing and secondary processing of the high-level waste. In this concept, iodine will be removed from dissolver solution prior to extraction, and the Purex processing will be modified so that low- and intermediate-level wastes, all the way through final product purification, are recycled. A supplementary extraction is assumed to ensure adequate recovery of uranium, neptunium and possibly plutonium. Technetium may be removed from the high-level waste if a satisfactory method can be developed. Extraction into a quaternary amine is being evaluated for this removal. Methods that have been used in the past to recover americium and curium have some rather serious deficiencies, including inadequate recovery, solids formation and generation of large volumes of low- and intermediate-level wastes containing significant quantities of chemical reagents

  5. Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-04-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for three irradiation options of a light water reactor (LWR). The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies; transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with 235 U enrichment of uranium; and transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with plutonium enrichment of natural uranium. When all actinides were recycled in a uniform lattice, the transuranic inventory after ten recycles was 38% of the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from two regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after five recycles

  6. Chemical compatibility of HLW borosilicate glasses with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Scheffler, K.; Riege, U.

    1978-11-01

    During liquid storage of HLLW the formation of actinide enriched sludges is being expected. Also during melting of HLW glasses an increase of top-to-bottom actinide concentrations can take place. Both effects have been studied. Besides, the vitrification of plutonium enriched wastes from Pu fuel element fabrication plants has been investigated with respect to an isolated vitrification process or a combined one with the HLLW. It is shown that the solidification of actinides from HLLW and actinide waste concentrates will set no principal problems. The leaching of actinides has been measured in salt brine at 23 0 C and 115 0 C. (orig.) [de

  7. Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs

  8. Transmutation of LWR waste actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle of actinides to a reactor for transmutation to fission products is being considered as a possible means of waste disposal. Actinide transmutation calculations were made for two irradiation options in a thermal (LWR) reactor. The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies, and transuranic actinides recycled in separate mixed oxide (MOX) assemblies. When all actinides were recycled in a uranium lattice, a reduction of 62% in the transuranic inventory was achieved after 10 recycles, compared to the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from 2 regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after 5 recycles

  9. Partnew - New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Testard, F.; Hudson, M.J.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Christiansen, B.; Ferrando, M.; Facchini, A.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Gonzalez-Espartero, A.; Mendoza, J. de

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the European project PARTNEW were to define solvent extraction processes for the partitioning of the minor actinides, Am and Cm, from the aqueous high active raffinate or high active concentrate issuing the reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels by the PUREX process. Eleven laboratories participated to the research: 1/ CEA-DEN (Marcoule), 2/ CEA-DSM (Saclay), 3/ UREAD (U.K.), 4/ CTU (Sweden), 5/ ITU (Germany), 6/ ENEA (Italy), 7/ PoliMi (Italy), 8/ FZK-INE (Germany), 9/ FZJ-ISR (Germany), 10/ CIEMAT (Spain) and 11/ UAM (Spain). The research was organised into eight work packages (WP): Basic and applied DIAMEX studies, using diamide extractants for the co-extraction of actinides(III) (An(III)) and lanthanides(III) (Ln(III)) nitrates (WP1 and WP2), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of polydentate N-ligands for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation (WP3 and WP4), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of synergistic mixtures made of bis-(chloro-phenyl)-di-thio-phosphinic acid + neutral O-bearing ligand, (WP5 and WP6), Basic SANEX studies for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation, based on the use of new S-bearing ligands, Basic and applied studies for the Am(III)/Cm(III) separation. The work done in the fundamental and applied domains was very fruitful. Several processes have been successfully tested with genuine high active raffinates and concentrate. (authors)

  10. Calculated investigation of actinide transmutation in the BOR-60 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemkov, I.Yu.; Ishunina, O.V.; Yakovleva, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    One of the prospective actinide burner reactor type is the fast reactor with a 'hard' spectrum and small breeding factor, which is the BOR-60. The calculated investigations demonstrate that Loading up to 40% of minor-actinides to the BOR-60 reactor did not lead to the considerable change of neutron-physical characteristics. The performed calculations show that the BOR- 60 reactor possesses a high efficiency of the minor-actinide and plutonium bum-up (up to 37 kg/(TW · h)) hat is comparable with properties of the actinide burner-reactors under design. The BOR-60 reactor can provide a homogeneous minor-actinide Loading (minor-actinide addition to the standard fuel) to the core and heterogeneous Loading (as separate assemblies-targets with a high minor-actinide fraction) to the first rows of a radial blanket that allows the optimum usage of the reactor and its characteristics. (authors)

  11. ENDF/B-5 Actinides (Rev. 86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the Actinides part of the ENDF/B-5 nuclear data library released by the US National Nuclear Data Center. This library or selective retrievals of it, are available costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request. The present version of the library is the Revision of 1986. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Report of the panel on inhaled actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: assessment of risks to man of inhaling actinides; use of estimates for developing protection standards; epidemiology of lung cancer in exposed human populations; development of respiratory tract models; and effects in animals: dose- and effect-modifying factors

  13. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  14. Placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessl, I.; Stieve, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    The report is based on an extensive literature search. All data available from studies on placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides in man and animals have been collected and analysed, and the report presents the significant results as well as unresolved questions and knowledge gaps which may serve as a waypost to future research work. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ankita; Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a process akin to liquid-liquid or solvent extraction where a Supercritical fluid (SCF) is contacted with a solid/ liquid matrix for the purpose of separating the component of interest from the original matrix. Carbon dioxide is a preferred choice as supercritical fluid (SCF) owing to its moderate critical parameter (P c = 7.38 MPa and T c = 304.1K) coupled with radiation and chemical stability, non toxic nature and low cost. Despite widespread applications for extraction of organic compounds and associated advantages especially liquid waste minimization, the SFE of metal ions was left unexplored for quite some time, as direct metal ion extraction is inefficient due charge neutralization requirement and weak solute-solvent interaction. Neutral SCF soluble metal-ligand complexation is imperative and SFE of actinides was reported only in 1994. Several studies have been carried out on SFE of uranium, thorium and plutonium from nitric acid medium employing different sets of ligands (organophosphorus, diketones, amides). Especially attractive is the possibility of direct dissolution and extraction of actinides employing ligand-acid adducts (like TBP.HNO 3 adduct) from solid matrices of different stages of nuclear fuel cycle viz. ores, spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. Also, partitioning of actinides from fission products has been explored in spent nuclear fuel. These studies on supercritical fluid extraction of actinides indicate a more efficient and environmentally sustainable technology. (author)

  16. Removal of radon by aeration: testing of various aeration techniques for small water works. For European Commission under Contract No FI4PCT960054 TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Mehtonen, J.; Turunen, H.; Mjoenes, L.; Hagberg, N.; Raff, O.

    2002-12-01

    Capability of various aeration techniques to remove radon from water in small waterworks was studied as a part of project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water), which was carried out during 1997-1999 on a cost-shared basis (contract No. F14PCT960054) with The European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of the Directorate-General XII Radiation Protection Research Unit. In TENAWA project both laboratory and field experiments were performed in order to find reliable methods and equipment for removing natural radionuclides from ground water originating either from private wells or small waterworks. Because such techniques are more often needed in private households than at waterworks, the main emphasis of the research was aimed to solve the water treatment problems related to the private water supplies, especially bedrock wells. Radon was the most important radionuclide to be removed from water at waterworks whereas the removal of other radionuclides ( 234,238 U, 226,228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po) was oft required from radonrich bedrock waters. The currently available methods and equipment were mainly tested during the field and laboratory experiments but the project was also aimed to find new materials, absorbents and membranes applicable for radionuclide removal from various types of ground waters (e.g. soft, hard, acidic). Because iron, manganese or organic occur in waters with radionuclides, their simultaneous removal was also studied. The project was divided into 13 work packages. In this report the results of the work package 2.2 are described. Elevated levels of radon and other natural radionuclides in European ground waters have been observed mainly in wide areas of the crystalline Scandinavian bedrock, especially in the granite rock areas of Finland and Sweden but also in more limited crystalline rock areas of Central and Southern Europe, Ukraine and Scotland. The radon removal efficiencies of different aeration methods

  17. ACTINET: a European Network for Actinide Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Boullis; Pascal Chaix

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The research in Actinide sciences appear as a strategic issue for the future of nuclear systems. Sustainability issues are clearly in connection with the way actinide elements are managed (either addressing saving natural resource, or decreasing the radiotoxicity of the waste). The recent developments in the field of minor actinide P and T offer convincing indications of what could be possible options, possible future processes for the selective recovery of minor actinides. But they point out, too, some lacks in the basic understanding of key-issues (such as for instance the control An versus Ln selectivity, or solvation phenomena in organic phases). Such lacks could be real obstacles for an optimization of future processes, with new fuel compounds and facing new recycling strategies. This is why a large and sustainable work appears necessary, here in the field of basic actinide separative chemistry. And similar examples could be taken from other aspects of An science, for various applications (nuclear fuel or transmutation targets design, or migration issues,): future developments need a strong, enlarged, scientific basis. The Network ACTINET, established with the support of the European Commission, has the following objectives: - significantly improve the accessibility of the major actinide facilities to the European scientific community, and form a set of pooled facilities, as the corner-stone of a progressive integration process, - improve mobility between the member organisations, in particular between Academic Institutions and National Laboratories holding the pooled facilities, - merge part of the research programs conducted by the member institutions, and optimise the research programs and infrastructure policy via joint management procedures, - strengthen European excellence through a selection process of joint proposals, and reduce the fragmentation of the community by putting critical mass of resources and expertise on

  18. Development of a fast reactor for minor actinides transmutation - (1) Overview and method development - 5092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Usami, S.; Fujimura, K.; Takakuwa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan has launched a national project entitled 'technology development for the environmental burden reduction' in 2013. The present study is one of the studies adopted as the national project. The objective of the study is the efficient and safe transmutation and volume reduction of minor actinides (MA) with long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat contained in high level radioactive wastes by using sodium cooled fast reactors. We are developing MA transmutation core concepts which harmonize efficient MA transmutation with core safety. To accurately design the core concepts we have improved calculation methods for estimating the transmutation rate of individual MA nuclides, and estimating and reducing uncertainty of MA transmutation. The overview of the present project is first described. Then the method improvement is presented with numerical results for a minor-actinide transmutation fast reactor. The analysis is based on Monju reactor data. (authors)

  19. Synroc tailored waste forms for actinide immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Daniel J.; Vance, Eric R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee (Australia). ANSTOsynroc, Inst. of Materials Engineering

    2017-07-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, Synroc at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has evolved from a focus on titanate ceramics directed at PUREX waste to a platform waste treatment technology to fabricate tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms for different types of actinide, high- and intermediate level wastes. The particular emphasis for Synroc is on wastes which are problematic for glass matrices or existing vitrification process technologies. In particular, nuclear wastes containing actinides, notably plutonium, pose a unique set of requirements for a waste form, which Synroc ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms can be tailored to meet. Key aspects to waste form design include maximising the waste loading, producing a chemically durable product, maintaining flexibility to accommodate waste variations, a proliferation resistance to prevent theft and diversion, and appropriate process technology to produce waste forms that meet requirements for actinide waste streams. Synroc waste forms incorporate the actinides within mineral phases, producing products which are much more durable in water than baseline borosilicate glasses. Further, Synroc waste forms can incorporate neutron absorbers and {sup 238}U which provide criticality control both during processing and whilst within the repository. Synroc waste forms offer proliferation resistance advantages over baseline borosilicate glasses as it is much more difficult to retrieve the actinide and they can reduce the radiation dose to workers compared to borosilicate glasses. Major research and development into Synroc at ANSTO over the past 40 years has included the development of waste forms for excess weapons plutonium immobilization in collaboration with the US and for impure plutonium residues in collaboration with the UK, as examples. With a waste loading of 40-50 wt.%, Synroc would also be considered a strong candidate as an engineered waste form for used nuclear fuel and highly

  20. Advanced techniques in actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2014). Abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, The Institute of Resource Ecology at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf organized the first international workshop of Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy (ATAS). A very positive feedback and the wish for a continuation of the workshop were communicated from several participants to the scientific committee during the workshop and beyond. Today, the ATAS workshop has been obviously established as an international forum for the exchange of progress and new experiences on advanced spectroscopic techniques for international actinide and lanthanide research. In comparison to already established workshops and conferences on the field of radioecology, one main focus of ATAS is to generate synergistic effects and to improve the scientific discussion between spectroscopic experimentalists and theoreticians. The exchange of ideas in particular between experimental and theoretical applications in spectroscopy and the presentation of new analytical techniques are of special interest for many research institutions working on the improvement of transport models of toxic elements in the environment and the food chain as well as on reprocessing technologies of nuclear and non-nuclear waste. Spectroscopic studies in combination with theoretical modelling comprise the exploration of molecular mechanisms of complexation processes in aqueous or organic phases and of sorption reactions of the contaminants on mineral surfaces to obtain better process understanding on a molecular level. As a consequence, predictions of contaminant's migration behaviour will become more reliable and precise. This can improve the monitoring and removal of hazardous elements from the environment and hence, will assist strategies for remediation technologies and risk assessment. Particular emphasis is placed on the results of the first inter-laboratory Round-Robin test on actinide spectroscopy (RRT). The main goal of RRT is the comprehensive molecular analysis of the actinide complex

  1. Advanced techniques in actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2014). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, The Institute of Resource Ecology at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf organized the first international workshop of Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy (ATAS). A very positive feedback and the wish for a continuation of the workshop were communicated from several participants to the scientific committee during the workshop and beyond. Today, the ATAS workshop has been obviously established as an international forum for the exchange of progress and new experiences on advanced spectroscopic techniques for international actinide and lanthanide research. In comparison to already established workshops and conferences on the field of radioecology, one main focus of ATAS is to generate synergistic effects and to improve the scientific discussion between spectroscopic experimentalists and theoreticians. The exchange of ideas in particular between experimental and theoretical applications in spectroscopy and the presentation of new analytical techniques are of special interest for many research institutions working on the improvement of transport models of toxic elements in the environment and the food chain as well as on reprocessing technologies of nuclear and non-nuclear waste. Spectroscopic studies in combination with theoretical modelling comprise the exploration of molecular mechanisms of complexation processes in aqueous or organic phases and of sorption reactions of the contaminants on mineral surfaces to obtain better process understanding on a molecular level. As a consequence, predictions of contaminant's migration behaviour will become more reliable and precise. This can improve the monitoring and removal of hazardous elements from the environment and hence, will assist strategies for remediation technologies and risk assessment. Particular emphasis is placed on the results of the first inter-laboratory Round-Robin test on actinide spectroscopy (RRT). The main goal of RRT is the comprehensive molecular analysis of the actinide

  2. Research at big facilities on actinides: How neutrons and synchrotron x-rays can help our understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron scattering was a by-product of the Manhattan Project, as it started by using neutron beams emerging from the reactors produced by that project. Seventy years later, neutron scattering is a tool used by many scientists, across many different disciplines, to try to understand the microscopic properties of materials. It can also give unique answers to problems involving actinides. ; X-rays, of course, date even further back, but it was not until the 1970s that synchrotron radiation was widely available. Now synchrotron radiation is a tool widely used in the study of actinides across a variety of different fields. ; The basic properties of these two probes will be presented and contrasted. Some of the ways these techniques have helped us understand the actinides will be presented

  3. Arsenic and Uranium Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Upper Bodfish in Lake Isabella, CA -Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the performance evaluation of an arsenic (As) and uranium (U) removal technology demonstrated at Upper Bodfish in Lake Isabella, CA. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: (1) the effecti...

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BRUNI, TX, SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) site at Bruni, TX. The main objective of the projec...

  5. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT DUMMERSTON, VT SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months (from June 22, 2005 through December 22, 2005) of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Charette Mobile Home Park (CMHP) in Dummerston, Vermont. T...

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BOW, NH , SIX MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the White Rock Water Company (WRWC) public water system, a small residential drinking water facility in Bo...

  7. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life VHTR Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  8. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  9. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Sert, G.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. Additionally, the total fissile nuclide mass per consignment of excepted packages was limited in the 1996 edition of the regulations (a conveyance limit is preliminary supported in the 2003 revision). The proposed changes of the rules have to take this new control into account. The European Community (DGTREN) decided to fund a project related to this subject. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the authors of the study decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL, SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, JENDL, etc.). This article presents the work achieved and gives propositions of modification for the IAEA requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, and secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials. The participants acknowledge the DGTREN who made this work possible due to its support. (author)

  10. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.

  11. Core Power Limits For A Lead-Bismuth Natural Circulation Actinide Burner Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cliff Bybee; Kim, D.; Todreas, N. E.; Mujid S. Kazimi

    2002-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology are investigating the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The design being considered here is a pool type reactor that burns actinides and utilizes natural circulation of the primary coolant, a conventional steam power conversion cycle, and a passive decay heat removal system. Thermal-hydraulic evaluations of the actinide burner reactor were performed to determine allowable core power ratings that maintain cladding temperatures below corrosion-established temperature limits during normal operation and following a loss-of-feedwater transient. An economic evaluation was performed to optimize various design parameters by minimizing capital cost. The transient power limit was initially much more restrictive than the steady-state limit. However, enhancements to the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for transient decay heat removal resulted in an increased power limit of 1040 MWt, which was close to the steady-state limit. An economic evaluation was performed to estimate the capital cost of the reactor and its sensitivity to the transient power limit. For the 1040 MWt power level, the capital cost estimate was 49 mills per kWhe based on 1999 dollars.

  12. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  13. Development of fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Kurata, Masaki; Koyama, Tadafumi; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Rondinella, Vincenzo V.

    2011-01-01

    Fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides (MAs) Np, Am, and Cm and rare earths (REs) Y, Nd, Ce, and Gd are being developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in the METAPHIX project. The basic properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys containing MA (and RE) were characterized by performing ex-reactor experiments. On the basis of the results, test fuel pins including U-Pu-Zr-MA(-RE) alloy ingots in parts of the fuel stack were fabricated and irradiated up to a maximum burnup of ∼10 at% in the Phenix fast reactor (France). Nondestructive postirradiation tests confirmed that no significant damage to the fuel pins occurred. At present, detailed destructive postirradiation examinations are being carried out at ITU. (author)

  14. Transmutation studies of minor actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Marie, F.; Roettger, S.; Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Integral measurements of nuclear data and of the transmutation potential in specific neutron fluxes, constitute the fastest and essential way to overcome to the large uncertainties present in the nuclear data libraries. In the frame of the activities of the Directorate for Science of Matter (DSM) of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA), a new project is proposed so as to carry out integral measurements relevant for nuclear waste transmutation systems. A new beam tube will be installed to irradiate actinides and fission fragment samples at different distances from the fuel element of the ILL reactor. Variable neutron energy spectra could then be obtained by choosing the distance between the sample and the fuel element, opening the way to the determination of the ideal physical conditions to incinerate nuclear waste in hybrid transmutation systems. (author)

  15. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders' perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Gogognon, Patrick; Ridde, Valéry

    2014-02-20

    Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public

  16. Summary Report of Third Research Coordination Meeting on Minor Actinide Nuclear Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, Frank; Otsuka, Naohiko

    2010-12-01

    The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 19 to 22 October 2010. A summary of the presentation, and the discussions which took place during the meeting, are reported here. In addition, a task assignment list of the experimental data assessment activities was agreed, and is provided together with the plan for future CRP activities. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 19 to 22 October 2010. A summary of the presentation, and the discussions which took place during the meeting, are reported here. In addition, a task assignment list of the experimental data assessment activities was agreed, and is provided together with the plan for future CRP activities. (author)

  17. Nuclear energy waste: space transportation and removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.E.

    1975-12-01

    A method for utilizing the decay heat of actinide wastes to power an electric thrust vehicle is proposed. The vehicle, launched by shuttle to earth orbit and to earth escape by a tug, obtains electrical power from the actinide waste heat by thermionic converters. The heavy gamma ray and neutron shielding which is necessary as a safety feature is removed in orbit and returned to earth for reuse. The problems associated with safety are dealt with in depth. A method for eliminating fission wastes via chemical propulsion is briefly discussed

  18. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Point of Entry/Point of Use Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Oregon Institute of Technology at Klamath Falls, OR - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) at Klamath Falls, OR. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness...

  19. On the solvation of actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagberg, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Simulation of the universal ions in water solution is a standardized tool commonly used today. The route to simulation of actinide ions is normally tough because the evaluation of the simulation parameters are normally not given empirically and standard Hartree-Fock calculations are not accurate enough. We use multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations when deriving the parameters for actinide ion-water potential [1]. The parameters are then simulated using classical molecular dynamics. A case study of the Cm 3+ ion will be presented on the poster. Results from the simulations will be also be discussed, e.g. the radial distribution functions and the coordination number. [1] D. Hagberg, G. Karlstrom, B.O. Roos and L. Gagliardi The coordination of uranyl in water: a combined quantum chemical and molecular simulation study J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 14250-14256 (2005)

  20. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  1. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  2. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is an exhaustive, updated discourse on the chemistry of Actinides, Volume 1 contains a systematic coverage of the elements Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu, which constitutes Part 1 of the work. The characterization of each element is discussed in terms of its nuclear properties, occurrence, preparation, atomic and metallic properties, chemistry of specific compounds, and solution chemistry. The first part of Volume 2 follows the same format as Volume 1 but is confined to the elements Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es, plus a more condensed coverage of the Transeinsteinium elements (Fm, Md, No, Lw, and 104-109). Part 2 of this volume is devoted to a discussion of the actinide elements in general, with a specific focus on electronic spectra, thermodynamic and magnetic properties, the metallic state, structural chemistry, solution kinetics, organometallic chemistry for σ- and π-bonded compounds, and some concluding remarks on the superheavy elements

  3. The thermodynamic functions of gaseous actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The actinide gases have large number of unobserved energy states - up to 3 x 10 6 for Pu(g) - which could contribute to the partition function and its derivatives, from which the thermal functions of these gases are calculated. Existing compilations have simply ignored these levels. By making reasonable assumptions as to the distribution of these energy states, their effect on the functions can be calculated. It is concluded that the existing compilations will be inadequate above approximately 2000K. The effect is particularly marked on the heat capacity. For example, when unobserved levels for Pu(g) are included, the heat capacity of Pu(g) reaches a maximum value of more than 12R at 3200K. Similar considerations will apply to the gaseous actinide ions. (orig.) [de

  4. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  5. Seventeen-coordinate actinide helium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-12

    The geometries and electronic structures of molecular ions featuring He atoms complexed to actinide cations are explored computationally using density functional and coupled cluster theories. A new record coordination number is established, as AcHe{sub 17}{sup 3+}, ThHe{sub 17}{sup 4+}, and PaHe{sub 17}{sup 4+} are all found to be true geometric minima, with the He atoms clearly located in the first shell around the actinide. Analysis of AcHe{sub n}{sup 3+} (n=1-17) using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) confirms these systems as having closed shell, charge-induced dipole bonding. Excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>0.95) are found between QTAIM metrics (bond critical point electron densities and delocalization indices) and the average Ac-He distances, and also with the incremental He binding energies. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph.; Vidaud, C.; Goudard, F.; Barbot, C.; Solari, P.L.; Funke, H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O 2 2+ , Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  7. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  8. Actinides: from heavy fermions to plutonium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Hecker, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The actinide elements mark the emergence of 5f electrons. The f electrons possess sufficiently unusual characteristics that their participation in atomic binding often result in dramatic changes in properties. This provides an excellent opportunity to study the question of localization of electrons; a question that is paramount in predicting the physical and chemical properties of d and f electron transition metals. The transition region between localized (magnetic) and itinerant (often superconducting) behavior provides for many interesting phenomena such as structural instabilities (polymorphism), spin fluctuations, mixed valences, charge density waves, exceptional catalytic activity and hydrogen storage. This region offers most interesting behavior such as that exhibited by the actinide compounds UBe 13 and UPt 3 . Both compounds are heavy-fermion superconductors in which both magnetic and superconducting behavior exist in the same electrons. The consequences of f-electron bonding (which appears greatest at Plutonium) show dramatic effects on phase stability, alloying behavior, phase transformations and mechanical behavior

  9. Actinide Source Term Program, position paper. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.; Papenguth, H.W.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Actinide Source Term represents the quantity of actinides that could be mobilized within WIPP brines and could migrate with the brines away from the disposal room vicinity. This document presents the various proposed methods for estimating this source term, with a particular focus on defining these methods and evaluating the defensibility of the models for mobile actinide concentrations. The conclusions reached in this document are: the 92 PA open-quotes expert panelclose quotes model for mobile actinide concentrations is not defensible; and, although it is extremely conservative, the open-quotes inventory limitsclose quotes model is the only existing defensible model for the actinide source term. The model effort in progress, open-quotes chemical modeling of mobile actinide concentrationsclose quotes, supported by a laboratory effort that is also in progress, is designed to provide a reasonable description of the system and be scientifically realistic and supplant the open-quotes Inventory limitsclose quotes model

  10. Strength of Coriolis Coupling in actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peker, L.K.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coriolis Coupling V/sub cor/ plays an important role in deformed nuclei. V/sub cor/ is proportional to h 2 /J[j (j + 1) -Ω (Ω + 1)]/sup 1/2/ and therefore is particularly significant in the nuclei with large j and low Ω Nilsson levels close to Fermi surface: n(i/sub 13/2/) in A = 150 to 170 rare-earth nuclei and p(i/sub 13/2/) and n(j/sub 15/2/) in A greater than or equal to 224 actinide nuclei. Because of larger j (n(j/sub 15/2/) versus n(i/sub 13/2/)) and smaller deformations (β approx. = 0.22 versus β 0.28) it was reasonable to expect that in actinide nuclei Coriolis effects are stronger than in the rare earth nuclei. Recently it was realized that the strength of observed Coriolis effects depends not only on the genuine Coriolis Coupling but also on the interplay between Coriolis ad pairing forces which leads to an interference between the wave functions of two mixing rotational bands. As a consequence the effective interaction V/sub eff/ of both bands is an oscillating function of the degree of shell filling (or chemical potential lambda F). It was shown that in the rare earth nuclei this interference strongly influenced conclusions about the trends in the Coriolis coupling strength and explained many of the observed band-mixing features (the sharpness of back banding curves, details of the blocking effect etc.). From theoretical analysis it was concluded that in the majority of actinide nuclei the effective interaction V/sub eff/ is strong, and therefore the Coriolis band-mixing have to be very strong. In this paper we would like to demonstrate that contrary to these predictions experimental data suggest that Coriolis band mixing in studied actinide nuclei is relatively weak and possibly significantly weaker than in rare earth nuclei

  11. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  12. β4 systematics in rare-earth and actinide nuclei: sdg interacting boson model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1992-01-01

    The observed variation of hexadecupole deformation parameter β 4 with mass number A in rare-earth and actinide nuclei is studied in the sdg interacting boson model (IBM) using single j-shell Otsuka-Arima-Iachello mapped and IBM-2 to IBM-1 projected hexadecupole transition operator together with SU sdg (3) and SU sdg (5) coherent states. The SU sdg (3) limit is found to provide a good description of data

  13. Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility

  14. Value of burnup credit beyond actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, Chi.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has submitted a topical report to the NRC justifying burnup credit based only on actinide isotopes (U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241). When this topical report is approved, it will allow a great deal of the commercial spent nuclear fuel to be transported in significantly higher capacity casks. A cost savings estimate for shipping fuel in 32 assembly (burnup credit) casks as opposed to 24 assembly (non-burnup credit) casks was previously presented. Since that time, more detailed calculations have been performed using the methodology presented in the Actinide-Only Burnup Credit Topical Report. Loading curves for derated casks have been generated using actinide-only burnup credit and are presented in this paper. The estimates of cost savings due to burnup credit for shipping fuel utilizing 32, 30, 28, and 24 assembly casks where only the 24 assembly cask does not burnup credit have been created and are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Application of crown-ethers to cesium and strontium removal from Marcoule reprocessing concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Casas I Garcia, J.

    1990-01-01

    The liquid wastes arising from reprocessing plants are treated by evaporation, the distillate is discharged into environment and the concentrate containing all the active and inactive salts must be stored in geological formation, after embedding, due to the activity of long life radionuclides (actinides, Cs, Sr). The objective of this work, is after removal actinides, to remove cesium/strontium from high sodium content acidic concentrates in order to sharply decrease the volume of wastes to be stored in geological formation

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of new Polyfunctional Molecules for Group Actinide Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, C.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this project is to design new extracting molecules for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. In order to minimize the long-term residual radiotoxicity of the waste, the GANEX process is an option based on homogeneous recycling of actinides. All actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm), present in a highly acidic aqueous solution, would be extracted together and separated from fission products (especially from lanthanides) using liquid-liquid extraction. In this context, twenty new bi-topic ligands constituted of a nitrogen poly-aromatic unit functionalized by amide groups were synthesized. Liquid-liquid extraction tests with these ligands dissolved alone in the organic phase show that N, N, N', N'-tetra-alkyl-6, 6''(2, 2':6', 2''-terpyridine)-diamides are able to selectively extract actinides at different oxidation states (Np(V et VI), U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Cm(III)) from an aqueous solution 3M HNO 3 . Nevertheless, actinides(III) are poorly extracted. According to crystallographic structures of complexes with Nd(III) and U(VI) determined by X-rays diffraction, these ligands are penta-dentate. In solution (methanol), complexes stoichiometries (1:1) of Nd(III), U(VI) and Pu(IV) were determined by electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Stability constants, evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry in MeOH/H 2 O solutions, confirm the selectivity of ligands toward actinides(III) with respect to lanthanides(III). Associate to nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory), a better knowledge of their coordination mode was achieved. (author)

  18. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  19. Successive change regularity of actinide properties with atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuexian

    1990-08-01

    The development and achievements on chemistry of actinide elements are summarised. The relations of properties of actinides to their electronic configurations of valence electronic shells are discussed. Some anomalies of solid properties, the radius contraction, the stable state effect of f 7n -orbits (n = 0, 1, 2) and the tetrad effect of oxidation states, etc., with atomic number (Z) are described. 31 figures appended show directly the successive change regularity of actinide properties with Z

  20. Actinide recycle potential in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. In the IFR pyroprocessing, minor actinides accompany plutonium product stream, and therefore, actinide recycle occurs naturally. The fast neutron spectrum of the IFR makes it an ideal actinide burner, as well. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and potential implications on long-term waste management

  1. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing μg to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs

  2. Hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates: a new aqueous route towards reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates (An= Th, U, Pu at temperatures between 95 and 250 °C is shown to lead to the production of highly crystalline, reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals (NCs. This aqueous process proved to be quantitative, reproducible and fast (depending on temperature. The NCs obtained were characterised by X-ray diffraction and TEM showing their size to be smaller than 15 nm. Attempts to extend this general approach towards transition metal or lanthanide oxalates failed in the 95–250 °C temperature range. The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide oxalates is therefore a clean, flexible and powerful approach towards NCs of AnO2 with possible scale-up potential.

  3. Lanthanide and actinide extractions with cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion derivatives covalently bonded to diglycolyl diamide platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lučaníková, M.; Selucký, P.; Rais, J.; Grüner, Bohumír; Kvíčalová, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 89-95 ISSN 2193-2875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0668; GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Dicarbollides derivatives * TODGA * Liquid-liquid extraction * Lanthanides * Actinides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  4. Electronic structure and core-level spectra of light actinide dioxides in the dynamical mean-field theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolorenč, Jindřich; Shick, Alexander; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 8 (2015), "085125-1"-"085125-10" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-05872J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electronic-structure calculations * dynamical mean-field theory * Mott insulators * actinides * oxides * photoemission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  5. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report from the research programme 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Dodd, D.H.; Gruppelaar, H.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1997-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1996 projects are summarized and described in this report. The 1996 projects concern (1) the chemistry of actinides and inert matrices to test and characterize the matrices and actinide compounds in order to develop uranium-free fissionable materials for the transmutation of actinides; (2) the transmutation of plutonium in light water reactors (LWR) to assess and increase the burnup of plutonium and to assess the safety of plutonium transmutation in LWRs; (3) the radiological consequences of different nuclear fuel cycles; (4) and a reactor physics analysis of new thorium-based reactor systems to study the possibility to reduce the amount of long-living radioactive waste materials by means of the use of thorium-based compounds in a high-temperature reactor (HTR) or accelerators. 15 figs., 6 tabs., 23 refs

  6. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report of the research programme 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boerrigter, H.; Damen, P.G.M.; Gruppelaar, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1997 projects, carried out in the period July 1997 to June 1998, are summarized and described in this report. The 1997 projects concern (1) transmutation of actinides in inert matrices with the aim to design, test and characterize uranium-free fission materials for the transmutation of actinides, both for single as for multiple recycling strategies; (2) scenario studies for plutonium recycling with the aim to gain insight into the possibilities to reduce plutonium reserves by using plutonium as a fissionable material in reactors; (3) transmutation by means of accelerator-driven systems with the aim to analyze the options for the burning of plutonium in accelerator-driven, thorium-based systems; and (4) separation of actinides and lanthanides by means of Supported Liquid Membranes with the aim to study the possibility to extract americium from nuclear waste materials. refs

  7. A review of the demonstration of innovative solvent extraction processes for the recovery of trivalent minor actinides from PUREX raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Magnusson, D.; Malmbeck, R.

    2012-01-01

    The selective partitioning (P) of long-lived minor actinides from highly active waste solutions and their transmutation (T) to short-lived or stable isotopes by nuclear reactions will reduce the long-term hazard of the high-level waste and significantly shorten the time needed to ensure their safe confinement in a repository. The present paper summarizes the on-going research activities at Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) and Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in the field of actinide partitioning using innovative solvent extraction processes. European research over the last few decades, i.e. in the NEWPART, PARTNEW and EUROPART programmes, has resulted in the development of multi-cycle processes for minor actinide partitioning. These multi-cycle processes are based on the co-separation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides (e.g. by the DIAMEX process), followed by the subsequent actinide(III)/lanthanide(III) group separation in the SANEX process. The current direction of research for the development of innovative processes within the recent European ACSEPT project is discussed additionally. This paper is focused on the development of flow-sheets for recovery of americium and curium from highly active waste solutions. The flow-sheets are verified by demonstration processes, in centrifugal contactors, using synthetic or genuine fuel solutions. The feasibility of the processes is also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis and evaluation structure/extracting and complexing properties of new bi-topic ligands for group actinides extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisson, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design and study new extractants for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. To decrease the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, the GANEX process is an option to homogeneously recycle actinides. All actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) would be extracted together from a highly acidic media and separated from fission products (especially from lanthanides). In this context, fourteen new bi-topic ligands constituted of a nitrogen poly-aromatic unit from the dipyridyl-phenanthroline and dipyridyl-1,3,5-triazine families and functionalized by amid groups were synthesized. Extraction studies performed with some of these ligands confirmed their interest to selectively separate actinides at different oxidation states from an aqueous solution 3M HNO 3 . To determine the influence of ligands structure on cation complexation, a study in a homogenous media (MeOH/H 2 O) has been carried out. Electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry have been used to characterize the complexes stoichiometries formed with several cations (Eu 3+ , Nd 3+ , Am 3+ , Pu 4+ and NpO 2 + ). Stability constants, evaluated by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, confirm the selectivity of these ligands toward actinides. Lanthanides and actinides complexes have also been characterized in the solid state by infra-red spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Associated to nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory), a better knowledge of their coordination mode was achieved. (author) [fr

  9. Recent progress in actinide and lanthanide solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Hubert, H.; Benjelloun, N.; Vitorge, P.; Bonnin, M.; Forchioni, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1983-04-01

    Work in progress on actinide solvent extraction is briefly reviewed in this paper. 1 H and 31 P NMR are used to elucidate several fundamental unsolved problems concerning organophosphorous extractants often used in actinides extraction: determination of site of dialkylthiophosphate protonation and addition of basic phosphine oxide to dibutylthiophosphoric acid dimer. Extraction of Am III and Eu from high radioactivity level wastes by tetrasubsituted methylene diamides is investigated. Trivalent actinide-lanthanide group are separated by solvent extraction using soft donor ligand complexes which are more stable. The synergism of dinonylnaphtalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) associated with several neutral donors like TBP, TOPO, amides are examined in the trivalent and tetravalent actinide extraction

  10. Biotransformation of uranium and other actinides in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Microorganisms affect the solubility, bioavailability, and mobility of actinides in radioactive wastes. Under appropriate conditions, actinides are solubilized or stabilized by the direct enzymatic or indirect nonenzymatic actions of microorganisms. Biotransformation of various forms of uranium (ionic, inorganic, and organic complexes) by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms has been extensively studied, whereas limited information is available on other important actinides (Th, Np, Pu, and Am). Fundamental information on the mechanisms of biotransformation of actinides by microbes under various environmental conditions will be useful in predicting the long-term performance of waste repositories and in developing strategies for waste management and remediation of contaminated sites. (orig.)

  11. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor; Reduccion de actinidos menores por reciclado en un reactor de agua ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  12. Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandria

    1999-01-01

    calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly, understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpies of formation of actinide substituted zircon, zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stabilities of these materials

  13. ACSEPT-Partitioning technologies and actinide science: Towards pilot facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Caravaca, C.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.; Taylor, R.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Cassayre, L.; Malmbeck, R.; Harrison, M.; Angelis, G. de; Espartero, A.; Bouvet, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ACSEPT works at developing actinide separation processes for advanced fuel cycles. → ACSEPT develops both aqueous and pyrochemical actinide separation processes. → Homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling strategies are both considered in ACSEPT. → Training and education in actinide chemistry are important issues addressed by ACSEPT. - Abstract: Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered worldwide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste and to optimise the use of natural resources. With its multidisciplinary consortium of 34 partners from 12 European countries plus Australia and Japan, the European Research Project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation) aims at contributing to the development of this strategy by studying both hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical partitioning routes. ACSEPT is organised into three technical domains: (i)Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimise and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning (for the heterogeneous recycling of actinides in ADS target or specific actinide bearing blanket fuels in fast reactor) or to grouped actinide separation (for the homogeneous recycling of the actinides in fast reactor fuels). In addition, dissolution and conversion studies are underway taking into account the specific requirements of these specific fuels. (ii)Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores processes selected within FP6-EUROPART. R and D efforts are also devoted to key scientific and technical issues compulsory to set up a complete separation process (head-end steps, salt treatment for recycling and waste management). (iii)By integrating all the experimental results in engineering and system studies, both in hydro and pyro domains, ACSEPT will

  14. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38{sup th} JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment.

  15. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38 th JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment

  16. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs

  17. Project management plan for Waste Area Grouping 5 Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks content removal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks content removal project is to transfer inventory from the five OHF tanks located in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) storage facility, and remediate the remaining OHF tank shells. The major activities involved are identified in this document along with the organizations that will perform the required actions and their roles and responsibilities for managing the project

  18. Structural characterization of the Actinides (III) and (IV) - DOTA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audras, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    The polyamino-carboxylate anions have been identified as compounds of interest in the operations of actinide separation, in actinide migration in the environment and in human radio-toxicology. The structural characterization of complexes formed between actinides and polyamino-carboxylates ligands is essential for a better understanding of actinide-ligands interactions. Among the polyamino-carboxylate anions, the DOTA ligand (1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane tetraacetic acid) is described as a very strong complexing agent of the lanthanides(III), but has been little studied with actinides. The objective of this thesis is to describe the complexes formed between the actinides (III) and (IV) and the DOTA ligand, and compare them with the lanthanide complexes. For this, an approach has been introduced to characterize the complexes by complementary analytical techniques (spectrophotometry, electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry, NMR, EXAFS, electrochemistry), but also by calculations of theoretical chemistry to help the interpretation of the experimental data. The formation of a 1:1 complex is observed with the actinides(III) (plutonium and americium) as for lanthanides(III): rapid formation of intermediate species which evolves slowly towards the formation of a limit complex. Within this complex, the cation is located inside the cavity formed by the ligand. Four nitrogen atoms and four oxygen atoms from the carboxylate functions are involved in the coordination sphere of the cation. However, differences were observed in the bond lengths formed between the cation and the nitrogen atoms (the bonds are somewhat shorter in the case of actinide complexes) as well as the complexation kinetics, which is slightly faster for the actinides(III) than for lanthanide(III) ions of equivalent radius. The same behavior was observed in solution upon complexation of actinides(IV) (uranium, plutonium and neptunium): slow formation of a 1:1 complex (actinide(IV):ligand) in wherein the

  19. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 2 D/F WASTE LINE REMOVAL, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 2; the D/F Waste Line removal at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed the final status survey (FSS) of the D/F Waste Line that provided the conduit for pumping waste from Building 750 to Building 801. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goals of 15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years have been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to final status survey (FSS), were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the US Departmental of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decomissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task at the HFBR. ORISE together with DOE determined that a Type A verification of the D/F Waste Line was appropriate based on its method of construction and upon the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities is being performed in three stages in the process to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 2 of this project included the grouting and removal of 1100 feet of 2-inch pipe and 640 feet of 4-inch pipe that served as the D/F Waste Line. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden, the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the BNL FSP and identified comments for consideration (ORISE 2010). BNL prepared a revised FSP that addressed each ORISE comment adequately (BNL 2010a). ORISE referred to the revised Phase 2 D/F Waste Line removal FSP FSS data to conduct the Type A verification and determine whether the intent odf

  20. Actinide partitioning from high level liquid waste using the Diamex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Blanc, P.; Condamines, N.; Baron, P.; Berthon, L.; Nicol, C.; Pozo, C.; Lecomte, M.; Philippe, M.; Masson, M.; Hequet, C.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of long-lived radionuclides, which belong to the so-called minor actinides elements, neptunium, americium and curium, from the high level nuclear wastes separated during the reprocessing of the irradiated nuclear fuels in order to transmute them into short-lived nuclides, can substantially decrease the potential hazards associated with the management of these nuclear wastes. In order to separate minor actinides from high-level liquid wastes (HLLW), a liquid-liquid extraction process was considered, based on the use of diamide molecules, which display the property of being totally burnable, thus they do not generate secondary solid wastes. The main extracting properties of dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), the diamide selected for the development of the DIAMEX process, are briefly described in this paper. Hot tests of the DIAMEX process (using DMDBTDMA) related to the treatment of an mixed oxide fuels (MOX) type HLLW, were successfully performed. The minor actinide decontamination factors of the HLLW obtained were encouraging. The main results of these tests are presented and discussed in this paper. (authors). 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  2. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data on the evaporation residue cross-sections, in addition to those on mass and angular distributions, are necessary for better understanding of the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in the pre-actinide region. Measurement of mass-resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne+232Th reaction ...

  3. Synergistic extraction of actinides : Part I. Hexa-and pentavalent actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed discussion on the reported literature on the synergistic extraction of hexa- and pentavalent actinide ions, by different combinations of extractants and from different aqueous media, is presented. Structural aspects of the various complexes involved in synergism also are reviewed. A short account of the applications based on synergistic extraction is also given. (author)

  4. Fundamental thermodynamics of actinide-bearing mineral waste forms. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Williamson, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    'The end of the Cold War raised the need for the technical community to be concerned with the disposition of excess nuclear weapon material. The plutonium will either be converted into mixed-oxide fuel for use in nuclear reactors or immobilized in glass or ceramic waste forms and placed in a repository. The stability and behavior of plutonium in the ceramic materials as well as the phase behavior and stability of the ceramic material in the environment is not well established. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste form materials proposed as immobilization matrices. Mineral materials of interest include zircon, zirconolite, and pyrochlore. High temperature solution calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly, understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpy of formation of actinide substituted zircon, zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stability of these materials. This report summarizes work after eight months of a three year project.'

  5. Benchmark Evaluation of Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor Minor Actinide Depletion Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. D.; Gauld, I. C.; Gulliford, J.; Hill, I.; Okajima, S.

    2017-01-01

    Historic measurements of actinide samples in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) are of interest for modern nuclear data and simulation validation. Samples of various higher-actinide isotopes were irradiated for 492 effective full-power days and radiochemically assayed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Limited data were available regarding the PFR irradiation; a six-group neutron spectra was available with some power history data to support a burnup depletion analysis validation study. Under the guidance of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA), the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition (SFCOMPO) Project are collaborating to recover all measurement data pertaining to these measurements, including collaboration with the United Kingdom to obtain pertinent reactor physics design and operational history data. These activities will produce internationally peer-reviewed benchmark data to support validation of minor actinide cross section data and modern neutronic simulation of fast reactors with accompanying fuel cycle activities such as transportation, recycling, storage, and criticality safety.

  6. Speciation, Mobility and Fate of Actinides in the Groundwater at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Dai, M.; Repeta, D.; Wacker, J.F.; Kelley, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides represent important contaminants in the groundwater and vadose zone at Hanford and other DOE sites. The distribution and migration of these actinides in groundwater must be understood so that these sites can be carefully monitored and effectively cleaned up, thereby minimizing risks to the public. The objective of this project was to obtain field data on the chemical and physical forms of plutonium in groundwater at the Hanford site. We focused on the 100-k and 100-n areas near the Columbia River, where prior reactor operations and waste storage was in close proximity to the river. In particular, a unique set of technical approaches were combined to look at the details of Pu speciation in groundwater, as thus its chemical affinity for soil surfaces and solubility in groundwater, as these impact directly the migration rates off site and possible mitigation possibilities one might undertake to control, or at least better monitor these releases

  7. Trivalent lanthanide/actinide separation in the spent nuclear fuel wastes' reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutt, J.; Krejzler, J.

    2006-01-01

    Separation of trivalent actinides, in particular americium and curium, from lanthanides is an important step in an advanced partitioning process for future reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Since the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have similar chemistries, it is rather difficult to separate them from each other. The aim of presented work was to study solvent extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) in a system containing diethylhemi-BTP (6-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine) and COSAN (protonated bis(chlorodicarbollido)cobalt(III)). The system was chosen by several groups working in the integrated EC research Project EUROPART. Several physicochemical properties of the extraction system were analyzed and discussed

  8. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  9. Research needs in metabolism and dosimetry of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: uranium mine and mill tailings; environmental standards; recommendations of NCRP and ICRP; metabolic models and health effects; life-time exposures to actinides and other alpha emitters; high-specific-activity actinide isotopes versus naturally occurring isotopic mixtures of uranium isotopes; adequacy of the n factor; and metabolism and dosimetry;

  10. Transmutation of minor actinide using thorium fueled BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2002-01-01

    One of the methods to conduct transmutation of minor actinide is the use of BWR with thorium fuel. Thorium fuel has a specific behaviour of producing a little secondary minor actinides. Transmutation of minor actinide is done by loading it in the BWR with thorium fuel through two methods, namely close recycle and accumulation recycle. The calculation of minor actinide composition produced, weigh of minor actinide transmuted, and percentage of reminder transmutation was carried SRAC. The calculations were done to equivalent cell modeling from one fuel rod of BWR. The results show that minor actinide transmutation is more effective using thorium fuel than uranium fuel, through both close recycle and accumulation recycle. Minor actinide transmutation weight show that the same value for those recycle for 5th recycle. And most of all minor actinide produced from 5 unit BWR uranium fuel can transmuted in the 6 t h of close recycle. And, the minimal value of excess reactivity of the core is 12,15 % Δk/k, that is possible value for core operation

  11. Actinide extractants for the nuclear industry of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Morisseau, J.C.; Hoel, P.; Guillaume, B.

    1987-06-01

    Non organo-phosphorus extractants properties regarding the extractions of actinides in nuclear fuels reprocessing are presented. N,N-dialkylamides are proposed as alternatives to TBP.N,N'-tetraalkylamides or pentaalkyl propane diamides properties are reported. They show that those bidentate extractants are alternatives to bidentate organophosphorus extractants for actinides (III) extraction from concentrated nitric acid. 11 figs, 15 refs

  12. Separations chemistry for actinide elements: Recent developments and historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.; Choppin, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, the principal mission in actinide separations has changed from production of plutonium to cleanup of the immense volume of moderately radioactive mixed wastes which resulted from fifty years of processing activities. In order to approach the cleanup task from a proper perspective, it is necessary to understand how the wastes were generated. Most of the key separations techniques central to actinide production were developed in the 40's and 50's for the identification and production of actinide elements. Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separations, and selective partitioning of actinides from inert constituents are currently of primary concern. To respond to the modern world of actinide separations, new techniques are being developed for separations ranging from analytical methods to detect ultra-trace concentrations (for bioassay and environmental monitoring) to large-scale waste treatment procedures. In this report, the history of actinide separations, both the basic science and production aspects, is examined and evaluated in terms of contemporary priorities

  13. Potential carcinogenic effects of actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Pasternack, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    Inhalation of alpha emitting actinides delivers a dose to critical cancer sites in the human body. These sites are the bronchial epithelium and cells near bone surfaces. Inhalation of the naturally occurring actinides uranium and thorium in resuspended soil in the air results in a continuous exposure for the global population of about 0.1 fCi/m 3 for each of these actinides. The highest dose is from the natural actinide 230 Th. Over 50 yr, the dose to bronchial epithelium is 0.05 mrad and to bone surfaces 0.4 mrad. In the case of accidental environmental contamination (e.g. near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant) the man-made actinides plutonium, americium and curium could deliver about the same alpha dose to these sites if the soil is contaminated to the same level as the natural actinides (approximately 1 pCi/g). Two nuclear accidents have already produced contamination of about this level. Exposures in this case, however, are to small local populations compared with global exposure for the natural actinides. Significant enhancement of the natural radioactive actinide pollution by combustion of all types of fossil fuel is suspected but not enough data are available to estimate total population doses. (author)

  14. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO 2 at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  15. Actinide recycle potential in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    In the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) development program, the entire reactor system -- reactor, fuel cycle, and waste process is being developed and optimized at the same time as a single integral entity. The use of metallic fuel in the IFR allows a radically improved fuel cycle technology. Pyroprocessing, which utilizes high temperatures and molten salt and molten metal solvents, can be advantageously utilized for processing metal fuels because the product is metal suitable for fabrication into new fuel elements. The key step in the IFR process is electrorefining, which provides for recovery of the valuable fuel constituents, uranium and plutonium, and for removal of fission products. In the electrorefining operation, uranium and plutonium are selectively transported from an anode to a cathode, leaving impurity elements, mainly fission products, either in the anode compartment or in a molten salt electrolyte. A notable feature of the IFR process is that the actinide elements accompany plutonium through the process. This results in a major advantage in the high-level waste management, because these actinides are automatically recycled back into the reactor for in-situ burning. Based on the recent IFR process development, a preliminary assessment has also been made to investigate the feasibility of further adapting the pyrochemical processes to directly extract actinides from LWR spent fuel. The results of this assessment indicate very promising potential and two most promising flowsheet options have been identified for further research and development. This paper also summarizes current thinking on the rationale for actinide recycle, its ramifications on the geologic repository and the current high-level waste management plans, and the necessary development programs. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Physiochemical and spectroscopic behavior of actinides and lanthanides in solution, their sorption on minerals and their compounds formed with macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.

    2010-01-01

    From the chemical view point, the light actinides has been those most studied; particularly the uranium, because is the primordial component of the nuclear reactors. The chemical behavior of these elements is not completely defined, since they can behave as transition metals or metals of internal transition, as they are the lanthanides. The actinides are radioactive; between them they are emitters of radiation alpha, highly toxic, of live half long and some very long, and artificial elements. For all this, to know them sometimes is preferable to use their chemical similarity with the lanthanides and to study these. In particular, the migration of emitters of radiation alpha to the environment has been studied taking as model the uranium. It is necessary to mention that actinides and lanthanides elements are in the radioactive wastes of the nuclear reactors. In the Chemistry Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) the researches about the actinides and lanthanides began in 1983 and, between that year and 1995 several works were published in this field. In 1993 the topic was proposed as a Department project and from then around of 13 institutional projects and managerial activity have been developed, besides 4 projects approved by the National Council of Science and Technology. The objective of the projects already developed and of the current they have been contributing knowledge for the understanding of the chemical behavior of the lanthanides and actinides, as much in solution as in the solid state, their behavior in the environment and the chemistry of their complexes with recurrent and lineal macromolecules. (Author)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of light-actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosh, Eli; Makov, Guy; Shneck, Roni Z.

    2005-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the alpha phases of the light actinide elements Th, U, Np and Pu were analysed. For each of the analysed elements, the Gibbs free-energy was modelled by an explicit function of temperature T and pressure P over the whole relevant T-P range, in a manner compatible with the CALPHAD (Calculation of Alloy Phase Diagrams) method. Several adjustable model-parameters were fitted to available experimental results. The model is based on a new semi-empirical equation of state, which interpolates with Thomas-Fermi type models for the volume and with the Dulong-Petit value for the heat capacity, at extreme pressures

  18. Determination of actinides using ICP-SFMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the determination of the actinides using ICP-MS has steadily increased with the development of systems capable of more sensitive and precise measurements. However, the analysis of less abundant actinides such as Pu and Am is not straightforward due to the need for chemical separation of these elements prior to determination. In many applications of mass-spectrometric actinide analysis, isotope ratio measurements are important, either for the analysis of the isotopic composition of, e.g., U or Pu in the sample, or for quantitative determinations using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In order to achieve high precision and accuracy in an isotope ratio measurement, corrections for instrumentally induced systematic errors, e.g., due to dead-time and mass bias, need to be considered. In this thesis, different aspects of actinide analysis using ICP-SFMS have been addressed. In Papers I and III, separation procedures based on solid phase extraction for Pu, Am and U were developed and evaluated with respect to chemical yield and separation from elements causing spectral interferences. Applications of the analytical procedures developed comprised measurement of the 240 Pu/ 2 3 9Pu ratio in environmental reference materials, and age determination of Pu based on the 241 Pu/ 241 Am and 240 Pu/ 236 U ratios. In the application of different separation procedures for Pu, previously unidentified spectral interferences were discovered. In Paper II, these interferences were identified as lanthanide phosphate ions and the composition and formation of these species with respect to different instrumental parameters were further examined. Due to the importance of precise and accurate isotope ratio determination, a thorough investigation of the instrumental dead time of an ICP-SFMS system was performed. The dead time was evaluated via both isotope ratio and electronic measurements of the output from the detector amplifier. It was found that the overall uncertainty in ratio

  19. Photofissility of actinide nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Pina, S.R. de; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Goncalves, M.

    2001-08-01

    We analyze the recent experimental data on photofissility for 237 Np, 238 U, and 232 Th at incident photon energies above 200 MeV. For this analysis, we developed a Monte carlo algorithm for the nuclear evaporation process in photonuclear reactions. This code is used in association with the multi-collisional model for the photon-induced intranuclear cascade process. Our results show a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the emission of protons and alpha particles at the evaporation stage is an important component for the non-saturation of the actinides photofissility up to, at least, 1GeV. (author)

  20. Thermal decomposition of lanthanide and actinide tetrafluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stabilities of several lanthanide/actinide tetrafluorides have been studied using mass spectrometry to monitor the gaseous decomposition products, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify solid products. The tetrafluorides, TbF 4 , CmF 4 , and AmF 4 , have been found to thermally decompose to their respective solid trifluorides with accompanying release of fluorine, while cerium tetrafluoride has been found to be significantly more thermally stable and to congruently sublime as CeF 4 prior to appreciable decomposition. The results of these studies are discussed in relation to other relevant experimental studies and the thermodynamics of the decomposition processes. 9 refs., 3 figs

  1. Electronic structure of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    In the last few years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the properties of the light actinides. Although these are 5f transition elements formally equivalent to the lanthanide (4f) elements, these materials show a much more varied behavior due to the larger spatial extent and ionizability of the 5f electrons. A review is given of some areas of current interest, especially where hyperfine measurements have played an active role. These include studies of a variety of magnetic phenomena, systematics of isomer shift measurements, and studies of paramagnetic relaxation

  2. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  4. Compilation of actinide neutron nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear data committee has compiled a selected set of neutron cross section data for the 16 most important actinide isotopes. The aim of the report is to present available data in a comprehensible way to allow a comparison between different evaluated libraries and to judge about the reliability of these libraries from the experimental data. The data are given in graphical form below about 1 ev and above about 10 keV shile the 2200 m/s cross sections and resonance integrals are given in numerical form. (G.B.)

  5. Thermodynamics of carbothermic synthesis of actinide mononitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Shirasu, Y.; Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    Carbothermic synthesis will be further applied to the fabrication of nitride fuels containing minor actinides (MA) such as neptunium, americium and curium. A thorough understanding of the carbothermic synthesis of UN will be beneficial in the development of the MA-containing fuels. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out for conditions of practical interest in order to better understand the recent fabrication experiences. Two types of solution phases, oxynitride and carbonitride phases, were taken into account. The Pu-N-O ternary isotherm was assessed for the modelling of M(C, N, O). With the understanding of the UN synthesis, the fabrication problems of Am-containing nitrides are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  7. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The recent Evaluation and Screening study chartered by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has identified four fuel cycle options as being the most promising. Among these four options, the two single-stage fuel cycles rely on a fast reactor and are differing in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The two other fuel cycles are two-stage and rely on both fast and thermal reactors. They also differ in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The current study assesses the impact of recycling minor actinides on the reactor core design, its performance characteristics, and the characteristics of the recycled material and waste material. The recycling of minor actinides is found not to affect the reactor core performance, as long as the same cycle length, core layout and specific power are being used. One notable difference is that the required transuranics (TRU) content is slightly increased when minor actinides are recycled. The mass flows are mostly unchanged given a same specific power and cycle length. Although the material mass flows and reactor performance characteristics are hardly affected by recycling minor actinides, some differences are observed in the waste characteristics between the two fuel cycles considered. The absence of minor actinides in the waste results in a different buildup of decay products, and in somewhat different behaviors depending on the characteristic and time frame considered. Recycling of minor actinides is found to result in a reduction of the waste characteristics ranging from 10% to 90%. These results are consistent with previous studies in this domain and depending on the time frame considered, packaging conditions, repository site, repository strategy, the differences observed in the waste characteristics could be beneficial and help improve

  8. Removal Action Work Plan for 105-DR and 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Projects and Ancillary Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the removal action work plan for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor buildings and ancillary facilities. These buildings and facilities are located in the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site, which is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), in Benton County, Washington. The 100 Areas (including the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas) of the Hanford Site were placed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List under the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA). The DOE has determined that hazardous substances in the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor buildings and four ancillary facilities present a potential threat to human health or the environment. The DOE has also determined that a non-time critical removal action is warranted at these facilities. Alternatives for conducting a non-time critical removal action were evaluated in the ''Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Facilities and Ancillary Facilities'' (DOE-RL 1998a). The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) resulted in the recommendation to decontaminate and demolish the contaminated reactor buildings (except for the reactor blocks) and the ancillary facilities and to construct a safe storage enclosure (SSE) over the reactor blocks. The recommendation was approved in an action memorandum (Ecology et al. 1998) signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and DOE. The DOE is the agency responsible for implementing the removal actions in the 105-D/DR and 105-F Areas. Ecology is the lead regulatory agency for facilities in the 100-D/DR Area, and EPA is the lead regulatory agency for facilities in the 100-F Area. The term ''lead regulator agency'' hereinafter, refers to these authorities. This removal action work plan supports implementation of the non-time critical removal action

  9. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Solid Waste Treatment Facility (T Plant) Fuel Removal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2000-11-16

    This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI.

  10. The electronic structure of the lanthanides and actinides, a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Optical spectra of the two f-element series (the lanthanides and actinides) are comparable in many respects. For the trivalent ions isolated in single crystals, both series exhibit rich, narrow line spectra. These data can be analysed in terms of a parametric model based on a free-ion Hamiltonian plus the addition of a crystal field Hamiltonian. For most systems the agreement between the calculated and experimental energy levels is quite good. In the actinide series there appears to be a correlation between the magnitude of the crystal field and the inadequacy of the fits. The early actinides exhibit multiple oxidation states for which there is no precedent in the lanthanide series. The parametric model mentioned earlier has been utilized for some tetravalent actinide systems with reasonably good results. A selective survey of results describing the similarities and differences of various lanthanide and actinide systems will be given

  11. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.; Fedosseev, Alexander M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier

  12. The radiological impact of actinides discharged to the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Smith, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the radiological effects of releases of actinides to the Irish Sea from Sellafield, the major source. Exposure pathways to man since the commencement of discharges in 1952 are reviewed; the importance of actinides began to increase with increased discharges in the 1970s. With the demise of the porphyra/laverbread pathway due to transport difficulties, the pathway due to fish and shellfish consumption became critical, particularly for actinides through molluscan shellfish. A reassessment on the current basis of effective dose shows that peak exposures to the critical group of about 2 mSv yr -1 were received in the mid-1970s, about 30% of which was due to actinides. Effective doses have since reduced but the relative importance of actinides is greater, due to the interplay of discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and their behaviour in the environment. Additive doses through sea food due to releases of natural radionuclides from the Marchon phosphate plant at Whitehaven are also considered, although the actinide component from this source has been small. Exposures due to actinides from Sellafield via other pathways are shown to be much lower than those involving sea food. Collective doses are also considered; these peaked at about 300 man-Sv to the European population (including the UK) in 1979, with only a few percent due to actinides. As in the case of critical group doses, the relative importance of actinides has increased in recent years within the decreasing total collective dose. For both critical group and collective doses, therefore, the actinide component needs to be kept under review. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste

  14. Arsenic/Radium Removal from Drinking Water by the HMO Process, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Greenville, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, the Town of Greenville, Wisconsin was selected for the Round 2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Arsenic Demonstration Program and a Kinetico Macrolite® pressure filtration system was selected for its ability to remove arsenic. Well reconstruction prior to the ...

  15. Actinide occurrences in sediments following ground disposal of acid wastes at 216-Z-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid acid wastes from a Pu recovery facility at Hanford were released to the ground via structures collectively termed trenches from 1955 through 1962. Data are presented from a study of the microdistribution of Am and Pu in samples from the 216-Z-9 trench. Solution sediment relationships and associated actinide removal mechanisms under acid conditions were studied. Core wells were drilled into the sediments in which this covered trench is located and in the immediate vicinity to obtain samples for quantitative mineralogical analysis and comparison of sediments from various depths of contaminated and noncontaminated areas. Analytical techniques are described and results are reported

  16. The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; White, I.F.; Fleishman, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the potential hazard to man from the disposal of high-level radioactive waste could be reduced by removing a substantial fraction of the actinide elements. In this report the effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of one of the disposal options currently under consideration, that of burial in deep geologic formations, are examined. The results show that the potential radiological impact of geologic disposal of high-level waste arises from both long-lived fission products and actinides (and their daughter radionuclides). Neither class of radionuclides is of overriding importance and actinide separation would therefore reduce the radiological impact to only a limited extent and over limited periods. There might be a case for attempting to reduce doses from 237 Np. To achieve this it appears to be necessary to separate both neptunium and its precursor element americium. However, there are major uncertainties in the data needed to predict doses from 237 Np; further research is required to resolve these uncertainties. In addition, consideration should be given to alternative methods of reducing the radiological impact of geologic disposal. The conclusions of this assessment differ considerably from those of similar studies based on the concept of toxicity indices. Use of these indices can lead to incorrect allocation of research and development effort. (author)

  17. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Ligands for Extracting Actinide Metal Ions from Porous Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joan Brennecke; Mark Dietz; Richard Barrans; Alabert Herlinger

    2003-01-01

    Numerous types of actinide-bearing waste materials are found throughout the DOE complex. Most of these wastes consist of large volumes of non-hazardous materials contaminated with relatively small quantities of actinide elements. Separation of these wastes into their inert and radioactive components would dramatically reduce the costs of stabilization and disposal. For example, the DOE is responsible for decontaminating concrete within 7000 surplus contaminated buildings. The best technology now available for removing surface contamination from concrete involves removing the surface layer by grit blasting, which produces a large volume of blasting residue containing a small amount of radioactive material. Disposal of this residue is expensive because of its large volume and fine particulate nature. Considerable cost savings would result from separation of the radioactive constituents and stabilization of the concrete dust. Similarly, gas diffusion plants for uranium enrichment contain valuable high-purity nickel in the form of diffusion barriers. Decontamination is complicated by the extremely fine pores in these barriers, which are not readily accessible by most cleaning techniques. A cost-effect method for the removal of radioactive contaminants would release this valuable material for salvage

  18. Summary report of third research coordination meeting on updated decay data library for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, M.A.

    2009-07-01

    The third meeting of the Coordinated Research Project on 'Updated Decay Data Library for Actinides' was held at the IAEA, Vienna on 8-10 October 2008. A summary of the presentations made by each participant is given, along with subsequent discussions. The evaluation procedure was reviewed, and a short tutorial session was given on the use of software adopted from the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP). The list of radionuclides under review and evaluation was updated, along with their agreed allocation amongst participants. (author)

  19. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus: S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River. The subcritical limits are 201 g for 241 Pu, 13 g for 242 /sup m/Am, 90 g for 243 Cm, 30 g for 245 Cm, 900 g for 247 Cm, 10 g for 249 Cf, and 5 g for 251 Cf. Association of 241 Pu with an equal mass of 240 Pu increases the 241 Pu limit to a value greater than that for pure 239 Pu. Association of 242 /sup m/Am with 241 Am increases the limit for the mixture to that for dry, theoretical density AmO 2 at isotopic concentrations of 242 /sup m/Am less than approx. 6%. Association of 245 Cm with 244 Cm increases the limit according to the formula 30 + 0.3 244 Cm/ 245 Cm up to the limit for dry CmO 2 . A limiting mass of 8.15 kg for plutonium containing at least 67% 238 Pu as oxide was calculated that applies (provided 240 Pu exceeds 241 Pu) with no limit on moderation. 1 figure, 5 tables

  20. The dose from actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.; Pasternack, Bernard S.

    1978-01-01

    We attempt to evaluate the health effects on local populations from the nuclear power industry. The nuclides which are thought to be most hazardous are the long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium, americium and curium. These long-lived alpha emitters will almost certainly be dispersed in the environment during fuel reprocessing. Their effect is local, not global and at worst a single community could be affected. The most important pathway for exposure to the actinides is through inhalation following resuspension of contaminated soil particles. The most important alpha dose estimates are to cells in bronchial epithelium and cells on bone surfaces. These alpha dose estimates are calculated for a dispersal which contaminates soil with 1 pCi/g of each of the nuclides Pu 238,239 , Am 241 , Cm 242,244 . These bronchial and bone cell dose estimates are compared with those from the naturally occurring actinide 232 Th (and daughters) which are normally found in soil at a level of about 1 pCi/g. (author)