WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinide partitioning-transmutation program

  1. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. III. Transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-07-01

    Transmutation of the long-lived nuclides contained in fuel cycle wastes has been suggested as a means of reducing the long-term toxicity of the wastes. A comprehensive program to evaluate the feasibility and incentives for recovering the actinides from wastes (partitioning) and transmuting them to short-lived or stable nuclides has been in progress for 3 years under the direction of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report constitutes the final assessment of transmutation in support of this program. Included are (1) a summary of recent transmutation literature, (2) a generic evaluation of actinide transmutation in thermal, fast, and other transmutation devices, (3) a preliminary evaluation of 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation, and (4) a characterization of a pressurized-water-reactor fuel cycle with and without provisions for actinide recovery and transmutation for use in other parts of the ORNL program. The principal conclusion of the report is that actinide transmutation is feasible in both thermal and fast reactors, subject to demonstrating satisfactory fuel performance, with relatively little impact on the reactor. It would also appear that additional transmutation studies are unwarranted until a firm decision to proceed with actinide transmutation has been made by the responsible authorities

  2. Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D. W.; Blomeke, J. O. [comps.

    1977-10-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was continued. Summaries of work are given on Purex Process modifications, actinide recovery, Am-Cm recovery, radiation effects on ion exchangers, LMFBR transmutation studies, thermal reactor transmutation studies, fuel cycle studies, and partitioning-transmutation evaluation. (JRD)

  3. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of 99 Tc and 129 I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted

  4. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  5. Actinide partitioning and transmutation program progress report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Tedder, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was initiated at the various sites. This work included the development of conceptual material balance flowsheets which define integrated waste systems supporting an LWR fuel reprocessing plant and a mixed (U-Pu) oxide fuel refabrication plant. In addition, waste subsystems were defined for experimental evaluation. Computer analysis of partitioning-transmutation, utilizing an LMFBR for transmutation, was completed for both constant and variable waste actinide generation rates

  6. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  7. Overall assessment of actinide partitioning and transmutation for waste management purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Croff, A.G.; Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A program to establish the technical feasibility and incentives for partitioning (i.e., recovering) actinides from fuel cycle wastes and then transmuting them in power reactors to shorter-lived or stable nuclides has recently been concluded at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The feasibility was established by experimentally investigating the reduction that can be practicably achieved in the actinide content of the wastes sent to a geologic repository, and the incentives for implementing this concept were defined by determining the incremental costs, risks, and benefits. Eight US Department of Energy laboratories and three private companies participated in the program over its 3-year duration. A reference fuel cycle was chosen based on a self-generated plutonium recycle PWR, and chemical flowsheets based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange techniques were generated that have the potential to reduce actinides in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plant wastes to less than 0.25% of those in the spent fuel. Waste treatment facilities utilizing these flowsheets were designed conceptually, and their costs were estimated. Finally, the short-term (contemporary) risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term (future) risks from deep geologic disposal of the wastes were estimated for cases with and without partitioning and transmutation. It was concluded that, while both actinide partitioning from wastes and transmutation in power reactors appear to be feasible using currently identified and studied technology, implementation of this concept cannot be justified because of the small long-term benefits and substantially increased costs of the concept

  8. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then undergone radioactive decay to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal radionuclides remaining. It was therefore at first sight an attractive concept to recycle the actinides to nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. Thus, investigations of the feasibility and potential benefits and hazards of the concept of 'actinide partitioning and transmutation' were started in numerous countries in the mid-1970s. This final report summarizes the results and conclusions of technical studies performed in connection with a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, started in 1976, on the ''Environmental Evaluation and Hazard Assessment of the Separation of Actinides from Nuclear Wastes followed by either Transmutation or Separate Disposal''. Although many related studies are still continuing, e.g. on waste disposal, long-term safety assessments, and waste actinide management (particularly for low and intermediate-level wastes), some firm conclusions on the overall concept were drawn by the programme participants, which are reflected in this report

  9. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  10. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation. Status and assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Implementation and partitioning technology is intended to reduce the inventory of actinides and long-lived fission products in nuclear waste. Such technology can decrease hazards of pre-disposal waste management and of physical disturbance of a waste repository. An authoritative analysis is given of the technical, radiological and economic consequences of the proposed partitioning and transmutation operations on the present and future fuel cycle options. The report is subdivided to a general part for non-specialist readers, and to a technical systems analysis discussing issues on partitioning, transmutation and long-term waste management. (R.P.)

  11. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have now been established worldwide and, as a result, many countries are pursuing R and D programmes to advance the technologies associated with P and T. In this context, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has organised a series of biennial information exchange meetings to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinides and Fission Products Partitioning and Transmutation is a forum for experts to present and discuss the state-of-the-art development in the field of P and T. Thirteen meetings have been organised so far and held in Japan, the United States, France, Belgium, Spain, the Republic of Korea and the Czech Republic. This 13. meeting was hosted by Seoul National University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) and was organised in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Community (EC). The meeting covered strategic and scientific developments in the field of P and T such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios, the role of P and T in the potential evolution of nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix; radioactive waste management strategies; transmutation fuels and targets; advances in pyro and aqueous separation processes; P and T specific technology requirements (materials, spallation targets, coolants, etc.); transmutation systems: design, performance and safety; impact of P and T on the fuel cycle; fabrication, handling and transportation of transmutation fuels. A total of 103 presentations (39 oral and 64 posters) were discussed among the 110 participants from 19 countries and 2 international organisations. The meeting consisted of one plenary session where national and international programmes were presented followed by 5 technical sessions: - Fuel Cycle Strategies and Transition

  12. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T

  13. Assessment of Partitioning Processes for Transmutation of Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    To obtain public acceptance of future nuclear fuel cycle technology, new and innovative concepts must overcome the present concerns with respect to both environmental compliance and proliferation of fissile materials. Both these concerns can be addressed through the multiple recycling of all transuranic elements (TRUs) in fast neutron reactor. This is only possible through a process known as partitioning and transmutation scheme (P and T) as this scheme is expected to reduce the long term radio-toxicity as well as the radiogenic heat production of the nuclear waste. Proliferation resistance of separated plutonium could further be enhanced by mixing with self-generated minor actinides. In addition, P and T scheme is expected to extend the nuclear fuel resources on earth about 100 times because of the recycle and reuse of fissile actinides. Several Member States are actively pursuing the research in the field of P and T and consequently several IAEA publications have addressed this topic. The present coordinated research project (CRP) focuses on the potentials in minimizing the residual TRU inventories of the discharged nuclear waste and in enhancing the proliferation resistance of the future civil nuclear fuel cycle. Partitioning approaches can be grouped into aqueous- (hydrometallurgical) and pyroprocesses. Several aqueous processes based on sequential separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel have been developed and tested at pilot plant scale. In view of the proliferation resistance of the intermediate and final products of a P and T scheme, a group separation of all actinides together is preferable. The present CRP has gathered experts from different organisations and institutes actively involved in developing P and T scheme as mentioned in the list of contributors and also taken into consideration the studies underway in France and the UK. The scientific objectives of the CRP are: To minimize the environmental impact of actinides in the waste stream; To

  14. IAEA Activities on Assessment of Partitioning Processes for Transmutation of Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Uddharan; Dyck, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    In these days of nuclear renaissance, appropriate management of radioactive materials arising from the nuclear fuel cycle back end is one of the most important issues related to the long term sustainability of nuclear energy. The present practice in the back end of the closed fuel cycle involves the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel by the aqueous based PUREX process for reuse in reactors and the conditioning of reprocessing waste into a form suitable for long term storage. The waste contains mainly fission products and transuranium elements immobilized in glass matrix. However, advanced fuel cycles incorporating partitioning of actinides along with minor actinides and their subsequent transmutation (P and T) in a fast neutron energy spectrum could be proliferation resistant and at the same time reduce the waste radiotoxicity by many orders of magnitude. Considering the importance of P and T on long term sustainability, the International Atomic Energy Agency has initiated many collaborative research programs in this area as part of our advanced fuel cycle activities. This paper presents the current and future activities on advanced partitioning methods, highlighting the challenges associated with these processes, fuel manufacturing techniques suitable for integration with reprocessing facility and the IAEA's minor actinide data base (MADB), as a part of integrated nuclear fuel cycle information system (iNFCIS). (authors)

  15. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  16. Status of the French research programme for actinides and fission products partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focus on separation and transmutation research and development programme and main results over these ten last years. The massive research programme on enhanced separation, conducted by CEA and supported by broad international cooperation, has recently achieved some vital progress. Based on real solutions derived from the La Hague process, the CEA demonstrated the lab-scale feasibility of extracting minor actinides and some fission products (I, Cs and Tc) using an hydrometallurgical process that can be extrapolated on the industrial scale. The CEA also conducted programmes proving the technical feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products by transmutation: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for ADS developments in order to support the MEGAPIE, TRADE and MYRRHA experiments and the future 100 MW international ADS demonstrator. Scenarios studies aimed at stabilizing the inventory with long-lived radionuclides, plutonium, minor actinides and certain long-lived fission products in different nuclear power plant parks and to verify the feasibility at the level of the cycle facilities and fuels involved in those scenarios. Three French Research Groups CEA-CNRS carry out partitioning (PRACTIS) and transmutation (NOMADE and GEDEON) more basic studies. (author)

  17. Legal and regulatory issues regarding classification and disposal of wastes from actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of actinide radioelements in spent nuclear fuel from civilian power reactors is potentially attractive because the resulting wastes might be acceptable for disposal using systems which are considerably less costly than a deep geologic repository. At present, there are no legal or regulatory prohibitions to seeking alternatives to a geologic repository for disposal of such wastes. However, additional laws and regulations would be needed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been reluctant to alter the current framework for radioactive waste management, in which geologic repositories or near-surface facilities are the only disposal options established in law and regulations unless a compelling need for alternatives with intermediate waste-isolation capabilities is demonstrated. There are also important technical considerations which are not encouraging with regard to the development of intermediate disposal systems for wastes from partitioning and transmutation of actinides in civilian spent fuel. First, the wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products. Second, defense reprocessing wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides. Thus, in developing the legal and regulatory framework for alternative disposal systems, there is a need to establish maximum concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides that would be acceptable for intermediate disposal. 19 refs

  18. Actinides transmutation - a comparison of results for PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.

    2009-01-01

    The physical aspects involved in the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides (MA) and fission products (FP) generated by reactors PWR are of great interest in the nuclear industry. Besides these the reduction in the storage of radioactive wastes are related with the acceptability of the nuclear electric power. From the several concepts for partitioning and transmutation suggested in literature, one of them involves PWR reactors to burn the fuel containing plutonium and minor actinides reprocessed of UO 2 used in previous stages. In this work are presented the results of the calculations of a benchmark in P and T carried with WIMSD5B program using its new cross sections library generated from the ENDF-B-VII and the comparison with the results published in literature by other calculations. For comparison, was used the benchmark transmutation concept based in a typical PWR cell and the analyzed results were the k∞ and the atomic density of the isotopes Np-239, Pu-241, Pu-242 and Am-242m, as function of burnup considering discharge of 50 GWd/tHM. (author)

  19. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  20. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  1. Helium and fission gas behaviour in magnesium aluminate spinel and zirconia for actinide transmutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, P.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel, many studies are performed on partitioning and transmutation of actinides. In such a scenario, the long-lived radio-isotopes (mostly actinides) are partitioned from the nuclear waste, and subsequently transmuted or fissioned in a

  2. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  3. Partitioning and Transmutation: IAEA Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.; Monti, S.; )

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The importance of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) processes for sustaining nuclear energy growth in the world has been realised in several countries across the world. P and T processes aim at separation and recycling of actinides including minor actinides (MAs) from the spent fuel or high-level liquid waste. The objective of these processes include reuse of separated fissile materials from spent nuclear fuels to obtain energy, enhance resource utilisation, reduce the disposal of toxic radio-nuclides and improve long-term performance of geological repositories. R and D programmes have been launched in many of the Member States to develop advanced partitioning process based on either aqueous or pyro to recover MAs along with other actinides as well as automated and remote techniques for manufacturing fuels containing MAs for the purpose of transmuting them either in fast reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. A number of Member States have been also developing such transmutation systems with the aim to construct and operate demo plants and prototypes in the next decade. The International Atomic Energy Agency has a high priority for the activities on partitioning and transmutation and regularly organises conferences, workshops, seminars and technical meetings in the areas of P and T as a part of information exchange and knowledge sharing at the international level. In the recent past, the Agency organised two technical meetings on advanced partitioning processes and actinide recycle technologies with the objective of providing a common platform for the scientists and engineers working in the areas of separation of actinides along with MAs from spent nuclear fuels and manufacturing of advanced fuels containing MAs in order to bridge the technological gap between them. In 2010, the Agency concluded a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) related to Assessment of Partitioning Processes. The Agency also conducted a first CRP on

  4. Evaluation of alternative partitioning/transmutation scenarios using transmutation in light-water reactors (LWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Renier, J.P.; Del Cul, B.; Spencer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) studies were made to assess the effects of the existing accumulation of LWR spent fuel in the United States on the capability to partition/transmute actinides using existing and advanced LWR. The concept of treating the oldest fuel first indicated that significant advantages could be gained in both partitioning, transmutation, and in overall cost reduction. The processing scenarios previously evaluated assumed that (1) 2000 MT/year of spent fuel, irradiated to 45 GWd/MT and decayed for 30 years is processed; (2) recovered plutonium and 90% of the neptunium are transmuted in LWR MOX fuel; and (3) minor actinides, consisting of americium, curium, and 10% of the neptunium are transmuted in burnable poison type targets. Results of the previous study showed that significant benefits could be obtained, including (1) lower costs for partitioning and transmutation and for storage of spent fuel, (2) maintenance of proliferation resistance for the fissile plutonium in spent fuels, and (3) extended lifetime for the repository. The lower costs would be achieved primarily because no capital investment for a special transmuter reactor (fast reactor, accelerator-driven system, etc.) would be required. Instead, only existing and new LWRs would be utilized. Moreover, no new storage capacity could be needed for spent fuels and irradiated targets because the number of spent fuel assemblies would remain the same after the scenario is begun. Even though the total inventory of plutonium would rise during the early cycles, ∼98% of the plutonium would be contained in stored spent fuel and would be protected by high radiation (the Spent Fuel Standard). This is because the spent fuel would be reprocessed and re-irradiated at intervals within which the fission products, 137 Cs and 90 Sr, both with half-lives of ∼ 30 years, exist in significantly high concentrations.The lifetime of the repository would be extended significantly because all of

  5. Proposed partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Rawlins, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 14 refs., 10 figs

  6. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1994: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Franken, W M.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the status and progress of the Dutch RAS programme on `Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products` over the year 1994, which is the first year of the second 4-year programme. This programme is outlined and a short progress report is given over 1994, including a listing of 23 reports and publications over the year 1994. Highlights of 1994 were: The completion of long-lived fission-product transmutation studies, the initiation of small-scale demonstration experiments in the HFR on Tc and I, the issue of reports on the potential of the ALMR (Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) for transmutation adn the participation and international cooperation on irradiation experiments with actinides in inert matrices. The remaining chapters contain more extended contributions on recent developments and selected topics, under the headings: Benefits and risks of partitioning and transmutation, Perspective of chemical partitioning, Inert matrices, Evolutionary options (MOX), Perspective of heavy water reactors, Perspective of fast burners, Perspective of accelerator-based systems, Thorium cycle, Fission-product transmutation, End scenarios, and Executive summary and recommendations. (orig.).

  7. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1994: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Franken, W.M.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the status and progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1994, which is the first year of the second 4-year programme. This programme is outlined and a short progress report is given over 1994, including a listing of 23 reports and publications over the year 1994. Highlights of 1994 were: The completion of long-lived fission-product transmutation studies, the initiation of small-scale demonstration experiments in the HFR on Tc and I, the issue of reports on the potential of the ALMR (Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) for transmutation adn the participation and international cooperation on irradiation experiments with actinides in inert matrices. The remaining chapters contain more extended contributions on recent developments and selected topics, under the headings: Benefits and risks of partitioning and transmutation, Perspective of chemical partitioning, Inert matrices, Evolutionary options (MOX), Perspective of heavy water reactors, Perspective of fast burners, Perspective of accelerator-based systems, Thorium cycle, Fission-product transmutation, End scenarios, and Executive summary and recommendations. (orig.)

  8. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Landgren, A.; Spjuth, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Gudowski, W.

    1995-12-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. JAERI R & D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called {open_quotes}OMEGA,{close_quotes} is presented. Under this national program, major R&D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

  11. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, 99 Tc and 129 I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10 -12 /year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of 99 Tc and 129 I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration

  12. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  13. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  14. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  15. Safety and environmental aspects of partitioning and transmutation of actinides and fission products. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 29 November - 2 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    There is considerable interest in many countries in the partitioning and transmutation of long lived radionuclides as a potential complement to the closed fuel cycle. Recognizing this, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee Meeting on Safety and Environmental Aspects of Partitioning and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products, to review the current status of progress of national and international programmes and identify the most important directions of co-operation. The results of the Technical Committee meeting are presented in this document. Refs, figs and tabs.

  16. Safety and environmental aspects of partitioning and transmutation of actinides and fission products. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 29 November - 2 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    There is considerable interest in many countries in the partitioning and transmutation of long lived radionuclides as a potential complement to the closed fuel cycle. Recognizing this, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee Meeting on Safety and Environmental Aspects of Partitioning and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products, to review the current status of progress of national and international programmes and identify the most important directions of co-operation. The results of the Technical Committee meeting are presented in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Status of the French Research on Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The global energy context pleads in favor of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel sources. How we deal with radioactive waste is crucial in this context. The production of nuclear energy in France has been associated, since its inception, with the optimization of radioactive waste management, including the partitioning and the recycling of recoverable energetic materials. The public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Government prepare and pass the December 1991 Law, requesting in particular, the study for fifteen years of solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste, via partitioning and transmutation. At the end of these fifteen years of research, it is considered that partitioning techniques, which have been validated on real solutions, are at disposal. Indeed, aqueous process for separation of minor actinides from the PUREX raffinate has been brought to a point where there is reasonable assurance that industrial deployment can be successful. A key experiment has been the successful kilogram scale trials in the CEA-Marcoule Atalante facility in 2005 and this result, together with the results obtained in the frame of the successive European projects, constitutes a considerable step forward. For transmutation, CEA has conducted programs proving the feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for critical reactors and ADS developments. Scenario studies have also allowed assessing the feasibility, at the level of cycle and fuel facilities, and the efficiency of transmutation in terms of the quantitative reduction of the final waste inventory depending of the

  18. Transmutation of minor actinide using thorium fueled BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2002-01-01

    One of the methods to conduct transmutation of minor actinide is the use of BWR with thorium fuel. Thorium fuel has a specific behaviour of producing a little secondary minor actinides. Transmutation of minor actinide is done by loading it in the BWR with thorium fuel through two methods, namely close recycle and accumulation recycle. The calculation of minor actinide composition produced, weigh of minor actinide transmuted, and percentage of reminder transmutation was carried SRAC. The calculations were done to equivalent cell modeling from one fuel rod of BWR. The results show that minor actinide transmutation is more effective using thorium fuel than uranium fuel, through both close recycle and accumulation recycle. Minor actinide transmutation weight show that the same value for those recycle for 5th recycle. And most of all minor actinide produced from 5 unit BWR uranium fuel can transmuted in the 6 t h of close recycle. And, the minimal value of excess reactivity of the core is 12,15 % Δk/k, that is possible value for core operation

  19. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  20. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the U.S. spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation concept (P-T) has as a mission the reduction by many orders of magnitude of certain undesirable nuclides in the waste streams. Given that only a very small fiction of spent fuel can be rejected by a P-T enterprise, a P-T system must therefore be capable of accommodating a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e. the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure TRU nuclides recovered from discharged LWR fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume nonvariable nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the Department of Energy (DOES) Characteristic Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactor). In addition to quantifying the variability of nuclide composition in current and projected LWR fuel discharge, the variability of the infinite multiplication factor (K ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems. It is shown that actinide compositional variations are potentially significant and warrant further investigation. (authors)

  1. The EU research activities on partitioning and transmutation. From the 4. to the 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.

    1999-01-01

    The European Commission is partly supporting research work on partitioning and transmutation of radioactive waste under the Fourth Framework Programme (1994-1998). This work includes nine research projects. Five strategy studies are evaluating the capabilities of various burners and fuel cycles to limit the production and even destroy the stock of actinides (plutonium and minor actinides). Two experimental projects are aiming at developing techniques for the chemical separation of actinides and two others are dealing with the investigation of transmutation of americium and long-lived fission products. The objectives of these studies are described together with the main results already obtained. The European Union should adopt the 5. Framework Programme (1998-2002) at the end of 1998. The broad lines of the research activities foreseen in partitioning and transmutation and future system under the 5. Framework Programme are briefly presented. (author)

  2. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Tedder, D.W.; Drago, J.P.; Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures

  3. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Emory D.; Renier, John-Paul

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) studies were made to evaluate the feasibility of multicycle transmutation of plutonium and the minor actinides (MAs) in light-water reactors (LWRs). Results showed that significant repository benefits, cost reductions, proliferation resistance, and effective use of facilities can be obtained. Key advantages are shown to be made possible by processing 30-year-decayed spent fuel rather than the more traditional 5-year-decayed fuel. (authors)

  4. Waste partitioning and transmutation as a means towards long-term risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    It has been an idea for some time to reduce the long-term potential hazard of the waste by chemical removal of the actinides as well as some long-lived fission products and their subsequent transmutation in an intense neutron flux. Transmutation would thus shorten the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. It is estimated, that development of such technology would take at least 40 years because facilities would be required to perform a clean actinide and fission product isolation and to fabricate the fuel elements that contained the separated nuclides. This latter requirements would involve a major expansion of new chemical process steps which are not available as yet. Development of new equipment to maintain occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable and to minimize releases of radioactivity to the environment would also be necessary. Partitioning and transmutation should be introduced, if at all, as a long-term decision about new nuclear power technology as a future energy source. With regard to this, R and D work dealing with basic questions seems to be worthwhile, However, the introduction of partitioning and transmutation will not eliminate the need for radioactive waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Separation of actinides and their transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Bathelier, M.; Cousin, M.

    1978-08-01

    Neutron irradiation of long-half-life actinides for transmutation into elements with shorter half-life is investigated as a means to reduce the long-term hazards of these actinides. The effectiveness of the method is analysed by applying it to fission product solutions from the first extraction cycle of fuel reprocessing plants. Basic principles, separation techniques and transmutation efficiencies are studied and discussed in detail

  6. Proceedings of the Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is one of the key technologies for reducing the radiotoxicity and volume of radioactive waste arisings. Recent developments indicate the need for embedding P and T strategies in advanced fuel cycles considering both waste management and economic issues. In order to provide experts a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the P and T field, the OECD/NEA has been organising biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The previous meetings were held in Mito (Japan) in 1990, at Argonne (United States) in 1992, in Cadarache (France) in 1994, in Mito (Japan) in 1996, in Mol (Belgium) in 1998, in Madrid (Spain) in 2000, in Jeju (Korea) in 2002, in Las Vegas (United States) in 2004, in Nimes (France) in 2006 and in Mito (Japan) in 2008. They have often been co-sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The 11. Information Exchange Meeting was held in San Francisco, California, United States on 1-4 November 2010, comprising a plenary session on national P and T programmes and six technical sessions covering various fields of P and T. The meeting was hosted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), United States. The information exchange meetings on P and T form an integral part of NEA activities on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The meeting covered scientific as well as strategic/policy developments in the field of P and T, such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios; radioactive waste forms; the impact of P and T on geological disposal; radioactive waste management strategies (including secondary wastes); transmutation fuels and targets; pyro and aqueous separation processes; materials, spallation targets and coolants; transmutation physics, experiments and nuclear data; transmutation systems (design, performance and safety); handling and transportation of transmutation fuels; and

  7. French fuel cycle strategy and partitioning and transmutation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel sources. How we deal with radioactive waste is crucial in this context. The production of nuclear energy in France has been associated, since its inception, with the optimisation of radioactive waste management, including the partitioning and the recycling of recoverable energetic materials. The public's concern regarding long-term waste management led the French government to prepare and pass the Law of December 1991, requesting in particular the study for fifteen years of solutions to minimising even further the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste, via partitioning and transmutation. At the end of these fifteen years of research, it is considered that partitioning techniques which have been validated on real solutions are at disposal. Indeed, aqueous process for separation of minor actinides from the PUREX raffinate has been brought to a point where there is reasonable assurance that industrial deployment can be successful. A key experiment has been the kilogram-scale successful trials in the CEA-Marcoule Atalante facility in 2005 and this result, together with the results obtained in the frame of the successive European projects, constitutes a considerable step forward. For transmutation, CEA has conducted programmes proving the feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for critical reactors and ADS developments. Scenario studies have also allowed assessing the feasibility, at the level of cycle and fuel facilities, and the efficiency of transmutation in terms of the quantitative reduction of the final waste inventory depending of

  8. Partitioning and transmutation - Technical feasibility, proliferation resistance and safeguardability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Glatz, J.-P.; Magill, J.; Mayer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The advantages of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides and selected fission products are largely discussed and described in literature. The advantages of separation of the long-lived alpha-emitters for the long-term storage of highly radioactive waste have been highlighted. After separation, these nuclides shall be transmuted by means of a dedicated reactor or accelerator driven system into shorter-lived fission products that are less hazardous. This, however, requires the development and implementation of a P and T fuel cycle, involving chemical separation of the minor actinides and the fabrication of MA containing fuels or targets. Concepts for P and T fuel cycles have been developed and technical issues are being addressed in various research programs. With the recognition of the proliferation potential associated with the minor actinides by the IAEA, also the proliferation and safeguards aspects need to be addressed. It is important to raise these points at an early stage of process development, in order to identify potential problems and to develop appropriate solutions. The oxide fuels used worldwide in thermal reactor systems for energy production are reprocessed by aqueous techniques. Therefore these systems, primarily the PUREX process, are fully developed and implemented commercially. Furthermore, the safeguards approach is fully implemented in existing facilities, covering uranium and plutonium. Pyroprocess systems have largely been associated with fast reactors and metallic fuels and their development has therefore only reached the pilot-scale stage and the feasibility of minor actinide (MA) separation still needs to be demonstrated. Hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical reprocessing should however not be considered as competing but rather as complementary technologies. For instance in a so-called double strata concept (foreseen for instance in the Japanese OMEGA project), the PUREX process (first stratum) would be

  9. High flux transmutation of fission products and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Kiselev, G.; Myrtsymova, L.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived fission products and minor actinides accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of power reactors comprise the major part of high level radwaste. Their incineration is important from the point of view of radwaste management. Transmutation of these nuclides by means of neutron irradiation can be performed either in conventional nuclear reactors, or in specialized transmutation reactors, or in ADS facilities with subcritical reactor and neutron source with application of proton accelerator. Different types of transmutation nuclear facilities can be used in order to insure optimal incineration conditions for radwaste. The choice of facility type for optimal transmutation should be based on the fundamental data in the physics of nuclide transformations. Transmutation of minor actinides leads to the increase of radiotoxicity during irradiation. It takes significant time compared to the lifetime of reactor facility to achieve equilibrium without effective transmutation. High flux nuclear facilities allow to minimize these draw-backs of conventional facilities with both thermal and fast neutron spectrum. They provide fast approach to equilibrium and low level of equilibrium mass and radiotoxicity of transmuted actinides. High flux facilities are advantageous also for transmutation of long-lived fission products as they provide short incineration time

  10. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  11. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  12. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  13. The Impact of Partitioning and Transmutation on the Risk Assesment of a Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrani, Naima

    2006-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of radioactive and long lived component from the highly radioactive waste stream in order to reduce or probably eliminate their radiotoxic inventory was the important option for the nuclear waste management. The principal radionuclides contribution to the long term radiotoxic inventory is mostly due to Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products. The conditioning operation can present artificial barriers which are potentially capable of confining the radionuclides within their package for thousands of years. After this time nothing can be predicted. The solubility of the actinides (except Np) is generally low whereas the long lived fission product. particularly 137 Cs, 129 I and in some case 99 Tc, display high mobility In the geosphere. Conditioning of separated long-lived nuclides in appropriate matrices which could serve as irradiation matrix in a delayed transmutation option is a possible outcome for the next decades. The general strategy of introducing Partitioning and Transmutation as an additional waste management option is based on the radiological benefit which is expected from such an option. The short term impact of partitioning would be to reduce long-term radiotoxic inventory of the resulting HLW at the expense of an increase of the operational requirements for the nuclear facilities concerned. Fast neutron spectrum devices (FR or ADS facilities) are more efficient than current LWRs for recycling and transmuting long-lived radionuclides

  14. A review of reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and the implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The current status of the reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of used nuclear fuel are reviewed in the context of assessing the possible application of these technologies to used CANDU fuel. The status of commercial reprocessing is briefly surveyed and recent progress in world R and D programs on the transmutation of FP's and actinides using Accelerator Driven Systems is summarized. The implications of reprocessing for Canada are explored from the point of view of a long strategy for managing used CANDU fuel in terms of the costs of initiating reprocessing domestically at some time in the future including public and occupational radiation doses, and the wastes generated. (author)

  15. Transmutation of LWR waste actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle of actinides to a reactor for transmutation to fission products is being considered as a possible means of waste disposal. Actinide transmutation calculations were made for two irradiation options in a thermal (LWR) reactor. The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies, and transuranic actinides recycled in separate mixed oxide (MOX) assemblies. When all actinides were recycled in a uranium lattice, a reduction of 62% in the transuranic inventory was achieved after 10 recycles, compared to the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from 2 regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after 5 recycles

  16. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the US spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is an advanced waste management concept by which certain undesirable nuclides in spent fuel are first isolated (partitioned) and later destroyed (transmuted) in a nuclear reactor or other transmutation device. There are wide variabilities in the nuclide composition of spent fuel. This implies that there will also be wide variabilities in the transmutation device feed. As a waste management system, P-T must be able to accept (all) spent fuel. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e., the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure transuranic (TRU) nuclides recovered from discharged lightwater reactor (LWR) spent fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume invariant nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Characteristics Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactors). The variability of the infinite multiplication factor (k ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems

  17. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-03-01

    A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year

  18. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year

  19. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

  20. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Drouet, Francois; Ekberg, Christian; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 93}Zr and {sup 126}Sn and activation products ({sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. This separation is necessary to obtain the desired efficiency in the transmutation process in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union sixth framework program project EUROPART. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of minor actinides transmutation to physical and technological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooyman, T.; Buiron, L.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinides transmutation is one of the 3 main axis defined by the 2006 French law for management of nuclear waste, along with long-term storage and use of a deep geological repository. Transmutation options for critical systems can be divided in two different approaches: (a) homogeneous transmutation, in which minor actinides are mixed with the fuel. This exhibits the drawback of 'polluting' the entire fuel cycle with minor actinides and also has an important impact on core reactivity coefficients such as Doppler Effect or sodium void worth for fast reactors when the minor actinides fraction increases above 3 to 5% depending on the core; (b) heterogeneous transmutation, in which minor actinides are inserted into transmutation targets which can be located in the center or in the periphery of the core. This presents the advantage of decoupling the management of the minor actinides from the conventional fuel and not impacting the core reactivity coefficients. In both cases, the design and analyses of potential transmutation systems have been carried out in the frame of Gen IV fast reactor using a 'perturbation' approach in which nominal power reactor parameters are modified to accommodate the loading of minor actinides. However, when designing such a transmutation strategy, parameters from all steps of the fuel cycle must be taken into account, such as spent fuel heat load, gamma or neutron sources or fabrication feasibility. Considering a multi-recycling strategy of minor actinides, an analysis of relevant estimators necessary to fully analyze a transmutation strategy has been performed in this work and a sensitivity analysis of these estimators to a broad choice of reactors and fuel cycle parameters has been carried out. No threshold or percolation effects were observed. Saturation of transmutation rate with regards to several parameters has been observed, namely the minor actinides volume fraction and the irradiation time. Estimators of interest that have been

  2. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Isabelle; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Neumayer, Denis; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93} Zr, {sup 94} To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW, respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Work is progressing in relation to a proposal for the 7th framework programme. This proposal will be aiming at a pilot plant for separation for transmutation purposes.

  3. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  4. Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's political and public discussions on nuclear energy. One of the fields that looks into the future possibilities of nuclear technology is the neutronic transmutation of actinides and of some most important fission products. Studies on transmutation of actinides are carried out in various countries and at an international level. This status report which gives an up-to-date general overview of current and planned research on transmutation of actinides and fission products in non-OECD countries, has been prepared by a Technical Committee meeting organized by the IAEA in September 1995. 168 refs, 16 figs, 34 tabs

  5. ACSEPT-Partitioning technologies and actinide science: Towards pilot facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Caravaca, C.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.; Taylor, R.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Cassayre, L.; Malmbeck, R.; Harrison, M.; Angelis, G. de; Espartero, A.; Bouvet, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ACSEPT works at developing actinide separation processes for advanced fuel cycles. → ACSEPT develops both aqueous and pyrochemical actinide separation processes. → Homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling strategies are both considered in ACSEPT. → Training and education in actinide chemistry are important issues addressed by ACSEPT. - Abstract: Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered worldwide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste and to optimise the use of natural resources. With its multidisciplinary consortium of 34 partners from 12 European countries plus Australia and Japan, the European Research Project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation) aims at contributing to the development of this strategy by studying both hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical partitioning routes. ACSEPT is organised into three technical domains: (i)Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimise and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning (for the heterogeneous recycling of actinides in ADS target or specific actinide bearing blanket fuels in fast reactor) or to grouped actinide separation (for the homogeneous recycling of the actinides in fast reactor fuels). In addition, dissolution and conversion studies are underway taking into account the specific requirements of these specific fuels. (ii)Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores processes selected within FP6-EUROPART. R and D efforts are also devoted to key scientific and technical issues compulsory to set up a complete separation process (head-end steps, salt treatment for recycling and waste management). (iii)By integrating all the experimental results in engineering and system studies, both in hydro and pyro domains, ACSEPT will

  6. Partitioning and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    The world's nuclear power plants have a total installed capacity of approximately 340 GWe. They give rise to an annual volume of approximately 9000 t of radioactive waste, which is reprocessed, separated from its plutonium content, contained, and stored in repositories to close the nuclear fuel cycle. Direct disposal is being discussed as an alternative to this procedure. As repositories in suitable types of host rock are not operational, the only viable solution is long-term interim storage above ground. If the volumes of radioactive waste are to be reduced, the longlived actinides and fission products must be partitioned. Isotope partitioning in accelerators, though still sounding like science fiction, may soon be indispensable as the third way of treating radioactive waste. The use of mixed oxide fuel in light water reactors and fast breeder reactors both help to limit waste arisings and protect the long-term continuity of raw materials supply. However, both require public acceptance if they are to succeed. (orig.) [de

  7. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work.

  8. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work

  9. Scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in the framework of the French Act on Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Meyer, M.; Tiphine, M.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Favet, D.; Arslan, M.; Caron-Charles, M.; Carlier, B.; Lefevre, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French Act on Waste Management, options of minor actinides (MA) transmutation are studied, based on several scenarios of sodium fast reactor deployment. Basically, one of these scenarios considers the deployment of a 60 GWe SFR fleet in two steps (20 GWe from 2040 to 2050 and 40 GWe, as well as, from 2080 to 2100). For this scenario, the advantages and drawbacks of different transmutation options are evaluated: - transmutation of all minor actinides or only of americium; - transmutation in homogeneous mode (MA bearing fuel in all the core or just in the outer core) or in heterogeneous mode (MA bearing radial blankets). Scenarios have been optimised to limit the impacts of MA transmutation on the cycle: - reduction of the initial MA content in the core in the case of transmutation in homogeneous mode to reduce the impact on reactivity coefficients; - reduction of the number of rows of blankets and fuel decay heat in the case of transmutation in heterogeneous mode. The sensitivity of transmutation options to cycle parameters such as the fuel cooling time before transportation is also assessed. Thus, the transmutation of only americium in one row of radial blankets containing initially 10 pc % Am and irradiated during the same duration as the standard fuel assemblies appears to be a suitable solution to limit the transmutation impacts on fuel cycle and facilities. A comparison of results obtained with MA transmutation in dedicated systems is also presented with a symbiotic scenario considering ADS (accelerator-driven system) deployment to transmute MA together with a SFR fleet to produce energy. The MA inventory within the cycle is higher in the case of transmutation in ADS than in the case of transmutation in SFR. Considering the industrial feasibility of MA transmutation, it appears important to study 'independently' SFR deployment and MA transmutation. Consequently, scenarios of progressive introduction of MA options are assessed

  10. Calculation characterization of spent fuel hazard related to partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A. S.; Bergelson, B. R.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Volovik, A.I. . E-mail of corresponding author: geras@itep.ru; Gerasimov, A.S.)

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity is one of important characteristics of radwaste hazard. Radiotoxicity of actinides and fission products from spent fuel of VVER-1000 reactor for processes of burnup, long-term storage, and transmutation is discussed. (author)

  11. An optimization methodology for heterogeneous minor actinides transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, Timothée; Buiron, Laurent; Rimpault, Gérald

    2018-04-01

    In the case of a closed fuel cycle, minor actinides transmutation can lead to a strong reduction in spent fuel radiotoxicity and decay heat. In the heterogeneous approach, minor actinides are loaded in dedicated targets located at the core periphery so that long-lived minor actinides undergo fission and are turned in shorter-lived fission products. However, such targets require a specific design process due to high helium production in the fuel, high flux gradient at the core periphery and low power production. Additionally, the targets are generally manufactured with a high content in minor actinides in order to compensate for the low flux level at the core periphery. This leads to negative impacts on the fuel cycle in terms of neutron source and decay heat of the irradiated targets, which penalize their handling and reprocessing. In this paper, a simplified methodology for the design of targets is coupled with a method for the optimization of transmutation which takes into account both transmutation performances and fuel cycle impacts. The uncertainties and performances of this methodology are evaluated and shown to be sufficient to carry out scoping studies. An illustration is then made by considering the use of moderating material in the targets, which has a positive impact on the minor actinides consumption but a negative impact both on fuel cycle constraints (higher decay heat and neutron) and on assembly design (higher helium production and lower fuel volume fraction). It is shown that the use of moderating material is an optimal solution of the transmutation problem with regards to consumption and fuel cycle impacts, even when taking geometrical design considerations into account.

  12. Evaluation on transmutation performance of minor actinides with high-flux BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, M.B.; Kitamoto, A.; Taniguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of high-flux BWR (HFBWR) for burning and/or transmutation (B/T) treatment of minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP) was discussed herein for estimating an advanced waste disposal with partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The concept of high-flux B/T reactor was based on a current 33 GWt-BWR, to transmute the mass of long-lived transuranium (TRU) to short-lived fission products (SLFP). The nuclide selected for B/T treatment was MA (Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243) included in the discharged fuel of LWR. The performance of B/T treatment of MA was evaluated by a new function, i.e. [F/T ratio], defined by the ratio of the fission rate to the transmutation rate in the core, at an arbitrary burn-up, due to all MA nuclides. According to the results, HFBWR could burn and/or transmute MA nuclides with higher fission rate than BWR, but the fission rate did not increase proportionally to the flux increment, due to the higher rate of neutron adsorption. The higher B/T fraction of MA would result in the higher B/T capacity, and will reduce the units of HFBWR needed for the treatment of a constant mass of MA. In addition, HFBWR had a merit of higher mass transmutation compared to the reference BWR, under the same mass loading of MA

  13. Radiotoxicity of Actinides During Transmutation in Final Stage of Atomic Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Bergelson, Boris R.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Tikhomirov, Georgy V.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of a transmutation mode in final stage of atomic power are analyzed. In this stage, transmutation of actinides accumulated in transmutation reactors is performed without feed by actinides from other reactors. The radiotoxicity during first 20 years of transmutation is caused mainly by 244 Cm. During following period of time, 252 Cf is main nuclide. Contribution of 246 Cm and 250 Cf is 5-7 times less than that of 252 Cf. During 50 years of a transmutation, the total radiotoxicity falls by 50 times. Long-lived radiotoxicity decreases slowly. During the period between T=50 years and T=100 years, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.7 times. For each following 50 years after this period, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.2 times. These results corresponding to neutron flux density 10 14 neutr/(cm 2 s) in transmutation reactor demonstrate that the final stage of a transmutation should be performed with use of high flux transmutation facilities which provide shorter time of transmutation. (authors)

  14. Waste management in future. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Current research and development (R and D) in radioactive waste management is mainly associated with the quantities and toxicity of high level waste and spent fuel. One of the solutions that already exists, but has not yet reached scientific and technological maturity, is the process of partitioning and transmutation (P and T). Partitioning is the selective separation of radiotoxic isotopes from reprocessing streams. After the successive partitioning has been done, the long-lived radionuclides are converted into shorter-lived or stable nuclides by process called transmutation. P and T can reduce the radiotoxic inventory of spent fuel by a factor of 100 to 1000 and can achieve the reduction of time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the uranium ore from 100,000 to 5000 years. To achieve this, the separation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products has to be implemented as early as possible in the fuel cycle strategy. Currently, P and T is still at the research and development stage and it needs to be scaled up, before it can be introduced on an industrial scale, therefore the paper will present the current status of the development of P and T and plans for the future. (author)

  15. Study of minor actinides transmutation in heavy water cooled tight-pitch lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoqin; Shiroya, S.

    2002-01-01

    Minor actinides inhere long half-life and high toxicity. It is an alternative technical pathway and helpful for reducing environmental impact to incinerate minor actinides in spent fuel of nuclear power plants. Because of its high neutron, γ and β emitting rates and heat generation rate, it is necessary to imply more severe control and shielding techniques in the chemical treatment and fabrication. From economic view-point, it is suitable to transmute minor actinides in concentrated way. A technique for MA transmutation by heavy water cooled tight-pitch lattice system is proposed, and calculated with SRAC95 code system. It is shown that tight-pitch heavy water lattice can transmute MA effectively. The accelerator-driven subcritical system is practical for MA transmutation because of its low fraction of effective delay neutrons

  16. Partitioning and Transmutation - Physics, Technology and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reactions can be effectively used to destroy radio toxic isotopes through transmutation processes transforming those isotopes into less radio toxic or stable ones Spent nuclear fuel, a mixture of many isotopes with some of them being highly radio toxic for many hundred thousands of years, may be effectively transmuted through nuclear reactions with neutrons. In a dedicated, well designed transmutation system one can, in principle, reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel to a level, which will require isolation from the biosphere for the period of time for which engineered barriers can be constructed and licensed (not more than 1-2 thousands of years). En effective transmutation process can not be achieved without a suitable partitioning. Only partitioning of the spent nuclear fuel into predetermined groups of elements makes possible an effective use of neutrons to transmute long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable one. However, most of the chemical separation/partitioning processes are element- not isotope-specific, therefore the transmutation of the elements with an existing isotope composition is a typical alternative for transmutation processes. Isotope-specific separation is possible but still very expensive and technologically not matured

  17. Transmutations of nuclear waste. Progress report RAS programme 1995: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Konings, R.J.M.; Bultman, J.H.; Dodd, D.H.; Franken, W.M.P.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Koning, A.J.; Wichers, V.A.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1995, which is the second year of the 4-year programme 1994-1997. An extensive listing of reports and publications from 1991 to 1995 is given. Highlights in 1995 were: -The completion of the European Strategy Study on Nuclear Waste Transmutation as a result of which the understanding of transmutation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products in thermal and fast reactors has been increased significantly. Important ECN contributions were given on Am, 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation options. Follow-up contracts have been obtained for the study of 100% MOX cores and accelerator-based transmutation. - Important progress in the evaluation of CANDU reactors for burning very large amounts of transuranium mixtures in inert matrices. - The first RAS irradiation experiment in the HFR, in which the transmutation of technetium and iodine was examined, has been completed and post-irradiation examination has been started. - A joint proposal of the EFTTRA cooperation for the 4 th Framework Programme of the EU, to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of americium in an inert matrix by an irradiation in the HFR, has been granted. - A bilateral contract with CEA has been signed to participate in the CAPRA programme, and the work in this field has been started. - The thesis work on Actinide Transmutation in Nuclear Reactor Systems was succesfully defended. New PhD studies on Pu burning in HTGR, on nuclear data for accelerator-based systems, and on the SLM-technique for separation of actinides were started. - A review study of the use of the thorium cycle as a means for nuclear waste reduction, has been completed. A follow-up of this work is embedded in an international project for the 4th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig./DG)

  18. Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-04-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for three irradiation options of a light water reactor (LWR). The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies; transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with 235 U enrichment of uranium; and transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with plutonium enrichment of natural uranium. When all actinides were recycled in a uniform lattice, the transuranic inventory after ten recycles was 38% of the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from two regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after five recycles

  19. Technical meeting on 'Review of solid and mobile fuels for partitioning and transmutation systems'. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The topics covered during the Meeting were divided into two Sessions. Session 1 - Qualification of Solid and Mobile Fuels delt with: Neutronic, fuel and material properties of a molten salt transmuter; and Preliminary analysis of transmutation fuels for KALIMER. Session 2 - Reactor Physics and Safety Characteristics of Transmutation Systems based on Solid and Mobile Fuel Types included the following: Activity in NEA for P and T area; IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation; The R and D activity in Brazil: A conceptual fast energy amplifier ADS cooled by helium double stata Th/U fuel cycle; Closed fuel cycle and contemporary tendencies of the nuclear facilities development; Current Russian activities in P and T area; Pyrochemical reprocessing and nuclear spent fuel disposal project; Fuel selection criteria specific for double stratum minor actinide burners.

  20. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aa; Landgren, A; Liljenzin, J O; Skaalberg, M; Spjuth, L [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. Refs, figs, tabs.

  1. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  2. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  3. Projected benefits of actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Goldstein, M.

    1976-05-01

    Possible benefits that could accrue from actinide separation and transmutations are presented. The time frame for implementing these processes is discussed and the expected benefits are qualitatively described. These benefits are provisionally quantified in a sample computation

  4. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, J.D.; Rust, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions

  5. Minor actinides transmutation potential: state of art for GEN IV sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the R and D program relative to the 1991 French act on nuclear waste management, fast neutron systems have shown relevant characteristics that meet both requirements on sustainable resources management and waste minimization. They also offer flexibility by mean of burner or breeder configurations allowing mastering plutonium inventory without significant impact on core safety. From the technological point of view, sodium cooled fast reactor are considered in order to achieve mean term industrial deployment. The present document summaries the main results of R and D program on minor actinides transmutation in sodium fast reactor since 2006 following recommendation of the first part of the 1991 French act. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous management achievable performances are presented for 'evolutionary' SFR V2B core as well as low void worth CFV core for industrial scale configurations (1500 MWe). Minor actinides transmutation could be demonstrated in the ASTRID reactor with the following configurations: - a 2%vol Americium content for the homogeneous mode, - a 10%vol Americium content for the heterogeneous mode, without any substantial modification of the main core safety parameters and only limited impacts on the associated fuel cycle (manufacturing issues are not considered here). In order to achieve such goal, a wide range of experimental irradiations driven by transmutation scenarios have to be performed for both homogeneous and heterogeneous minor actinides management. (author) [fr

  6. Transmutation of minor actinides in a spherical torus tokamak fusion reactor, FDTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Zhang, G.S.; Deng, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a concept for the transmutation of minor actinide (MA) nuclear wastes based on a spherical torus (ST) tokamak reactor, FDTR, is put forward. A set of plasma parameters suitable for the transmutation blanket was chosen. The 2-D neutron transport code TWODANT, the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP/4B, the 1-D neutron transport and burn-up calculation code BISON3.0 and their associated data libraries were used to calculate the transmutation rate, the energy multiplication factor and the tritium breeding ratio of the transmutation blanket. The calculation results for the system parameters and the actinide series isotopes for different operation times are presented. The engineering feasibility of the center-post (CP) of FDTR has been investigated and the results are also given. A preliminary neutronics calculation based on an ST transmutation blanket shows that the proposed system has a high transmutation capability for MA wastes. (author)

  7. Transmutation of fission products and actinide waste at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, L.L.; Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The authors studied the neutronics of an ATW system for the transmutation of the fission products ({sup 99}Tc in particular) and the type of actinide waste stored in several tanks at Hanford. The heart of the system is a highly-efficient neutron production target. It is surrounded by a blanket containing a moderator/reflector material, as well as the products to be transmuted. The fission products are injected into the blanket in the form of an aqueous solution in heavy water, whereas an aqueous actinides slurry is circulated in the outer part of the blanket. For the sake of definiteness, the authors focussed on {sup 99}Tc (the most difficult fission product to transmute), and {sup 239}Pu, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. Because of the low thermal neutron absorption cross-section of {sup 99}Tc, considerable care and effort must be devoted to the design of a very efficient neutron source.

  8. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation. Proceedings of a specialists meeting held in Obninsk, Russian Federation, 22-24 September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today`s discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow `burning` of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs.

  9. European Europart integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Hudson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This poster presents the objectives of EUROPART, a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous FP5 programs named PARTNEW and PYROREP. The two main axes of research within EUROPART will be: The partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from high burn-up UO x fuels and multi-recycled MOx fuels; the partitioning of the whole actinide family for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (and in connection with the studies to be performed in the EUROTRANS integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organised into five Work Packages (WP). Four WP are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparation. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WP, listed hereafter: development of actinide partitioning methods, study of the basic chemistry of trans-curium elements in molten salts, study of the conditioning of the wastes, some system studies. Moreover, a strong management team will be concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe. Training and education of young researchers will also pertain to the project. EUROPART has also established collaboration with US DOE and Japanese CRIEPI. (authors)

  10. World-wide trend of long-lived radionuclides transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Il Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the concepts of partitioning and transmutation studies which are being conducted in several countries. This review was focused on the analysis of such areas as radiotoxicities of radwaste containing long-lived radionuclides, transmutation by reactors or accelerators, and separation of minor actinides. The world-wide trend of partitioning and transmutation studies was also investigated on the basis of each country's R and D activities in this area. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Basic plan of partitioning and transmutation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo; Ozawa, Masaki

    2003-04-01

    Basic plan of partitioning and transmutation technology development has been made in more detail and concrete manner in terms of development goal, nuclides to be portioned and to be transmuted, and development schedule, based on the pre-evaluation results of the Research Evaluation Committee on Research and development of partitioning and transmutation technology for long life nuclides' held in August 2000. A step by step approach, consists of three steps, to reach the goal of partitioning and transmutation technology has been adopted under the recognition that the partitioning and transmutation technology development should be progressed steadily as a long term them. The first step is supposed to be able to attain within about 5 years by the present technology and on the extension of it. Such researches as collective separation of TRU, MA/Ln effective separation, and irradiation experiment of iodine and technetium. The second step is such a goal that is expected to be able to realize the engineering feasibility, within about 15 years, through the progress of science technology in future, although the engineering feasibility is not sufficiently foreseen at present. It will need revolutionary technology or breakthrough. Nuclides to be partitioned and to be transmuted have been selected in view points of 'radioactivity and radio-toxicity', 'geological repository', and 'effective utilization', corresponding to the each step of the development goal. Collaboration with other research organizations and with universities in the world should be pursued. Especially, such collaborations with France, with which information exchange on JOYO/PHENIX irradiation experiments is progressing, and with USA, which has recently developed positive activities in this field, are strongly expected. (author)

  12. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark St. J.; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Wald, Karin (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT now in the 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since a further investigation on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour is required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Due to new recruitments we will now also work on ligand design and development. This will decrease the response time between new ligands and their evaluation.

  13. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on high-level waste disposal for the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and/or transmutation (PT) technology on high-level waste management was investigated for the equilibrium state of several potential fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycles. Three different fuel cycle scenarios involving PT technology were analyzed: 1) partitioning process only (separation of some fission products), 2) transmutation process only (separation and transmutation of minor actinides), and 3) both partitioning and transmutation processes. The conventional light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle without PT technology, on which the current repository design is based, was also included for comparison. We focused on the thermal constraints in a geological repository and determined the necessary predisposal storage quantities and time periods (by defining a storage capacity index) for several predefined emplacement configurations through transient thermal analysis. The relation between this storage capacity index and the required repository emplacement area was obtained. We found that the introduction of the FBR fuel cycle without PT can yield a 35% smaller repository per unit electricity generation than the LWR fuel cycle, although the predisposal storage period is prolonged from 50 years for the LWR fuel cycle to 65 years for the FBR fuel cycle without PT. The introduction of the partitioning-only process does not result in a significant reduction of the repository emplacement area from that for the FBR fuel cycle without PT, but the introduction of the transmutation-only process can reduce the emplacement area by a factor of 5 when the storage period is extended from 65 to 95 years. When a coupled partitioning and transmutation system is introduced, the repository emplacement area can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude by assuming a predisposal storage of 60 years for glass waste and 295 years for calcined waste containing the Sr and Cs fraction. The storage period of 295 years for the calcined waste does not require a large

  14. Evaluation of the possibility of plutonium and minor actinides transmutation in HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, P.; Ghizdeanu, N. B.

    2008-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Until now, for this purpose were studied ADS and/or FBR, but not HWR. There are several developed computer codes that analyze the inventory of the radio-nuclides in spent fuel before and after transmutation. WIMSD code is a deterministic lattice spectrum code, which can analyze the reactor neutronic behaviour It also has the capacity to generate burn up and can calculate the inventory of the radio-nuclides of the spent fuel. The advantage of WIMSD code is the variety of the created geometries, together with the big amount of calculated information (K-infinite, macroscopic cross-sections, burnable material radioactive inventory etc). Starting from WIMSD code, the paper presents a model, which simulates the possibility of fuel transmutation in PHWRs. First step was to propose a model, which simulates a CANDU reactor lattice and calculate the radionuclides inventory in an irradiated CANDU fuel bundle. The results were compared with the existing experimental data from CANDU reactors and the calculated parameters were found to be in good agreement with them. After the validation, several simulations were made for PHWRs in order to establish the optimal parameters, related to the efficiency of the transmutation process. Therefore, the code was used for a new type of fuel, containing Plutonium and minor actinides that could be transmuted. The new radioactive inventories were calculated. The simulations showed that Pu content decreases up to 8% in a CANDU reactor and 25% in an ACR. Thus, ACR can reduce the Plutonium inventory from MOX fuel and could be a transmutation solution. (authors)

  15. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  16. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2007. A report from the Swedish reference group on P-T-research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric; Blomgren, Jan; Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Westlen, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    This report is written on behalf of the Swedish reference group for research on partitioning and transmutation. The reference group has been assembled by SKB and its members represent the teams that are active in this field at Swedish universities. The present report summarises the progress in the field through the years 2004-2006. A prerequisite for transmutation by irradiation with neutrons is that the nuclides to be transmuted are separated (partitioned) from the other nuclides in the spent fuel. In particular the remaining uranium must be taken away unless you want to produce more plutonium and other transuranium elements. Separation of the various elements can at least in principle be achieved by mechanical and chemical processes. Currently there exist some large scale facilities for separation of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel-reprocessing plants. These can, however, not separate the minor actinides - neptunium, americium and curium - from the high level waste that goes to a repository. Plutonium constitutes about 90% of the transuranium elements in fuel from light water reactors. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the aforementioned long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving

  17. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2007. A report from the Swedish reference group on P-T-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Westlen, Daniel [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    This report is written on behalf of the Swedish reference group for research on partitioning and transmutation. The reference group has been assembled by SKB and its members represent the teams that are active in this field at Swedish universities. The present report summarises the progress in the field through the years 2004-2006. A prerequisite for transmutation by irradiation with neutrons is that the nuclides to be transmuted are separated (partitioned) from the other nuclides in the spent fuel. In particular the remaining uranium must be taken away unless you want to produce more plutonium and other transuranium elements. Separation of the various elements can at least in principle be achieved by mechanical and chemical processes. Currently there exist some large scale facilities for separation of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel-reprocessing plants. These can, however, not separate the minor actinides - neptunium, americium and curium - from the high level waste that goes to a repository. Plutonium constitutes about 90% of the transuranium elements in fuel from light water reactors. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the aforementioned long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving

  18. Elimination of waste actinides by recycling them to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then decayed to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal hazardous species remaining. It is therefore at first sight an attractive idea to recycle the actinides in nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. There are good reasons for examining the idea in detail, and studies have been carried out in a number of countries. These have culminated recently in international conferences at the European Joint Research Centre at Ispra in Italy and at Austin, Texas in the USA as well as in the issue of an IAEA Technical Report entitled An Evaluation of Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation, a product of a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, on which the present article is based. The term partitioning refers to the separation of the actinides from nuclear fuel cycle wastes, a necessary preliminary step to their introduction into reactors for transmutation by nuclear fission. The complete scheme will be referred to as P-T, i.e. partitioning-transmutation

  19. Comparative Study of the Reactor Burner Efficiency for Transmutation of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko sq. 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249020 (Russian Federation); Degtyarev, A.; Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Konev, V.; Seliverstov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, ul. B. Cheremushinskaya 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in the closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is a one of the most important problem for future nuclear energetic. There are several approaches for MA transmutation but there are no common criteria for the comparison of their efficiency. In paper [1] we turned out the attention to the importance of taking into account the duration of the closed NFC in addition to a usual criterion of the neutron economy. In accordance with these criteria the transmutation efficiency are compared of two fast reactors (sodium and lead cooled) and three types of ADS-burners: LBE-cooled reactors (fast neutron spectrum), molten-salt reactor (intermediate spectrum) and heavy water reactor (thermal spectrum). It is shown that the time of transmutation of loaded MA in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is more than 50 years. References: A. Gulevich, A. Kalugin, L. Ponomarev, V. Seliverstov, M. Seregin, 'Comparative Study of ADS for Minor Actinides Transmutation', Progress in Nuclear Energy, 50, March-August, p. 358, 2008. (authors)

  20. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  1. Actinides compounds for the transmutation: scientific contributions of american and japanese collaborations; Composes d'actinides pour la transmutation: apports scientifiques de collaborations americaines et japonaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, Ph.; Albiot, T

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the minor actinides transmutation and the scientific contribution of the ORNL and the JAERI. It presents researches on the Am-Zr-Y-O system in the framework of the heterogeneous reprocessing, the curium and pyrochlore structures, with the ORNL contribution and phase diagrams, data of Thermodynamics, actinides nitrides, with the JAERI. (A.L.B.)

  2. Present status of research activities on transmutation of actinides in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    In Japan, the idea to make use of transmutation for the final disposal method of HLW was first examined by Ichimiya, Amano, Hamada et al., when the Japan Atomic Industry forum had organized a study committee for HLW treatment in 1973. This article has the scope to outline the present research activities on transmutation of actinides in Japan

  3. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed.

  4. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L.

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed

  5. Comparison of different options for minor actinide transmutation in the frame of the French law for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, Christine; Leudet, Alain; Saturnin, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the French Act for waste management which has been passed by French Parliament on June 28th, 2006, it is requested to obtain in 2012 an assessment of industrial perspectives of partitioning and transmutation of long-lived elements. These studies must be carried out in tight connection with GENIV systems development. The expected results must include the evaluation of technical and economic scenarios taking into account the optimization options between the minor actinide transmutation processes, their interim storage and geological disposal, including an analysis of several criteria. In this perspective, the CEA has established a working group named 'GT TES' (Working Group on Technical and Economic Scenarios) involving EDF and AREVA to define scenarios, the various criteria to evaluate them, to conduct these evaluations and then to highlight the key results. The group also relied on ANDRA for the geological storage studies. The scenarios evaluations take place in the French context. The nuclear energy production is supposed to remain constant during the scenarios and equal to 430 TWhe/year in accordance with the current French nuclear power installed capacity of 60 GW(e). The deployment of the first Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) starts in 2040, considering that at this date the SFR technology should be mature. Several management schemes of minor actinides have been studied: Plutonium recycling in SFR (minor actinides are sent to the waste). Plutonium recycling and minor actinide (or Am alone) transmutation in SFR and in homogeneous mode ('Hom.'). Plutonium recycling and minor actinide (or Am alone) transmutation in SFR and in heterogeneous mode ('Het.'). Plutonium recycling in SFR and minor actinide transmutation in Accelerator-Driven-System (ADS). The criteria used to analyze these different scenarios, should take into account the viewpoint of scientists, industrials, administrations, and the general public. They are listed below: Inventories and

  6. Technology readiness of partitioning and transmutation toward closed fuel cycle in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kurata, Masaki; Morita, Yasuji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Minato, Kazuo; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats technology readiness level (TRL) assessment of Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) toward closed fuel cycle in JAPAN. The purpose is providing clarified information related to the current maturity of the partitioning and transmutation technologies by applying the methodology of TRL, parallel to attempting to establish common indications among relating technology area. The methodology should be one of useful communication tools between specialists and management level, and also among countries interested in the P-T technologies. The generic TRL in this study is based on the GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership)'s definition: TRL 3 shows the status that critical function is proved and elemental technologies are identified, TRL 4 represents that relating technologies are validated at bench scale in laboratory environment, and TRL 5 achieves the completion of development related to the subsystem and elemental technologies. Detailed indications are established through discussion of the relating specialists. Reviewed technological area includes P-T and minor actinide (MA) cycle: Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) and Accelerator driven system (ADS) for MA transmutation, partitioning processes, and MA-bearing fuels. The assessments reveal that TRL spreads around TRL 3 to TRL 4 because each system requires more the development of elemental technologies. Transmutation core of FBR is assessed to be TRL 4 in that MA bearing integral test is required additionally, and ADS becomes TRL 3 because the elemental technologies were identified and the requirements were specified. Consequently, the common key issue is how the nuclear calculation methodology will be validated for MA-bearing-fuelled core, since several percentages of MA changes the void reactivity and the Doppler Effect significantly, which are inherently important in reactor safety. It should be that critical experiments with several kg of americium or more are difficult in the existing experimental

  7. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Takahashi, H.; Geiger, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 19 refs., 20 figs

  8. Study of nuclear energy systems and double strata scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    The French law of 28 June 2006 regarding advanced nuclear waste management requires a scientific assessment to define future industrial strategies. The present PhD thesis was carried in this framework and concerns specifically the research axis of minor actinides transmutation. A high power Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concept is developed at SUBATECH for this purpose. A 1 GeV proton beam feeds three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. The Multiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS reaches the thermal powers up to 1 GW with a high specific power. A nuclear reactor dimensioning method has been developed and applied to different double strata scenarios. In these scenarios, SFR (Sodium Fast Reactors) or PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) power reactors produce minor actinides that will be transmuted into ADS. In each core (SFR and ADS), the plutonium multi-reprocessing strategy is performed while ADS subcritical core also multi-reprocesses minor actinides. To limit the core reactivity and improve the fuel thermal conductivity, the minor actinides fuel is mixed with MgO inert matrix. Nuclear branches with lead and sodium coolants for the ADS, have been studied for different irradiation times and two transmutation strategies have been assessed: whether whole minor actinides, whether americium only is transmuted. The thesis presents precisely the MUST ADS design methodology and the calculations to get a fuel composition at equilibrium. Then a one cycle evolution is performed and analysed for the fuel and the multiplication factor. Radiotoxicity and thermal power of the waste produced are then compared. Finally, the study of double strata scenarios is performed to analyse the plutonium and minor actinides inventories in cycle and also the waste produced according to the transmutation strategies applied and the first stratum evolution. (author)

  9. A conceptual study of actinide transmutation system with proton accelerator, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, T.; Takada, H.; Kanno, I.; Ogawa, T.; Nishida, T.; Kaneko, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal hydraulics of the accelerator-driven actinide incineration target system based on power distribution profiles to assess the maximum attainable power. In the case of Na cooling, the reference target operates at a thermal power of 404 MW and a beam current of 18.2 mA. The system transmutes 114 kg actinides per year, which implies that the annual actinide products from about 4.3 units of 3000 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) can be incinerated. The Pb-Bi cooled reference target operates at a thermal power of 163 MW and beam current of 5.4 mA. The system transmutes 42 kg actinides annually, and can serve about 1.8 units of PWR. The maximum thermal power can be increased by a factor of about 2 by introducing tungsten pins in the high flux region to flatten the power distribution. The Na cooled tungsten-loaded target operates at a thermal power of 691 MW and beam current of 22.6 mA. The system can serve about 7.6 PWRs. The tungsten-loaded target cooled by Pb-Bi operates at a thermal power of 343 MW at a 9.8 mA beam current. The system can process the actinide from about 3.8 PWRs. (N.K.)

  10. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. 'Buzz' Savage

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is investigating spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies that have the potential to improve the performance of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Separating actinides and selected fission products from spent fuel, storing some of them as low level waste and transmuting them in thermal and/or fast reactors has the potential to reduce the volume, short and long-term heat load and radiotoxicity of the high level waste destined for the repository, effectively increasing its capacity by a factor of 50 or more above the current legislative limit. (author)

  11. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Al Mahamid, I.; Blandin, C.; Chabod, S.; Chartier, F.; Dupont, E.; Fioni, G.; Isnard, H.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Mutti, P.; Oriol, L.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The 241 Am and 232 Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  12. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  13. Development of a fast reactor for minor actinides transmutation - (1) Overview and method development - 5092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Usami, S.; Fujimura, K.; Takakuwa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan has launched a national project entitled 'technology development for the environmental burden reduction' in 2013. The present study is one of the studies adopted as the national project. The objective of the study is the efficient and safe transmutation and volume reduction of minor actinides (MA) with long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat contained in high level radioactive wastes by using sodium cooled fast reactors. We are developing MA transmutation core concepts which harmonize efficient MA transmutation with core safety. To accurately design the core concepts we have improved calculation methods for estimating the transmutation rate of individual MA nuclides, and estimating and reducing uncertainty of MA transmutation. The overview of the present project is first described. Then the method improvement is presented with numerical results for a minor-actinide transmutation fast reactor. The analysis is based on Monju reactor data. (authors)

  14. The French partitioning-transmutation programme, assets and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation studies are covered by the 1991 French law concerning radioactive waste management. The programme is progressing with a dual approach: - What can be done in partitioning-transmutation? At what cost? In what timescale? - How can long-term gains and short-term disadvantages be qualified and quantified? The first approach concerns technical know-how. The studies based on today's technologies are continuing (reactors, fuels and targets, separation of radionuclides by solvents). The second approach involves an assessment activity, based firstly on studies of scenarios. Pertinent assessment criteria must be brought out. (authors)

  15. Comparative study for minor actinide transmutation in various fast reactor core concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, S.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of minor actinide (MA) transmutation property was performed for various fast reactor core concepts. The differences of MA transmutation property were classified by the variations of fuel type (oxide, nitride, metal), coolant type (sodium, lead, carbon dioxide) and design philosophy. Both nitride and metal fuels bring about 10% larger MA transmutation amount compared with oxide fuel. The MA transmutation amount is almost unchanged by the difference between sodium and lead coolants, while carbon dioxide causes a reduction by about 10% compared with those. The changes of MA transmutation property by fuel and coolant types are comparatively small. The effects caused by the difference of core design are rather significant. (author)

  16. Actinides compounds for the transmutation: scientific contributions of american and japanese collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, Ph.; Albiot, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the minor actinides transmutation and the scientific contribution of the ORNL and the JAERI. It presents researches on the Am-Zr-Y-O system in the framework of the heterogeneous reprocessing, the curium and pyrochlore structures, with the ORNL contribution and phase diagrams, data of Thermodynamics, actinides nitrides, with the JAERI. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear transmutation of actinides other than fuel as a radioactive waste management scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Hage, W.; Hettinger, H.; Mannone, F.; Mousty, F.; Schmidt, E.; Sola, A.; Huber, B.; Koch, L.

    1977-01-01

    The bulk of fission products in the high-level waste (HLW) decays to innocuous hazard levels within about 600 years. Actinide waste and a few fission products however represent a potential risk up to some hundreds of thousand of years. An alternative to the disposal of the whole HLW in geological formations is its fractionation, a nuclear transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fission reactors and a geological disposal of the other components. This solution would decrease the potential long-term risks of the geological waste disposal and would also accomodate to the demand of public opinion. The results of studies related to this management scheme are outlined with special reference to areas, where additional effort is required for realistic cost/benefit evaluations. Reactor physics calculations demonstrated the feasibility of actinide incineration in thermal and fast reactors. Obtained transmutation rates are sufficiently high to garantee acceptably small actinide inventories in the reactor in the case of self-generated actinide recycling. It appears that fast breeders could be used as transmutation devices without major additional reactor devlopment work. The thermal power rating of actinide fuel elements and the contribution of actinides and of minor amounts of lanthanide impurities to the neutron economy of the reactor has been evaluated. Sensitivity studies indicated that the results are dependent on the reactor operation mode and on the accuracy of the nuclear data. These calculations permitted the identification of isotopes for which cross section masurements and improved theoretical methods are required. The chemical separation of actinides from the HLW with the envisaged decontamination factors is being studied by solvent extraction and precipitation techniques using waste simulates and samples of high activity waste from European reprocessing plants. Up to now, the obtained results do not yet allow a definitive judgement on the feasibility of actinides

  18. Transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. A contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem; Transmutation radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Kernkraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Verringerung der Endlagerproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, Manfred [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management

    2015-07-01

    The brochure on transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants - a contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem covers the following issues: What is transmutation? Nuclear power in Germany; energy density of fuels; time span of energy resources; CO{sub 2} emissions from different energy sources; types of nuclear power plants in Germany; cost of German electricity generation plants; nuclear power plants worldwide; wastes from nuclear electricity production; radiation from fission products; radiation effects on humans, the nuclear fuel cycle, direct final disposal of radioactive wastes; risk assessment of the direct final disposal; partitioning of actinides; transmutation of actinides.

  19. On the use of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boshoven, J.G.; Hein, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Zhang, H.; Meeldijk, J.D.; Woensdregt, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides are investigated. The results of laboratory experiments, thermodynamic calculations and irradiations in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten are presented, and allow us to evaluate the potential of spinel as an inert matrix for fuels and targets for transmutation. (author)

  20. R and D activities for partitioning and transmutation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung, Yoo; Won-Seok, Park

    2003-01-01

    According to the long-term plan of nuclear technology development, KAERI is conducting a research and development project of transmutation with the objective of key technology development in the areas of partitioning and transmutation system. The research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides are introduced in this work. The studies of partitioning are focused on the electrorefining and electrowinning, which are aimed at investigating the thermodynamic properties of electrodeposition behaviours as well as the separation efficiency. As for the transmutation system, the HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) combined by a proton accelerator and a sub-critical reactor is being studied in KAERI as a prominent candidate facility in the future. Some conceptual studies are being conducted to develop key elemental systems of the sub-critical reactor such as the core, TRU fuel, proton target, and the cooling system. The conceptual design of the HYPER system will be completed by 2006. (author)

  1. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2004-02-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products and activation products. To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to obtain are the one between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and the one between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to obtain separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union project PARTNEW. This project was a part of the fifth framework programme and was concluded in September 2003, but the work is continued in the sixth framework programme under the acronym EUROPART (start January 2004). We mainly cooperate with the Univ. of Reading, which send us new nitrogen containing ligands for evaluation of their extraction properties. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry of these systems but also to study some process behaviour for future full-scale plants.

  2. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.

    2004-02-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products and activation products. To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to obtain are the one between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and the one between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to obtain separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union project PARTNEW. This project was a part of the fifth framework programme and was concluded in September 2003, but the work is continued in the sixth framework programme under the acronym EUROPART (start January 2004). We mainly cooperate with the Univ. of Reading, which send us new nitrogen containing ligands for evaluation of their extraction properties. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry of these systems but also to study some process behaviour for future full-scale plants

  3. Target fuels for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, J.; King, J.; Shayer, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate transmutation fuels for plutonium and minor actinide destruction in LWRs. • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We evaluate spectral shift absorber coatings to improve transmutation performance. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, containing approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are a preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a nearer-term solution. This study considers a method for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in existing light water reactors and evaluates a variety of transmutation fuels to provide a common basis for comparison and to determine if any single target fuel provides superior transmutation properties. A model developed using the NEWT module in the SCALE 6.1 code package provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel rods in the present study. The target fuels (MOX, PuO_2, Pu_3Si_2, PuN, PuUZrH, PuZrH, PuZrHTh, and PuZrO_2) are evaluated over a 1400 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) interval to ensure each assembly remained critical over the entire burnup period. The MOX (5 wt% PuO_2), Pu_0_._3_1ZrH_1_._6Th_1_._0_8, and PuZrO_2MgO (8 wt% Pu) fuels result in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the lowest rate of curium-244 production. This study selected eleven different burnable absorbers (B_4C, CdO, Dy_2O_3, Er_2O_3, Eu_2O_3, Gd_2O_3, HfO_2, In_2O_3, Lu_2O_3, Sm_2O_3, and TaC) for evaluation as spectral shift absorber coatings on the outside of the fuel pellets to determine if an absorber coating can improve the transmutation properties of the target fuels. The PuZrO_2MgO (8 wt% Pu) target fuel with a coating of Lu_2O_3 resulted in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the greatest reduction in curium

  4. Target fuels for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Shayer, Z., E-mail: zshayer@mines.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate transmutation fuels for plutonium and minor actinide destruction in LWRs. • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We evaluate spectral shift absorber coatings to improve transmutation performance. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, containing approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are a preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a nearer-term solution. This study considers a method for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in existing light water reactors and evaluates a variety of transmutation fuels to provide a common basis for comparison and to determine if any single target fuel provides superior transmutation properties. A model developed using the NEWT module in the SCALE 6.1 code package provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel rods in the present study. The target fuels (MOX, PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, PuN, PuUZrH, PuZrH, PuZrHTh, and PuZrO{sub 2}) are evaluated over a 1400 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) interval to ensure each assembly remained critical over the entire burnup period. The MOX (5 wt% PuO{sub 2}), Pu{sub 0.31}ZrH{sub 1.6}Th{sub 1.08}, and PuZrO{sub 2}MgO (8 wt% Pu) fuels result in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the lowest rate of curium-244 production. This study selected eleven different burnable absorbers (B{sub 4}C, CdO, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TaC) for evaluation as spectral shift absorber coatings on the outside of the fuel pellets to determine if an absorber coating can improve the transmutation properties of the target fuels. The PuZrO{sub 2}MgO (8 wt% Pu) target

  5. Study on neutron spectrum for effective transmutation of minor actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Yokoyama, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides (MAs) has been investigated in thermal reactor cells using mixed oxide fuel with MAs. The effect of neutron spectra on transmutation is studied by changing the neutron spectra. Five transmutation rates are compared: direct fission incineration rate, capture transmutation rate, consumption rate, overall fission incineration rate and inventory difference transmutation rate. The relations between these transmutation rates and their dependence on the neutron spectrum were investigated. To effectively incinerate MAs it is necessary to maximize the overall fission incineration rate and the inventory difference transmutation rate. These transmutation rates become maximum when the fraction of neutrons below 1 eV is about 8% for the case where the MA addition is 1-3%. When the MA addition is over 5%, the transmutation rates become maximum for very hard neutron spectrum. (Author)

  6. Homogeneous Minor Actinide Transmutation in SFR: Neutronic Uncertainties Propagation with Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiron, L.; Plisson-Rieunier, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of next generation fast reactor design, the minimisation of nuclear waste production is one of the key objectives for current R and D. Among the possibilities studied at CEA, minor actinides multi-recycling is the most promising industrial way achievable in the near-term. Two main management options are considered: - Multi-recycling in a homogeneous way (minor actinides diluted in the driver fuel). If this solution can help achieving high transmutation rates, the negative impact of minor actinides on safety coefficients allows only a small fraction of the total heavy mass to be loaded in the core (∼ few %). - Multi-recycling in heterogeneous way by means of Minor Actinide Bearing Blanket (MABB) located at the core periphery. This solution offers more flexibility than the previous one, allowing a total minor actinides decoupled management from the core fuel. As the impact on feedback coefficient is small larger initial minor actinide mass can be loaded in this configuration. Starting from a breakeven Sodium Fast Reactor designed jointly by CEA, Areva and EdF teams, the so called SFR V2B, transmutation performances have been studied in frame on the French fleet for both options and various specific isotopic management (all minor actinides, americium only, etc.). Using these results, a sensitivity study has been performed to assess neutronic uncertainties (i.e coming from cross section) on mass balance on the most attractive configurations. This work in based on a new implementation of sensitivity on concentration with depletion in the ERANOS code package. Uncertainties on isotopes masses at the end of irradiation using various variance-covariance is discussed. (authors)

  7. State-of-art technology of fuels for burning minor actinides. An OECD/NEA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Konings, R.J.M.; Pillon, S.; Schram, R.P.C.; Verwerft, M.; Wallenius, J.

    2005-01-01

    At OECD/NEA, Working Party on Scientific Issues in Partitioning and Transmutation was formed for 2000-2004, which studied the status and trends of scientific issues in Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T). The study included the scientific and technical issues of fuels and materials, which are related to dedicated systems for transmutation. This paper summarizes the state-of-art technology of the fuels for burning minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium). (author)

  8. Recent research and development activities on partitioning and transmutation of radioactive nuclides in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have been promoted under the OMEGA programme for more than 15 years. These activities were reviewed by the Atomic Energy Commission in Japan in 2000. In accordance with the results of the review, three institutes, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), are continuing the research and development on the P and T technology. This report summarises the recent activities in Japan by these institutes. JAERI is engaging in the research and development on the Double-strata Fuel Cycle concept consisting of the partitioning process of the high-level waste and the dedicated transmutation cycle using the accelerator driven system (ADS) fuelled with the minor actinide (MA) nitride fuel. JNC and CRIEPI are engaging in the research and development on the P and T technology using commercialized fast reactors (FR), where JNC is mainly in charge of the MOX fuel and the aqueous reprocessing, while CRIEPI is mainly in charge of the metallic fuel and the dry reprocessing. The research and development activities on FR are organised under the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems. (authors)

  9. EUROPART: an European integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Baron, P.; Hudson, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The EUROPART project is a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, from 10 countries, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6, together with CRIEPI from Japan and ANSTO from Australia. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of the treatment of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous European FP5 programs named PARTNEW, CALIXPART and PYROREP, respectively. The two main axes of research within EUROPART are: 1/ the partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from wastes issuing from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX fuels and multi-recycled MOX fuels, 2/ the partitioning of the whole actinide family of elements for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (this work will be connected to the studies to be performed within the EUROTRANS European integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organized in five Work Packages (WP). Four are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods and of solid extractants, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparations. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WPs, listed hereafter: (i) study of the basic chemistry of transuranium elements and of some fission products in molten salts (chlorides, fluorides), (ii) development of actinide partitioning methods, (iii) study of the conditioning of the salt wastes, (iv) system studies. Moreover, a strong management team is concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe

  10. Fast molten salt reactor-transmuter for closing nuclear fuel cycle on minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, A. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Creation fast critical molten salt reactor for burning-out minor actinides and separate long-living fission products in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is the most perspective and actual direction. The reactor on melts salts - molten salt homogeneous reactor with the circulating fuel, working as burner and transmuter long-living radioactive nuclides in closed nuclear fuel cycle, can serve as an effective ecological cordon from contamination of the nature long-living radiotoxic nuclides. High-flux fast critical molten-salt nuclear reactors in structure of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of the future nuclear power can effectively burning-out / transmute dangerous long-living radioactive nuclides, make radioisotopes, partially utilize plutonium and produce thermal and electric energy. Such reactor allows solving the problems constraining development of large-scale nuclear power, including fueling, minimization of radioactive waste and non-proliferation. Burning minor actinides in molten salt reactor is capable to facilitate work solid fuel power reactors in system NP with the closed nuclear fuel cycle and to reduce transient losses at processing and fabrications fuel pins. At substantiation MSR-transmuter/burner as solvents fuel nuclides for molten-salt reactors various salts were examined, for example: LiF - BeF2; NaF - LiF - BeF2; NaF-LiF ; NaF-ZrF4 ; LiF-NaF -KF; NaCl. RRC 'Kurchatov institute' together with other employees have developed the basic design reactor installations with molten salt reactor - burner long-living nuclides for fluoride fuel composition with the limited solubility minor actinides (MAF3 10 mol %) allows to develop in some times more effective molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum - burner/ transmuter of the long-living radioactive waste. In high-flux fast reactors on melts salts within a year it is possible to burn ∼300 kg minor actinides per 1 GW thermal power of reactor. The technical and economic estimation given power

  11. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on the high level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romero, Enrique-Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The contribution is structured as follows: (i) Background on partitioning and transmutation; (ii) FP6 projects: RED-IMPACT; (iii) Advanced fuel cycle scenarios; (iv) Partitioning and transmutation expected performance; (v) Impact on the HLW thermal load; (vi) Impact on the deep geological disposal; and (vii) Impact on the performance assessment of deep geological disposal. (P.A.)

  12. Advances in Metallic Fuels for High Burnup and Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S. L.; Harp, J. M.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Fielding, R. S.; Mariani, R. D.; Carmack, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels in the US are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. A number of metallic fuel design innovations are under investigation with a view toward significantly increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels, since higher discharge burnups equate to lower potential actinide losses during recycle. Promising innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smeared density in order to accommodate the additional swelling expected as burnups increase, 2) utilizing an annular fuel geometry for better geometrical stability at low smeared densities, as well as the potential to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, and 3) minor alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products inside the metallic fuel matrix and prevent their transport to the cladding resulting in fuel-cladding chemical interaction. This paper presents results from these efforts to advance metallic fuel technology in support of high burnup and actinide transmutation objectives. Highlights include examples of fabrication of low smeared density annular metallic fuels, experiments to identify alloy additions effective in immobilizing lanthanide fission products, and early postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels having low smeared densities and palladium additions for fission product immobilization.

  13. Comparative study of accelerator driven system (ADS) of different transmutation scenarios for actinides in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid-Segura, M.; Gonzalez Romero, M.E.; Perez Parra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. In recent years transmutation has raised as a complementary option to solve the problem of the long-lived radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. The main advantages expected from transmutation are the reduction in volume of the high level waste and a significant decrease in the long-term radiotoxicity inventory, with a probable impact in the final costs and potential risks of the geological repository. This paper will describe the evaluation of different systems proposed for actinide transmutation, their integration in the waste management process, their viability, performances and limitations. Particular attention is taking of comparing transmutation scenarios where the actinides are transmuted inside fertile (U, Th) or inert matrix. This study has been supported by ENRESA inside the CIEMAT-ENRESA collaboration for the study of long-lived isotope transmutation. (authors)

  14. Performances of actinide transmutation based accelerator-driven systems (ADS) at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid, M.; Cano, D.; Gonzales, E.; Villamarin, D.

    2000-01-01

    The FACET group at CIEMAT is studying the properties and potentialities of several liquid metal-cooled ADS designs for actinide and fission product. transmutation. The main characteristics of these systems are the use of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic as primary coolant, moderator and fuels made by transuranics. The program has two main research lines. The first one is dedicated to the development of concepts, designs, operation models and computer simulation tools characteristics of this kind of systems. The second line includes tlte participation and tlte data analysis of the most advanced experiments in the field and international benchmarks. (authors)

  15. Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfelder, J.

    1992-01-01

    Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain to the water table. Discharge rates at the water table are calculated and used in a model for transport to the accessible environment, defined to be five kilometers from the repository edge. Concentrations and dose rates at the accessible environment from spent fuel and wastes from reprocessing, with partitioning and transmutation, are calculated. Partitioning and transmutation of LWR and ALMR spent fuel reduces the inventories of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in the high-level waste by factors of 40 to 500. However, because release rates of all of the actinides except curium are limited by solubility and are independent of package inventory, they are not reduced correspondingly. Only for curium is the repository release rate much lower for reprocessing wastes

  16. Transmutation studies of minor actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Marie, F.; Roettger, S.; Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Integral measurements of nuclear data and of the transmutation potential in specific neutron fluxes, constitute the fastest and essential way to overcome to the large uncertainties present in the nuclear data libraries. In the frame of the activities of the Directorate for Science of Matter (DSM) of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA), a new project is proposed so as to carry out integral measurements relevant for nuclear waste transmutation systems. A new beam tube will be installed to irradiate actinides and fission fragment samples at different distances from the fuel element of the ILL reactor. Variable neutron energy spectra could then be obtained by choosing the distance between the sample and the fuel element, opening the way to the determination of the ideal physical conditions to incinerate nuclear waste in hybrid transmutation systems. (author)

  17. Minor actinides transmutation performance in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for calculating MA transmutation for individual nuclides has been proposed by introducing two formulas of the MA transmutation. One corresponds to the difference of MA amounts, and the other corresponds to the sum of the fission amounts and the plutonium production amounts. • Using the method the MA transmutation was calculated for Np-237 and Am-241 in a fast reactor. The burnup period was changed from 1 year to 12 year. • For the 1 year burnup a large amount of Am-242m, Cm-242 are produced from Am-241. The total MA transmutation amount increases with burnup time, but its gradient with respect to burnup time decreases after 9 years, and the transmutation amount by overall fission increases almost linearly with burnup time. • However, after the 6 year burnup the fission contribution became large because of the large production of Pu isotopes from the original Am-241. • In addition to the homogeneous loading of the MA nuclides into the cores, a heterogeneous loading of Am-241 to the blanket region was considered. - Abstract: Results obtained in the project named “Study on Minor Actinides Transmutation using Monju Data”, which has been sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT) are described. In order to physically understand transmutation of individual MA nuclides in fast reactors, a new method was developed in which the MAs transmutation is interpreted by two formulas. One corresponds to the difference of individual MA nuclides amounts before and after a burnup period, and the other is the sum of amount of fission of a relevant MA nuclide and the net plutonium production from the MA nuclide during a burnup period. The method has been applied to two fast reactors with MA fuels loaded in cores homogeneously and in a blanket region heterogeneously. Numerical results of MA transmutation for the two reactors are shown.

  18. Liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning is examined for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Program currently under study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Centrifugation might have application for the separation of the LiF-BeF 2 salt from heavier radioactive materials fission product and actinides in the separation of fission product from actinides, in the isotope separation of fission-product cesium before transmutation of the 137 Cs and 135 Cs, and in the removal of spallation product from the liquid lead target. It is found that useful chemical separations should be possible using existing materials for the centrifuge construction for all four cases with the actinide fraction in fission product perhaps as low as 1 part in 10 7 and the fraction of 137 CS in 133 Cs being as low as a few parts in 10 5 . A centrifuge cascade has the advantage that it can be assembled and operated as a completely closed system without a waste stream except that associated with maintenance or replacement of centrifuge components

  19. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  20. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  1. Neutronics design study on a minor actinide burner for transmuting spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    1998-08-01

    A liquid metal reactor was designed for the primary purpose of burning the minor actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. The design was constrained to maintain acceptable safety performance as measured by the burnup reactivity swing, the doppler coefficient, and the sodium void worth. Sensitivity studies were performed for homogeneous and decoupled core designs, and a minor actinide burner design was determined to maximize actinide consumption and satisfy safety constraints. One of the principal innovations was the use of two core regions, with a fissile plutonium outer core and an inner core consisting only of minor actinides. The physics studies performed here indicate that a 1200 MWth core is able to transmute the annual minor actinide inventory of about 16 LWRs and still exhibit reasonable safety characteristics. (author). 34 refs., 22 tabs., 14 figs

  2. Actinide nitride ceramic transmutation fuels for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, St.; McClellan, K.; Stanek, Ch.; Maloy, St.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The transmutation of plutonium and other minor actinides is an important component of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is currently considering mono-nitrides as potential transmutation fuel material on account of the mutual solubility of actinide mono-nitrides as well as their desirable thermal characteristics. The feedstock is most commonly produced by a carbothermic reduction/nitridisation process, as it is for this programme. Fuel pellet fabrication is accomplished via a cold press/sinter approach. In order to allow for easier investigation of the synthesis and fabrication processes, surrogate material studies are used to compliment the actinide activities. Fuel compositions of particular interest denoted as low fertile (i.e. containing uranium) and non-fertile (i.e. not containing uranium) are (PuAmNp) 0.5 U 0.5 N and (PuAm) 0.42 Zr 0.58 N, respectively. The AFCI programme is investigating the validity of these fuel forms via Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Phenix irradiations. Here, we report on the recent progress of actinide-nitride transmutation fuel development and production for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment. Furthermore, we highlight specific cases where the complimentary approach of surrogate studies and actinide development aid in the understanding complex material issues. In order to allow for easier investigation of the fundamental materials properties, surrogate materials have been used. The amount of surrogate in each compound was determined by comparing both molar concentration and lattice parameter mismatch via Vegard Law. Cerium was chosen to simultaneously substitute for Pu, Am and Np, while depleted U was chosen to substitute for enriched U. Another goal of this work was the optimisation of added graphite during carbothermic reduction in order to minimise the duration of the carbon removal step (i.e. heat treatment under H 2 containing gas). One proposed

  3. Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced

  4. The irradiation test program for transmutation in the French Phenix fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Chaucheprat, P.; Fontaine, B.; Brunon, E.

    2004-01-01

    Put on commercial operation in July 1974, the French fast reactor Phenix reached a 100 000 hours operation time in september 2003. When the French law relative to long lived radioactive waste management was promulgated on December 1991, priority was given to Phenix to be run as a research reactor and to carry on a wide irradiation program dedicated to study transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. After a major renovation program required to extend the reactor lifetime, Phenix power buildup took place in 2003. Experimental irradiations have been loaded in the core, involving components for heterogeneous and homogeneous transmutation modes, americium targets, technetium 99 metal pins and isolated isotopes for integral cross-sections measurements. Associated post- irradiated examination programs are already underway or planned. With new experiments to be loaded in the core in 2006 the Phenix reactor remains to be a powerful tool providing an important experimental data on fast reactors and on transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products, as well as it will contribute to gain further experience in the framework of the GENERATION IV International Forum. (authors)

  5. Transmutation of waste actinides in thermal reactors: survey calculations of candidate irradiation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1978-11-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for twelve specific thermal reactor environments. The calculations included H 2 O-moderated reactor lattices with enriched U, recycled Pu, and 233 ' 235 U-Th. In addition two D 2 O reactor cases were calculated. When all actinides were recycled into 235 U-enriched fuel, about 10 percent of the transuranic actinides were fissioned per 3-year fuel cycle. About 9 percent of the actinides were fissioned per 3-year fuel cycle when waste actinides (no U or Pu) were irradiated in separate target rods in a U-fuel assembly. When actinides were recycled in separate target assemblies, the fission rate was strongly dependent on the specific loading of the target. Fission rates of 5 to 10 percent per 3-year fuel cycle were observed

  6. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  7. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  8. Fuels and targets for incineration and transmutation of actinides: the ITU programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Glatz, J.P.; Haas, D.; Konings, R.J.M.; Somers, J.; Toscano, E.; Walker, C.T.; Wegen, D.

    2000-01-01

    The ITU programme for the development of fuels and targets for transmutation of actinides is presented. The fabrication of various types of oxide fuels/targets by dust-free processes is described. Selected results of post-irradiation examinations of irradiation experiments (SUPERFACT, TRABANT-1, EFTTRA-T4) are presented to demonstrate the irradiation behaviour of these fuels/targets. Finally, the future developments at ITU in this field are described, including the new shielded facility (the MA lab) for fabrication of minor actinide fuels. (authors)

  9. Fuels and targets for incineration and transmutation of actinides: the ITU programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Glatz, J.P.; Haas, D.; Konings, R.J.M.; Somers, J.; Toscano, E.; Walker, C.T.; Wegen, D. [Eurpean Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Kurlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The ITU programme for the development of fuels and targets for transmutation of actinides is presented. The fabrication of various types of oxide fuels/targets by dust-free processes is described. Selected results of post-irradiation examinations of irradiation experiments (SUPERFACT, TRABANT-1, EFTTRA-T4) are presented to demonstrate the irradiation behaviour of these fuels/targets. Finally, the future developments at ITU in this field are described, including the new shielded facility (the MA lab) for fabrication of minor actinide fuels. (authors)

  10. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    necessary for commercial fuel processing supporting transmutation of transplutonium elements. This research project continued basic themes investigated by this research group during the past decade. In the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program at DOE, the current favorite process for accomplishing the separation of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides is the TALSPEAK process. TALSPEAK is a solvent extraction method (developed at Oak Ridge National Lab in the 1960s) based on the combination of a cation exchanging extractant (e.g., HDEHP), an actinide-selective aminopolycarboxylate complexing agent (e.g., DTPA), and a carboxylic acid buffer to control pH in the range of 3-4. Considerable effort has been expended in this research group during the past 8 years to elaborate the details of TALSPEAK in the interest of developing improved approaches to the operation of TALSPEAK-like systems. In this project we focused on defining aggregation phenomena in conventional TALSPEAK separations, on supporting the development of Advanced TALSPEAK processes, on profiling the aqueous complexation kinetics of lanthanides in TALSPEAK relevant aqueous media, on the design of new diglycolamide and N-donor extractants, and on characterizing cation-cation complexes of pentavalent actinides.

  11. System study on partitioning and transmutation of long-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    The management of long-lived isotopes - transuranium elements and fission products - produced in nuclear reactors is a problem that substantially affects the public acceptance of nuclear energy, and may influence the long-term hazard caused by energy production. Partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel materials offer a suitable solution to this problem. After the nuclear community had realised this fact, the number of publications on this topic significantly increased but there is still a lack of studies that include the analysis of not only one instrument but also the whole nuclear energy system. However, from the viewpoint of Partitioning and transmutation's implementation a substantial question is the cooperation of plants optimised for energy generation and others for partitioning or transmutation. In order to analyse this problem, the schemes of different systems are framed and their mathematical models are worked out. The systems are evaluated through the long-term risks caused by the waste deposited in final disposal, and the risks are described by a newly defined quantity, the residual hazard index. (author)

  12. Managing Zirconium Chemistry and Phase Compatibility in Combined Process Separations for Minor Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Nathalie [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-03-17

    In response to the NEUP Program Supporting Fuel Cycle R&D Separations and Waste Forms call DEFOA- 0000799, this report describes the results of an R&D project focusing on streamlining separation processes for advanced fuel cycles. An example of such a process relevant to the U.S. DOE FCR&D program would be one combining the functions of the TRUEX process for partitioning of lanthanides and minor actinides from PUREX(UREX) raffinates with that of the TALSPEAK process for separating transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. A fully-developed PUREX(UREX)/TRUEX/TALSPEAK suite would generate actinides as product(s) for reuse (or transmutation) and fission products as waste. As standalone, consecutive unit-operations, TRUEX and TALSPEAK employ different extractant solutions (solvating (CMPO, octyl(phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) vs. cation exchanging (HDEHP, di-2(ethyl)hexylphosphoric acid) extractants), and distinct aqueous phases (2-4 M HNO3 vs. concentrated pH 3.5 carboxylic acid buffers containing actinide selective chelating agents). The separate processes may also operate with different phase transfer kinetic constraints. Experience teaches (and it has been demonstrated at the lab scale) that, with proper control, multiple process separation systems can operate successfully. However, it is also recognized that considerable economies of scale could be achieved if multiple operations could be merged into a single process based on a combined extractant solvent. The task of accountability of nuclear materials through the process(es) also becomes more robust with fewer steps, providing that the processes can be accurately modeled. Work is underway in the U.S. and Europe on developing several new options for combined processes (TRUSPEAK, ALSEP, SANEX, GANEX, ExAm are examples). There are unique challenges associated with the operation of such processes, some relating to organic phase chemistry, others arising from the

  13. Development of nitride fuel and pyrochemical process for transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Uno, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of minor actinides has been investigated under the double-strata fuel cycle concept. Mononitride solid solutions containing minor actinides have been prepared and characterised. Thermo-physical properties, such as thermal expansion, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, have been measured by use of minor actinide nitride and burn-up simulated nitride samples. Irradiation behaviour of nitride fuel has been examined by irradiation tests. Pyrochemical process for treatment of spent nitride fuel has been investigated mainly by electrochemical measurements and nitride formation behaviour in pyrochemical process has been studied for recycled fuel fabrication. Recent results of experimental study on nitride fuel and pyrochemical process are summarised in the paper. (authors)

  14. Fuel and target programs for the transmutation at Phenix and other reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard-Groleas, G.

    2002-01-01

    The fuels and targets program for transmutation, performed in the framework of the axis 1 of the December 1991 law about the researches on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes, is in perfect consistency with the transmutation scenario studies carried out in the same framework. These studies put forward the advantage of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in the incineration of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The program includes exploratory and technological demonstration studies covering the different design options. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of the behaviour of materials under irradiation and at ensuring the mastery of processes. The goals of the different experiments foreseen at Phenix reactor are presented. The main goal is to supply a set of results allowing to precise the conditions of the technical feasibility of minor actinides and long-lived fission products incineration in FBRs. (J.S.)

  15. Neutronics analysis of minor actinides transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Zu, Tiejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A fusion fission hybrid system for MA transmutation is proposed. • The analysis of neutronics effects on the transmutation is performed. • The transmutation rate of MA reaches 86.5% by 25 times of recycling. -- Abstract: The minor actinides (MAs) transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system is analyzed in this paper. The subcritical reactor is driven by a tokamak D-T fusion device with relatively easily achieved plasma parameters and tokamak technologies. The MAs discharged from the light water reactor (LWR) are loaded in transmutation zone. Sodium is used as the coolant. The mass percentage of the reprocessed plutonium (Pu) in the fuel is raised from 0 to 48% and stepped by 12% to determine its effect on the MAs transmutation. The lesser the Pu is loaded, the larger the MAs transmutation rate is, but the smaller the energy multiplication factor is. The neutronics analysis of two loading patterns is performed and compared. The loading pattern where the mass percentage of Pu in two regions is 15% and 32.9% respectively is conducive to the improvement of the transmutation fraction within the limits of burn-up. The final transmutation fraction of MAs can reach 17.8% after five years of irradiation. The multiple recycling is investigated. The transmutation fraction of MAs can reach about 61.8% after six times of recycling, and goes up to about 86.5% after 25

  16. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management: supporting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Crookshanks, C.E.; McAdams, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Sims, H.E.; Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A study of partition and transmutation (P and T) has recently been reported: An Assessment of Partition and Transmutation Against UK Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/RAS/96.007). The prospects were assessed for real safety or financial gains being made through the future use of partition and transmutation within the United Kingdom in radioactive waste management. The assessment was made by AEA Technology, on behalf of the Department of the Environment. The assessment was partly based on the results of a number of studies described here. (Author)

  17. Concept and experimental studies on fuel and target for minor actinides and fission products transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, C; Guerin, Y [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d` Etudes des Combustibles; Salvatores, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Zaetta, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d` Etudes des Reacteurs

    1994-12-31

    High activity long-lived radionuclides in nuclear wastes, namely minor actinides (americium and neptunium) are in large amount generated by current nuclear reactive. The destruction of these radionuclides is a part of the French SPIN (Partitioning and Burning) program consistent with the determination to send a minimum amount of harmful products for final storage. Transmutation concepts are defined for neptunium and americium taking into account fuel cycle strategies. Neptunium destruction does not pose any major problems. It`s a by-product of uranium consumption, as plutonium and in despite of a slight gamma activity due to the protactinium 233 it`s quite easy to handle. Diluting neptunium in the mixed oxide fuels (MOX) should not be an obstacle for fabrication, in-pile behaviour and reprocessing either. Consequently we make the proposal of homogeneous mode of neptunium in MOX which should be soon explored in the experimental OSIRIS reactor and in the Phenix and Superphenix reactors. The analysis is more complex for the multi isotope americium. Its destruction is difficult because of gamma radioactivity which complicates fabrication. Experiments in Phenix and calculation showed that Phenix reactor offers a good potential for americium incineration, but similar data do not exist for PWR. It will remain a well known difficulty for fabrication and reprocessing. In this case we have to put a real new face to the fabrication flow-sheet of americium compounds and we propose to develop the heterogeneous mode. Targets choice are defined in term of: -safety, considering fuel reaction with cladding and water sodium, -transmutation rate, limited by target behaviour, in FR`s (Phenix), PWR`s (OSIRIS) and HFR (Petten), -reprocessing, checking the solubility of such targets by Purex process. So, at the beginning of our program the account has been on improving fuel and targets properties related to safety and fuel cycle. (authors). 4 figs.

  18. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  19. Economic assessment of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauferts, U.; Van Heek, A.; Hart, J.

    2007-01-01

    This nuclear system study focuses on a realistic evolution of Partitioning and Transmutation technologies, which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation and Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS). A set of five different fuel cycles has been selected, representing the options proposed in different European countries. Two industrial scenarios as continuation of the open nuclear fuel cycles and mono-recycling of plutonium in PWRs have been chosen as a reference. In addition, 3 more innovative cycles are considered using Fast Generation IV reactors and double strata scenarios with advanced PWR, ADS and fast reactors. This study shows, first, that closing the nuclear fuel cycle would be a useful strategy to mitigate concerns about a rapid depletion of natural uranium resources in this century. Secondly, all the 3 advanced fuel cycle strategies proposed reduce effectively the total amount of nuclear waste out of pile and consequently the need for large capacities of deep geological repositories. Thirdly, the most efficient strategy towards the mitigation of waste production is the utilization of fast reactors technology to burn plutonium and ADS to burn minor actinides

  20. Transmutation of minor actinide using BWR fueled mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spent fuel recycle has a strategic importance in the aspect of nuclear fuel economy and prevention of its spread-out. One among other application of recycle is to produce mixed oxide fuel (Mo) namely mixed Plutonium and uranium oxide. As for decreasing the burden of nuclear high level waste (HLW) treatment, transmutation of minor actinide (MA) that has very long half life will be carried out by conversion technique in nuclear reactor. The purpose of this study was to know influence of transition fuel cell regarding the percent weight of transmutation MA in the BWR fueled MOX. Calculation of cell BWR was used SRAC computer code, with assume that the reactor in equilibrium. The percent weight of transmutation MA to be optimum by increasing the discharge burn-up of nuclear fuel, raising ratio of moderator to fuel volume (Vm/Vf), and loading MA with percent weight about 3%-6% and also reducing amount of percent weight Pu in MOX fuel. For mixed fuel standard reactor, reactivity value were obtained between about -50pcm ∼ -230pcm for void coefficient and -1.8pcm ∼ -2.6pcm for fuel temperature coefficient

  1. Analysis and optimization of minor actinides transmutation blankets with regards to neutron and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooyman, T.; Buiron, L.; Rimpault, G.

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous loading of minor actinides in radial blankets is a potential solution to implement minor actinides transmutation in fast reactors. However, to compensate for the lower flux level experienced by the blankets, the fraction of minor actinides to be loaded in the blankets must be increased to maintain acceptable performances. This severely increases the decay heat and neutron source of the blanket assemblies, both before and after irradiation, by more than an order of magnitude in the case of neutron source for instance. We propose here to implement an optimization methodology of the blankets design with regards to various parameters such as the local spectrum or the mass to be loaded, with the objective of minimizing the final neutron source of the spent assembly while maximizing the transmutation performances of the blankets. In a first stage, an analysis of the various contributors to long- and short-term neutron and gamma source is carried out whereas in a second stage, relevant estimators are designed for use in the effective optimization process, which is done in the last step. A comparison with core calculations is finally done for completeness and validation purposes. It is found that the use of a moderated spectrum in the blankets can be beneficial in terms of final neutron and gamma source without impacting minor actinides transmutation performances compared to more energetic spectrum that could be achieved using metallic fuel for instance. It is also confirmed that, if possible, the use of hydrides as moderating material in the blankets is a promising option to limit the total minor actinides inventory in the fuel cycle. If not, it appears that focus should be put upon an increased residence time for the blankets rather than an increase in the acceptable neutron source for handling and reprocessing. (authors)

  2. Analysis and optimization of minor actinides transmutation blankets with regards to neutron and gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooyman Timothée

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous loading of minor actinides in radial blankets is a potential solution to implement minor actinides transmutation in fast reactors. However, to compensate for the lower flux level experienced by the blankets, the fraction of minor actinides to be loaded in the blankets must be increased to maintain acceptable performances. This severely increases the decay heat and neutron source of the blanket assemblies, both before and after irradiation, by more than an order of magnitude in the case of neutron source for instance. We propose here to implement an optimization methodology of the blankets design with regards to various parameters such as the local spectrum or the mass to be loaded, with the objective of minimizing the final neutron source of the spent assembly while maximizing the transmutation performances of the blankets. In a first stage, an analysis of the various contributors to long- and short-term neutron and gamma source is carried out whereas in a second stage, relevant estimators are designed for use in the effective optimization process, which is done in the last step. A comparison with core calculations is finally done for completeness and validation purposes. It is found that the use of a moderated spectrum in the blankets can be beneficial in terms of final neutron and gamma source without impacting minor actinides transmutation performances compared to more energetic spectrum that could be achieved using metallic fuel for instance. It is also confirmed that, if possible, the use of hydrides as moderating material in the blankets is a promising option to limit the total minor actinides inventory in the fuel cycle. If not, it appears that focus should be put upon an increased residence time for the blankets rather than an increase in the acceptable neutron source for handling and reprocessing.

  3. Analysis and optimization of minor actinides transmutation blankets with regards to neutron and gamma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooymana, Timothée; Buiron, Laurent; Rimpault, Gérald

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneous loading of minor actinides in radial blankets is a potential solution to implement minor actinides transmutation in fast reactors. However, to compensate for the lower flux level experienced by the blankets, the fraction of minor actinides to be loaded in the blankets must be increased to maintain acceptable performances. This severely increases the decay heat and neutron source of the blanket assemblies, both before and after irradiation, by more than an order of magnitude in the case of neutron source for instance. We propose here to implement an optimization methodology of the blankets design with regards to various parameters such as the local spectrum or the mass to be loaded, with the objective of minimizing the final neutron source of the spent assembly while maximizing the transmutation performances of the blankets. In a first stage, an analysis of the various contributors to long and short term neutron and gamma source is carried out while in a second stage, relevant estimators are designed for use in the effective optimization process, which is done in the last step. A comparison with core calculations is finally done for completeness and validation purposes. It is found that the use of a moderated spectrum in the blankets can be beneficial in terms of final neutron and gamma source without impacting minor actinides transmutation performances compared to more energetic spectrum that could be achieved using metallic fuel for instance. It is also confirmed that, if possible, the use of hydrides as moderating material in the blankets is a promising option to limit the total minor actinides inventory in the fuel cycle. If not, it appears that focus should be put upon an increased residence time for the blankets rather than an increase in the acceptable neutron source for handling and reprocessing.

  4. Fuel and target programs for the transmutation at Phenix and other reactors; Programmes combustibles et cibles pour la transmutation dans Phenix et autres reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Groleas, G

    2002-07-01

    The fuels and targets program for transmutation, performed in the framework of the axis 1 of the December 1991 law about the researches on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes, is in perfect consistency with the transmutation scenario studies carried out in the same framework. These studies put forward the advantage of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in the incineration of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The program includes exploratory and technological demonstration studies covering the different design options. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of the behaviour of materials under irradiation and at ensuring the mastery of processes. The goals of the different experiments foreseen at Phenix reactor are presented. The main goal is to supply a set of results allowing to precise the conditions of the technical feasibility of minor actinides and long-lived fission products incineration in FBRs. (J.S.)

  5. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Naestren, Catharina; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high cross sections for neutron capture of some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional making of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. Due to new recruitments we will now also work

  7. Progress on the Application of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J. Rory; Fielding, Randall; Janney, Dawn; Mariani, Robert; Teague, Melissa; Egeland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing actinide bearing alloy metallic fuels intended for effecting the transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fast reactor application as part of a partitioning and transmutation strategy. This presentation will report on progress in three areas of this effort: demonstration of the fabrication of fuels under remote (hot cell) conditions directly coupled to the product from the Pyro-processing of spent fuel as part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Studies (JFCS) collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI); the chemical sequestration of lanthanide fission products to mitigate fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) studies on the as-cast microstructure of the metallic fuel alloy. For the JFCS efforts, we report on the implementation of the Glove-box Advanced Casting System (GACS) as a prototype casting furnace for eventual installation into the INL Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) where the recycled fuel will be cast. Results from optimising process parameters with respect to fuel characteristics, americium volatility, materials interaction, and lanthanide fission product carry over distribution will be discussed. With respect to the lanthanide carry over from the Pyro-processing product, encouraging studies on concepts to chemically sequester the FCCI promoting lanthanides within the fuel matrix thus inhibiting migration and interaction with the cladding will be presented. Finally, in relation to advanced modelling and simulation efforts, detailed investigations and interpretation on the nano-scale as cast microstructure of possible recycle fuel composition containing U, Pu, Am, Np as well as carry-over lanthanide species will be discussed. These studies are important for establishing the initial conditions from which advanced physics based fuel performance codes will run. (authors)

  8. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Bush, R.P.; Crookshanks, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    A review of partition and transmutation is made with the objective of assessing the prospects for real financial of safety gains being made from the future use of partition and transmutation within the UK. The assessment covers all the civil high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent fuel, civil spent fuels where there are currently no plans or contracts for reprocessing, and intermediate-level waste (ILW). Both existing stocks and future arisings are included. The impact is also analysed of considering all the non-military uranium and plutonium extant in the UK as candidates for transmutation. The assessment takes full account of advances in technology since the earlier UK studies and changes in the UK situation. (Author)

  9. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2010. A report from the Swedish reference group for PT-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, Jan (ed.) (Swedish Centre for Nuclear Technology, SKC, Stockholm (Sweden)); Karlsson, Fred (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pomp, Stephan (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Applied Nuclear Physics (Sweden)); Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Skarnemark, Gunnar (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Wallenius, Janne; Zakova, Jitka (Reactor Physics Div., Physics Dept., Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Grenthe, Ingemar; Szabo, Zoltan (School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The research and development on methods for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel has attracted considerable interest during the last decade. The main objective of P and T is to eliminate or at least substantially reduce the amount of such long-lived radionuclides that has to go to a deep geological repository for final disposal. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving stability against hydrolysis and radiolysis. This may be achieved either by additives to the solvent or by selection of a proper solvent. The development of processes and equipment must be intensified. Pyrochemical research is looking into methods for recovery of uranium and for separating fission products with large neutron cross sections. The objective is to avoid separation of plutonium from other transuranium elements and thus simplify the proliferation issue. The future work is focused on improved selectivity and on technical development. Design of processes and equipment is difficult due to the aggressive properties of the melts and the relatively high temperatures required. The fabrication of fuel for transmutation and the

  10. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2010. A report from the Swedish reference group for PT-research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, Jan; Karlsson, Fred; Pomp, Stephan; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Wallenius, Janne; Zakova, Jitka; Grenthe, Ingemar; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    The research and development on methods for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel has attracted considerable interest during the last decade. The main objective of P and T is to eliminate or at least substantially reduce the amount of such long-lived radionuclides that has to go to a deep geological repository for final disposal. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving stability against hydrolysis and radiolysis. This may be achieved either by additives to the solvent or by selection of a proper solvent. The development of processes and equipment must be intensified. Pyrochemical research is looking into methods for recovery of uranium and for separating fission products with large neutron cross sections. The objective is to avoid separation of plutonium from other transuranium elements and thus simplify the proliferation issue. The future work is focused on improved selectivity and on technical development. Design of processes and equipment is difficult due to the aggressive properties of the melts and the relatively high temperatures required. The fabrication of fuel for transmutation and the

  11. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Spendlikova, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I and 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects range from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. We have proposed a

  12. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Spendlikova, Irena (Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I and 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects range from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. We have proposed a novel process

  13. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  14. Fabrication and characterisation of composite targets for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naestren, C.; Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Transmutation of transuranic elements separated from spent fuel is a way to reduce the toxicity of long-lived nuclides in the waste before disposal. Plutonium and the minor actinides (MA) are reintroduced into the fuel cycle for further irradiation and incineration. Currently CERMET fuel forms, in which a ceramic actinide is dispersed in a matrix, are considered for MA transmutation. In a first step, PuO 2 beads are produced by a sol gel method in which a Pu nitrate solution is converted to solid, dust-free, particles. These porous beads are then infiltrated with an americium nitrate solution to the incipient wetness point and calcined to give the (PuAm)O 2 beads, which are blended with a metal matrix and compacted and sintered to form the final fuel pellet. The matrix used is molybdenum due to its high thermal conductivity and low neutron capture cross section, if it is enriched in 92 Mo. In this work, optimization of the bead porosity is investigated to achieve a higher Am content by infiltration. Addition of carbon to the mother solution in the sol gel step increases the bead porosity but it also changes both bead and final fuel pellet microstructure. A surrogate fuel, with cerium simulating the actinides has been fabricated and its mechanical stability and bead characteristics investigated as a function of carbon content and thermal treatment. The characterization of the surrogate fuel by ceramography, density, porosity, bead-quality, etc., is a necessary step in the process optimization, to be transferred to the production of the actinide samples. This process is now at an advanced stage and is being used for the production of fuels for irradiation tests in the Phenix (Futurix) and HFR-Petten (HELIOS) reactors. In parallel, studies on the dissolution of the fuel pellets, with the aim of dissolving the Mo-matrix while keeping the CeO 2 beads intact, have been initiated. Thus, Mo can be recycled for further fuel fabrication either from production scraps or from

  15. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Girard, C.; Delpech, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Waste management strategies foresee the use of a deep geological repository either for final disposal of irradiated fuel or, after reprocessing and reuse of U and Pu for final disposal of long-lived radio-active materials. In the second case, partitioning and transmutation of these materials can be considered to reduce the impact of radiation on man due to the storage. On the basis of the SPIN programme developed by CEA in this field, the main features of transmutation is presented. The goal to achieve and the criteria to use are quite difficult to establish. The rights para-meters to characterize the risk are the potential radiotoxicity in the the repository and the residual radiotoxicity at the outlet. Transmutation studies in CEA used the potential radiotoxicity which is based on well-known parameters and less precise hazardous factors. The second point to appreciate the trans- mutation interest is to dispose of a criteria for the radio-radiotoxicity reduction. As there is no general agreement, we try to have a toxicity as low as possible within reasonable technical limits. To reduce the long term radio- toxicity, Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products have to be transmuted. To assess the feasibility of such trans-mutation in reactors or advanced systems, one has to consider constraints on neutronic balance, safety, fuel cycle, technology , economy. Taking in account the main conclusions of this analysis, parametric studies of homogeneous and heterogenous transmutation permit a choice of promising solutions. Goals are to use every long-lived element with a minimized production of other long- lived elements in order to obtain an appreciable radiotoxicity reduction. It implies multi recycling of Pu which favours fast neutron reactors and different strategies of multi recycling for Np, Am, Cm. Multi recycling makes the results strongly dependant of losses. Researches to obtain the high partitioning efficiency needed are in progress. Calculations

  16. The effectiveness of the ELSY concept with respect to minor actinide transmutation capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Giacomo; Rocchi, Federico; Sumini, Marco; Artioli, Carlo; Monti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The task of partitioning and transmutation (PT) aims at the sustainability of new global nuclear scenarios for energy production, required by a continuously growing demand. The nuclear renaissance boosted by the breaking need of a reduction in CO 2 emissions, together with increasing safety and security requirements, is creating a clear interest in the Generation-IV philosophy. In particular, an effective management of minor actinides (MA) and their multi-recycling in innovative fast spectrum systems can lead to a minimisation of high-level wastes (HLW) to be disposed of in geological repositories. This study presents a PT application based on the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY), the 600 MWe Gen-IV lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) under investigation in Europe within the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme. An 'adiabatic' core configuration is investigated here, for a system which can maintain a constant amount of both MA and plutonium during the whole fuel cycle, even without either axial or radial blankets. It is shown that an equilibrium concentration of MA exists, for which its production rate is exactly compensated by its transmutation rate. Any other concentration may enhance either their production or removal in such a way as to allow the system to evolve almost exponentially towards the equilibrium state. The practical feasibility of such an equilibrium core is then analysed: acceptable operative conditions might lead to a 'sustainable' nuclear system, the overall net outcome of which is the production of energy by burning a feed stream of uranium from one side, and the discharge of fission products (FP) only from the other side. (authors)

  17. Development of nuclear transmutation technology for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1996-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive nuclides is conceived as the technology to improve the high-level radioactive waste management. This report discusses the incentives of P-T, generation of long-lived nuclides in fission reactors, nuclear transmutation technologies, R and D activities of the partitioning and transmutation technology development programs at JAERI and in the world. (author)

  18. Calculated investigation of actinide transmutation in the BOR-60 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemkov, I.Yu.; Ishunina, O.V.; Yakovleva, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of reactor operation the formation of fission products and accumulation of minor-actinides and plutonium take place in the nuclear fuel. These materials define the radiation hazard to a great extent. Of one possible ways lowering the activity of irradiated nuclear fuel is transmutation of long-lived radioactive isotopes in the stable or short-lived ones, that allows to facilitate the problem of the high-level waste and to improve the efficiency of nuclear fuel use at the expense of its recycling and burnup increasing. (authors)

  19. Analysis of minor actinides transmutation for a Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chenggang; Li, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Xiangzhou; Zou, Chunyan; Ma, Yuwen; Han, Jianlong; Chen, Jingen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The transmutation of MA in a 500 MWth MSFR is analyzed. • A larger MA loading can enhance the MA transmutation and deepen the burnup. • The MA transmutation efficiency can reach 95%. • The FTC can satisfy the safe operating requirement during the entire operating. - Abstract: As one of the six candidate reactors chosen by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) has many outstanding advantages and features for advanced nuclear fuel utilization. Effective transmutation of minor actinides (MA) could be attained in this kind of fast reactor, which is of importance in the future closed nuclear fuel cycle scenario. In this work, we attempt to study the MA transmutation capability in a MSFR with power of 500 MWth by analyzing the neutronics characteristics for different MA loadings. The calculated results show that MA loading plays an important role in the reactivity evolution of the MSFR. A larger MA loading is favorable to improving the MA transmutation performance and simultaneously to reducing the fissile consumption. When MA = 18.17 mol%, the transmutation fraction can achieve to about 95% on iso-breeding. We also find that although the fuel temperature coefficient (FTC) decreases with the increasing MA loading, it is still negative enough to keep the safety of the MSFR during the whole operation time. The MA contribution to the effective delayed neutron fraction (EDNF) and the intensity of spontaneous fission neutron (ISFN) are also analyzed. Also MA loading can affect the EDNF during the operation and the ISFN of the MSFR is dominated by 244 Cm. Finally, we analyze the effect of the core power on MA transmutation capability. The result shows that for all the operating powers the depletion ratio of MA to HN increases with time and reaches a maximum value. And additional MA should be fed into the fuel salt before the MA depletion ratio reaches the peak value to improve its transmutation capability. The net

  20. Inert matrix fuels for incineration of plutonium and transmutation of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, Hj.

    2000-01-01

    In conventional U-based nuclear fuels, both Pu and higher actinides (mainly Am, but also Np and Cm) are formed by neutron capture reactions and α- or β-decay. If a strategy of reprocessing is adopted as in some European nations and in Japan, the separated Pu can be recycled as (U, Pu)O 2 (or mixed-oxide-MOX) fuel. The high-level liquid waste of reprocessing is presently vitrified. However, the alternative of separating the minor actinides from the fission products (partitioning) and subsequent transmutation in existing reactors or in new dedicated actinide burners is widely studied as a possible means to reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste

  1. Transmutation of Minor Actinide in well thermalized neutron field and application of advanced neutron source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1995-01-01

    Transmutation of Minor Actinide (MA) in a well thermalized neutron field was studied. Since MA nuclides have large effective cross sections in the well thermalized neutron field, the transmutation in the well thermalized neutron field has an advantage of high transmutation rate. However, the transmutation rate largely decreases by accumulation of 246 Cm when MA is transmuted only in the well thermalized neutron field for a long period. An acceleration method of burn-up of 246 Cm was studied. High transmutation rate can be obtained by providing a neutron field with high flux in the energy region between 1 and 100 eV. Two stage transmutation using the well thermalized neutron field and this field can transmute MA rapidly. The applicability of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) to the transmutation of MA was examined for a typical MA with the composition in the high-level waste generated in the conventional PWR. If the ANS is applied without changing the fuel inventory, the amount of MA which corresponds to that produced by a conventional 1,175 MWe PWR in one year can be transmuted by the ANS in one year. Furthermore, the amount of the residual can be reduced to about 1g (10 -5 of the initial MA weight) by continuing the transmutation for 5 years owing to the two stage transmutation. (author)

  2. Processing flowsheet for the accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, H.; Walker, R.; Yarbro, S.

    1992-01-01

    At Los Alamos, an innovative approach to transmuting long-lived radioactive waste is under investigation. The concept is to use a linear proton accelerator coupled to a solid target to produce an intense neutron flux. The intense stream of neutrons can then be used to fission or transmute long-lived radionuclides to either stable or shorter-lived isotopes. For the program to be successful, robust chemical separations with high efficiencies (>10 5 ) are required. The actual mission, either defense or commercial, will determine what suite of unit operations will be needed. If the mission is to process commercial spent fuel, there are several options available for feed preparation and blanket processing. The baseline option would be an improved PUREX system with the main alternative being the current ATW actinide blanket processing flowsheet. 99 Tc and 129 I are more likely to reach the biosphere than the actinides. Many models have been developed for predicting how the radionuclides will behave in a repository over long time periods. The general conclusion is that the actinides will be sorbed by the soil. Therefore, over a long time period, e.g., a million years their hazard will be lessened because of radioactive decay and dispersion. However, some of the long-lived fission products are not sorbed and could potentially reach the environment over a few thousand year period. Hence, they could present a significant safety hazard. Because of limited resources, most of the priority has been focused on the actinide and technetium blanket assemblies

  3. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Duan Wu H.; Chen Jing; Wang Jian C.; Wang Shu W.; Wang Xing H.

    2015-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extra...

  4. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Minor Actinide Laboratory at JRC-ITU: Fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Minor Actinide Laboratory (MA-lab) of the Institute for Transuranium Elements is a unique facility for the fabrication of fuels and targets containing minor actinides (MA). It is of key importance for research on Partitioning and Transmutation in Europe, as it is one of the only dedicated facilities for the fabrication of MA containing materials, either for property measurements or for the production of test pins for irradiation experiments. In this paper a detailed description of the MA-Lab facility and the fabrication processes developed to fabricate fuels and samples containing high content of minor actinides is given. In addition, experience gained and improvements are also outlined. (authors)

  6. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP)

  7. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J H

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  8. Flexibility of ADS for minor actinides transmutation in different two-stage PWR-ADS fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •ADS reloading scheme is optimized to raise discharge burnup and lower reactivity loss. •ADS is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies. •ADS is flexible to transmute MAs from different spent PWR fuels. -- Abstract: A two-stage Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)-Accelerator Driven System (ADS) fuel cycle is proposed as an option to transmute minor actinides (MAs) recovered from the spent PWR fuels in the ADS system. At the second stage, the spent fuels discharged from ADS are reprocessed by the pyro-chemical process and the recovered actinides are mixed with the top-up MAs recovered from the spent PWR fuels to fabricate the new fuels used in ADS. In order to lower the amount of nuclear wastes sent to the geological repository, an optimized scattered reloading scheme for ADS is proposed to maximize the discharge burnup and lower the burnup reactivity loss. Then the flexibility of ADS for MA transmutation is evaluated in this research. Three aspects are discussed, including: different cooling time of spent ADS fuels before reprocessing, different reprocessing loss of spent ADS fuels, and different top-up MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels. The ADS system is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies with specific spent fuels cooling time and unique reprocessing loss. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of MAs by transmutation depend on the reprocessing loss. The ADS system is flexible to transmute MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels, regardless of UOX or MOX fuels. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of different MAs by transmutation stay on the same order.

  9. Grouping in partitioning of HLW for burning and/or transmutation with nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Asashi; Mulyanto.

    1995-01-01

    A basic concept on partitioning and transmutation treatment by neutron reaction was developed in order to improve the waste management and the disposal scenario of high level waste (HLW). The grouping in partitioning was important factor and closely linked with the characteristics of B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment. The selecting and grouping concept in partitioning of HLW was proposed herein, such as Group MA1 (Np, Am, and unrecovered U and Pu), Group MA2 (Cm, Cf etc.), Group A (Tc and I), Group B (Cs and Sr) and Group R (the partitioned remain of HLW), judging from the three criteria for B/T treatment proposed in this study, which is related to (1) the value of hazard index for long-term tendency based on ALI, (2) the relative dose factor related to the mobility or retardation in ground water penetrated through geologic layer, and (3) burning and/or transmutation characteristics for recycle B/T treatment and the decay acceleration ratio by neutron reaction. Group MA1 and Group A could be burned effectively by thermal B/T reactor. Group MA2 could be burned effectively by fast B/T reactor. Transmutation of Group B by neutron reaction is difficult, therefore the development of radiation application of Group B (Cs and Sr) in industrial scale may be an interesting option in the future. Group R, i.e. the partitioned remains of HLW, and also a part of Group B should be immobilized and solidified by the glass matrix. HI ALI , the hazard index based on ALI, due to radiotoxicity of Group R can be lower than HI ALI due to standard mill tailing (smt) or uranium ore after about 300 years. (author)

  10. Minor actinides transmutation scenario studies with PWRs, FRs and moderated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, J.P.; Pillon, S.; Saint Jean, C. de; Varaine, F.; Leyval, L.; Vambenepe, G.; Carlier, B.

    2003-01-01

    Using current technologies, we have demonstrated in this study that it is theoretically possible to obtain different minor actinide transmutation scenarios with a significant gain on the waste radiotoxicity inventory. The handling of objects with Am+Cm entails the significant increase of penetrating radiation sources (neutron and γ) whatever mixed scenario is envisioned; the PWR and FR scenario involving the recycling of Am + Cm in the form of targets results in the lowest flow. In the light of these outcomes, the detailed studies has allowed to design a target sub assembly with a high fission rate (90%) and define a drawing up of reprocessing diagram with the plant head, the minor actinide separation processes (PUREX, DIAMEX and SANEX). Some technological difficulties appear in manipulating curium, principally in manufacturing where the wet process ('sol-gel') is not acquired for (Am+Cm). (author)

  11. Overview of the French program in chemical separations and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1993-01-01

    A long-range effort has begun in France that is aimed at the reduction of the volume and activity level of wastes containing long half-life radionuclides. This effort constitutes the SPIN (SeParations-INcineration) Program which investigates separations techniques that can improve current reprocessing technologies coupled with destruction of long-lived species through transmutation. Removal and destruction of specific radionuclides (e.g., neptunium, americium, technetium, iodine, cesium, and strontium) will be emphasized. Advanced solvent extraction chemistry focusing, for example, on development and implementation of diamides for actinide-lanthanide separations constitutes an important component of the SPIN program. The second component of the program focuses on inventory reductions through transmutation of such long-lived nuclides in fast reactor systems (Super Phenix). Accelerator-based systems are also being evaluated as a possible long-term option. Both of these components of the SPIN program are aimed at further reduction of the potential radiotoxicity and radiological impact of high-level wastes destined for geological storage. In this presentation, major activities of the SPIN Program will be described with emphasis on activities related to advanced chemical separations

  12. The concept of electro-nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergelson, B.R.; Balyuk, S.A. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The possibility is shown to design in principle the double-purpose liquid fuel electro nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation in U-Pu fuel cycle conditions. D{sub 2}O and a melt of fluorine salts are considered as a working media for liquid fuel. Such facility replenished with depicted or natural uranium only makes it possible to generate power of 900 MW (c) for external consumers and serve 20 WWER-1000 reactors for transmutation of MA. The facility could be thought as an alternative to fast reactors since appr. 30% of the total power confined in uranium is utilized in it.

  13. Heterogeneous fuels for minor actinides transmutation: Fuel performance codes predictions in the EFIT case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, R., E-mail: rolando.calabrese@enea.i [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Vettraino, F.; Artioli, C. [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Sobolev, V. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Thetford, R. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, 150 Harwell Business Centre, Didcot OX11 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Plutonium recycling in new-generation fast reactors coupled with minor actinides (MA) transmutation in dedicated nuclear systems could achieve a decrease of nuclear waste long-term radiotoxicity by two orders of magnitude in comparison with current once-through strategy. In a double-strata scenario, purpose-built accelerator-driven systems (ADS) could transmute minor actinides. The innovative nuclear fuel conceived for such systems demands significant R and D efforts in order to meet the safety and technical performance of current fuel systems. The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EUROpean research programme for the TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in ADS), part of the EURATOM Framework Programme 6 (FP6), undertook some of this research. EUROTRANS developed from the FP5 research programmes on ADS (PDS-XADS) and on fuels dedicated to MA transmutation (FUTURE, CONFIRM). One of its main objectives is the conceptual design of a small sub-critical nuclear system loaded with uranium-free fuel to provide high MA transmutation efficiency. These principles guided the design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) in the domain DESIGN of IP EUROTRANS. The domain AFTRA (Advanced Fuels for TRAnsmutation system) identified two composite fuel systems: a ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) where fuel particles are dispersed in a magnesia matrix, and a ceramic-metallic (CERMET) with a molybdenum matrix in the place of MgO matrix to host a ceramic fissile phase. The EFIT fuel is composed of plutonium and MA oxides in solid solution with isotopic vectors typical of LWR spent fuel with 45 MWd/kg{sub HM} discharge burnup and 30 years interim storage before reprocessing. This paper is focused on the thermomechanical state of the hottest fuel pins of two EFIT cores of 400 MW{sub (th)} loaded with either CERCER or CERMET fuels. For calculations three fuel performance codes were used: FEMALE, TRAFIC and TRANSURANUS. The analysis was performed at the beginning of fuel life

  14. Optimization of plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in an AP1000 fuel assembly via a genetic search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com; King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We couple the NEWT module of SCALE to the MOGA module of DAKOTA. • Transmutation is optimized based on choice of coating and fuel. • Greatest transmutation achieved with PuZrO{sub 2}MgO fuel pins coated with Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, which contains approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are the preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a near-term solution. Previous simulation work demonstrated the potential to transmute transuranic elements in a modified light water reactor fuel pin. This study optimizes a quarter-assembly containing target fuels coated with spectral shift absorbers for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in light water reactors. The spectral shift absorber coating on the target fuel pin tunes the neutron energy spectrum experienced by the target fuel. A coupled model developed using the NEWT module from SCALE 6.1 and a genetic algorithm module from the DAKOTA optimization toolbox provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel pins in the present study. The optimization with the coupled NEWT/DAKOTA model proceeded in three stages. The first stage optimized a single-target fuel pin per quarter-assembly adjacent to the central instrumentation channel. The second stage evaluated a variety of quarter-assemblies with multiple target fuel pins from the first stage and the third stage re-optimized the pins in the optimal second stage quarter-assembly. An 8 wt% PuZrO{sub 2}MgO inert matrix fuel pin with a 1.44 mm radius and a 0.06 mm Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in a five target fuel pin per quarter-assembly configuration represents the optimal combination for the

  15. Plutonium Management, Minor Actinides Partitioning and Transmutation R and D in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavedon, Jean-Marc; Courtois, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Jean-Marc Cavedon (CEA, France) then presented the developments concerning Plutonium management and minor actinides P and T research and development in France. By the 1991 law on high-level long-lived radioactive waste a research programme was launched in the areas: (i) geological disposal, (ii) conditioning and long-term storage, and (iii) radiotoxicity reduction by P and T. The results of the work in these areas will be presented to the French Government and Parliament in 2006. The control of Plutonium stocks generated by the French PWRs is proposed to increase Plutonium consumption in reactors and minimise radioactive waste production, and requires the recycling of actinides, especially Plutonium. In the long term, CEA intends to develop a new technology based on gas cooled reactors and their associated fuel cycle, including multiple recycling of Plutonium. The advantages of this development consist in the optimisation of the use of natural resources and the concentration of Plutonium in limited quantities of fuel rods. If needed, the minor actinides could also be recycled. The planned CEA developments depend on new fuel types and will lead to novel waste types (light glasses) with a reduction of long-term radiotoxicity. Radiotoxicity reductions by a factor of 3 to 5 are expected for Plutonium recycling scenarios, and by up to a factor of a few hundreds for Plutonium and minor actinides recycling scenarios. This gain is nearly independent on the reactor type used, but needs about 100 years of application to become effective in terms of making a difference in the total waste inventory to be disposed of

  16. Phoenix type concepts for transmutation of LWR waste minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of variations on the original Phoenix theme were studied. The basic rationale of the Phoenix incinerator is making oxide fuel of the LWR waste minor actinides, loading it in an FFTF-like subcritical core, then bombarding the core with the high current beam accelerated protons to generate considerable energy through spallation and fission reactions. As originally assessed, if the machine is fed with 1600 MeV protons in a 102 mA current, then 8 core modules are driven to transmute the yearly minor actinides waste of 75 1000 MW LWRs into Pu 238 and fission products; in a 2 years cycle the energy extracted is 100000 MW d/T. This performance cannot be substantiated in a rigorous analysis. A calculational consistent methodology, based on a combined execution of the Hermes, NCNP, and Korigen codes, shows, nonetheless that changes in the original Phoenix parameters can upgrade its performance.The original Phoenix contains 26 tons minor actinides in 8 core modules; 1.15 m 3 module is shaped for 40% neutron leakage; with a beam of 102 mA the 8 modules are driven to 100000 MW/T in 10.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinide waste of 15 LWRs; the operation must be assisted by grid electricity. If the 1.15 m 3 module is shaped to allow only 28% leakage, then a beam of 102 mA will drive the 8 modules to 100000 MW/T in 3.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 45 LWRs. Some net grid electricity will be generated. If 25 tons minor actinides are loaded into 5 modules, each 1.72 m 3 in volume and of 24% leakage, then a 97 mA beam will drive the module to 100000 MW/T in 2.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 70 LWRs. A considerable amount of net grid electricity will be generated. If the lattice is made of metal fuel, and 26 tons minor actinides are loaded into 32 small modules, 0.17 m 3 each, then a 102 mA beam will drive the modules to 100000 MW/T in 2 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 72 LWRs. A considerable

  17. Collaboration between SCK·CEN and JAEA for partitioning and transmutation through accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This technical report reviews Research and Development (R and D) programs for the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology through Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) at Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'Énergie Nucléaire (SCK·CEN) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The results obtained in the present Collaboration Arrangement between the two organizations for the ADS are also summarized, and possible further collaborations and mutual realizations in the future are sketched. (author)

  18. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  19. Analysis of the minority actinides transmutation in a sodium fast reactor with uniform load pattern by the MCNPX-CINDER code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Valero, R.; Garcia-Herranz, N.; Aragones, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the minority actinides transmutation in sodium fast reactors (SFR) assuming a uniform load pattern. It is determined the isotopic evolution of the actinides along burn, and the evolution of the reactivity and the reactivity coefficients. For that, it is used the MCNPX neutron transport code coupled with the inventory code CINDER90.

  20. First results and future trends for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Salvatores, M.; Guerin, Y.; Zaetta, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of the CEA SPIN program, a project has been set-up at the Direction of Nuclear Reactors of CEA, to study the transmutation of long-lived radioactive products (both minor actinides and fission products) resulting from the operation of current nuclear power plants. The program is focused on: transmutation in minor actinides (Np, Am) in fission reactors of known technology (both of the PWR or the fast reactor type), using the so-called ''homogeneous'' (mixed with Uranium or Uranium-Plutonium), and ''heterogeneous'' (mixed with inert matrices) recycling modes for both type of reactors. Transmutation studies in dedicated devices (both fission reactors with actinide/plutonium fuel or with high thermal flux, and particle accelerator-based systems). Fuel studies related to both homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling modes in fission reactors. For the homogeneous recycling mode, some experimental irradiations results are available from past PHENIX programs. For the heterogeneous mode, very limited experimental results are available, and new theoretical and experimental work is underway on the use of appropriate inert matrices. Basic data studies to assess the quality of existing nuclear data for fission reactor transmutation studies, future data needs of relevance, and model/data developments needed for accelerator-based systems. Strategy studies, to evaluate the consequences of the different transmutation options on the fuel cycle, according to different scenarios of nuclear power development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Overview of french P and T programme and results for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, D.; Courtois, C.

    2005-01-01

    We will present here the French program and an update on the progress made by the research conducted on partitioning and transmutation. Studies on partitioning and transmutation aim at isolating the most radio toxic long-lived elements present in the waste then at transmuting them through recycling in nuclear reactors, in order to change them into non-radioactive or shorter-lived elements. The partitioning of minor actinides (americium, curium and neptunium), followed by their transmutation, would reduce to a few hundred years the time necessary for the radiotoxicity of the vitrified waste to become similar to that contained in the natural uranium ore originally used. The feasibility of partitioning, which did not appear easily accessible at the time the research began since lanthanides and actinides have rather similar chemical properties, was nevertheless demonstrated in 2001 thanks to a series of tests conducted on solutions of dissolved spent fuel, in the CEA Atalante facility at Marcoule. The 2002-2005 program encompasses technological demonstration of the selected liquid-liquid process, with representative equipment, and economic evaluation of industrial implementation of partitioning. Studies on transmutation, which were initiated before the 1991 Law, rapidly led to concluding that transmutation of minor actinides (Americium, Curium, and Neptunium) was feasible in particular in fast neutron spectra. Results obtained confirm that the feasibility of transmutation is demonstrated, both in pressurized-water reactors (recycling and transmutation of plutonium, optionally but with more difficulty of americium and neptunium) and in advanced systems of nuclear-energy production (GEN IV fast-spectrum reactors, with recycling and transmutation of all heavy nuclides, uranium, plutonium, the minor actinides) or in dedicated incinerator reactors, either critical or sub critical. Work on transmutation is now focusing on technical elements necessary for the demonstration of

  2. Safety characteristics of potential waste transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    For nuclear waste transmutation to alter significantly the need for geologic disposal of spent fuel from US Light-water reactors (LWRs), about 1.4% of the spent fuel (by mass) must be separated and transmuted. This includes the plutonium, the minor actinides, and four fission products: iodine. technetium, cesium and strontium. Regarding the actinides, fissioning of the plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium generates a great deal of heat, so much so that most of the plutonium should be used to produce power. However, these actinides have some undesirable neutronic characteristics, and their utilization in reactors or subcritical (proton-accelerator) targets requires either a fast neutronic spectrum or a very high thermal-neutron flux. Transmutation of the fission products is generally by neutron capture, although this is difficult in the case of cesium and strontium. In this paper, various proposed means of transmuting the actinides and fission products are discussed, with the main focus being on the safety characteristics of each approach

  3. The RIAR DOVITA-2 P and T Program - Results of the 15-Year R and D Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2007 the RIAR has modified the own well-known demonstration DOVITA program into new generation Research and Development, Partitioning and Transmutation Program-concept DOVITA-2 (Dry technologies for minor actinides (MA) fuel reprocessing, On-site disposition of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication of Various types of fuels and fuel pins, Integration of MA recycling option into Close Fuel Cycle of industrial Fast Reactors, the whole complex of approaches will permit a creation of the compact plant for Transmutation of Actinides). DOVITA-2 program should demonstrate opportunities of different technologies for realization of the optimized fuel cycle for the actinide burner fast reactor (ABFR) (for transmutation of Np, Am, Cm). RIAR uses the BOR-60 reactor as an experimental base for DOVITA-2 investigations, as the hard BOR-60 neutron spectrum is very beneficial for minor actinides burning. The DOVITA-2 program is under way now. The investigations carried out for 15 years have shown that most of the problems connected with the ABFR fuel cycle can be solved. The problem of the minor actinide recycle can be solved without development of new exotic systems, and only on the basis of the known technological methods and with application of the well-known reactor systems. The paper contains the data on the complex study of the chemical aspects of the program and the demonstration reactor experiments which will be completed in the nearest years. (authors)

  4. Partitioning and Transmutation - Annual Report 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Littley, Alexander; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Mabile, Nathalie; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross-sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects have ranged from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One recycling route, called DIAMEX (DIAmide EXtracton) / SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and has been proven in hot tests and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behavior are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and

  5. Development of CERMET fuels for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Naestren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Maschek, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    The sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is now being considered as a potential means to burn long-lived transuranium nuclides. The preferred fuel for such a fast neutron reactor is uranium-free, highly enriched with plutonium and minor actinides. Requirements for ADS transmutation fuels are linked with the core design and safety parameters, the fuel properties and the ease of reprocessing. This study concerns the properties of metals as matrices, with the particular case of Mo. To improve the neutronic characteristics, enriched molybdenum (Mo-92) is required. To overcome the high enrichment cost, it is proposed to recover the matrix by pellet dissolution, and to recycle it for further use. Irradiation programmes are also planned to examine the in-reactor properties of the material. Based on the current status of the research, the results are promising, but irradiation results are still missing. (authors)

  6. Removal of actinides from selected nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The US Department of Energy awarded Oak Ridge National Laboratory a program to develop a cost-risk-benefit analysis of partitioning long-lived nuclides from waste and transmuting them to shorter lived or stable nuclides. Two subtasks of this program were investigated at Rocky Flats. In the first subtask, methods for solubilizing actinides in incinerator ash were tested. Two methods appear to be preferable: reaction with ceric ion in nitric acid or carbonate-nitrate fusion. The ceric-nitric acid system solubilizes 95% of the actinides in ash; this can be increased by 2 to 4% by pretreating ash with sodium hydroxide to solubilize silica. The carbonate-nitrate fusion method solubilizes greater than or equal to 98% of the actinides, but requires sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Two additional disadvantages are that it is a high-temperature process, and that it generates a lot of salt waste. The second subtask comprises removing actinides from salt wastes likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. A preliminary feasibility study of solvent extraction methods has been completed. The use of a two-step solvent extraction system - tributyl phosphate (TBP) followed by extraction with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant (DHDECMP) - appears to be the most efficient for removing actinides from salt waste. The TBP step would remove most of the plutonium and > 99.99% of the uranium. The second step using DHDECMP would remove > 99.91% of the americium and the remaining plutonium (> 99.98%) and other actinides from the acidified salt waste. 8 figures, 11 tables

  7. Towards standardized calculation tools for the Accelerator-Driven Systems and their application to various scenarios for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto, M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis discusses the question of partitioning and transmutation of actinides and some long-lived fission products as a way of reducing the mass and radio-toxicity of wastes from nuclear power facilities. Numerical benchmarking and computational exercises carried out in related projects are discussed and the quantitative assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of various transmutation strategies are discussed, as is the role of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) and Advanced Fast Reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. According to the author, the study allows three main options in nuclear waste management - open cycle, plutonium recycling and the recycling of all actinides - to be compared. The last part of the dissertation is dedicated to two phase-out schemes employing either ASDs or critical reactors

  8. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Priman, V.; Vanicek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  9. High flux Particle Bed Reactor systems for rapid transmutation of actinides and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Maise, G.; Steinberg, M.; Todosow, M.

    1993-01-01

    An initial assessment of several actinide/LLFP burner concepts based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. The high power density/flux level achievable with the PBR make it an attractive candidate for this application. The PBR based actinide burner concept also possesses a number of safety and economic benefits relative to other reactor based transmutation approaches including a low inventory of radionuclides, and high integrity, coated fuel particles which can withstand extremely high in temperatures while retaining virtually all fission products. In addition the reactor also posesses a number of ''engineered safety features,'' which, along with the use of high temperature capable materials further enhance its safety characteristics

  10. Parametric survey for benefit of partitioning and transmutation technology in terms of high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Kenji; Morita, Yasuji; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takao; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Benefit of implementing Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology was parametrically surveyed in terms of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal by discussing possible reduction of the geological repository area. First, the amount and characteristics of HLWs caused from UO 2 and MOX spent fuels of light-water reactors (LWR) were evaluated for various reprocessing schemes and cooling periods. The emplacement area in the repository site required for the disposal of these HLWs was then estimated with considering the temperature constrain in the repository. The results showed that, by recycling minor actinides (MA), the emplacement area could be reduced by 17-29% in the case of UO 2 -LWR and by 63-85% in the case of MOX-LWR in comparison with the conventional PUREX reprocessing. This significant impact in MOX fuel was caused by the recycle of 241 Am which was a long-term heat source. Further 70-80% reduction of the emplacement area in comparison with the MA-recovery case could be expected by partitioning the fission products (FP) into several groups for both fuel types. To achieve this benefit of P and T, however, it is necessary to confirm the engineering feasibility of these unconventional disposal concepts. (author)

  11. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  12. Transmutation of nuclear waste in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pilate, S.; Wehmann, U.K.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this joint study of ECN, Belgonucleaire, and Siemens is to investigate possibilities for transmutation of nuclear waste in regular nuclear reactors or in special transmutation devices. Studies of possibilities included the limits and technological development steps which would be needed. Burning plutonium in fast reactors, gas-cooled high-temperature reactors and light water reactors (LWR) have been considered. For minor actinides the transmutation rate mainly depends on the content of the minor actinides in the reactor and to a much less degree on the fact whether one uses a homogeneous system (with the actinides mixed into the fuel) or a heterogeneous system. If one wishes to stabilise the amount of actinides from the present LWRs, about 20% of all nuclear power would have to be generated in special burner reactors. It turned out that reactor transmutation of fission products would require considerable recycling efforts and that the time needed for a substantial transmutation would be rather long for the presently available levels of the neutron flux. If one would like to design burner systems which can serve more light water reactors, a large effort would be needed and other burners (possibly driven by accelerators) should be considered. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary investigation of actinide and xenon reactivity effects in accelerator transmutation of waste high-flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.R.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of an unstable positive reactivity growth in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW)-type high-flux system is investigated. While it has always been clear that xenon is an important actor in the reactivity response of a system to flux changes, it has been suggested that in very high thermal flux transuranic burning systems, a positive, unstable reactivity growth could be caused by the actinides alone. Initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change caused by the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or startup. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response caused by the actinides. The capabilities and applications of both the current actinide model and the xenon model are discussed. Finally, the need for a complete dynamic model for the high-flux fluid-fueled ATW system is addressed

  14. Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses

  15. Hydrometallurgical minor actinide separation in hollow fiber modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, A.; Weigl, M.; Gompper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Hollow fiber modules (HFM) were used as phase contacting devices for hydrometallurgical minor actinide separation in the Partitioning and Transmutation context. Two single-HFM setups, one using commercially available HFM, the other one using miniature HFM, have been developed and manufactured. Several very successful DIAMEX and SANEX once-through tests were performed. The major advantage of the new miniature HFM is their size drastically reducing chemicals consumption: only several 10 mL of feed phases are required for a test. (authors)

  16. Preliminary Analysis of High-Flux RSG-GAS to Transmute Am-241 of PWR’s Spent Fuel in Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Setiawan, M.; Kuntjoro, S.

    2018-02-01

    A preliminary study of minor actinides (MA) transmutation in the high flux profile RSG-GAS research reactor was performed, aiming at an optimal transmutation loading for present nuclear energy development. The MA selected in the analysis includes Am-241 discharged from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Asian region. Until recently, studies have been undertaken in various methods to reduce radiotoxicity from actinides in high-level waste. From the cell calculation using computer code SRAC2006, it is obtained that the target Am-241 which has a cross section of the thermal energy absorption in the region (group 8) is relatively large; it will be easily burned in the RSG-GAS reactor. Minor actinides of Am-241 which can be inserted in the fuel (B/T fuel) is 2.5 kg which is equivalent to Am-241 resulted from the partition of spent fuel from 2 units power reactors PWR with power 1000MW(th) operated for one year.

  17. Actinide partitioning from high level liquid waste using the Diamex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Blanc, P.; Condamines, N.; Baron, P.; Berthon, L.; Nicol, C.; Pozo, C.; Lecomte, M.; Philippe, M.; Masson, M.; Hequet, C.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of long-lived radionuclides, which belong to the so-called minor actinides elements, neptunium, americium and curium, from the high level nuclear wastes separated during the reprocessing of the irradiated nuclear fuels in order to transmute them into short-lived nuclides, can substantially decrease the potential hazards associated with the management of these nuclear wastes. In order to separate minor actinides from high-level liquid wastes (HLLW), a liquid-liquid extraction process was considered, based on the use of diamide molecules, which display the property of being totally burnable, thus they do not generate secondary solid wastes. The main extracting properties of dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), the diamide selected for the development of the DIAMEX process, are briefly described in this paper. Hot tests of the DIAMEX process (using DMDBTDMA) related to the treatment of an mixed oxide fuels (MOX) type HLLW, were successfully performed. The minor actinide decontamination factors of the HLLW obtained were encouraging. The main results of these tests are presented and discussed in this paper. (authors). 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Transmutation of long-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1994-01-01

    The time-accumulated dose related to technetium dominates the leakage doses in most scenarios for imperturbed geological disposal. If human intrusion into geologically stable repositories or other disturbances is taken into account, the actinides determine the maximum value of the expected individual dose rates of shorter storage times. Therefore actinides dominate the discussion on transmutation of nuclear waste. In principle current LWRs could be used for a massive transmutation of Tc and perhaps I. Fast reactors and HWRs have attractive potential with respect to transmutation in moderated assemblies. HWRs like CANDU have easy refuelling possibilities. (orig.)

  19. Partitioning of fissile and radio-toxic materials from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The term ''partitioning'' means separation of one group of radwaste components from another. Such technological approaches are mainly applied to extraction of long-lived fission products (Tc, I) and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) from the waste arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Transmutation of the extracted minor actinides should be performed in a reactor or some accelerated systems. The combination of these technologies, partitioning and transmutation (P and T), will reduce the radiotoxicity of radwaste. In recent decades, partitioning has been directly linked to spent fuel reprocessing. Therefore, the basic investigations have been focused on the partitioning of liquid wastes arising from the PUREX process. These subjects have been the most developed ones, but the processes of fine aqueous separation generates an extra amount of liquid waste. This fact has an effect on the nuclear fuel cycle economy. Therefore, some other advanced compact methods have also been studied. These are dry methods involving molten chlorides and fluorides, the methods based on a supercritical movable phase, etc. The report provides a brief review of information on the basic partitioning process flow-sheets developed in France, Japan, Russia and other countries. Recent approaches to partitioning have been mostly directed towards radio-toxic hazard reduction and ecology. In the future, partitioning should be closely bound up with reprocessing and other spent nuclear fuel management processes. Reprocessing/partitioning should also be aimed at solving the problems of safety (non-proliferation) and economy in a closed fuel cycle. It is necessary to change a future ''technological philosophy'' of reprocessing and partitioning. The basic spent fuel components (U, Pu, Th) are to be extracted only for recycling in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. If these elements are regarded as a waste, additional expenses are required for transmutation. If we consider

  20. A worldwide perspective on actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide interest has been evident over the past few years in reexamining the merits of recovering the actinides from spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel and transmuting them in fast reactors to reduce hazards in geologic repositories. This paper will summarize some of the recent activities in this field. Several countries are embarked on programs of reprocessing and vitrification of present wastes, from which removal of the actinides is largely precluded. The United States is assessing the ideas related to the fast reactor program and the potential application to defense wastes. 18 refs., 2 figs

  1. Denaturing of plutonium by transmutation of minor-actinides for enhancement of proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Saito, Masaki; Peryoga, Yoga; Ezoubtchenko, Alexey; Takivayev, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility study for the plutonium denaturing by utilizing minor-actinide transmutation in light water reactors has been performed. And the intrinsic feature of proliferation resistance of plutonium has been discussed based on IAEA's publication and Kessler's proposal. The analytical results show that not only 238 Pu but also other plutonium isotopes with even-mass-number have very important role for denaturing of plutonium due to their relatively large critical mass and noticeably high spontaneous fission neutron generation. With the change of the minor-actinide doping ratio in U-Pu mix oxide fuel and moderator to fuel ratio, it is found that the reactor-grade plutonium from conventional light water reactors can be denatured to satisfy the proliferation resistance criterion based on the Kessler's proposal but not to be sufficient for the criterion based on IAEA's publication. It has been also confirmed that all the safety coefficients take negative value throughout the irradiation. (author)

  2. A reexamination of the incentives for actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Forsberg, C.W.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    The incentives for actinide burning (AB), also known as partitioning and transmutation, were extensively evaluated over a decade ago by US and foreign investigators. The conclusion was that the cost and short-term risk increases resulting from AB substantially outweighed the long-term reduction in repository risk. However, during the intervening years, many factors relevant to this evaluation have changed, such as (a) expectations concerning the ease with which a repository could be sited and licensed, (b) issuance by regulators of a repository licensing standard and supporting criteria, (c) the scenario to which AB is compared, and (d) new technologies for fuel and waste processing. This paper reexamines the incentives for undertaking actinide burning the content of these new factors. 10 refs., 3 figs

  3. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.U.

    1992-09-01

    The meeting was organised under the auspices of OECD Nuclear Agency's International Information Exchange Programme on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation. In the original announcement for the meeting the following sessions were proposed: 1) Concepts of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 2) Nuclear design problems of accelerator-based transmutation systems with emphasis on target facilities and their interfaces with accelerators, 3) Data and methods for nuclear design of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 4) Related cross-section measurements and integral experiments, 5) Identification of discrepancies and gaps and discussion of desirable R+D and benchmark activities. Due to the large number of papers submitted it was necessary to split session 2 into two parts and to reassign some papers in order to balance the sessions more evenly. No papers were submitted for session 5 and this was replaced by a summary and general discussion session. These proceedings contain all 30 papers in the order they were presented at the meeting. They are copies of the duplication-ready versions given to us during or shortly after the meeting. In the Table of Contents, the papers are listed together with the name of the presenter. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Heterogeneous all actinide recycling in LWR all actinide cycle closure concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondinelli, Luciano

    1980-01-01

    A project for the elimination of transuranium elements (Waste Actinides, WA) by neutron transmutation is developed in a commercial BWR with U-Pu (Fuel Actinides, FA) recycle. The project is based on the All Actinide Cycle Closure concept: 1) closure of the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, U-Pu coprocessing, 2) waste actinide disposal by neutron transmutation. The reactor core consists of Pu-island fuel assemblies containing WAs in target pins. Two parallel reprocessing lines for FAs and WAs are provided. Mass balance, hazard measure, spontaneous activity during 10 recycles are calculated. Conclusions are: the reduction in All Actinide inventory achieved by Heterogeneous All Actinide Recycling is on the order of 83% after 10 recycles. The U235 enrichment needed for a constant end of cycle reactivity decreases for increasing number of recycles after the 4th recycle. A diffusion-burnup calculation of the pin power peak factors in the fuel assembly shows that design limits can be satisfied. A strong effort should be devoted to the solution of the problems related to high values of spontaneous emission by the target pins

  5. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO 3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO 3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , DTPA, HNO 3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed

  6. Towards cleaner methods for the production of Mo-99 using refractory ceramics and its relevance to actinide partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, V.; Dos Santos, L.; Vaccaro, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-07-01

    Mo-99 is the most utilized isotope in nuclear medicine accounting for over 30 million medical diagnostic procedures annually worldwide. The process for the production of Mo-99 through fission of U-235 normally involves the irradiation of UAl{sub x} dispersion plate fuel in a research reactor, the subsequent dissolution of the fuel plate, the selective separation of the Mo-99 from all of the other fission products and possibly also the recovery of U-235 for future reuse. Compared to the amount of product recovered, copious radioactive waste is generated during the Mo-99 production process. Gaseous wastes are produced at the head-end during the plate dissolution and several liquid wastes are produced during the recovering of Mo-99 using solid extractants, typically polymeric ion exchange resins, which themselves constitute an additional waste stream. It would be extremely advantageous to devise a new process that generates little or no waste. We have been working on a new strategy for the production of fission Mo-99 that involves replacing the dispersion plate targets that are used in the traditional process with inert or active matrix fuel particles that do not need to be dissolved. In one embodiment of the strategy the preparation of new highly porous ZrC{sub x} and graphite-ZrC{sub x} composite target kernels are used that are prepared through polymer templating. The surface properties of these porous materials have been studied and are such that they can be easily loaded with uranium, or for that matter, with any other actinide. In our work we are exploring the possibility of selectively extracting the Mo-99 from the irradiated target kernels by either solution or gas-phase methods and then easily recover the uranium. The fission product-containing kernels can be oxidized in air to generate ZrO{sub 2} that can act as a stable host material either alone or as part of a multiphase ceramic matrix or possibly even as an actinide transmutation host. At the conceptual

  7. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K; Bultman, J H; Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Janssen, A J; Franken, W M.P.; Klippel, K T; Kloosterman, J L; Konings, R J.M.; Smit, J

    1994-11-01

    The term ``nuclear transmutation`` means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ``recycling`` means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application of MOX, etc.). (orig./HP).

  8. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl - ). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in their bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)

  9. Fuel design for the U.S. accelerator driven transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hayes, S. L.; Crawford, D. C.; Pahl, R. G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed

  10. Fuel Design for the U.S. Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Hayes, S.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Pahl, R.G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed. (authors)

  11. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate 'Partitioning and Transmutation' (P and T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P and T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ∼100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P and T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P and T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9%) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9% also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be 'transmuted' (or 'burned') in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be

  12. Minor actinide transmutation in a board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meiyin; Tian, Wenxi; Zhang, Dalin; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1250 MWt board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is further designed. • MCNP–ORIGEN coupled code MCORE is applied to perform neutronics and depletion calculation. • Transmutation efficiency and neutronic safety parameters are compared under different MA weight fraction. - Abstract: In this paper, a board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is further designed and applied to perform minor actinide (MA) transmutation. MA is homogeneously loaded in all the fuel sub-assemblies with a weight fraction of 2.0 wt.%, 4.0 wt.%, 6.0 wt.%, 8.0 wt.%, 10.0 wt.% and 12.0 wt.%, respectively. The transmutation efficiency, transmutation amount, power density distribution, neutron fluence distribution and neutronic safety parameters, such as reactivity, Doppler feedback, void worth and delayed neutron fraction, are compared under different MA weight fraction. Neutronics and depletion calculations are performed based on the self-developed MCNP–ORIGEN coupled code with the ENDF/B-VII data library. In the breed and burn reactor core, a number of breeding sub-assemblies are arranged in the inner core in a board type way (scatter load) to breed, and a number of absorbing sub-assemblies are arranged in the inner side of the outer core to absorb neutrons and reduce power density in this area. All the fuel sub-assemblies (ignition and breeding sub-assemblies) are shuffled from outside in. The core reached asymptotically steady state after about 22 years, and the average and maximum discharged burn-up were about 17.0% and 35.3%, respectively. The transmutation amount increased linearly with the MA weight fraction, while the transmutation rate parabolically varied with the MA weight fraction. Power density in ignition sub-assembly positions increased with the MA weight fraction, while decreased in breeding sub-assembly positions. Neutron fluence decreased with the increase of MA weight fraction. Generally speaking, the core reactivity and void

  13. Transmutation in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Buiron, Laurent; Mignot, Gérard; Palhier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future prospects for incorporating Am in ASTRID: → Potential to demonstrate the minor actinide transmutation on an industrial scale in the CFV V1 core of ASTRID: • Homogeneous concept: 2% of Am in a standard fuel; • Heterogeneous concept: 10% on UO 2 in the radial blanket. • The objective of ensuring a balance in the Am (and total minor actinides) flow in the ASTRID fuel cycle may be obtained without any impact on the design of the core and handling systems for the management of the new and spent fuel subassemblies. • Several experimental phases in ASTRID to implement different transmutation scenarios using homogeneous and heterogeneous concepts. ⇒ the availability of facilities involved in the ASTRID material cycles

  14. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report from the research programme 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Dodd, D.H.; Gruppelaar, H.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1997-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1996 projects are summarized and described in this report. The 1996 projects concern (1) the chemistry of actinides and inert matrices to test and characterize the matrices and actinide compounds in order to develop uranium-free fissionable materials for the transmutation of actinides; (2) the transmutation of plutonium in light water reactors (LWR) to assess and increase the burnup of plutonium and to assess the safety of plutonium transmutation in LWRs; (3) the radiological consequences of different nuclear fuel cycles; (4) and a reactor physics analysis of new thorium-based reactor systems to study the possibility to reduce the amount of long-living radioactive waste materials by means of the use of thorium-based compounds in a high-temperature reactor (HTR) or accelerators. 15 figs., 6 tabs., 23 refs

  15. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report of the research programme 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boerrigter, H.; Damen, P.G.M.; Gruppelaar, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1997 projects, carried out in the period July 1997 to June 1998, are summarized and described in this report. The 1997 projects concern (1) transmutation of actinides in inert matrices with the aim to design, test and characterize uranium-free fission materials for the transmutation of actinides, both for single as for multiple recycling strategies; (2) scenario studies for plutonium recycling with the aim to gain insight into the possibilities to reduce plutonium reserves by using plutonium as a fissionable material in reactors; (3) transmutation by means of accelerator-driven systems with the aim to analyze the options for the burning of plutonium in accelerator-driven, thorium-based systems; and (4) separation of actinides and lanthanides by means of Supported Liquid Membranes with the aim to study the possibility to extract americium from nuclear waste materials. refs

  16. Separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive wastes (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The management of high-level radioactive wastes is facilitated, if long-lived and radiotoxic actinides and fission products are separated before the final disposal. Especially important is the separation of americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium, strontium, cesium and technetium. The separated nuclides can be deposited separately from the bulk of the high-level waste, but their transmutation to short-lived nuclides is a muchmore favourable option. This report reviews the chemistry of the separation of actinides and fission products from radioactive wastes. The composition, nature and conditioning of the wastes are described. The main attention is paid to the solvent extraction chemistry of the elements and to the application of solvent extraction in unit operations of potential partitioning processes. Also reviewed is the behaviour of the elements in the ion exchange chromatography, precipitation, electrolysis from aqueous solutions and melts, and the distribution between molten salts and metals. Flowsheets of selected partitioning processes are shown and general aspects of the waste partitioning are shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  18. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides

  19. Dynamic criteria for partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses dynamic criteria intended to optimize partitioning and transmutation (P-T) concept development supporting improved nuclear waste management. Six criteria are proposed initially and the rationale for each is briefly explained. Each criterion is used as a measure (or dimension) on which the developed concepts can be evaluated. The criteria allow the P-T concepts to be evaluated in an integral system including long-term energy needs, fuel cycle, and waste management. New criteria will be identified along with the P-T concept development, and each criterion will be realistically weighted so that it is comparable in an overall criteria evaluation. The weights are subject to change as a result of technical advancements and public perception on various issues. Incomplete criteria will result in a poor choice because important factors may not be considered when the decision is made. A successful decision on the optimal P-T system depends on the completeness of criteria (dimensions) as well as realistic weights assigned to each criterion

  20. Partitioning technologies and actinide science: towards pilot facilities in Europe (ACSEPT project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Ouvrier, N.

    2010-01-01

    ACSEPT is an essential contribution to the demonstration, in the long term, of the potential benefits of actinide recycling to minimize the burden on the geological repositories. To succeed, ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to grouped actinide separation. A substantial review was undertaken either to be sure that the right molecule families are being studied, or, on the contrary, to identify new candidates. Results of the first hot tests allowed the validation of some process options. (ii) Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT is focused on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within EUROPART with specific attention to the exhaustive electrolysis in molten chloride (quantitative recovery of the actinides with the lowest amount of fission products) and to actinide back-extraction from an An-Al alloy. R and D efforts are also brought to key scientific and technical issues compulsory for building a complete separation process (head-end steps, salt treatment for recycling and waste management). (iii) By integrating all the experimental results within engineering and systems studies, both in hydro and pyro domains, ACSEPT will deliver relevant flowsheets and recommendations to prepare for future demonstration at a pilot level, in relation with strategies developed through the SNE-TP. In addition, a training and education programme is implemented to share the knowledge among the partitioning community and the future generations of researchers

  1. Development of nuclear transmutation technology - A study on accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Chung, Kie Hyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Hwang, Il Soon; Park, Byung Gi; Yang, Hyung Lyeol; Kim, Duk Kyu; Huh, Chang Wook [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study is to help establish the long-range nuclear waste disposal strategy through the investigations and comparisons of various= concepts of the accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation reactors, which have been suggested to replace the geological waste disposal due to the technical uncertainties in the long-time scale. Nuclear data, categorized in high -and low-energy neutron cross-sections, were investigated and the structures, principles, and recent progresses of proton linac were reviews, Also the accelerator power for transmutation and the economics were referred, The comparison of the transmutation concepts concentrated on two: Japanese OMEGA program of alloy fuelled system, Minor actinide molten salt system, and Eutectic alloy system and American ATW program of aqueous system and molten salt system. From the comparative study, a state-of-art of the technology has been identified as a concept employing proton-accelerate of 800 {approx} 1600 MeV with 100 mA capacity combined with liquid lead target, molten salt blanket and on-line chemical separation using centrifuge and electrowinning technology. 34 refs., 25 tabs., 64 figs. (author)

  2. Reactor physics aspects of burning actinides in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1978-01-01

    A short review of the different recycling strategies of actinides other than fuel treated in the literature, is given along with nuclear data requirements for actinide build-up and transmutation studies. The effects of recycling actinides in a nuclear reactor on the flux distribution, the infinite neutron multiplication factor, the reactivity control system, the reactivity coefficients and the delayed neutron fraction are discussed considering a notional LWR or LMFBR as an Actinide Trasmutaton Reactor. Some operational problems of Actinide Transmutation reactors are mentioned, which are caused by the α-decay heat and the neutron sources of Actinide Target Elements

  3. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  4. Research on transmutation and accelerator-driven systems at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Heusener, G.

    2000-01-01

    Transmutation is considered a promising technology worldwide for significantly reducing the amount and, thereby, the long-term radiotoxicity of high active waste (HAW) produced by the operation of nuclear power plants such as light water reactors (LWR). The maximum reduction of radiotoxicity could be by a factor of about 100. Transmutation is thus an alternative to the direct deposition of large volumes of highly radioactive waste. Transmutation presents the possibility of closing the fuel cycle including the minor actinides. Plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products can be transmuted in a so called Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS), which consists of an accelerator, a target module and a subcritical blanket. This paper describes the work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe which is critically evaluating an ADS mainly with respect to its potential for transmuting minor actinides, to its feasibility and to safety aspects. The work is being done in the area of core design, neutronics, safety, system analyses, materials and corrosion. (orig.) [de

  5. Some recent contributions of basic nuclear science to nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear waste transmutation aims at alleviating some long-term risks associated with actinides and with some long-lived fission products. Proposals of using accelerator driven system (ADS) to efficiently burn actinides in uranium free fuels have revitalized some basic researches in the field of nuclear and reactor physics. This is the case for high intensity accelerator in the ADS context and for the neutron source which relies to a large extent on basic nuclear physics related to spallation. There is also an experimental program called MUSE at Cadarache to study the sub-critical reactor physics with regard to its neutronics. A second area where basic research is involved is the measurement of new or more reliable neutron cross sections specific to transmutation and also to the thorium fuel cycle considered as a long-term option for ''clean'' energy production with reduced actinide production. This second area will possibly be covered by a new facility called n-TOF developed at CERN. (author)

  6. Transmutation Capability of a Once-Through Molten-Salt and Other Transmuting Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Lowenthal, M.; Barnes, D.; Kawasaki, D.; Kimball, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Sagara, H.; Vietez, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is done of the transmutation characteristics of three reactor technologies: a multi-batch liquid metal (LM) cooled transmuter, a once-through molten-salt (MS) transmuter and a pebble bed (PB) transmuter. It was found that for the same fractional transmutation and same k eff drop with burnup (Δk effBU ), lead-bismuth offers smaller peak-to-average core power density, and it requires a smaller pumping power but a larger and heavier core than a sodium cooled transmuter. 99 Tc cannot effectively serve as a burnable absorber to reduce Δk effBU of LM transmuters. However, addition of thorium can greatly flatten k eff and almost double the fractional transmutation of the LWR spent fuel from ∼20% to ∼40%. If the 'once-through' MS transmuter is operated with continuous complete removal of fission products, it can achieve ∼85% fractional transmutation provided that the equilibrium concentration of actinides in the MS can reach 4 mole %. If the fission products are not actively removed, the fractional transmutation is reduced to ∼75%. The fractional transmutation of a PB transmuter can exceed 40%. More thorough analysis is required to better quantify the transmutation capability of the different transmuter technologies. (authors)

  7. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  8. Radioactive Wastes Generated From JAERI Partitioning-Transmutation Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI's processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as 14 C and 59 Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (authors)

  9. Innovative SANEX process for trivalent actinides separation from PUREX raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sypula, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear spent fuel and reduction of its radiotoxicity by separation of long-lived radionuclides would definitely help to close the nuclear fuel cycle ensuring sustainability of the nuclear energy. Partitioning of the main radiotoxicity contributors followed by their conversion into short-lived radioisotopes is known as partitioning and transmutation strategy. To ensure efficient transmutation of the separated elements (minor actinides) the content of lanthanides in the irradiation targets has to be minimised. This objective can be attained by solvent extraction using highly selective ligands that are able to separate these two groups of elements from each other. The objective of this study was to develop a novel process allowing co-separation of minor actinides and lanthanides from a high active acidic feed solution with subsequent actinide recovery using just one cycle, so-called innovative SANEX process. The conditions of each step of the process were optimised to ensure high actinide separation efficiency. Additionally, screening tests of several novel lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands provided by University of Twente were performed. These tests were aiming in better understanding the influence of the extractant structural modifications onto An(III)/Ln(III) selectivity and complexation properties. Optimal conditions for minor actinides separation were found and a flow-sheet of a new innovative SANEX process was proposed. Tests using a single centrifugal contactor confirmed high Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factor of 15 while the lowest SF Ln/Am obtained was 6,5 (for neodymium). In addition, a new masking agent for zirconium was found as a substitution for oxalic acid. This new masking agent (CDTA) was also able to mask palladium without any negative influence on An(III)/Ln(III). Additional tests showed no influence of CDTA on plutonium present in the feed solution unlike oxalic acid which causes Pu precipitation. Therefore, CDTA was proposed as a Zr

  10. Innovative SANEX process for trivalent actinides separation from PUREX raffinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sypula, Michal

    2013-07-01

    Recycling of nuclear spent fuel and reduction of its radiotoxicity by separation of long-lived radionuclides would definitely help to close the nuclear fuel cycle ensuring sustainability of the nuclear energy. Partitioning of the main radiotoxicity contributors followed by their conversion into short-lived radioisotopes is known as partitioning and transmutation strategy. To ensure efficient transmutation of the separated elements (minor actinides) the content of lanthanides in the irradiation targets has to be minimised. This objective can be attained by solvent extraction using highly selective ligands that are able to separate these two groups of elements from each other. The objective of this study was to develop a novel process allowing co-separation of minor actinides and lanthanides from a high active acidic feed solution with subsequent actinide recovery using just one cycle, so-called innovative SANEX process. The conditions of each step of the process were optimised to ensure high actinide separation efficiency. Additionally, screening tests of several novel lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands provided by University of Twente were performed. These tests were aiming in better understanding the influence of the extractant structural modifications onto An(III)/Ln(III) selectivity and complexation properties. Optimal conditions for minor actinides separation were found and a flow-sheet of a new innovative SANEX process was proposed. Tests using a single centrifugal contactor confirmed high Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factor of 15 while the lowest SF{sub Ln/Am} obtained was 6,5 (for neodymium). In addition, a new masking agent for zirconium was found as a substitution for oxalic acid. This new masking agent (CDTA) was also able to mask palladium without any negative influence on An(III)/Ln(III). Additional tests showed no influence of CDTA on plutonium present in the feed solution unlike oxalic acid which causes Pu precipitation. Therefore, CDTA was proposed as

  11. Two-step B/T (burning and/or transmutation) method for self-completed nuclear fuel cycle with thermal and fast B/T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, A.; Mulyanto, M.R.; Marsodi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The total cost minimization for P and T (partitioning and transmutation) treatment with appropriate recycle period through out-core optimization was examined in order to find the possibility of P and T treatment of minor actinides (MA) and/or long lived fission products (LLFP) and the technology to be improved and/or developed in self-completed nuclear fuel cycle. The P and T should be done for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment based on three criteria, and the grouping was closely related to the effectiveness of Two-Step B/T Method in B/T treatment. (authors)

  12. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Bultman, J.H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, K.T.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Konings, R.J.M.; Smit, J.

    1994-11-01

    The term ''nuclear transmutation'' means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ''recycling'' means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. The possibilities offered by the HFR are particularly of great value. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application

  13. Partitioning and transmutation of transuranium elements under nuclear phase-out conditions. Technically reliable?; Transmutation von Transuranen unter den Randbedingungen des Kernenergieausstiegs. Technisch machbar?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) could be considered as a technological option in the process of management of highly radioactive waste management, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In this group objectives for P and T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed using simulations of molten salt reactors with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible in 3 to 4 reactors in a time frame of 45 to 60 years. Further on a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation.

  14. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of 241 Am and 237 Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the 241 Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  15. Nuclear Waste Separation and Transmutation Research with Special Focus on Russian Transmutation Projects Sponsored by ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Henri; Blomgren, Jan; Olsson, Nils

    2003-03-01

    High-level nuclear reactor waste is made up of relatively few long-lived radioactive species, among them plutonium, that contribute to difficulties with its storage and disposal. Separation of these species from larger waste volumes mainly constituting of uranium (about 95 %) coupled with nuclear incineration to fission products of plutonium and the so called minor actinides (Neptunium, Americium, and Curium) and transmutation of some of the long lived fission products to short lived or stable isotopes represents a viable nuclear waste management strategy to drastically reduce the time and space requirements for a bed-rock repository of the remaining waste. A remarkable increase in the international research and development on partitioning and transmutation has occurred during the recent years. The road-map report published in April 2001 by The European Technical Working Group on ADS for the development of a European demonstration facility for nuclear waste transmutation has high-lighted the ongoing European research and pointed out the need for further research. The road-map has given the different research activities a position in the ultimate goal of producing an ADS demonstrator and is guiding research planning on the national as well as on the EU level. The Advanced Accelerator Application (3A) program in the US, with the long term goals to enhance long term public safety, provide benefits for the repository, reduce proliferation risks and improve prospects for nuclear power has focused the research on nuclear waste transmutation. The reports on the 3A program indicates a change of the US former abandonment position towards reprocessing and fast reactors due to a strong incentive to eliminate the reactor plutonium and to lower the amount of high level reactor waste for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SKB's proposed research and development program for the next 3 years (FUD01) was presented by SKB in September 2001. It is proposed that the research program

  16. A review of the demonstration of innovative solvent extraction processes for the recovery of trivalent minor actinides from PUREX raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Magnusson, D.; Malmbeck, R.

    2012-01-01

    The selective partitioning (P) of long-lived minor actinides from highly active waste solutions and their transmutation (T) to short-lived or stable isotopes by nuclear reactions will reduce the long-term hazard of the high-level waste and significantly shorten the time needed to ensure their safe confinement in a repository. The present paper summarizes the on-going research activities at Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) and Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in the field of actinide partitioning using innovative solvent extraction processes. European research over the last few decades, i.e. in the NEWPART, PARTNEW and EUROPART programmes, has resulted in the development of multi-cycle processes for minor actinide partitioning. These multi-cycle processes are based on the co-separation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides (e.g. by the DIAMEX process), followed by the subsequent actinide(III)/lanthanide(III) group separation in the SANEX process. The current direction of research for the development of innovative processes within the recent European ACSEPT project is discussed additionally. This paper is focused on the development of flow-sheets for recovery of americium and curium from highly active waste solutions. The flow-sheets are verified by demonstration processes, in centrifugal contactors, using synthetic or genuine fuel solutions. The feasibility of the processes is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan

  18. Impact of partitioning and transmutation in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides a significant contribution to the overall energy supply in Europe. With 148 reactors in 13 of the 25 Member States producing a total power of 125 G We, the resulting energy generation of 850 TWh per year provides 35% of the total electrical energy requirements in the European Union. Worldwide, 441 commercial reactors operate in 31 countries and provide 17% of the electrical requirements. Currently 32 nuclear reactors are being built worldwide mostly in India, China and in neighbouring countries. The used fuel discharged from nuclear power plants constitutes the main contribution to nuclear waste in countries which do not undertake reprocessing. As such, its disposal requires isolation from the biosphere in stable deep geological formations for long periods of time (some hundred thousand years) until its radioactivity decreases through the process of radioactive decay. Ways for significantly reducing the volumes and radio toxicities of the waste and to shorten the very long times for which the waste must be stored safely are being investigated. This is the motivation behind the partitioning and transmutation (P and T) activities worldwide. Most of the hazard from the spent fuel stems from only a few chemical elements, namely plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium, and some long-lived fission products such as iodine, caesium and technetium. At present approximately 2500 t of spent fuel are produced annually in the EU, containing about 25 t of plutonium, and 3.5 t of the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium, and about 3 t of long-lived fission products. These radioactive by-products, although present in relatively low concentrations in the used fuel, are a hazard to life forms when released into the environment. This paper addresses the potential impact of P and T on the long-term disposal of nuclear waste. In particular, it evaluates how realistic P and T scenarios can lead to a reduction in the time required for the waste to be

  19. Fuels and targets for the transmutation of high activity long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.; Warin, D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present and comment the different strategies which can be adopted to transmute minor actinides (concerned reactors, in fast breeder reactors, in accelerator driven systems or ADS), and the chemical composition of transmutation fuels (actinide compounds, inert matrices, fuels and targets). They describe the behaviour of refractory ceramic fuels during their service life under irradiation with their different damage origins (neutrons, fission by-products, alpha particles), the fabrication of transmutation fuels and targets through different processes (metallurgical, co-precipitate, sol-gel, wax, infiltration of radioactive materials, VIPAC/SPHEREPAC) and the reprocessing or recycling of these transmutation fuels and targets

  20. Calculations of the actinide transmutation with HELIOS for fuels of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois L, J.L.; Guzman A, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work a comparison of the obtained results with the HELIOS code is made and those obtained by other similar codes, used in the international community, respect to the transmutation of smaller actinides. For this the one it is analyzed the international benchmark: 'Calculations of Different Transmutation Concepts', of the Nuclear Energy Agency. In this benchmark two cell types are analyzed: one small corresponding to a PWR standard, and another big one corresponding to a PWR highly moderated. Its are considered two types of burnt of discharge: 33 GWd/tHM and 50 GWd/tHM. The following types of results are approached: the k eff like a function of the burnt one, the atomic densities of the main isotopes of the actinides, the radioactivities in the moment in that the reactor it is off and in the times of cooling from 7 up to 50000 years, the reactivity by holes and the Doppler reactivity. The results are compared with those obtained by the following institutions: FZK (Germany), JAERI (Japan), ITEP (Russia) and IPPE (Russian Federation). In the case of the eigenvalue, the obtained results with HELIOS showed a discrepancy around 3% Δk/k, which was also among other participants. For the isotopic concentrations: 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 242m Am the results of all the institutions present a discrepancy bigger every time, as the burnt one increases. Regarding the activities, the discrepancy of results is acceptable, except in the case of the 241 Pu. In the case of the Doppler coefficients the discrepancy of results is acceptable, except for the cells with high moderation; in the case of the holes coefficients, the discrepancy of results increases in agreement with the holes fraction increases, being quite high to 95% of holes. In general, the results are consistent and in good agreement with those obtained by all the participants in the benchmark. The results are inside of the established limits by the work group on Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles of the Nuclear

  1. Actinide separation by electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusselman, S.P.; Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Grimmett, D.L.; Roy, J.J.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Takahashi, N.

    1995-01-01

    TRUMP-S is a pyrochemical process being developed for the recovery of actinides from PUREX wastes. This paper describes development of the electrochemical partitioning step for recovery of actinides in the TRUMP-S process. The objectives are to remove 99 % of each actinide from PUREX wastes, with a product that is > 90 % actinides. Laboratory tests indicate that > 99 % of actinides can be removed in the electrochemical partitioning step. A dynamic (not equilibrium) process model predicts that 90 wt % product actinide content can be achieved through 99 % actinide removal. Accuracy of model simulation results were confirmed in tests with rare earths. (authors)

  2. Nuclear transmutation by flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new idea for the transmutation of minor actinides, long (and even short) lived fission products is presented. It is based an the property of neutron flux compression in nuclear (fast and/or thermal) reactors possessing spatially non-stationary critical masses. An advantage factor for the burn-up fluence of the elements to be transmuted in the order of magnitude of 100 and more is obtainable compared with the classical way of transmutation. Three typical examples of such transmuters (a subcritical ringreactor with a rotating reflector, a sub-critical ring reactor with a rotating spallation source, the socalled ''pulsed energy amplifier'', and a fast burn-wave reactor) are presented and analysed with regard to this purpose. (orig.) [de

  3. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Rogues, N.; Skarnemark, G.; Oestberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    How to deal with the spent fuel from nuclear power plants is an issue that much research is attracted to in many countries around the world. Several different strategies exist for treating the waste ranging from direct disposal to reprocessing and recycling of plutonium and other long-lived nuclides. In either case the remains have to be stored for a long time to render it radio-toxically safe. One method to deal with this long-lived waste is to separate (separation) out the most long lived components and then transform them into shorter-lived ones (transmutation). Several methods exist for performing the separation for example via molten salts and through solvent extraction. The work presented here has been focused on solvent extraction. This technique is well known since many years and process scale plants have been operating for decades. The new demand is to separate chemically very similar elements from each other. Within this project this is done by new extracting agents developed for this purpose alone within the EU fifth framework programme, the PARTNEW project, particularly from the University of Reading. In this work we investigate different extraction systems for the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides using extraction agents following the so-called CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) principle. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry involved but also some processing behaviour for use in future full scale plants

  4. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  5. Thermal-hydraulics of actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Takano, Hideki; Ogawa, Toru; Osakabe, Masahiro.

    1989-07-01

    As a part of conceptual study of actinide burner reactors, core thermal-hydraulic analyses were conducted for two types of reactor concepts, namely (1) sodium-cooled actinide alloy fuel reactor, and (2) helium-cooled particle-bed reactor, to examine the feasibility of high power-density cores for efficient transmutation of actinides within the maximum allowable temperature limits of fuel and cladding. In addition, calculations were made on cooling of actinide fuel assembly. (author)

  6. Impact of Transmutation Scenarios on Fuel Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturnin, A.; Duret, B.; Allou, A.; Jasserand, F.; Fillastre, E.; Giffard, F.X.; Chabert, C.; Caron-Charles, M.; Garzenne, C.; Laugier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied in the frame of the French Sustainable Radioactive Waste Management Act of 28 June 2006. Transmutation scenarios supposed the introduction of a sodium-cooled fast reactor fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes for the minor actinides. Americium, neptunium and curium (MA) or americium alone (Am) can be transmuted together in a homogeneous way embedded in FR-MOX fuel or incorporated in MA or Am-Bearing radial Blankets (MABB or AmBB). MA transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while plutonium is being recycled in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed considering technical and economic criteria. Transportation needs for fresh and used transmutation fuels is one of these criteria. Transmutation fuels have specific characteristics in terms of thermal load and neutron emissions. Thermal, radiation and criticality constraints have been taken into account in this study to suggest cask concepts for routine conditions of transport, to estimate the number of assemblies to be transported in a cask and the number of annual transports. Comparison with the no transmutation option, i.e. management of uranium and plutonium in SFRs, is also presented. Regarding these matters, no high difficulties appear for assemblies with limited content of Am (homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes). When fuels contain curium, technical transport uncertainties increase because of the important heat release requiring dividing fresh fuels and technological innovations development (MABB and ADS). (authors)

  7. Transmutation of 129I Using an Accelerator-Driven System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Takano, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual blanket design for 129 I transmutation is proposed for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) that is designed to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In this ADS, 250 kg/yr of MA and 56 kg/yr of iodine are simultaneously transmuted, and they correspond to the quantities generated from ∼10 units of existing light water reactors. Furthermore, an introduction scenario and the benefit of iodine transmutation are studied for future introduction of fast breeder reactors. It is shown that the transmutation of iodine benefits the concept of underground disposal

  8. A proposal for a Los Alamos international facility for transmutations (LIFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Williamson, M.A.; Li, Ning; Doolen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The major groups engaged in transmutation research are converging towards a common objective and similar technology. It is now possible to envision an international program of research aimed at the destruction of reactor-generated (and other) nuclear waste using a series of multipurpose experimental facilities in the near future. Los Alamos National Laboratory, as the home of the highest power LINAC and a very active transmutation technology project, is the ideal host for the first of such facilities. The next step in the international program (a facility 10 times more powerful, for engineering-scale demonstrations) could be built in Europe, where there is substantial interest in the construction of such a device in the framework of international cooperation. A series of experiments at Las Alamos could explore the key transmutation technologies. Liquid lead loops, a liquid lead spallation target, and a large size liquid lead facility with provision for irradiation, cooling and diagnostics of several types of 'transmutation assemblies', where different transmutation concepts will be tested in different media and environments, from transmutation of fission products to destruction by fission of higher actinides, to other waste management applications. The engineering-scale facility, which will follow the initial testing phase, will extend the best concepts to full scale implementation

  9. ALMR potential for actinide consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockey, C.L.; Thompson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. This reactor combines a high degree of passive safety characteristics with a high level of modularity and factory fabrication to achieve attractive economics. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor fueled with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and for makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR core by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behavior throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. Waste disposal impacts are discussed. (author)

  10. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The future role and acceptance of nuclear energy will be decisively determined by the safe operation of existing and future facilities and by convincing solutions for nuclear waste management. With respect to the long half-lives of some radionuclides (actinides and fission products) and the related question as to whether the release of radionuclides from a repository can be prevented over very long periods of time, alternatives to the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels are discussed internationally. As a potential complementary solution, the technological option with partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered. This method separates and converts the long-lived radionuclides into stable, short-lived nuclides via neutron reactions in dedicated facilities. Against this background, the first main chapter of the present work looks at the chemical separation of actinides from high-level reprocessing wastes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the processes at the molecular level, basic investigations were also performed on separating actinides(III) via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extraction. At the same time, reversible processes were developed and tested on the laboratory scale with the aid of mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. The subsequent chapter focuses on separating the long-lived fission product iodine-129 from radioactive wastes as well as from process effluents arising from reprocessing. As part of this work, different simple chemical and physical techniques were developed for complete recovery with respect to transmutation or conditioning in host matrices that are sufficiently stable for final storage. Its high mobility and radiological properties make iodine-129 relevant for the long-term safety assessment of final repositories. In addition, transmutation experiments on iodine-127/129 targets were performed using high-energy protons (145-2600 MeV). Due to the expected low cross sections (<100 mb), transmutation with protons

  11. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Mesmin, C.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.

    2002-01-01

    The project Partition and Transmutation (PandT) at the department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, is aimed at investigating new solvent extraction reagents and new processes for the separation of different chemical elements needed in a possible future PandT process. During the year 2001, the work has mainly been in five areas: 1) method development and testing of means to determine protonation constants of two model reagents (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), 2) modelling the influence of organic phase composition on the extraction of trivalent metals (Pm, Am, Cm), 3) determination of the density and refractive index of 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 4) the extraction behaviour of four new nitrogen based reagents (2,6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4- dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-( benzimidazolyl)-pyridine, 2,4-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine), and 5) a study of the effect of temperature on the synergistic extraction of Eu and Am with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine or 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of 2 -bromodecanoic acid dissolved in a series of organic diluents

  12. Laboratory actinide partitioning: Whitlockite/liquid and influence of actinide concentration levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, T.M.; Jones, J.H.; Heuser, W.R.; Burnett, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fission and alpha track radiography techniques have been used to measure partition coefficients (D) at trace (ppm) concentration levels for the actinide elements Th, U, and Pu between synthetic whitlockite and coexisting 'haplobasaltic' silicate liquid at 1 bar pressure and 1250 deg C at oxygen fugacities from 10 sup(-8.5) and 10sup(-0.7) bars. Pu is much more readily incorporated into crystalline phases than is U or Th under reducing conditions, because Pu is primarily trivalent, whereas U and Th are tetravalent. Definitive valence state assignments cannot be made, but our best estimates of corrected partition coefficients for Pu +3 , Pu +4 , Th +4 , U +4 , and U +6 are given for whitlockites. The effect of changing pressure and liquidus temperature is relatively small, which probably reflects a weak temperature dependence for D (whitlockite) but possibly could be due to cancellation of opposing temperature and pressure effects. Comparison of experiments at trace U levels with those containing percent concentrations of UO 2 indicate that Si is involved in the substitution of U in whitlockite with U + 2Si Ca + 2P being the most likely mechanism. Dsub(U) is lower, 0.3 vs 0.5, at percent levels compared to 20 ppm. This is best explained by the effect of U on melt structure or by a decrease in the fraction of tetravalent U at high concentrations. (author)

  13. Partitioning in P-T concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilu; Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of dry- and water-method for partitioning fission products and minor actinides from the spent fuels, and description of advance of dry-method were done. Partitioning process, some typical concept and some results of dry-method were described. The problems fond in dry-method up to now were pointed out. The partitioning study program was suggested

  14. Contribution of the European Commission to a European Strategy for HLW Management through Partitioning and Transmutation: Presentation of MYRRHA and its Role in the European P and T Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahim, H.A.; Van den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kochetkov, A.

    2015-01-01

    To be able to answer the world's increasing demand for energy, nuclear energy must be part of the energy mix. As a consequence of the nuclear electricity generation, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is produced. The HLW is presently considered to be managed through its burying in geological storage. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) has been pointed out as the strategy to reduce the radiological impact of HLW. Transmutation can be achieved in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, both in critical fast reactors as well as in accelerator driven systems (ADSs). For more than two decades, the European Commission has been co-funding various research and development projects conducted in many European research organisations and industries related to P and T as a complementary strategy for high-level waste management to the geological disposal. In 2005, a European strategy for the implementation of P and T for a large part of the HLW in Europe indicated the need for the demonstration of its feasibility at an 'engineering' level. The R and D activities of this strategy were arranged in four 'building blocks': 1. Demonstration of the capability to process a sizable amount of spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in order to separate plutonium, uranium and minor actinides. 2. Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at a semi-industrial level the dedicated fuel needed as load in a dedicated transmuter. 3. Design and construction of one or more dedicated transmuters. 4. Provision of a specific installation for processing of the dedicated fuel unloaded from the transmuter, which can be of a different type than the one used to process the original spent fuel unloaded from the commercial power plants, together with the fabrication of new dedicated fuel. MYRRHA contributes to the third building block. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at SCK.CEN in collaboration with a large number of European partners. One of

  15. Actinide transmutation using inert matrix fuels versus recycle in a low conversion fast burner reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, M.R.; Schneider, E.A.; Recktenwald, G.; Cady, K.B. [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C2200, Austin, 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Reducing the disposal burden of the long lived radioisotopes that are contained within spent uranium oxide fuel is essential for ensuring the sustainability of nuclear power. Because of their non-fertile matrices, inert matrix fuels (IMFs) could allow light-water reactors to achieve a significant burn down of plutonium and minor actinides that are that are currently produced as a byproduct of operating light-water reactors. However, the extent to which this is possible is not yet fully understood. We consider a ZrO{sub 2} based IMF with a high transuranic loading and show that the neutron fluence (and the subsequent fuel residence time required to achieve it) present a practical limit for the achievable actinide burnup. The accumulation of transuranics in spent uranium oxide fuel is a major obstacle for the sustainability of nuclear power. While commercial light-water reactors (LWR's) produce these isotopes, they can be used to transmute them. At present, the only viable option for doing this is to partly fuel reactors with mixed oxide fuel (MOX) made using recycled plutonium. However, because of parasitic neutron capture in the uranium matrix of MOX, considerable plutonium and minor actinides are also bred as the fuel is burned. A better option is to entrain the recycled isotopes in a non-fertile matrix such as ZrO{sub 2}. Inert matrices such as these were originally envisioned for burning plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons [1]. However, because they achieve a conversion ratio of zero, they have also been considered as a better alternative to MOX [2-6]. Plutonium and minor actinides dominate the long term heat and radiological outputs from spent nuclear fuel. Recent work has shown that that IMFs can be used to reduce these outputs by at least a factor of four, on a per unit of energy generated basis [6]. The degree of reduction is strongly dependent on IMF burnup. In principle, complete transmutation of the transuranics could be achieved though this

  16. Oxide fuels and targets for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudreau, F.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Warin, D.; Gaillard-Groleas, G.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Direction 1 of the French Act dated 30 December 1991 on the management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste involves exploring solutions designed to separate long-lived radionuclides from the spent fuel and to transmute them under neutron flux into shorter half-lives or stable elements. In the French research programme conducted by CEA, these radionuclides are mainly minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium) and fission products (particularly caesium, iodine and technetium). Within this context, this paper aims at illustrating the vast programme that CEA has performed in order to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation. An important part of the research was carried out in collaboration with French research (CNRS) and industrial (EDF, AREVA) organisations, and also in the framework of international co-operation programmes with the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe (ITU), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (now JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (ROSATOM). Such research made it possible to evaluate the capacity of MOX fuels to be used as a support for minor actinide transmutation (homogeneous method). Simulations of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuels have revealed the limits of this transmutation method, which are mainly related to the pressurization of the fuel rods and the formation of high active californium. On the contrary, for sodium-cooled fast reactor fuels possibly designed with large expansion plenums a first experimental demonstration of the transmutation of americium and neptunium has been successful in the Phenix reactor. Various studies designed to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental feasibility of transmutation using an inert support (heterogeneous method) have been carried out in HFR (EFTTRA

  17. Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, 99 Tc and 129 I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining

  18. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Mesmin, C.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The project Partition and Transmutation (PandT) at the department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, is aimed at investigating new solvent extraction reagents and new processes for the separation of different chemical elements needed in a possible future PandT process. During the year 2001, the work has mainly been in five areas: 1) method development and testing of means to determine protonation constants of two model reagents (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), 2) modelling the influence of organic phase composition on the extraction of trivalent metals (Pm, Am, Cm), 3) determination of the density and refractive index of 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 4) the extraction behaviour of four new nitrogen based reagents (2,6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4- dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-( benzimidazolyl)-pyridine, 2,4-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine), and 5) a study of the effect of temperature on the synergistic extraction of Eu and Am with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine or 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of 2 -bromodecanoic acid dissolved in a series of organic diluents.

  19. Detailed investigation of neutron emitters in the transmutation of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, A.; Bringer, O.; Dupont, E.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Chartier, F. [CEA/Saclay/DEN/DPC/SECR - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX - Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France)

    2008-07-01

    The production of neutron emitters during the incineration process of minor actinides could be very penalizing for the reprocessing of the targets when transmuted in heterogeneous mode, either in dedicated systems (ADS) or in generation IV reactors. Therefore their production has to be carefully evaluated. The reliability of such evaluation really depends on nuclear data (capture and fission cross sections) and their accuracy. In this paper we present a work we have done to investigate the production of neutron emitters in the incineration of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am targets in fast and thermal nuclear reactor concepts. The impact of nuclear data uncertainties on the production of those neutron-emitters was evaluated by sensitivity calculations. The reduction for some of these uncertainties in the thermal energy region was done by measuring more precisely the {sup 244}Cm(n,gamma){sup 245}Cm, {sup 245}Cm(n,f) and {sup 249}Cf(n,gamma){sup 250}Cf capture cross sections at the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). It amounts to (15.6+-2.4) b for the first one, (1923+-49) b for the second and (389+-10) b for the third one. (authors)

  20. Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning of minor actinide from high level waste could have a substantial impact in lowering the radio toxicity associated with high level waste as well as it will reduce the burden on geological repository. In Indian context, the partitioned minor actinide could be routed into the fast breeder reactor systems scheduled for commissioning in the near period. The technological breakthrough in solvent development has catalyzed the partitioning programme in India, leading to the setting up and hot commissioning of the Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) at BARC, Tarapur. The engineering scale Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) has been retrofitted in an available radiological hot cell situated adjacent to the Advanced Vitrification Facility (AVS). This location advantage ensures an uninterrupted supply of high-level waste and facilitates the vitrification of the high-level waste after separation of minor actinides

  1. Strategies for minority actinides transmutation in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of the strategies that can be followed in fast reactors designed for the fourth generation to reduce the inventory of minority actinides generated in current light water reactors, as the actinides generation in fast reactor.

  2. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste by a charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides and fission products using proton accelerators has many advantages over a transmutor operated in a critical condition. The energy required for this transmutation can be reduced by multiplying the spallation neutrons in a subcritical assembly surrounding the spallation target. The authors have studied the relation between the energy requirements and the multiplication factor, k, of the subcritical assembly, while varying the range of several parameters in the spallation target. A slightly subcritical reactor is superior to a reactor with large subcriticality in the context of the energy requirement of a small proton accelerator, the extent of radiation damage, and other safety problems. To transmute the fission products, the transmutor reactor must have a good neutron economy, which can be provided by a transmutor operated by a proton accelerator. The paper discusses the use of minor actinides to improve neutronics characteristics, such as a long fuel burn-up rather than simply transmuting this valuable material

  3. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  4. Plutonium burning and minor actinides transmutation in fast reactors: first results obtained within the frame of the CAPRA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.C.; Rouault, J.; Kiefhaber, E.; Sunderland, R.

    1994-01-01

    The CAPRA program gas been established by the CEA in early 1993 with the primary goal of investigating the feasibility of a fast reactor core optimised to burn plutonium. CAPRA is now being jointly pursued by the European Research and Development (R and D) organisations (CEA in France, AEA in the UK and KFK in Germany) and the design companies grouped under the European Fast Reactor Associates umbrella. The first phase of the CAPRA programme is planned to last until the end of 1994. Its goal is to deliver an overall assessment on the feasibility of fast reactor plutonium burner cores. This assessment will also include the minor actinides transmutation capability of such cores. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made so far. After an introduction to the basic physics boundary conditions of burner cores, a description of the studies performed and the main results are given. Then the efforts made towards the definition of an accompanying experimental Research and Development (R and D) program are summarised, followed by the conclusions and an outlook to the future work. (authors). 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. New strategy for minor actinides partitioning preliminary results on the electrovolatilization of ruthenium and on the stabilization of Am(IV) in nitric acid with phosphotunsgstate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnet, J.M.; Madic, C.

    1989-01-01

    On problems related to the long term storage in deep geological repositories of high active wastes (H.A.W.) is due to the presence of minor actinide isotopes. Thus after the decay of the fission products (≅ 300 years) the toxicity of these H.A.W. is mainly due to the minor actinides. One solution is based on actinide partitioning followed by transmutation into fission products with short half-lives. A simpler processes than those developed previously, can be based on the possible oxidation of minor actinides to the + IV or + VI oxidation states and their selective extraction. The first step to study is the elimination of the ruthenium (whose presence would be detrimental to oxidize minor actinides) which can be done by electrovolatilization of Ru on the RuO 4 form. The rate of electrovolatilization can be increased by the use of the following electronic mediators, AgI/AgII(1); CeIII/Ce(2), and CoII/CoIII(3), the efficiency of which decreases in the order: 1 > 2 > 3. The effectiveness of that process has been proven when treating real H.A.W solution produced during the study of the reprocessing of a MOX fuel irradiated to as burn-up of 52 GWd/t in a LWR: complete Ru removal was obtained. The second part of the study concerns the electrochemical oxidation of AmIII in nitric acid solutions in the presence of a strong complexing agent: P 2 W 17 O 61 K 10 (P.W.).Total americium oxidation to AmIV can be obtained in nitric acid solution with a concentration up to 8 M. No particular drawback was induced by the presence of an amount of lanthanide III (NdIII) in 6 fold excess vs P.W. The stability of AmIV was studied. The other actinides will be present in these solutions, after the electrochemical oxidation step, in the + VI or+ IV oxidation states, thus a selective extraction (vs fission products) could be performed. A possible way to extract actinide IV/P.W complexes is to use dodecylamine nitrate as extractant

  6. Grouping of HLW in partitioning for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment with neutron reactors based on three criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Mulyanto; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1995-01-01

    A grouping concept of HLW in partitioning for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment by fission reactor was developed in order to improve the disposal in waste management from the safety aspect. The selecting and grouping concept was proposed herein, such as Group MA1 (Np, Am, and unrecovered U and Pu), Group MA2 (Cm, and trace quantity of Cf, etc.), Group A (Tc and I), Group B (Cs and Sr) and Group R (the partitioned remains of HLW), judging from the three criteria for B/T treatment, based on (1) the concept of the potential risk estimated by the hazard index for long-term tendency based on ALI (2) the concept of the relative dose factor related to the adsorbed migration rate transferred through ground water, and (3) the concept of the decay acceleration factor, the burning and/or transmutation characteristics for recycle B/T treatment. (author)

  7. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  8. Electrochemical reduction of CerMet fuels for transmutation using surrogate CeO2-Mo pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claux, B.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rodrigues, A.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2017-08-01

    One of the concepts chosen for the transmutation of minor actinides in Accelerator Driven Systems or fast reactors proposes the use of fuels and targets containing minor actinides oxides embedded in an inert matrix either composed of molybdenum metal (CerMet fuel) or of ceramic magnesium oxide (CerCer fuel). Since the sufficient transmutation cannot be achieved in a single step, it requires multi-recycling of the fuel including recovery of the not transmuted minor actinides. In the present work, a pyrochemical process for treatment of Mo metal inert matrix based CerMet fuels is studied, particularly the electroreduction in molten chloride salt as a head-end step required prior the main separation process. At the initial stage, different inactive pellets simulating the fuel containing CeO2 as minor actinide surrogates were examined. The main studied parameters of the process efficiency were the porosity and composition of the pellets and the process parameters as current density and passed charge. The results indicated the feasibility of the process, gave insight into its limiting parameters and defined the parameters for the future experiment on minor actinide containing material.

  9. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wu H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extraction process for the removal of cesium, has been developed to treat Chinese high level liquid waste. A test system containing 72-stage 10-mm-diam annular centrifugal contactors, a remote sampling system, a rotor speed acquisition-monitoring system, a feeding system, and a video camera-surveillance system was successfully developed to carry out the hot test for verifying the improved total partitioning process. The test system has been successfully used in a 160 hour hot test using genuine high level liquid waste. During the hot test, the test system was stable, which demonstrated it was reliable for the hot test of the high level liquid waste partitioning.

  10. Recycling and transmutation of nuclear waste. ECN-Petten and Belgonucleaire contributions in the framework of 'Partitioning and transmutation studies of the 4th CEC programme on rad waste management and disposal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Gruppelaar, H.; Brusselaers, P.; Evrard, G.; La Fuente, A.; Maldague, T.; Pilate, S.; Renard, A.

    1995-12-01

    A 'Strategy study on nuclear waste transmutation' by Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and Belgonucleaire (BN) in the frame of the EU R and D Programme 1990/1994 on management and storage of radioactive waste has been executed in collaboration with AEA Technology, CEA and Siemens. First of all the motivation for transmuting long-lived radioactive products has been formulated, next transmutation of Tc-99 and I-129 in fission reactors has been studied for the PWR, HFR, Superphenix, and the CANDU reactor. Cross section libraries have been improved for ORIGEN-S on the basis of JEF2.2 and EAF3. This study has been amended by a graphical representation of important reactions for activation of cladding and inert matrix materials. By means of the derived new data libraries, some sample calculations on transmutation of americium in thermal reactors have been performed. Implications of recycling plutonium and americium in the form of MOX fuel in light water reactors have been investigated. It became clear from the present study that trasmutation of the existing plutonium has the highest priority and that reduction of minor-actinides is next on the priority list. Thirdly, the (difficult) large-scale transmutation of Tc-99 and of I-129 could reduce the leakage dose risks. It also seems most worthwhile to be careful with naturally occurring U-234 in the waste, as this will in the long run lead to a substantial increase of the 'natural' radon dose in the neighbourhood of the storage facility. (orig.)

  11. Recycling and transmutation of nuclear waste. ECN-Petten and Belgonucleaire contributions in the framework of `Partitioning and transmutation studies of the 4th CEC programme on rad waste management and disposal`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Gruppelaar, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Brusselaers, P. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Evrard, G. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); La Fuente, A. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Maldague, T. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Pilate, S. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Renard, A. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    A `Strategy study on nuclear waste transmutation` by Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and Belgonucleaire (BN) in the frame of the EU R and D Programme 1990/1994 on management and storage of radioactive waste has been executed in collaboration with AEA Technology, CEA and Siemens. First of all the motivation for transmuting long-lived radioactive products has been formulated, next transmutation of Tc-99 and I-129 in fission reactors has been studied for the PWR, HFR, Superphenix, and the CANDU reactor. Cross section libraries have been improved for ORIGEN-S on the basis of JEF2.2 and EAF3. This study has been amended by a graphical representation of important reactions for activation of cladding and inert matrix materials. By means of the derived new data libraries, some sample calculations on transmutation of americium in thermal reactors have been performed. Implications of recycling plutonium and americium in the form of MOX fuel in light water reactors have been investigated. It became clear from the present study that trasmutation of the existing plutonium has the highest priority and that reduction of minor-actinides is next on the priority list. Thirdly, the (difficult) large-scale transmutation of Tc-99 and of I-129 could reduce the leakage dose risks. It also seems most worthwhile to be careful with naturally occurring U-234 in the waste, as this will in the long run lead to a substantial increase of the `natural` radon dose in the neighbourhood of the storage facility. (orig.).

  12. J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, T.; Takei, H.; Saito, S.; Obayashi, H.; Nishihara, K.; Sugawara, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, nuclear transmutation is considered as an option for waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) as a spallation target and a coolant of subcritical core. To obtain the data required for ADS design, we plan the building of a transmutation experimental facility (TEF) is planned within the J-PARC project. TEF consists of an ADS target test facility (TEF-T), which will be installed 400 MeV-250 kW LBE spallation target for material irradiations, and a transmutation physics experimental facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical/subcritical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel to study ADS neutronics. At TEF-T, various research plans to use emitted neutrons from LBE target are discussed. The paper summarises a road-map to establish the ADS transmuter and latest design activities for TEF construction. (authors)

  13. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  14. Development and demonstration of innovative partitioning processes (i-SANEX and 1-cycle SANEX) for actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilden, Andreas; Modolo, Giuseppe; Geist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    For the recovery of the trivalent actinides Am(III) and Cm(III) from PUREX raffinate, two innovative partitioning processes were developed within the European project ACSEPT. In the 'innovative-SANEX' concept, trivalent actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)) are co-extracted by a TODGA-based solvent, which is then subjected to several stripping steps: selective stripping of An(III) with the hydrophilic ligand SO 3 -Ph-BTP, followed by subsequent stripping of Ln(III). A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct An(III) separation using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA, the so-called '1-cycle SANEX' process. Both processes have been successfully demonstrated using spiked simulate solutions in laboratory-scale miniature annular centrifugal contactors using 32-stages flowsheets. The process development and results of the demonstration tests will be presented and discussed. Both processes showed a high recovery of An(III) with high fission-product decontamination factors. The safety of these processes is studied within the current European project SACSESS. (authors)

  15. Effect of spectral characterization of gaseous fuel reactors on transmutation and burning of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, C.; Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Gaseous Core Reactors (GCR) are fueled with stable uranium compounds in a reflected cavity. The spectral characteristics of neutrons in GCR systems could shift from one end of the spectrum to the other end by changing design parameters such as reflector material and thickness, uranium enrichment, and the average operational temperature and pressure. The rate of actinide generation, transmutation, and burnup is highly influenced by the average neutron energy in reactor core. In particular, the production rate and isotopic mix of plutonium are highly dependent on the neutron spectrum in the reactor. Other actinides of primary interest to this work are neptunium-237 and americium-241 due to their pivotal impact on high-level nuclear waste disposal. In all cavity reactors including GCR's, the reflector material and thickness are the most important design parameters in determining the core spectrum. The increase in the gaseous fuel pressure and enrichment results in relative shift of neutron population toward energies greater than 2 eV. Reflector materials considered in this study are beryllium oxide, lithium hydride, lithium deuteride, zirconium carbide, graphite, lead, and tungsten. Results of the study suggest that the beryllium oxide and tungsten reflected GCR systems set the lower (softest) and upper (hardest) limits of neutron spectra, respectively. The inventory of actinides with half-lives greater than 1000 years can be minimized by increasing neutron flux level in the reactor core. The higher the neutron flux, the lower the inventory of these actinides. The majority of the GCR designs maintained a flux level on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1} while the PWR flux is one order of magnitude lower. The inventory of the feeder isotopes to Np{sup 237} including U{sup 237}, Pu{sup 241}, and Am{sup 241} decreases with relative shift of neutron spectrum toward higher energies. This is due to increased resonance absorption in these isotopes due to higher

  16. New linkage of P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) treatment with methodology of geologic disposal. A possible breakthrough for nuclear technology in tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Asashi

    1999-01-01

    A possibility of a safe, reliable, transparent and economical high-level radioactive waste disposal method is proposed by combining partitioning of waste materials and transmutation of long-life nuclides with geologic disposal. The paper first discusses the environment surrounding nuclear energy and the conditions for social acceptance of nuclear energy. Then, the paper talks about the soundness of geologic disposal as most extensively studied method of radioactive waste, including environment, safety assessment model, unpredictable uncertainty, and macro image and its problems. Thirdly, the paper describes partitioning and transmutation, the latter being reduction of the lives of long-life nuclides by nuclear fission and conversion and the former being methodology to achieve it by rational means. Radionuclides are separated into six groups by three selection rules of transmutation and two selection rules of geologic disposal. The separation can greatly reduce the decay-heat and weight of the waste materials. The paper last explains the new concept of fuel cycle with some comments on important points in developing the new process (M.M.)

  17. Analysis of the transmutational characteristics of a novel molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.; Feher, S.; Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the arguments most frequently brought up by the opponents of the utilization of nuclear energy is the requirement that the radioactive waste and the long-lived radioisotopes accumulated in the spent fuel should be isolated for a very long time from the biosphere. The solution is the elimination of long-lived actinides (plutonium isotopes and minor actinides) and long-lived fission products by transforming (transmuting) them into short-lived or stable nuclei. The high neutron flux required for transmutation can be realized in nuclear installations. these may be conventional therma; and fast reactors, furthermore dedicated devices, namely thermal and fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADSs), which are specifically designed for this purpose. Some of the most promising systems are the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems, in which the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. In the present paper this transmutational device, as well as recommendations for the improvement are discussed in detail (Authors)

  18. Calculated investigation of actinide transmutation in the BOR-60 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemkov, I.Yu.; Ishunina, O.V.; Yakovleva, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    One of the prospective actinide burner reactor type is the fast reactor with a 'hard' spectrum and small breeding factor, which is the BOR-60. The calculated investigations demonstrate that Loading up to 40% of minor-actinides to the BOR-60 reactor did not lead to the considerable change of neutron-physical characteristics. The performed calculations show that the BOR- 60 reactor possesses a high efficiency of the minor-actinide and plutonium bum-up (up to 37 kg/(TW · h)) hat is comparable with properties of the actinide burner-reactors under design. The BOR-60 reactor can provide a homogeneous minor-actinide Loading (minor-actinide addition to the standard fuel) to the core and heterogeneous Loading (as separate assemblies-targets with a high minor-actinide fraction) to the first rows of a radial blanket that allows the optimum usage of the reactor and its characteristics. (authors)

  19. Casting of metallic fuel containing minor actinide additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Henslee, S.P.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A significant attribute of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is the transmutation of long-lived minor actinide fission products. These isotopes require isolation for thousands of years, and if they could be removed from the waste, disposal problems would be reduced. The IFR utilizes pyroprocessing of metallic fuel to separate auranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from nonfissionable constituents. These materials are reintroduced into the fuel and reirradiated. Spent IFR fuel is expected to contain low levels of americium, neptunium, and curium because the hard neutron spectrum should transmute these isotopes as they are produced. This opens the possibility of using an IFR to trnasmute minor actinide waste from conventional light water reactors (LWRs). A standard IFR fuel is based on the alloy U-20% Pu-10% Zr (in weight percent). A metallic fuel system eases the requirements for reprocessing methods and enables the minor actinide metals to be incorporated into the fuel with simple modifications to the basic fuel casting process. In this paper, the authors report the initial casting experience with minor actinide element addition to an IFR U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

  20. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  1. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  2. Electrochemical separation of actinides and fission products in molten salt electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Fusselman, S.P. [Rockwell International/Rocketdyne Division, Canoga Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Molten salt electrochemical separation may be applied to accelerator-based conversion (ABC) and transmutation systems by dissolving the fluoride transport salt in LiCl-KCl eutectic solvent. The resulting fluoride-chloride mixture will contain small concentrations of fission product rare earths (La, Nd, Gd, Pr, Ce, Eu, Sm, and Y) and actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm). The Gibbs free energies of formation of the metal chlorides are grouped advantageously such that the actinides can be deposited on a solid cathode with the majority of the rare earths remaining in the electrolyte. Thus, the actinides are recycled for further transmutation. Rockwell and its partners have measured the thermodynamic properties of the metal chlorides of interest (rare earths and actinides) and demonstrated separation of actinides from rare earths in laboratory studies. A model is being developed to predict the performance of a commercial electrochemical cell for separations starting with PUREX compositions. This model predicts excellent separation of plutonium and other actinides from the rare earths in metal-salt systems.

  3. Partitioning-transmutation technology: a potential future nuclear waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, S.; Morita, Y.; Nishihara, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation technology (PT) will produce radioactive wastes of different physical and chemical properties and in different amounts from those generated in the current nuclear fuel cycle. To assess quantitatively the effects of PT on waste disposal, we first analyzed the amounts of the PT wastes, assumed conditioning for each type of the waste, and then made an attempt to estimate the repository area for disposal of the PT wastes. The properties of the hot Sr-Cs waste form are controlling factors in determining the size of the geologic repository. The disposal area could be reduced if the Sr-Cs fraction is disposed in a different subsurface repository or by long-term storage of the waste under institutional control. Disposal in a subsurface repository was found to comply with the Japanese law in terms of radioactivity constraint, through a performance assessment for disposal of the Sr-Cs fraction. (authors)

  4. The PHOENIX Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Takahashi, H.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Slovik, G.C.; Horak, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed means of transmuting key long-lived radioactive isotopes, primarily the so-called minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), using a hybrid proton-accelerator-sub-critical lattice, is described. It is argued that by partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, that some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. If spent fuel partitioning and transmutation were fully implemented, the time required to reduce the waste stream toxicity below that of uranium ore would be reduced from more than 10,000 years to approximately 30 years. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and much of the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 14 refs., 29 figs

  5. Project 'Installation of a stand at the horizontal channel of the MARIA Research Reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland, for the research of transmutation of minor actinides and fission products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a long range objective we would like to focus on management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS) in terms of long lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) transmutation. Transmutation of the radioactive waste (RW) is an important element within the technical objective of the optimal management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS). Analysis of possible ways of reduction of radioactive wastes by transmutation of radioactive long-lived fission products such as 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs and by burning up of transuranic nuclides implies that the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system should consist of three zones. The requirement of three zones comes out of the fact that each radioactive isotope to be reduced is to be located in a different spectrum of thermal, epithermal and high energy neutron fluxes. High flux thermal neutron environment (≥10 16 n/cm 3 ·s) is expected as the best way for the transmutation of most of the radioactive waste to stable or short-lived nuclides and for increasing the probability for fission such actinides as 237 Np and 238 Np. The concept of ADS system for energy production and for transmutation is quite new to some extent and from this reason it requires many theoretical and experimental studies. The research of transmutation is a very large area of study requiring a significant experimental and financial support, so it can be performed only within the international cooperation. Specifically, the proposed research within this CRP requires important means, in terms of high-energy proton beams, spallation targets, sub-critical assembly, measurement instrumentation, post-irradiation characterisation and its testing and, of course, manpower for the interpretation of results, modelling observed phenomena, and programme management. The personal involved in the research is to be a skilled personal of

  6. Feasibility of waste transmutation using accelerator-driven IRIS subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroviae, B.; Carelli, M.; Paramonov, D.

    2001-01-01

    Waste transmutation is considered for reducing radio-toxicity of nuclear waste generated in power reactors. Accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) offer certain advantages over the use of nuclear reactors. Transmutation of fission products (e.g. 99 Tc) generally requires thermal neutron spectrum, while for actinides fast spectrum provides better performance. Proposed solutions to this problem include a multi-strata approach as well as a multi-zone (thermal/fast-spectrum) single systems. In this paper we examine the feasibility of employing a dual-spectrum two-zone accelerator-driven IRIS subcritical for waste transmutation. (author)

  7. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  8. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ''RAS'' towards accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.)

  9. Recent progress on R and D of innovative extractants and adsorbents for partitioning of minor actinides at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takaumi; Morita, Yasuji; Koma, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The R and D effort on partitioning of minor actinides (MA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been concentrated on development and improvement of innovative extractants and adsorbents as the fundamental studies and of MA recovery process as the advanced aqueous reprocessing system in fast reactor cycle technology development (FaCT) project. This paper reviews current status and prospects of the R and D activities on the partitioning of MA at JAEA. (authors)

  10. Neutron nuclear data evaluation for actinide nucleic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guochang; Yu Baosheng; Duan Junfeng; Ge Zhigang; Cao Wentian; Tang Guoyou; Shi Zhaomin; Zou Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides are playing an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle concepts, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Through describe the class of nuclear data and nuclear date library, and introduce the procedure of neutron nuclear data evaluation. 234 U(n, f) and 237 Np(n, 2n) reaction experimental data evaluation was evaluated. The fission nuclear data are updated and improved. (authors)

  11. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  12. The OSMOSE program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides: Preliminary results in a PWR-UOx spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelot, J. P. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DER, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Klann, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Antony, M.; Bernard, D.; Fougeras, P. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DER, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jorion, F.; Drin, N.; Donnet, L.; Leorier, C. [CEA VALRHO, DEN/DRCP, BP171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Zhong, Z. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The need for improved nuclear data for minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world - especially for studies relating to plutonium management, waste incineration, transmutation of waste, and Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 241}Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-BX However information on the minor actinides (i.e. {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 235}Cm, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 247}Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving potential discrepancies between calculated and measured values. In the OSMOSE program, the reactivity worth of samples containing separated actinides are measured in different neutron spectra using an oscillation technique with an overall expected accuracy better than 3%. Reactivity effects of less than 10 pcm (0.0001 or approximately 1.5 cents) are measured and compared with calibrations to determine the differential

  13. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  14. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.

    2008-10-01

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  15. Neutronics design for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system for transmutation of minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design study was performed for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides. Early study for ADS indicated two problems: a large burnup reactivity swing and a significant peaking factor. To solve these problems, effect of design parameters on neutronics characteristics were searched. The design parameters were initial plutonium loading, buffer region between spallation target and core, and zone fuel loading. Parametric survey calculations were performed considering fuel cycle consisting of burnup and recycle. The results showed that burnup reactivity swing depends on the plutonium fraction in the initial fuel loading, and the lead-bismuth buffer region and the two-zone loading were effective for solving the problems. Moreover, an optimum value for the effective multiplication factor was also evaluated using reactivity coefficients. From the result, the maximum allowable value of the effective multiplication factor for a practical ADS can be set at 0.97. Consequently, a new core concept combining the buffer region and the two-zone loading was proposed base on the results of the parametric survey. (author)

  16. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an im- ... Similar approach was performed for sub critical fast reactor core with Pu/MA .... The same might be addressed to masses of nuclei (the use of experimental values.

  17. U.S. advanced accelerator applications program: plans to develop and test waste transmutation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.; Bennett, D.; Arthur, E.; Cappiello, M.; Finck, P.; Hill, D.; Herczeg, J.; Goldner, F.

    2001-01-01

    The primary mission of the U.S. Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program is to establish a national nuclear technology research capability that can demonstrate accelerator-based transmutation of waste and conduct transmutation research while at the same time providing a capability for the production of tritium if required. The AAA Program was created during fiscal year 2001 from the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program and the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. This paper describes the new AAA Program, as well as its two major components: development and testing of waste transmutation technologies and construction of an integrated accelerator-driven test facility (ADTF). (author)

  18. HLW disposal by fission reactors; calculation of trans-mutation rate and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation of MA (Minor actinide) and LLFPS (long-lived fission products) into stable nuclide or short-lived isotopes by fission reactors seem to become an alternative technology for HLW disposal. in this study, transmutation rate and recycle calculation were developed in order to evaluate transmutation characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the fission reactors. inventory of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors were determined by solving of criticality equation with 1-D cylindrical geometry of multigroup diffusion equations at the beginning of cycle (BOC). transmutation rate and burn-up was determined by solving of depletion equation. inventory of MA and LLFPs was calculated for 40 years recycle. From this study, it was concluded that characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors can be evaluated by recycle calculation. by calculation of transmutation rate, performance of fission reactor for transmutation of MA or LLFPs can be discussed

  19. Actinides reduction by recycling in a thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Martinez C, E.; Balboa L, H.

    2014-10-01

    This work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; firstly a production reference of actinides in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR reactor is established, after a fuel containing plutonium is modeled to also calculate the actinides production in MOX fuel type. Also it proposes a design of fuel rod containing 6% of actinides in a matrix of uranium from the tails of enrichment, then four standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by actinides rods to evaluate the production and transmutation thereof, the same procedure was performed in the fuel type MOX and the end actinide reduction in the fuel was evaluated. (Author)

  20. Zirconium and technetium recovery and partitioning in the presence of actinides in modified Purex process for ATW program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzekun, E.G.; Fedorov, Y.S.; Galkin, B.Y.; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Mashkin, A.N.; Mishin, E.N.; Zilberman, B.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The modified Purex process flowsheet is based on combination of all irradiated materials, their joint dissolution and reprocessing as a NPP spent fuel solution with abnormal Pu content after addition of recycled depleted U concentrate. Some groups of long-lived radionuclides could be completely recovered and localized at the stage of extraction reprocessing using 30% TBP. Studies were conducted for 10 y to develop the process for recovery, concentration, and localization of U, Pu, Np, Tc, and Zr within 1st extraction cycle. Actinides are recovered from high-level raffinate of this cycle after evaporation and feed adjustment. Results in this report show that combined deep recovery of several elements from highly irradiated materials by TBP extraction, for further transmutation, is possible. Selective stripping of Zr from solvent phase containing U, Pu, Np, and Tc is quite effective. Development of the modified Purex process is not complete; main problem to be solved should be oxide separation from the loop and permissible storage duration before reprocessing and reuse in the loop

  1. Zirconium and technetium recovery and partitioning in the presence of actinides in modified Purex process for ATW program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzekun, E.G.; Fedorov, Y.S.; Galkin, B.Y.; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Mashkin, A.N.; Mishin, E.N.; Zilberman, B.Y. [Radievyj Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The modified Purex process flowsheet is based on combination of all irradiated materials, their joint dissolution and reprocessing as a NPP spent fuel solution with abnormal Pu content after addition of recycled depleted U concentrate. Some groups of long-lived radionuclides could be completely recovered and localized at the stage of extraction reprocessing using 30% TBP. Studies were conducted for 10 y to develop the process for recovery, concentration, and localization of U, Pu, Np, Tc, and Zr within 1st extraction cycle. Actinides are recovered from high-level raffinate of this cycle after evaporation and feed adjustment. Results in this report show that combined deep recovery of several elements from highly irradiated materials by TBP extraction, for further transmutation, is possible. Selective stripping of Zr from solvent phase containing U, Pu, Np, and Tc is quite effective. Development of the modified Purex process is not complete; main problem to be solved should be oxide separation from the loop and permissible storage duration before reprocessing and reuse in the loop.

  2. Partitioning and transmutation. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Liljenzin, J.O.

    1992-10-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive waste nuclides from nuclear power production is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D plans are summarized. It is concluded that P-T is technically feasible but much R and D remains to be done before it is technically mature. At present there seems to be no economic gain from P-T as compared to direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. There seems only to be an insignificant reduction in future radiation doses by P-T when compared to current disposal plans. However, future long term research may perhaps change these conclusions. Therefore the further development in this area should be followed. Some areas where a limited research by Swedish scientists could be worthwhile are indicated. (255 refs.) (au)

  3. Accuracy Improvement of Neutron Nuclear Data on Minor Actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hideo; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Atsushi; Terada, Kazushi; Nakao, Taro; Nakamura, Shoji; Mizuyama, Kazuhito; Igashira, Masayuki; Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Sano, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Takamiya, Koichi; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Fukutani, Satoshi; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Hori, Jun-ichi; Yagi, Takahiro; Yashima, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Improvement of accuracy of neutron nuclear data for minor actinides (MAs) and long-lived fission products (LLFPs) is required for developing innovative nuclear system transmuting these nuclei. In order to meet the requirement, the project entitled as "Research and development for Accuracy Improvement of neutron nuclear data on Minor ACtinides (AIMAC)" has been started as one of the "Innovative Nuclear Research and Development Program" in Japan at October 2013. The AIMAC project team is composed of researchers in four different fields: differential nuclear data measurement, integral nuclear data measurement, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear data evaluation. By integrating all of the forefront knowledge and techniques in these fields, the team aims at improving the accuracy of the data. The background and research plan of the AIMAC project are presented.

  4. Feasibility studies of actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.; Aitken, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in LMFBRs is being investigated as a waste management alternative to long term storage of high level nuclear waste. This strategy is being evaluated because many of the actinides in the waste from spent-fuel reprocessing have half-lives of thousands of years and an alternative to geological storage may be desired. From a radiological viewpoint, the actinides and their daughters dominate the waste hazard for decay times beyond about 400 years. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs may be an attractive alternative to geological storage because the actinides can be effectively transmuted to fission products which have significantly shorter half-lives. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs rather than LWRs is preferred because the ratio of fission reaction rate to capture reaction rate for the actinides is higher in an LMFBR, and an LMFBR is not so sensitive to the addition of the actinide isotopes. An actinide target assembly recycle scheme is evaluated to determine the effects of the actinides on the LMFBR performance, including local power peaking, breeding ratio, and fissile material requirements. Several schemes are evaluated to identify any major problems associated with reprocessing and fabrication of recycle actinide-containing assemblies. The overall efficiency of actinide burnout in LMFBRs is evaluated, and equilibrium cycle conditions are determined. It is concluded that actinide recycle in LMFBRs offers an attractive alternative to long term storage of the actinides, and does not significantly affect the performance of the host LMFBR. Assuming a 0.1 percent or less actinide loss during reprocessing, a 0.1 percent loss of less during fabrication, and proper recycle schemes, virtually all of the actinides produced by a fission reactor economy could be transmuted in fast reactors

  5. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  6. New data libraries for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-06-01

    The fuel depletion code ORIGEN-S is often used for transmutation studies. It uses three different working libraries for actinides, fission products, and light elements, which contain decay data, cross-section data and fission product yields. These data have been renewed with data based on the JEF2.2 and the EAF3 evaluated files. Furthermore, data for 201 fission products have been added to the libraries. The new data libraries are particular suitable for parameter studies and other introductory calculations. For more accurate calculations, it is advised to regularly update the cross sections of the most important actinides and fission products during the burnup sequence. (orig.).

  7. New data libraries for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The fuel depletion code ORIGEN-S is often used for transmutations studies. It uses three different working libraries for actinides, fission products, and light elements, which contain decay data, cross-section data and fission product yields. These data have renewed with data based on the JEF2.2 and the EAF3 evaluated files. Furthermore, data for 201 fission products have been added to the libraries. The new data libraries are particular suitable for parameter studies and other introductory calculations. For more accurate calculations, it is advised to regularly update the cross sections of the most important actinides and fission products during the burnup sequence. (author) 9 refs.

  8. Physical studies of transmutation scenarios. The Muse program with the Masurca facility: a step towards an hybrid demonstrator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Leconte, Ph.; Doubre, H.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Carbonnier, J.L.; Chawla, R.; Bernard, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Muse research program, which started in 1995, is a contribution to the development of a dedicated subcritical accelerator driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of minor actinides produced by conventional nuclear power plants. The Muse experiments aim at making a parametric study of different reactor core compositions with different subcritical levels and supplied by different sources in order to demonstrate that the measurement techniques and the calculation charts established for critical FBRs remain valid with an hybrid system. The 4. phase of the Muse program concerns the design, realization and installation of the Genepi (generator of intense pulse neutrons) deutons accelerator at the Masurca facility of Cadarache (France) for the understanding of the neutronic behaviour of an ADS, the definition of a reference calculation scheme, and the development of specific experimental techniques for dynamical measurements. This document brings together the presentations (transparencies) given at the SFEN technical meeting of May 30, 2002 about the Muse program. (J.S.)

  9. New analytical methodology to reach the actinide determination accuracy ({+-} 2%) required by the OSMOSE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer-Deslys, V.; Combaluzier, T.; Dalier, V.; Martin, J.C.; Viallesoubranne, C. [DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, CEA/VALRHO - Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Crozet, M. [LEHA, CEA/VALRHO - Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the analytical procedure optimized by LAMM (Laboratory for Analysis and Materials Methodology) in order to characterize the actinide-doped pellets used in the Osmose (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in eupraxis spectra) program (developed for transmutation reactor physics). Osmose aims at providing precise experimental data (absorption cross sections) for heavy nuclides (atomic mass from 232 to 245). This procedure requires the use of the analytical equipment and expertise of the LAMM: TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer), ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) QMS (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), SFMS (Sector Field Mass Spectrometer), AES (Atomic Emission Spectrometer), alpha spectrometry and photo-gravimetric analysis. These techniques have met all the specification requirements: extended uncertainties (k=2) below {+-} 2% on the uranium and dopant concentrations, the impurity concentration and the americium-241 concentration.

  10. Minor actinides incineration by loading moderated targets in fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Sato, Daisuke; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2000-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen concentration and loaded mass of minor actinides (MAs) in the target on the core performance and MAs transmutation rate was analyzed in this paper. An optimum core was proposed which has 96 MAs target assemblies of which MAs fuel pins per assembly is 38 with the composition ratio U/MA/Zr/H of 1/4/10/50. This optimized core offers good core performance and can transmute MAs very effectively, the transmutation rate was about 67% (939 kg) and the incinerate (transmute by fission) rate was about 35% (489 kg) through 3 years of reactor operation. It is about 2-3 times larger than current transmutation method that MAs are loaded homogeneously in the PWR and fast reactor core. (author)

  11. Response of actinides to flux changes in high-flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    When discussing the transmutation of actinides in accelerator-based transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, there has been some concern about the dynamics of the actinides under high transient fluxes. For a pure neptunium feed, it has been estimated that the 238 Np/ 237 Np ratio increase due to an increasing flux may lead to an unstable, positive reactivity growth. In this analysis, a perturbation method is used to calculate the response of the entire set of actinides in a general way that allows for more species than just neptunium. The time response of the system can be calculated; i.e., a plot of fuel composition and reactivity versus time after a change in flux can be made. The effects of fission products can also be included. The procedure is extremely accurate on short time scales (∼ 1000 s) for the flux levels we contemplate. Calculational results indicate that the reactivity insertions are always smaller than previously estimated

  12. Some basic advantages of accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and iodine-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The blanket of accelerator-driven facility designed for I-129 transmutation doesn`t contain fissile and fertile materials. So the overheating of iodine compounds transmuted is practically excluded. The efficacy of I-129 transmutation is estimated. Curium being accumulated in nuclear reactors can be incinerated in blanket of accelerator-driven facility. The deep depletion of curium diluted with inert material can be achieved.

  13. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  14. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  15. Preliminary analyses of neutronics schemes for three kinds waste transmutation blankets of fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchun; Feng Kaiming; Li Zaixin; Zhao Fengchao

    2012-01-01

    The neutronics schemes of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket, sodium-cooled waste transmutation blanket and FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket were preliminarily calculated and analysed by using the spheroidal tokamak (ST) plasma configuration. The neutronics properties of these blankets' were compared and analyzed. The results show that for the transmutation of "2"3"7Np, FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket has the most superior transmutation performance. The calculation results of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket show that this transmutation blanket can run on a steady effective multiplication factor (k_e_f_f), steady power (P), and steady tritium production rate (TBR) state for a long operating time (9.62 years) by change "2"3"7Np's initial loading rate of the minor actinides (MA). (authors)

  16. Partitioning and transmutation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Menut, P.

    2001-01-01

    Many countries with large nuclear power programme are pursuing programmes for transmitting long lived radioisotopes in high level waste, particularly actinides, into short lived radioisotopes so that the viability of disposal sites has to be ensured only for a few hundred years. The possible role of the IAEA in this area is highlighted in the paper. (author)

  17. Facilities for preparing actinide or fission product-based targets

    CERN Document Server

    Sors, M

    1999-01-01

    Research and development work is currently in progress in France on the feasibility of transmutation of very long-lived radionuclides such as americium, blended with an inert medium such as magnesium oxide and pelletized for irradiation in a fast neutron reactor. The process is primarily designed to produce ceramics for nuclear reactors, but could also be used to produce targets for accelerators. The Actinide Development Laboratory is part of the ATALANTE complex at Marcoule, where the CEA investigates reprocessing, liquid and solid waste treatment and vitrification processes. The laboratory produces radioactive sources; after use, their constituents are recycled, notably through R and D programs requiring such materials. Recovered americium is purified, characterized and transformed for an experiment known as ECRIX, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating americium-based ceramics and to determine the reactor transmutation coefficients.

  18. Advanced core concepts with enhanced proliferation resistance by transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    ''Protected Plutonium Production (P 3 )'' has been proposed to establish high burn-up cores and to produce protected with high proliferation resistance due to high decay heat and large number of spontaneous fission neutron of 238 Pu by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MAs) which is presently treated as high-level waste. The burn-up calculations have shown that the advanced fuel with UO 2 (11-13% enrichment of 235 U) by doping 237 Np to produce 238 Pu in the commercialized large LWRs burn up to 100 GWd/t with 238 Pu to Pu ratio of about 20% which means the fuel is highly protected from proliferation. It was also predicted that medium or small size LWR cores with 15-17% enrichment, liquid metal cooled cores, and gas cooled cores added by 1-2% Np could achieve 100 GWd/t burning with bearing high proliferation resistance. The 237 Np mass balance calculations have revealed that more than 20 nuclear P 3 plants of 300 MWe could be supplied with enough 237 Np from the Japanese commercial plants in equilibrium fuel cycles. From the present studies, it is confirmed that MAs are treated as burnable and fertile materials not only to extend the core life but also to improve plutonium proliferation resistance of the future nuclear energy systems instead of their geological disposal or just their burning through fission. (author)

  19. French R and D on the partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides. An international peer review of the 2005 Cea report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    For many politicians and members of the public, the very long life of some of the radio-nuclides in radioactive waste is an issue of particular importance in terms of its ultimate disposal. The developing techniques of partitioning (isolating specific radioactive elements) and transmutation (re-irradiating them in order to convert them to shorter-lived or stable elements) hold the promise of eliminating or greatly reducing the long-lived radioactivity, bringing with it other technical benefits. In France, the 1991 Waste Act required inter alia a research and development programme on partitioning and transmutation, with a milestone for review in 2006. The French authorities requested the OECD/NEA to organize an independent, international peer review of the results of this extensive research and development programme, with a view to help inform the parliamentary decision-making process on the way forward for radioactive waste disposal in France. This report presents the findings from that review, which was conducted by ten of the foremost international experts in the field. (author)

  20. Transmutation technologies to solve the problem of long-term spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Valenta, V.; Blahut, O.

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of the transmutation process for actinides and long-lived fission products which are present in spent nuclear fuel. Transmutation technologies can solve the problem of long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reduce the requirements for storage time and conditions. The basic data and requirements for the detailed design of the transmutor are summarized, and the views upon how to address the fuel purification and dry reprocessing issues are discussed. The results of activities of SKODA JS are highlighted; these include, for instance, the fluoride salt-resistant material MONICR, test loops, and electrowinners. The preliminary design of the transmutor is also outlined. Brief information regarding activities in the field of transmutation technologies in the Czech Republic and worldwide is also presented. The research and design activities to be developed for the whole design of the demonstration and basic units are summarized. It is emphasized that SKODA JS can join in international cooperation without constraints. The Attachment presents a simple assessment of how the radioactivity balance can be reduced, based on the actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation half-lives, is presented in the Attachment. (author)

  1. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T H [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  2. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  3. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear transmutation could be used in the elimination or reduction of hazards from radioactive wastes. The rationale for this suggestion is the subject of this paper. The objectives of partitioning-transmutation are described. The benefits are evaluated. The author concludes that transmutation would appear at best to offer the opportunity of reducing an already low risk. This would not seem to be justifiable considering the cost. If non-radiological risks are considered, there is a negative total benefit

  4. Review of Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, C.S.; Glinatsis, G.; Hesketh, K.; Iwamoto, O.; Okajima, S.; Tsujimoto, K.; Jacqmin, R.; Khomyakov, Y.; Kochetkov, A.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Perret, G.; Rineiski, A.; Romanello, V.; Sweet, D.

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, which require careful management. This becomes even more important when mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is being used on a large scale since more MAs will accumulate in the spent fuel. One way to manage these MAs is to transmute them in nuclear reactors, including in light water reactors, fast reactors or accelerator-driven subcritical systems. The transmutation of MAs, however, is not straightforward, as the loading of MAs generally affects physics parameters, such as coolant void, Doppler and burn-up reactivity. This report focuses on nuclear data requirements for minor actinide management, the review of existing integral data and the determination of required experimental work, the identification of bottlenecks and possible solutions, and the recommendation of an action programme for international co-operation. (authors)

  5. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  6. Development of quantitative analytical methods for the control of actinides in a pyrochemical partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abousahl, S.; Belle, P. van; Eberle, H.; Ottmar, H.; Lynch, B.; Vallet, P.; Mayer, K.; Ougier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed in order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of highly radioactive waste. Pyrochemical partitioning techniques appear particularly attractive for advanced fuel cycles in which the minor actinides are recycled. The electrochemical processes of practical importance are the electrorefining process and the liquid-liquid extraction of transuranic (TRU) elements from fission products using either non-miscible molten metal or molten salt-metal phases. Analytical methods for the accurate assay of actinide elements in these matrices needed to be developed. A quantitative assay is required in order to establish a material balance for process development and - at a later stage - for accountancy and control purposes. To this end radiometric techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) were extensively employed for the quantitative determination of actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) in process samples. Comparative analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The respective samples were available in small quantities (≅ 100 mg) either in the form of eutectic salt or in metallic form with Cd, Zr or Bi as major metallic matrix constituents. (orig.)

  7. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2004. A report from the Swedish reference group on P and T-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Nilsson, Mikael; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Eriksson, Marcus; Gudowski, Waclaw; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Sehgal, Bal Raj [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    This report summarises the work reported in the years 1998-2003 and tries to assess the prospects for future development of partitioning and transmutation (P-T) as seen from a Swedish perspective. The R and D efforts on P-T have increased somewhat during the period 1998-2003. Research on P-T has taken a prominent role internationally in the R and D on future nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle systems. Despite the fact that partitioning and transmutation have been on the agenda for quite a few years there are still a number of issues that must be settled before the research and development can be given a clearly focused direction. Studies propose research programmes for about six years at the cost of a couple of hundred million Euros. The construction of a small ADS experimental plant is a necessary step to develop and demonstrate the concept. This experimental plant should then be followed by a demonstration plant in almost full scale. Such a plant can at the earliest be ready in the mid-2030s. A number of circumstances have, however, contributed to slower speed, less intensity and lower funding than proposed in the studies. There is no unanimous view on the objectives for partitioning and transmutation. Many see it as a way to achieve broad acceptance for nuclear power at large. Others promote it as a way to get out of the impasse for a deep repository in several countries. Others again put a strong emphasise on the proliferation aspects. There is no unanimous view on the need to develop ADS or for the role of ADS in a P-T-system. Some advocate that ADS should be used for burning of all transuranium nuclides from the present enriched uranium fuelled light water reactors. Others see the ADS as a supplement particularly suitable for burning minor actinides (americium, curium and neptunium), whereas the major part of the plutonium should be burned in light water reactors (or in fast reactors) There is no consensus among experts on which technical route to follow

  8. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2004. A report from the Swedish reference group on P and T-research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric; Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Nilsson, Mikael; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Blomgren, Jan

    2004-05-01

    This report summarises the work reported in the years 1998-2003 and tries to assess the prospects for future development of partitioning and transmutation (P-T) as seen from a Swedish perspective. The R and D efforts on P-T have increased somewhat during the period 1998-2003. Research on P-T has taken a prominent role internationally in the R and D on future nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle systems. Despite the fact that partitioning and transmutation have been on the agenda for quite a few years there are still a number of issues that must be settled before the research and development can be given a clearly focused direction. Studies propose research programmes for about six years at the cost of a couple of hundred million Euros. The construction of a small ADS experimental plant is a necessary step to develop and demonstrate the concept. This experimental plant should then be followed by a demonstration plant in almost full scale. Such a plant can at the earliest be ready in the mid-2030s. A number of circumstances have, however, contributed to slower speed, less intensity and lower funding than proposed in the studies. There is no unanimous view on the objectives for partitioning and transmutation. Many see it as a way to achieve broad acceptance for nuclear power at large. Others promote it as a way to get out of the impasse for a deep repository in several countries. Others again put a strong emphasise on the proliferation aspects. There is no unanimous view on the need to develop ADS or for the role of ADS in a P-T-system. Some advocate that ADS should be used for burning of all transuranium nuclides from the present enriched uranium fuelled light water reactors. Others see the ADS as a supplement particularly suitable for burning minor actinides (americium, curium and neptunium), whereas the major part of the plutonium should be burned in light water reactors (or in fast reactors) There is no consensus among experts on which technical route to follow

  9. Study on MAs transmutation of accelerator-driven system sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Song; Yang Yongwei

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of the effect of heavy metal actinides on the effective multiplication constant (k eff ) of the core in accelerator-driven system (ADS) sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel, we gave the method for determining fuel components. the characteristics of minor actinides (MAs) transmutation was analyzed in detail. 3D burn-up code COUPLE, which couples MCNP4c3 and ORIGEN2, was applied to the neutron simulation and burn up calculation. The results of optimized scheme shows that adjusting the proportion of 239 Pu and maintaining the value during the burn-up cycle is an efficient method of designing k eff and keeping stable during the burn-up cycle. Spallation neutrons lead to the neutron spectrum harder at inner core than that at outer core. It is in favor of improving MA's fission cross sections and the capture-to-fission ratio. The total MAs transmutation support ratio 8.3 achieves excellent transmutation effect. For higher flux at inner core leads to obvious differences on transmutation efficiency,only disposing MAs at inner core is in favor of decreasing the loading mass and improving MAs transmutation effect. (authors)

  10. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  11. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  12. Counter current extraction for the partitioning of actinides from PFBR-SHLW using TODGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, S.A.; Gujar, R.B.; Kumar, Mithilesh; Seshagiri, T.K.; Godbole, S.V.; Manchanda, V.K.; Rajeswari, S.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Counter current extraction for the partitioning of actinides from simulated HLW of PFBR origin was demonstrated with 0.1M TODGA + 0.5M DHOA dissolved in NPH using a 16 stage mixer-settler unit. Results demonstrated that all lanthanides could be quantitatively extracted from the feed solution and quantitatively stripped from the loaded organic phase with 0.2M HNO 3 . The extracted lanthanides are not scrubbed with 0.2M oxalic acid at 5M HNO 3 in the scrubbing cycle. Elements such as Ba, Cd and Sn were not extracted. However, Pd was partially extracted but was scrubbed quantitatively. (author)

  13. The OSMOSE Experimental Program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Muriel; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Klann, Raymond [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne. National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439-4814 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The need of better nuclear data on minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world. It especially deals with the studies on plutonium management and waste incineration in existing systems and transmutation of waste or Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. To address this issue, a Working Party of the OECD has been concerned with identifying these needs and has produced a detailed High Priority Request List for Nuclear Data. The first step in obtaining better nuclear data consists in measuring accurate integral data and comparing them to integrated energy dependent data: this comparison provides a direct assessment of the effect of deficiencies in the differential data. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 241}Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-B). However information on the minor actinides (i.e. {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 247}Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isOtopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims

  14. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of the pyrochemical DOS, developed by the CEA, within reprocessing of CERCER transmutation fuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Ducasse, T.; Bertrand, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LDPS, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LCPE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Pyrochemical technology using high-temperature molten salts and molten metal media presents a potential interest for an overall separation and transmutation strategy for long-lived radionuclides. Within the frame of the two French acts on radioactive waste management, a pyrochemical research/development program was launched at the CEA Marcoule in the late 90's. The second step is the actinides back-extraction, which consists in a liquid/liquid oxidative stripping of the An from aluminium matrix into molten chloride media. The DOS process has been successfully demonstrated for treatment of oxide type fuels within the last years: the core of the process has been already assessed and the studies have shown high selectivity and a quantitative recovery of actinides. Within the framework of the SACSESS European research program, the pyrochemical activities focused on applications of the DOS process to reprocess CERCER transmutation targets. These particular types of fuels consist of a mixture of minor actinides (MA) oxides diluted in an inert (oxide MgO) matrices. The behaviour of matrices material was first investigated regarding the solubility in the fluoride salt, starting from both oxide powders or sintered pellets. The saturation of Mg in the salt could be estimated at ∼ 3 wt%. Regarding the reductive extraction, as expected no Mg was reduced by the metallic phase. The present work also highlights that Mg has low impact on the extraction efficiency of U as long as the salt is not saturated. Once the saturation occurs, the efficiency starts to decrease. So we recommend recycling the salt when Mg saturation is reached.

  16. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  17. Specific contributions of the Dutch programme {open_quotes}RAS{close_quotes} towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management.

  18. Actinide recycling in reactors; Aktiniden-Rezyklierung in Reaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of `risk nuclides` in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  19. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Lindley, B. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Phillips, C. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  20. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Thompson, M.; Toth, L.M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  1. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  2. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett-Jones, C.; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented

  3. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggett-Jones, C. E-mail: craig@stams.strath.ac.uk; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S

    2002-03-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented.

  4. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-01-01

    Lack of a safe disposal method for radioactive nuclear waste (RNW) is a problem of staggering proportion and impact. A typical LWR fission reactor will produce the following RNW in one year: minor actinides (i.e. 237 Np, 242-243 Am, 243-245 Cm) ∼40 kg, long-lived fission products (i.e, 99 Tc, 93 Zr, 129 I, 135 Cs) ∼80 kg, short lived fission products (e.g. 137 Cs, 90 Sr) ∼50kg and plutonium ∼280 kg. The total RNW produced by France and Canada amounts to hundreds of metric tonnes per year. Obtaining a uniform policy dealing with RNW has been blocked by the desire on one hand to harvest the energy stored in plutonium to benefit society and on the other hand the need to assure that the stockpile of plutonium will not be channeled into future nuclear weapons. In the meantime, the quantity and handling of these materials represents a potential health hazard to the world's population and particularly to people in the vicinity of temporary storage facilities. In the U.S., societal awareness of the hazards associated with RNW has effectively delayed development of U.S. nuclear fission reactors during the past decade. As a result the U.S. does not benefit from the large investment of resources in this industry. Reluctance to employ nuclear energy has compelled our society to rely increasingly on non-reusable alternative energy sources; coal, oil, and natural gas. That decision has compounded other unresolved global problems such as air pollution, acid rain, and global warming. Relying on these energy sources to meet our increasing energy demands has led the U.S. to increase its reliance on foreign oil; a policy that is disadvantageous to our economy and our national security. RNW can be simplistically thought of as being composed of two principal components: (1) actinides with half lives up to 10 6 years and (2) the broad class of fission fragments with typical half lives of a few hundred years. One approach to the RNW storage problem has been to transmute the

  5. Subcritical molten salt reactor with fast/intermediate spectrum for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, Alexey M.; Feinberg, Olga S.; Kolyaskin, Oleg E.; Myasnikov, Andrey A.; Karmanov, Fedor I.; Kuznetsov, Andrey Yu.; Ponomarev, Leonid I.; Seregin, Mikhail B.; Sidorkin, Stanislav F.

    2011-01-01

    The subcritical molten-salt reactor for transmutation of Am and Cm with the fast-intermediate neutron spectrum is suggested. It is shown that ∼10 such reactor-burners is enough to support the future nuclear power based on the fast reactors as well as for the transmutation of Am and Cm accumulated in the spent fuel storages. (author)

  6. The analysis and handling concept of minor actinides of NPP’s waste by using Ads technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhuddin

    2008-01-01

    The contents of minor actinide elements (americium, neptunium and curium) on the spent fuel inventory from PWR operation of NPP have been calculated using Vista program. The calculation used parameters: enrichment 3.968%, power 1000 M We and burn-up is 60 M Wd/kg. The result of calculation showed that the arising of minor actinide elements on the spent fuel is 16.205 kg/year and 43.471 kg/year for PWR-UOX and PWR-MOX respectively. It is also discussed a concept of the use of ADS technology for transmuting the minor actinide elements contained in spent fuels. The result of the discussion showed that an ADS of 400 M Wth will serve 7 PWRs-UOX, and on the PWR system using UOX and MOX fuels an ADS will serve 3 PWRs. (author)

  7. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an important issue of the overall nuclear fuel cycle assessment, both for existing and future reactor systems. Reliable nuclear data are required for analysis of associated neutronics. The present paper gives a review of the status of nuclear data analysis ...

  8. Calculations of different transmutation concepts. An international benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In April 1996, the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Expert Group on Physics Aspects of Different Transmutation Concepts launched a benchmark exercise to compare different transmutation concepts based on pressurised water reactors (PWRs), fast reactors, and an accelerator-driven system. The aim was to investigate the physics of complex fuel cycles involving reprocessing of spent PWR reactor fuel and its subsequent reuse in different reactor types. The objective was also to compare the calculated activities for individual isotopes as a function of time for different plutonium and minor actinide transmutation scenarios in different reactor systems. This report gives the analysis of results of the 15 solutions provided by the participants: six for the PWRs, six for the fast reactor and three for the accelerator case. Various computer codes and nuclear data libraries were applied. (author)

  9. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR Part 191B.

  10. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR Part 191B

  11. Flexible waste management to increase the effectiveness of minor actinide PT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, T. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi 317-0073 (Japan); Inagaki, Y.; Arima, T. [Kyshu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sato, S. [Fukushima National College of Technology, 30 Aza-Nagao, Tairakamiarakawa, Iwaki 970-8034 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (PT) technologies have been developed for minor actinides (MA) to reduce the high level waste (HLW) volume and long-term radiotoxicity. Although the MA PT can reduce the potential radiotoxicity effectively by 1-3 orders of magnitude, the actual operation of PT requires several tens of years for developing elemental technologies of nuclide separation, MA containing fuel fabrication, transmutation and their practical systematization. The high level liquid waste (HLLW) containing MA is presently vitrified immediately after spent fuel reprocessing, stored about 50 years at surface facility and will be disposed of at deep geological repository. Vitrified HLW form works as an excellent artificial barrier against nuclides release during storage and disposal. On the other hand, it is difficult to recover MA from the form. So the present waste management scheme has an issue of MA PT technology application until its deployment, which will produce much amount of vitrified HLW including long-lived MA without PT application. Thus the authors proposed the flexible waste management method to increase the effectiveness of the MA PT. The system adopts the HLLW calcination instead of the vitrification to produce granule for its dry storage of about 50 years until the MA PT technology will be applicable. The granule should be easily dissolved by the nitric acid solution to apply the typical aqueous MA partitioning technologies to be developed. This paper reports the purpose of the study, the feasibility evaluation results for the calcined granule storage and the evaluation results for the environmental burden reduction effect. (authors)

  12. J-ACTINET activities of training and education for actinide science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miato, Kazuo; Konashi, Kenji; Yamana, Hajimu; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Nagasaki, Shinya; Ikeda, Yasuhisa; Sato, Seichi; Arita, Yuji; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2011-01-01

    Actinide science research is indispensable to maintain sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology, especially advanced fuels, partitioning/reprocessing, and waste management. For actinide science research, special facilities with containment and radiation shields are needed to handle actinide materials since actinide elements are γ-, α- and neutron-emitters. The number of facilities for actinide science research has been decreased, especially in universities, due to the high maintenance cost. J-ACTINET was established in 2008 to promote and facilitate actinide science research in close cooperation with the facilities and to foster many of young scientists and engineers to be actively engaged in the fields of actinide science. The research program was carried out, through which young researchers were expected to learn how to make experiments with advanced experimental tools and to broaden their horizons. The summer schools and computational science school were held to provide students, graduate students, and young researchers with the opportunities to come into contact with actinide science research. In these schools, not only the lectures, but also the practical exercises were made as essential part. The overseas dispatch program was also carried out, where graduate students and young researchers were sent to the international summer schools and conferences. (author)

  13. Potential benefits of waste transmutation to the U.S. high-level waste respository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper reexamines the potential benefits of waste transmutation to the proposed U.S. geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site based on recent progress in the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain base case of spent fuel emplacement. It is observed that actinides are assumed to have higher solubility than in previous studies and that Np and other actinides now dominate the projected aqueous releases from a Yucca Mountain repository. Actinides are also indentified as the dominant source of decay heat in the repository, and the effect of decay heat in perturbing the hydrology, geochemistry, and thermal characteristics of Yucca Mountain are reviewed. It is concluded that the potential for thermally-driven, buoyant, gas-phase flow at Yucca Mountain introduces data and modeling requirements that will increase the costs of licensing the site and may cause the site to be unattractive for geologic disposal of wastes. A transmutation-enabled cold repository is proposed that might allow licensing of a repository to be based upon currently observable characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  14. Lanthanides and actinides extraction by calixarenes containing CMPO groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Carrera, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French program SPIN concerning the radioactive waste management, researches are performed to develop processes allowing the separation of long-lived radioisotopes in order to their transmutation or their specific conditioning. These studies deal with the extraction and the separation of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in acid solution. Many systems ''calixarene-diluent-aqueous phase'' are examined by extraction liquid-liquid and membrane transport. The extraction efficiency and the selectivity of the synthesized calixarene-CMPO and of the CMPO are compared with these cations, as the nitric acid extraction by these molecules. (A.L.B.)

  15. Assessment of the transmutation capability an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Peluso, V.; Calabrese; Chen, X.; Maschek, W.

    2007-01-01

    1. PURPOSE The reduction of long-lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) is a key point for the public acceptability and economy of nuclear energy. In principle, any nuclear fast reactor is able to burn and transmute MA, but the amount of MA content has to be limited a few percent, having unfavourable consequences on the coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and delayed neutron fraction, and therefore on the dynamic behaviour and control. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are instead able to safely burn and/or transmute a large quantity of actinides and LLFP, as they do not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have very little importance during accidents. Such systems are very innovative being based on the coupling of an accelerator with a subcritical system by means of a target system, where the neutronic source needed to maintain the neutron reaction chain is produced by spallation reactions. To this end the PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an experimental Accelerator Driven System) project was funded by the European Community in the 5th Framework Program in order both to demonstrate the feasibility of the coupling between an accelerator and a sub-critical core loaded with standard MOX fuel and to investigate the transmutation capability in order to achieve values suitable for an Industrial Scale Transmuter. This paper summarizes and compares the results of neutronic calculations aimed at evaluating the transmutation capability of cores cooled by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic alloy and loaded with assemblies based on (Pu, Am, Cm) oxide dispersed in a molybdenum metal (CERMET) or magnesia (CERCER) matrices. It also describes the constraints considered in the design of such cores and describes the thermo-mechanical behaviour of these innovative fuels along the cycle. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK: The U-free composite fuels (CERMET and CERCER) were selected for this study, being considered at European level

  16. Thermal neutrons core concepts for minor actinides inventory reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shio-Ling

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to propose a solution to the problem of reducing the inventory of Minor Actinides, discharged from PWR spent fuel, in the framework of a Separation/ Transmutation strategy. The solution envisaged is based on the utilisation of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), of the same type as those used to produce energy. The suggested solution is original and based on a special Assembly ANDIAMO dedicated to transmutation, where Actinide incineration is performed with the help of a fissile support in a once-through strategy. During this study, we have also tackled the impact of some parameters which so far have been less carefully studied (like the unavoidable presence of Lanthanides in fuel containing Am and Cm and the consequences on the cycle parameters with Actinide recycle). Moreover, we have carried out a sensitivity study in order to analysis the impact of nuclear data uncertainties on some important parameters of the reactor (reactivity coefficients) and on the isotopic concentration. This original study allows us to assess the accuracy of the results, of the presented tendencies and of the propositions made in the present thesis. (author) [fr

  17. Scenarios for Minor Actinides Transmutation in the Frame of the French Act for Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Girieud, R.; Tiphine, M.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.; Gannaz, B.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Favet, D.; Arslan, M.; Carlier, B.; Caron-Charles, M.; Lefèvre, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • Different transmutation scenarios have been evaluated: homogeneous transmutation, AmBB, MABB. • Homogeneous transmutation: – The MA content peak at the beginning of the transmutation can be reduced from 3,9% to 2,5% thanks to a reprocessing optimization. – Delaying the SFR deployment to 2080 increases this peak from 3,9% to 4,7%. Due to the constraints on reprocessing, the optimization may be less efficient in this case. • Heterogeneous transmutation: – Shorting the AmBB irradiation time from 10 cycles to 5 cycles and reducing their Am content from 20% to 10%: - reduces AmBB decay heat (-45% at the cooling beginning); - leads to an increase in the Am mass in cycle (+20% in 2150). • Impact of the CFV core: – In heterogeneous mode, the CFV transmutation rate being better than the SFRV2B one, the MA inventory is reduced by 22% in 2150. – In homogeneous mode, the reduction of the fissile mass in core leads to an increase of the MA peak at the beginning of the transmutation (3,9% → 5,6%). There’s no impact on the MA inventory

  18. Lanthanides and actinides extraction by calixarenes containing CMPO groups; Extraction des lanthanides et des actinides au moyen de calixarenes portant des groupements CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Carrera, A

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the French program SPIN concerning the radioactive waste management, researches are performed to develop processes allowing the separation of long-lived radioisotopes in order to their transmutation or their specific conditioning. These studies deal with the extraction and the separation of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in acid solution. Many systems ''calixarene-diluent-aqueous phase'' are examined by extraction liquid-liquid and membrane transport. The extraction efficiency and the selectivity of the synthesized calixarene-CMPO and of the CMPO are compared with these cations, as the nitric acid extraction by these molecules. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nuclear fuel activity with minor actinides after their useful life in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear fuel used in nuclear power reactors has a life cycle, in which it provides energy, at the end of this cycle is withdrawn from the reactor core. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, a strong problem with this fuel is that when the fuel was irradiated in a nuclear reactor it leaves with an activity of approximately 1.229 x 10 15 Bq. The aim of the transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is to reduce the activity of high level waste that must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high level waste; these two achievements would reduce the number of necessary repositories, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is aimed at evaluating the activity of a nuclear fuel in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material, first establishing a reference of actinides production in the standard nuclear fuel of uranium at end of its burning in a BWR, and a fuel rod design containing 6% of actinides in an uranium matrix from the enrichment tails is proposed, then 4 standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by 4 actinide bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of the same, finally the reduction of actinide activity in the fuel is evaluated. (Author)

  20. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E.; Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L.; Seliverstov, V.; Seregin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time τ - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n rep - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  1. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes

  2. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixue; Wu Yican

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  3. Energy Production and Transmutation of Nuclear Waste by Accelerator Driven Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivkov, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    There is a significant amount of highly radiotoxic long-life nuclear waste (NW) produced by NPP (Nuclear Power Plants). Transmutation is a process which transforms NW into less radiotoxic nuclides with a shorter period of half-life by spallation neutrons or radiative capture of neutrons produced by ADS (Accelerator Driven System). In the processes of transmutation new radioactive nuclides are produced. ADS is big energy consumer equipment. It is a method for production of a high-flux and high-energy neutron field. All these processes occur in ADS simultaneously. ADS is able to transmute actinides and produce energy simultaneously. The article considers the energy production problems in ADS. Several ideas are developed regarding the solution of the global energy supply.

  4. Neutronics design for a spherical tokamak fusion-transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meigen; Feng Kaiming; Yang Bangchao

    2002-01-01

    Based on studies of the spherical tokamak fusion reactors, a concept of fusion-transmutation reactor is put forward. By using the one-dimension transport and burn-up code BISON3.0 to process optimized design, a set of plasma parameters and blanket configuration suitable for the transmutation of MA (Minor Actinides) nuclear waste is selected. Based on the one-dimension calculation, two-dimension calculation has been carried out by using two-dimension neutronics code TWODANT. Combined with the neutron flux given by TWODANT calculation, burn-up calculation has been processed by using the one-dimension radioactivity calculation code FDKR and some useful and reasonable results are obtained

  5. Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Hechanova, A.

    2007-01-01

    Our research tasks span the range of technology areas for transmutation, gas-cooled reactor technology, and high temperature heat exchangers, including separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel, methods of fuel fabrication, reactor-accelerator coupled experiments, corrosion of materials exposed to lead-bismuth eutectic, and special nuclear materials protection and accountability. In the six years of this program, we saw the evolution of the national transmutation concepts go from the use of accelerators to fast reactors. We also saw an emphasis on gas-cooled reactors for both high temperature heat and deep burn of nuclear fuel. At the local level, we saw a great birth at UNLV of two new academic programs Fall term of 2004 and the addition of 10 academic and research faculty. The Ph.D. program in Radiochemistry has turned into one of the nation's most visible and successful programs; and, the M.S. program in Materials and Nuclear Engineering initiated Nuclear Engineering academic opportunities which took a long time to come. Our research tasks span the range of technology areas for transmutation, gas-cooled reactor technology, and high temperature heat exchangers, including separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel, methods of fuel fabrication, reactor-accelerator coupled experiments, corrosion of materials exposed to lead-bismuth eutectic, and special nuclear materials protection and accountability

  6. Synthesis of Uranium-based Microspheres for Transmutation of Minor Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Henrik; Neumeier, Stefan; Modolo, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Utilisation of the internal gelation process is a promising perspective for the fabrication of advanced nuclear fuels containing minor actinides (MA). The formulation of appropriate precursor solutions for this process is an important step towards a working process as the chemistry of uranium-MA systems is quite complex. In this work, actinide surrogates were utilised for basic research on their influence on the system. The ceramics obtained through thermal treatment of the gels were characterised to optimise the calcination and sintering process. (authors)

  7. Fabrication and Pre-irradiation Characterization of a Minor Actinide and Rare Earth Containing Fast Reactor Fuel Experiment for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2012-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy, seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter lived fission products, thereby decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and reducing the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. This transmutation of the long lived actinides plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium can be accomplished by first separating them from spent Light Water Reactor fuel using a pyro-metalurgical process, then reprocessing them into new fuel with fresh uranium additions, and then transmuted to short lived nuclides in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. An important component of the technology is developing actinide-bearing fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium isotopes that meet the stringent requirements of reactor fuels and materials.

  8. Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors. A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, K.; Porsch, D.; Rimpault, G.; Taiwo, T.; Worrall, A.

    2013-01-01

    The actinides (or actinoids) are those elements in the periodic table from actinium upwards. Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) are two of the principal elements in nuclear fuel that could be classed as major actinides. The minor actinides are normally taken to be the triad of neptunium (Np), americium (Am) and curium (Cm). The combined masses of the remaining actinides (i.e. actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium) are small enough to be regarded as very minor trace contaminants in nuclear fuel. Those elements above uranium in the periodic table are known collectively as the transuranics (TRUs). The operation of a nuclear reactor produces large quantities of irradiated fuel (sometimes referred to as spent fuel), which is either stored prior to eventual deep geological disposal or reprocessed to enable actinide recycling. A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel per year of operation. About 93-94% of the mass of uranium oxide irradiated fuel is comprised of uranium (mostly 238 U), with about 4-5% fission products and ∼1% plutonium. About 0.1-0.2% of the mass is comprised of neptunium, americium and curium. These latter elements accumulate in nuclear fuel because of neutron captures, and they contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radio-toxic hazard of spent fuel. Although the total minor actinide mass is relatively small - approximately 20-25 kg per year from a 1 GWe LWR - it has a disproportionate impact on spent fuel disposal, and thus the longstanding interest in transmuting these actinides either by fission (to fission products) or neutron capture in order to reduce their impact on the back end of the fuel cycle. The combined masses of the trace actinides actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium and californium in irradiated LWR fuel are only about 2 parts per billion, which is far too low for

  9. Effects of an LMR-based partitioning-transmutation system on US nuclear fuel cycle health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.; Reich, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Health risks for the current US nuclear fuel cycle and for an illustrative partitioning and transmutation (P-T) fuel cycle based on Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) technology are calculated and compared. Health risks are calculated for all non-reactor fuel cycle steps, including reprocessing, transportation, and high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Uranium mining and milling health risks have been updated to include recent occupational injury and death statistics, and the radiological health risk to the general public posed by the uranium mining overburden. In addition, the radiological health risks for transportation have been updated to include latent cancer fatalities associated with both normal transport and accidents. Given the assumptions of the study, it is shown that the deployment of an LMR-based P-T system is expected to reduce overall nuclear fuel cycle health risk

  10. Design considerations and evaluations of an accelerator-driven fluid fuel transmuter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizana, P.; Lypsch, F.; Phlippen, P.W. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A fluid fuel transmuter is proposed on the basis of circulating lead forming the fluid carrier material for long-lived actinides. Thermalization of neutrons is achieved by the use of graphite in the blanket leading to low actinide concentrations, typically around 100 g/l. An eigenvalue of 0.95 is aimed at and the extraneous source neutrons are provided by the interaction of 1.6 GeV protons with a central lead target (spallation process). Fuel depletion and neutron transport calculations are discussed with a view to the technical feasibility and possible advantageous design modifications.

  11. Reactor physical program in the frame of the MSR-SPHINX transmuter concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Mikisek, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (Spent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron flux) concept, which has been under development in the Czech Republic as an actinide burner in resonance neutron spectrum and a radionuclide transmuter in a well-thermalized neutron spectrum, and namely its reactor physical part, the relatively broad experimental activities have been involved in the program, recently, which will serve for a validation of computer codes and verification of design inputs for designing of a demonstration unit of the MSR-type. The experimental program, which has been focused, in its first stage, on a short-term irradiation of small size samples of molten-salt systems as well as structural materials proposed for the MSR blanket in the field of high neutron flux of research reactors, will be in the proposed next stage of the program focused on a large-scale experimental verification of design inputs by use of MSR-type inserted zones into the existing light water moderated experimental reactor LR-0, which may allow to modify it to experimental zero power salt reactor SR-0. There has been a preparatory stage of the project called EROS started in the year 2006 and new experiments with MSR-type zones irradiated by cyclotron based neutron source are planned at the end of 2007 and should go on in the year 2008. There will be a brief description of the so far prepared and performed experimental programs introduced in the paper. (authors)

  12. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine reprocessing is discussed of spent fuel and of fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. Additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation processes in the reactor. Demonstration critical molten salt reactor of small power capacity will permit to decide the most part of problems inherent to large critical reactors and subcritical drivers. It could be expected that fluoride molten salt transmuter can work without accelerator as a critical reactor. (author)

  13. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249020 (Russian Federation); Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L. [Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Seliverstov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics ul.B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation); Seregin, M. [Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology Kashirskoe Shosse 33, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time {tau} - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n{sub rep} - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  14. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of minor actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Takano, Masahide; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Burning or transmutation of minor actinides (MA: Np, Am, Cm) that are classified as the high-level radioactive waste in the current nuclear fuel cycle is an option for the advanced nuclear fuel cycle. Although the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of minor actinide compounds are essential for the design of MA-bearing fuels and analysis of their behavior, the experimental data on minor actinide compounds are limited. To support the research and development of the MA-bearing fuels, the property measurements were carried out on minor actinide nitrides and oxides. The lattice parameters and their thermal expansions were measured by high-temperature X-ray diffractometry. The specific heat capacities were measured by drop calorimetry and the thermal diffusivities by laser-flash method. The thermal conductivities were determined by the specific heat capacities, thermal diffusivities and densities. The oxygen potentials were measured by electromotive force method.

  15. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  16. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  17. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  18. Neutronics-processing interface analyses for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) aqueous-based blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Neutronics-processing interface parameters have large impacts on the neutron economy and transmutation performance of an aqueous-based Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system. A detailed assessment of the interdependence of these blanket neutronic and chemical processing parameters has been performed. Neutronic performance analyses require that neutron transport calculations for the ATW blanket systems be fully coupled with the blanket processing and include all neutron absorptions in candidate waste nuclides as well as in fission and transmutation products. The effects of processing rates, flux levels, flux spectra, and external-to-blanket inventories on blanket neutronic performance were determined. In addition, the inventories and isotopics in the various subsystems were also calculated for various actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation strategies

  19. Irradiation effects on SiAlO(N) rare earth aluminosilicate glasses in the framework of actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauce, R.

    2003-11-01

    Actinides transmutation would permit to decrease the amount of waste to be dispose in deep geological site. However, a surrounding matrix is generally necessary after the separation of the radionuclides. Reference ceramics irradiations in the context of transmutation have been widely investigated, but no study have been performed on amorphous materials in the same conditions. The extensive study of glass evolution under heavy-ions bombardment can however permit to get insight damaging mechanisms during irradiation. The glassy compositions, which are SiAlO(N) type, were chosen for their refractoriness, their high chemical durability and excellent mechanical properties. Five compositions, in the Y-Mg-Si-Al-O(-N), Nd-Mg-Si-Al-O(-N) and La-Y-Al-O-N systems, were synthesized and characterized. A link is find between the structure of glasses and their deformation mechanism. The glasses were irradiated at GANIL (Caen), with several MeV energy heavy-ions. Their hardness decrease after bombardment, in close link with the electronic stopping power, but seems to be independent of the amount and nature of the network modifiers. This hardness decrease is more pronounced in the case of nitrogen containing glasses, and is due to a change in the glass deformation mechanism under indentation. The pristine glasses exhibit a 'normal' behavior, but the irradiated glasses are strained mainly by a densification mechanism. This change in the indentation behavior is probably due to several structural modifications. Indeed, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy shows the presence of a large amount of point defects after bombardment. Furthermore, particularly in the case of nitrogen containing glasses, the local environment of aluminum and silicon are largely disturbed, as shown by NMR and Raman spectroscopies. (author)

  20. On the use of moderating material to enhance the feedback coefficients in SFR cores with high minor actinide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Weiss, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fine distributed moderating material to enhance the feedback effects and to reduce the sodium void effecting sodium cooled fast reactor cores is described. The influence of the moderating material on the neutron spectrum, the power distribution, and the burnup distribution is shown. The consequences of the use of fine distributed moderating material into fuel assemblies with fuel configurations foreseen for minor actinide transmutation is analyzed and the transmutation efficiency is compared. The degradation of the feedback effects due to the insertion of minor actinides and the compensation by the use of moderating materials is discussed. (authors)

  1. On the use of moderating material to enhance the feedback coefficients in SFR cores with high minor actinide content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung, Postfach 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Weiss, F. P. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH Forschungszentrum, Boltzmannstr. 14, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of fine distributed moderating material to enhance the feedback effects and to reduce the sodium void effecting sodium cooled fast reactor cores is described. The influence of the moderating material on the neutron spectrum, the power distribution, and the burnup distribution is shown. The consequences of the use of fine distributed moderating material into fuel assemblies with fuel configurations foreseen for minor actinide transmutation is analyzed and the transmutation efficiency is compared. The degradation of the feedback effects due to the insertion of minor actinides and the compensation by the use of moderating materials is discussed. (authors)

  2. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  3. Activities performed within the program of nuclear safety research on structural and cladding materials for innovative reactor system able to transmute nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, C.; Rieth, M.; Lindau, R.; Aktaa, J.; Schneider, H-C.; Konys, J.; Yurechko, M.; Mueller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The transmutation of nuclear waste to reduce the burden on a geological repository is a relevant topic within the Program of Nuclear Safety Research of the Research Centre Karlsruhe. Several studies have confirmed that a high efficiency of transmutation of actinides is reached in fast neutron spectrum reactor system. Therefore, an important effort is dedicated to the study of transmutation strategies with different fast reactors and their associated technologies. Moreover, in international contexts as Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP), fast reactors are considered in the frame of sustainable development of nuclear energy and reduction of waste. The systems that are currently under investigation, in the frame of the different fuel cycle scenarios, are liquid metal cooled and gas cooled fast reactors as well as Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Transmutation devices (ADS). These innovative reactor systems, call for structural and clad materials, which are able to perform in a safe manner under the envisaged operational and postulated transient conditions. In this context the European Commission supports the FP7 project GETMAT, with the objective to contribute to the development and selection of reference structure materials for core components and primary systems of fast neutron reactors. Several institutes of the Research Centre Karlsruhe are involved in this project with activities in the area of 9Cr ODS steel development and mechanical characterisation; optimisation and ranking of weld and joining techniques as Electron Beam, TIG and Diffusion Bonding; assessment of materials behaviour in corrosive environment and in neutron and neutron/proton irradiation field; and development of corrosion protection barriers for cladding and primary system components and their characterisation. The objective of this contribution is to describe the context in which the GETMAT activities are embedded in the Program

  4. Program and presentations of the 33th Actinide Days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The 'Journees des Actinides' (JDA) is an annual conference which provides a forum for discussions on all aspects related to the chemical and physical properties of the actinides. At the 2003 meeting, mainly the following properties were discussed of actinides and a number of actinide compounds and complexes: crystal structure, crystal-phase transformations and transformation temperatures; electrical properties including superconductivity and superconducting transition temperatures; magnetic properties; specific heat and other thermodynamic properties; electronic structure, especially in condensed matter; chemical and physico-chemical properties. The relevant experimental techniques were also dealt with, such as neutron diffraction; X-ray diffraction, in particular using synchrotron radiation; photoemission techniques, electron microscopy and spectroscopy, etc. Altogether 96 contributions were presented, of which 42 were oral presentations and 54 poster presentations. A program of the meeting and texts of both type of presentations were published in electronic form in the PDF format. All contributions were inputted to INIS; the full text of the program and the presentations has been incorporated into the INIS collection of non-conventional literature on CD-ROM. (A.K.)

  5. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economics. Scenarios include the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle (as a reference scenario), a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel and two fuel cycles with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet or in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand. Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 20% for Pu management scenario and around 35% for both transmutation scenarios respectively.

  6. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economics. Scenarios include the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle (as a reference scenario), a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel and two fuel cycles with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet or in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand. Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 20% for Pu management scenario and around 35% for both transmutation scenarios respectively.

  7. FCRD Transmutation Fuels Handbook 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. It is, therefore, important to understand the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys, both with and without minor actinide additions. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U and Pu are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phase-transformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, and that general acceptance of results sometimes indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, and alloys of two or three of these elements. It contains information about phase diagrams and related information (including phases and phase transformations); heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy; thermal expansion; and thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In addition to presenting information about materials properties, it attempts to provide information about how well the property is known and how much variation exists between measurements. Although the handbook includes some references to publications about modeling

  8. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor; Reduccion de actinidos menores por reciclado en un reactor de agua ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  9. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  10. ACTINET: a European Network for Actinide Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Boullis; Pascal Chaix

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The research in Actinide sciences appear as a strategic issue for the future of nuclear systems. Sustainability issues are clearly in connection with the way actinide elements are managed (either addressing saving natural resource, or decreasing the radiotoxicity of the waste). The recent developments in the field of minor actinide P and T offer convincing indications of what could be possible options, possible future processes for the selective recovery of minor actinides. But they point out, too, some lacks in the basic understanding of key-issues (such as for instance the control An versus Ln selectivity, or solvation phenomena in organic phases). Such lacks could be real obstacles for an optimization of future processes, with new fuel compounds and facing new recycling strategies. This is why a large and sustainable work appears necessary, here in the field of basic actinide separative chemistry. And similar examples could be taken from other aspects of An science, for various applications (nuclear fuel or transmutation targets design, or migration issues,): future developments need a strong, enlarged, scientific basis. The Network ACTINET, established with the support of the European Commission, has the following objectives: - significantly improve the accessibility of the major actinide facilities to the European scientific community, and form a set of pooled facilities, as the corner-stone of a progressive integration process, - improve mobility between the member organisations, in particular between Academic Institutions and National Laboratories holding the pooled facilities, - merge part of the research programs conducted by the member institutions, and optimise the research programs and infrastructure policy via joint management procedures, - strengthen European excellence through a selection process of joint proposals, and reduce the fragmentation of the community by putting critical mass of resources and expertise on

  11. Plutonium and minor actinide transmutation by long irradiation in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini, A.; Sanjust, V.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was made on the conceptual possibility of burning in a thermal reactor MOX fuel together with special pins containing plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products, recovered from the reprocessing of previously irradiated MOX fuel and mixed with an inter matrix. Preliminary calculations showed that the long term radiotoxicity of the above special pins is reduced to reasonable levels when they are irradiated up to 20 divided-by 30 years, and cooled for some centuries. In particular, during the whole life such a reactor should be able to burn a considerable fraction of plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products recovered from the MOX fuel irradiated along the same period of time

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle-oriented actinides separation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; He, Xihong; Wang, Jianchen [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2014-04-01

    In the last decades, the separation of actinides was widely and continuously studied in China. A few kinds of salt-free reductants to adjust Pu and Np valences have been investigated. N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine is a good reductant with high reduction rate constants for the co-reduction of Pu(IV) and Np(VI), and monomethylhydrazine is a simple compound for the individual reduction of Np(VI). Advanced PUREX based on Organic Reductants (APOR) was proposed. Trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) with a single functional group was found to possess strong affinity to tri-, tetra- and hexa-valent actinides. TRPO process has been first explored in China for actinides partitioning from high level waste and the good partitioning performance was demonstrated by the hot test. High extraction selectivity for trivalent actinides over lanthanides by dialkyldithiophosphinic acids was originally found in China. A separation process based on purified Cyanex 301 for the separation of Am from lanthanides was presented and successfully tested in a battery of miniature centrifugal contactors. (orig.)

  13. Actinide partitioning from HLW in a continuous DIDPA extraction process by means of centrifugal extractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Kubota, M.; Glatz, J.P.; Koch, L.; Pagliosa, G.; Roemer, K.; Nicholl, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment on actinide partitioning from real high level waste (HLW) was performed in a continuous process by extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) using a battery of 12 centrifugal extractors installed in a hot cell. The HNO 3 concentration of the HLW was adjusted to 0.5 M by dilution. The extraction section had 8 stages, and H 2 O 2 was added to extract Np effectively. After extraction, Am and Cm were back-extracted with 4 M HNO 3 in 4 stages and Np and Pu were stripped with 0.8 M H 2 C 2 O 4 in 8 stages. The actinides, expect Np, were extracted from HLW with a very high yield. Although only 84% of the Np were recovered in the present experiment, the recovery would be improved to 99.7 % by increasing the temperature to 45 degree C, the number of stages from 8 to 16 and the H 2 O 2 concentration from 1 M to 2 M. Long-lived Tc and the main heat and radiation emitters Cs and Sr were not extracted and were thus separated from the actinides with high decontamination factors. About 98% of Am and Cm were recovered from the loaded solvent in the first stripping step with 4M HNO 3 . About 86% of Np and about 92% of Pu were back-extracted with 0.8 M H 2 C 2 O 4 . These incomplete recoveries would be improved by increasing the number of stages and by optimizing the other process parameters. 18 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing

  15. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-10-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing.

  16. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-01-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth

  17. Ability to burn plutonium and minor actinides. Interest of accelerator driven system compared to critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Mouney, H.

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the French Act of December 1991, EDF is presently assessing the interest of Acceleration Driven System (ADS) for the Transmutation of the Plutonium and Minor Actinides (MA) produced by its park of nuclear reactors. The studies presented here assess the efficiency of ADS and critical reactors to incinerate Pu and MA (Minor Actinides) and the potential interest of ADS for that purpose. (author)

  18. Subcritical set coupled to accelerator (ADS) for transmutation of radioactive wastes: an approach of computational modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Mirta B.; Dominguez, Dany S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fission devices coupled to particle accelerators ADS are being widely studied. These devices have several applications, including nuclear waste transmutation and producing hydrogen, both applications with strong social and environmental impact. The essence of this work was to model an ADS geometry composed of small TRISO fuel loaded with a mixture of MOX uranium and thorium target material spallation of uranium, using methods of computational modeling probabilistic, in particular the MCNPX 2.6e program to evaluate the physical characteristics of the device and their ability to transmutation. As a result of the characterization of the spallation target, it can be concluded that production of neutrons per incident proton increases with increasing dimensions of the spallation target (thickness and radius), until it reached the maximum production of neutrons per incident proton or call the region saturation. The results obtained in modeling the ADS device bed kind of balls with respect to isotopic variation in the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides considered in the analysis revealed that accumulation of mass of the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides increase for subcritical configuration considered. In the particular case of the isotope 239 Pu, it is observed a reduction of the mass from the time of burning of 99 days. The increase of power in the core, whereas tungsten spallation targets and Lead is among the key future developments of this work

  19. Partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin using octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO)-based supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dudwadkar, N.L.; Chitnis, R.R.; Mathur, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies deal with the application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin. The process uses a solution of octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) in n-dodecane as a carrier with a polytetrafluoroethylene support and a mixture of citric acid, formic acid, and hydrazine hydrate as the receiving phase. The studies involve the investigation of such parameters as carrier concentration in SLM, acidity of the feed, and the feed composition. The studies indicated good transport of actinides like neptunium, americium, and plutonium across the membrane from nitric acid medium. A high concentration of uranium in the feed retards the transport of americium, suggesting the need for prior removal of uranium from the waste. The separation of actinides from uranium-lean simulated samples as well as actual high level waste has been found to be feasible using the above technique

  20. Transmutation and neutron flux studies with fission chambers in the MEGAPIE target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabod, S.; Foucher, Y.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Toussaint, J.C.; Blandin, Ch.; Chartier, F.; Fioni, G.

    2005-01-01

    Eight fission micro chambers will be inserted inside the central rod of the 1 MW liquid Pb-Bi MEGAPIE target in order to study the transmutation of two major actinides and to measure the neutron flux at a level of 5%. These chambers were developed for high neutron fluxes and tested at Laue Langevin Institute. (authors)

  1. Transmutation studies in France, R and D programme on fuels and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidron, M.; Chauvin, N.; Garnier, J.C.; PIllon, S.; Vambenepe, G.

    2001-01-01

    For the management of high level and long-lived radioactive waste, a large and continuous research and development effort is carried out in France, to provide a wide range of scientific and technical alternatives along three lines, partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations and long term interim surface or subsurface storage. For the line one, and in close link with the partitioning studies, research is carried out to evaluate the transmutation potential of long-lived waste in appropriate reactors configurations (scenarios) relying on current technologies as well as innovative reactors. Performed to evaluate the theoretical feasibility of the Pu consumption and waste transmutation from the point of view of the reactor cores physics to reach the equilibrium of the material fluxes (i.e. consumption = production) and of the isotopic compositions of the fuels, these studies insure the 'scientific' part of the transmutation feasibility. For the technological part of the feasibility of waste transmutation in reactors, a large programme on fuel development is underway. This includes solutions based on the advanced concepts for plutonium fuels in PWR and the development of specific fuels and targets for transmutation in fast reactors in the critical or sub-critical state. For the waste transmutation in fast reactors, an important programme has been launched to develop specific fuels and targets with experiments at various stages of preparation in different experimental reactors including Phenix. Composite fuels as well as particle fuels are considered. This programme is presented and recent results concerning the preparation of the experiments, the characterisation of the compounds properties, the thermal and mechanical modelling and the behaviour of U free fuels are given. (author)

  2. Radiochemistry and actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Peneloux, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of trace amounts of actinide elements by means of radiochemistry, is discussed. The similarities between radiochemistry and actinide chemistry, in the case of species amount by cubic cm below 10 12 , are explained. The parameters which allow to define what are the observable chemical reactions, are given. The classification of radionuclides in micro or macrocomponents is considered. The validity of the mass action law and the partition function in the definition of the average number of species for trace amounts, is investigated. Examples illustrating the results are given

  3. Comparative analysis of sub-critical transmutation reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-lived nuclear wastes have been substantially generated from the light water reactor for a few decades. The toxicity of these spent fuels will be higher than that of the uranium ore, even if those will be stored in the repository more than ten thousands. Hence the means of transmuting the key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides, using a hybrid proton accelerator and subcritical transmutation reactor, are proposed. Until now, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor are the Energy Amplifier, the OMEGA project, the ATW and the MSBR. The detailed concepts and the specifications are illustrated in Table 1. The design requirements for the subcritical transmutation reactor are the high transmutation rate of long-lived nuclear wastes, safety and economics. And to propose the subcritical transmutation reactor concepts, the coolant, the target material and fuel type are carefully considered. In these aspects, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor in Table 1 have been surveyed. The requirements for a target and a coolant are the reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable coolant must have the low melting point, high heat capacity and excellent physical properties. And the target material must have high neutron yield for a given proton condition and easy heat removal capability. Therefore in respect with the above requirements, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for the subcritical reactor. Because the neutron yield for a given proton energy increases linearly with mass number up to bismuth but in heavier elements spallation events sharply increase both the neutron and heat outputs, Pb-Bi meets not only such the requirements as the above for the coolant but also those for the coolant and target, the simplification of system can be achieved

  4. The concept of partitioning/transmutation in radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is trite to say that radwaste is more difficult to handle than conventional industrial waste because of its radioactivity. If many toxic chemical compounds can be destroyed by simple thermal incineration, non-radioactive substances whose radioactivity is linked to the presence of toxic elements give rise, because they undergo ''infinite decay'', to the same problems as long-lived radwaste. Radioactivity, because it involves the self-destruction of radionuclides, is more an advantage, as long as it does not result in stable toxic daughter elements, and as long as radioactive decay remains compatible with their reliable confinement. Disposal of A waste (low level waste), for which the radioactive decay period of the beta and/or gamma emitting radionuclides is of human-scale time periods, has become an industrial practice and there is no conceptual problem for this waste. However, management of B and C waste (alpha and high level waste) and, their storage, remain to day in the design stage. It is because they contain sizeable quantities of alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides with radioactive decay periods much greater than human-scale time periods and because C waste generates heat, that the final stage of their management poses problems. These problems are of a complex nature for reasons of 1) science, 2) ethics 3) economics 4) sociology. The idea of modifying alpha and beta radioactivity in C waste to the point where it could disappear is not in itself a new idea. Over the past twenty years, in response to studies on the disposal of vitrified nuclear waste, this option has been raised on several occasions. It has suddenly resurfaced in the light as the topic of Partitioning Transmutation Concept (PTC). Japan and more recently France announced for the first time consistent research programmes. The idea of reduction of alpha radioactivity of the actual B waste is no more a new idea. It has recently come in light as a complementary idea, possibly

  5. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  6. Establishment of bases for joint study and cooperation on long-lived radionuclides transmutation between Korea and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Shim, Joon Bo; Choi, Chang Joo; Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kil, Choong Sup

    2003-02-01

    The most important technical fields related to transmutation are partitioning of long-lived radionuclides and transmutation system to be used for converting them into short-lived or stable radionuclides. Technical cooperation between Korea and Russia is needed because Russia has an unequalled position in the fields of development of the fast reactors and pyrochemical processes around the world. The aim of this project is an establishment of bases for coordination on transmutation technology between Korea and Russia. State of the art of domestic and foreign countries upon partitioning of long-lived radionuclides, transmutation system and Gen IV development was summarized. Also, the 7th Korea-Russia joint coordination committee meeting and the 1st joint workshop were held as a result of this project. Technical fields and scheme on future cooperation between Korea and Russia were discussed and agreed in the course of the meetings

  7. Role of accelerators in the Czech national transmuter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bem, P.; Kugler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of spent nuclear fuel from the so far operated PWRs has become a crucial issue in the Czech Republic. The first attempts to solve this problem by a final deposit of spent fuel into a suitable geological formation have been shown not to be fully acceptable. Therefore, the revival of nuclear transmutation technology application for nuclear incineration of nuclear waste and spent fuel in particular was welcomed. A realistic national project started to be developed in 1996. The four major nuclear research institutions of the country formed a consortium focused on an adoption of the world-wide experience and a development of a national project of a transmutation technology (experimental transmuter LA-0) or an efficient participation in the international effort in that field. Because the LA-0 transmuter concept of subcritical reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides driven by an external neutron source has been adopted, the R and D effort has been focused on three regions. The first is devoted to the problem of a suitable neutron source, the second to a pre-conceptual design of a blanket for burning of actinides contained in spent fuel from PWRs. The third region is devoted to the utilisation of the experience from a specific field of dry (fluorine) reprocessing of spent fuel and a preparation of liquid fuel in the form of molten fluorides for the transmuter LA-0. (R.P.)

  8. Consultancy to review and finalize the IAEA publication 'Compendium on the use of fusion/fission hybrids for the utilization and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the traditional fission reactor research, fusion R and D activities are becoming of interest also to nuclear fission power development. There is renewed interest in utilizing fusion neutrons, Heavy Liquid Metals, and molten salts for innovative systems (energy production and transmutation). Indeed, for nuclear power development to become sustainable as a long-term energy option, innovative fuel cycle and reactor technologies will have to be developed to solve the problems of resource utilization and long-lived radioactive waste management. In this context Member States clearly expressed the need for comparative assessments of various transmutation reactors. Both the fusion and fission communities are currently investigating the potential of innovative reactor and fuel cycle strategies that include a fusion/fission system. The attention is mainly focused on substantiating the potential advantages of such systems: utilization and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products, intrinsic safety features, enhanced proliferation resistance, and fuel breeding capabilities. An important aspect of the ongoing activities is the comparison with the accelerator driven subcritical system (spallation neutron source), which is the other main option for producing excess neutrons. Apart from comparative assessments, knowledge preservation is another subject of interest to the Member States: the goal, applied to fusion/fission systems, is to review the status of, and to produce a 'compendium' of past and present achievements in this area

  9. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Oriol, L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chartier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38 - Grenoble, (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 244}Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  10. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Oriol, L.; Chartier, F.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The 232 Th, 237 Np, 241 Am, and 244 Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  11. FCRD Advanced Reactor (Transmutation) Fuels Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. U-Pu-Zr alloys are well suited for electrolytic refining, which leads to incorporation rare-earth fission products such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd. It is, therefore, important to understand not only the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys but also those of U-Pu-Zr alloys with concentrations of minor actinides (Np, Am) and rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) similar to those in reprocessed fuel. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U, Pu, and minor actinides (Np and Am) are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phasetransformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, rapid oxidation, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Although less toxic, rare-earth elements such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd are also difficult to study for similar reasons. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, particularly those that also contain minor actinides and rare-earth elements. General acceptance of results commonly indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, Np, Am, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd and

  12. New hybrid systems: strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This short article gives a status of research and experimental programs concerning new hybrid systems. A hybrid system is made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and of a particle accelerator that delivers a proton beam. The main asset of hybrid systems is to provide a large reactivity margin that would be very valuable to transmute actinide nuclei efficiently. As a consequence hybrid systems could be considered as actinide burner reactors integrated to a large population of classical nuclear reactors dedicated to electricity production. (A.C.)

  13. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  14. Enhancement of actinide incineration and transmutation rates in Ads EAP-80 reactor core with MOX PuO2 and UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltcheva-Kouzminava, S.; Kuzminov, V.; Vecchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Neutronics calculations of the accelerator driven reactor core EAP-80 with UO 2 and PuO 2 MOX fuel elements and Pb-Bi coolant are presented in this paper. Monte Carlo optimisation computations of several schemes of the EAP-80 core with different types of fuel assemblies containing burnable absorber B4 C or H 2 Zr zirconium hydride moderator were performed with the purpose to enhance the plutonium and actinide incineration rate. In the first scheme the reactor core contains burnable absorber B4 C arranged in the cladding of fuel elements with high enrichment of plutonium (up to 45%). In the second scheme H2 Zr zirconium hydride moderated zones were located in fuel elements with low enrichment (∼20%). In both schemes the incineration rate of plutonium is about two times higher than in the reference EAP-80 core and at the same time the power density distribution remains significantly unchanged compared to the reference core. A hybrid core containing two fuel zones one of which is the inner fuel region with UO 2 and PuO 2 high enrichment plutonium fuel and the second one is the outer region with fuel elements containing zirconium hydride layer was also considered. Evolution of neutronics parameters and actinide transmutation rates during the fuel burn-up is presented. Calculations were performed using the MCNP-4B code and the SCALE 4.3 computational system. (author)

  15. Partitioning of actinides from high active waste solution of Purex origin counter-current extraction studies using TBP and CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalkrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Murali, M.S.; Mathur, J.N.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2000-10-01

    A solvent extraction scheme has been formulated for the partitioning of actinides from Purex high level waste (HLW). The scheme is based on the results of earlier studies carried out with simulated waste solutions. In the present studies, the scheme was tested with high active waste (HAW) solution generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel from research reactors using laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The proposed process involved two-step extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamolylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In the first step, uranium, neptunium and plutonium were removed from the waste using TBP as extractant. The minor actinides left in the raffinate were extracted using a mixture of CMPO and TBP in the second step. The results showed complete extraction of actinides from the waste solution. Plutonium and neptunium extracted in TBP, were stripped together using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in 2 M nitric acid medium, leaving uranium in the organic phase. Uranium can later be stripped using dilute nitric acid. Actinides extracted in CMPO-TBP phase were stripped using a mixture of formic acid, hydrazine, hydrate and citric acid. The stripping was quantitative in both the stripping runs. An additional extraction step for the preferential recovery of uranium, neptunium and plutonium from the waste solution using TBP is a modification over the conventional Truex process. Selective stripping of neptunium and plutonium from large quantities of uranium. The extraction of uranium using TBP eliminates the possibility of third phase and undesired loading of CMPO-TBP in the following step. Use of citrate-containing strippant allows the recovery of actinides from loaded CMPO-TBP mixture without causing any reflux of the actinides during stripping. The process has been developed with due consideration to minimising the generation of secondary wastes. The proposed strippants are effective even in presence of

  16. Fabrication of inert matrices for heterogeneous transmutation. EFTTRA-T2 (RAS 2) irradiation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.G.; Hein, H.; Konings, R.J.M.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the fabrication of targets containing inert matrices for the heterogeneous transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides. These targets will be irradiated in the EFTTRA-T2 (RAS-2) irradiation programme. The selection, preparation and characterization of the inert matrices and fabrication and loading of the irradiation capsules are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Actinides reduction by recycling in a thermal reactor; Reduccion de actinidos por reciclado en un reactor termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Martinez C, E.; Balboa L, H., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; firstly a production reference of actinides in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR reactor is established, after a fuel containing plutonium is modeled to also calculate the actinides production in MOX fuel type. Also it proposes a design of fuel rod containing 6% of actinides in a matrix of uranium from the tails of enrichment, then four standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by actinides rods to evaluate the production and transmutation thereof, the same procedure was performed in the fuel type MOX and the end actinide reduction in the fuel was evaluated. (Author)

  18. Development of long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology - Development of a code system for core analysis of the transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Zin; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Tae Hyung; Jo, Chang Keun; Park, Chang Je [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a code system for core analysis= of the critical transmutation reactors utilizing fast neutrons. Core characteristics of the transmutation reactors were identified and four codes, HANCELL for pincell calculation, PRISM and AFEN-H3D for core calculation, and MA{sub B}URN for depletion calculation, were developed. The pincell calculation code is based on one-dimensional collision probability method and may provide homogenized/condensed parameters of a pincell and also can homogenize the control assembly via a nonlinear iterative method. The core calculation codes, PRISM and AFEN-H3D, solve the multi-group, multi-dimensional neutron diffusion equations for a hexagonal geometry and they are based on the finite difference method and analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method, respectively. The MA{sub B}URN code san analyze the behavior of actinides and fission products in a reactor core. Through benchmarking, we confirmed that the newly developed codes provide accurate solutions. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  19. Waste transmutation and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of transmuting radioactive wastes with reactors or accelerators is appealing. It has the potential of simplifying or eliminating problems of disposing of nuclear waste. The transmutation concept has been renewed vigorously at a time when national projects to dispose of high-level and transuranic waste are seriously delayed. In this period of tightening federal funds and program curtailments, skilled technical staffs are available at US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and contractors to work on waste transmutation. If the claims of transmutation can be shown to be realistic, economically feasible, and capable of being implemented within the US institutional infrastructure, public acceptance of nuclear waste disposal may be enhanced. If the claims for transmutation are not substantiated, however, there will result a serious loss of credibility and an unjust exacerbation of public concerns about nuclear waste. The paper discusses the following topics: how public acceptance is achieved; the technical community and waste disposal; transmutation and technical communication; transmutation issues; technical fixes and public perception

  20. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by means of ionic exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Jobelin, I. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, RadioChem and Proc Dept, Actinides Chem and Convers, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    The conversion of minor actinides to fuel starting materials for transmutation in a closed nuclear cycle is a big challenge for the next decades and the development of Gen(IV) nuclear systems. Conversion routes are numerous, but one needs to prove that they can be adapted to handle minor actinides. One of them is called the resin process and is particularly attractive because it stands for a 'dustless' process as it produces microspheres of oxide or carbide after thermal treatment of the loaded resin. The study presented herein focuses on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixation of minor actinides onto ionic exchange resin and their carbonization into oxide type materials. (authors)

  1. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by means of ionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S; Mokhtari, H; Jobelin, I; Ramiere, I

    2010-01-01

    The conversion of minor actinides to fuel starting materials for transmutation in a closed nuclear cycle is a big challenge for the next decades and the development of Gen(IV) nuclear systems. Conversion routes are numerous, but one needs to prove that they can be adapted to handle minor actinides. One of them is called the resin process and is particularly attractive because it stands for a 'dustless' process as it produces microspheres of oxide or carbide after thermal treatment of the loaded resin. The study presented herein focuses on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixation of minor actinides onto ionic exchange resin and their carbonization into oxide type materials.

  2. The sphinx project: experimental verification of design inputs for a transmuter with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Uhlir, J.; Vanicek, J.

    2002-01-01

    The current proposals for high-active long-lived (more then 10 4 years) waste from spent nuclear fuel disposal calls forth an increasing societal mistrust towards nuclear power. These problems are highly topical in the Czech Republic, a country which is operating nuclear power and accumulating spent fuel from PWRs and is further located on an inland and heavily populous Central European region. The proposed project, known under the acronym SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incineration by Neutron flux) deals with a solution to some of the principle problems through a very promising means of radioactive waste treatment. In particular, high-level wastes from spent nuclear fuel could be treated using this method, which is based on the transmutation of radionuclides through the use of a nuclear reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides (Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor - MSTR) which might be a subcritical system driven by a suitable neutron source. Its superiority also lies in the fact that it makes possible to utilize actinides contained, by others, in spent nuclear fuel and so to reach a positive energy effect. After the first three-year stage of Research and Development which has been focused mostly on computer analyses of neutronics and corresponding physical characteristics, the next three-year stage of this programme will be devoted to experimental verification of inputs for the design of a demonstration transmuter using molten fluoride fuel. The Research and Development part of the SPHINX project in the area of fuel cycle of the MSTR is focused in the first place on the development of suitable technology for the preparation of an introductory liquid fluoride fuel for MSTR and subsequently on the development of suitable fluoride pyrometallurgical technology for the separation of the transmuted elements from the non-transmuted ones. The idea of the introductory fuel preparation is based on the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel using the Fluoride Volatility Method

  3. Evaluation of the transmutation of transuranic using neutrons spectrum from the spallation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilberti, Mauricio; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: mgilber@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Maria A. Fortini, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizante, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The transmutation of transuranic was analyzed by simulating the neutron flux from different spallation sources across arrays of fissile material with isotopic composition PWR reprocessing. A simplified model of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) containing target, moderator graphite, lead-bismuth coolant or sodium coolant, is used. The simulation was made using the particles transport code MCNPX 2.6.0 which allowed to evaluate the rate of transmutation of actinides (Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) at different locations in the system. The objective of the study is to evaluate which the behavior and influences the spectrum of the spallation in the transmutation without the contribution or interference of multiplier, medium subcritical, which would add the contribution of fission neutrons generated, thus interfering in the analysis. The arrangement enable to infer the influence of hardened neutron flux from the spallation reaction in the transmutation, the results show that this is independent of the target material chosen, and the spectrum of spallation has a negligible importance compared to the influence of moderation and scattering generated by the coolant or moderator used. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the transmutation of transuranic using neutrons spectrum from the spallation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilberti, Mauricio; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A. Fortini

    2013-01-01

    The transmutation of transuranic was analyzed by simulating the neutron flux from different spallation sources across arrays of fissile material with isotopic composition PWR reprocessing. A simplified model of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) containing target, moderator graphite, lead-bismuth coolant or sodium coolant, is used. The simulation was made using the particles transport code MCNPX 2.6.0 which allowed to evaluate the rate of transmutation of actinides (Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) at different locations in the system. The objective of the study is to evaluate which the behavior and influences the spectrum of the spallation in the transmutation without the contribution or interference of multiplier, medium subcritical, which would add the contribution of fission neutrons generated, thus interfering in the analysis. The arrangement enable to infer the influence of hardened neutron flux from the spallation reaction in the transmutation, the results show that this is independent of the target material chosen, and the spectrum of spallation has a negligible importance compared to the influence of moderation and scattering generated by the coolant or moderator used. (author)

  5. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne (LLNL, Livermore, CA); Alajo, A.B. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Johnson, T. R. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); El-Guebaly, L. A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Youssef, M. E. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-11-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

  6. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the In-Zinerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Venneri, Francesco; Meier, Wayne; Alajo, A.B.; Johnson, T. R.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Youssef, M. E.; Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E.; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N.; Willit, J. L.; Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact

  7. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  8. Performance comparison of metallic, actinide burning fuel in lead-bismuth and sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.D.; Herring, J.S.; Macdonald, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed to ''incinerate'' or ''transmute'' the current inventory of transuranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years. (author)

  9. The neutronics design and analysis of a liquid metal reactor for burning minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.B.; Downar, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal reactor was designed for the primary purpose of burning the minor actinide waste from commercial light water reactors (LWR). The design was constrained to maintain acceptable safety performance as measured by the burnup reactivity swing, the Doppler coefficient, and the sodium void worth. One of the principal innovations was the use of two core regions, with a fissile plutonium outer core and an inner core consisting only of minor actinides. The physics studies performed here indicate that a 1200 MWth core is able to transmute the annual minor actinide inventory of about 26 LWRs and still exhibit reasonable safety characteristics. Sensitivity analysis of the final core design indicates deficiencies in the minor actinide nuclear data can introduce large uncertainties in the prediction of the core safety performance parameters

  10. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles

    2001-07-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  11. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  12. Preliminary analysis of the induced structural radioactivity inventory of the base-case aqueous accelerator transmutation of waste reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdecny, J.A.; Vance, K.M.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Transmutation of (Nuclear) Waste (ATW) project is the substantial reduction in volume of long-lived high-level radioactive waste of the US in a safe and energy-efficient manner. An evaluation of the ATW concept has four aspects: material balance, energy balance, performance, and cost. An evaluation of the material balance compares the amount of long-lived high-level waste transmuted with the amount and type, of waste created in the process. One component of the material balance is the activation of structural materials over the lifetime of the transmutation reactor. A preliminary radioactivity and radioactive mass balance analysis has been performed on four structure regions of the reaction chamber: the tungsten target, the lead annulus, six tubing materials carrying the actinide slurry, and five reaction vessel structural materials. The amount of radioactive material remaining after a 100-yr cooling period for the base-case ATW was found to be 338 kg of radionuclides. The bulk of this material (313 kg) was generated in the zirconium-niobium (Zr-Nb) actinide tubing material. Replacement of the Zr-Nb tubing material with one of the alternative tubing materials analyzed would significantly reduce the short- and long-term radioactive mass produced. The alternative vessel material Al-6061 alloys, Tenelon, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and the alternative actinide tubing materials Al-6061 alloy, carbon-carbon matrix, silicon carbide, and Ti-6 Al-4 V qualify for shallow land burial. Alternative disposal options for the base-case structural material Type 304L stainless steel and the actinide tubing material Zr-Nb will need to be considered as neither qualifies for shallow land burial

  13. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, 203 Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl 2 from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO 3 and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na 2 CO 3 . An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides

  14. Transmutation of radioactive waste: Effect on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, N.C.; Pigford, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    A committee of the National Research Council reviewed three concepts for transmuting radionuclides recovered from the chemical reprocessing of commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel: LWR transmutation reactors fueled with recycled actinides, advanced liquid-metal reactors (ALMRs), and accelerator-driven subcritical reactors for transmutation of waste (ATW). The concepts were evaluated in terms of: (1) the extent to which waste disposal would benefit from transmutation, (2) time required to reduce the total inventory of radionuclides in the waste and fuel cycle, (3) the complexity of the overall transmutation system, (4) the extent of new development required, and (5) institutional and economic problems of operating such systems. Transmutation could affect geologic disposal of waste by reducing the inventory of transuranics (TRUs), fission products, and other radionuclides in the waste. Reducing the inventory of transuranics does not necessarily affect radiation doses to people who use contaminated ground water if the dissolution rate of transuranics in waste is controlled by elemental solubilities. However, reducing inventories of Am and Pu would decrease potential hazards from human intrusion. The likelihood for underground nuclear criticality would also be reduced. The long-lived fission products Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and others typically contribute most to the long-term radiation doses to future populations who use contaminated water from the repository. Their transmutation requires thermal or epithermal neutrons, readily available in LWR and ATW transmutors. ALMR and LWR transmutors would require several hundred years to reduce the total transuranic inventory by even a factor of 10 at constant electric power, and thousands of years for a hundred-fold reduction. For the same electrical power, the ATW could reduce total transuranic inventory about tenfold more rapidly, because of its very high thermal-neutron flux. However, extremely low process losses would be

  15. Wastes Management Through Transmutation in an ADS Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Verboomen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity, or of the time in which that possible hazard really exists. Probably, the transmutation of minor actinides with fast fission processes is the most effective answer. This work, performed in SCK⋅CEN (Belgium and DIMNP Pisa University, is focused on preliminary evaluation of industrial scale ADS (400 MWth, 2.5 mA burning capability. An inert matrix fuel of minor actinides, 50% vol. MgO and 50% vol. (Pu,Np,Am,CmO1.88, core content, with 150 GWd/ton discharge burn up, is used. The calculations were performed using ALEPH-1.1.2, MCNPX-2.5.0, and ORIGEN2.2. codes.

  16. Thermalhydraulic and material specific investigations into the realization of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) to transmute minor actinides. 1999 Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Mueller, G.; Schumacher, G.; Konys, J.; Wedemeyer, O.; Groetzbach, G.; Carteciano, L.

    2000-10-01

    At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an HGF Strategy Fund Project entitled ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' is performed which is funded by the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) in the section ''Energy Research and Energy Technology'' over a time period from 07/1999 to 06/2002 with a financial support of 7.0 million DM (35 man years). The objective of this HGF Strategy Fund Project is the development of new methods and technologies to design and manufacture thin-walled thermally highly-loaded surfaces (e.g. beam window) which are cooled by a corrosive heavy liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic). The beam window is a vital component of an ADS spallation target. The results of this project will provide the scientific-technical basis which allows the conception and the design of an ADS spallation target and later on a European Demonstrator of an ADS system. The work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is embedded in a broad European research and development programme on ADS systems. (orig.)

  17. Utilization of fast reactor excess neutrons for burning minor actinides and long lived FPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kaneto, K.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation is made on a large MOX fuel fast reactor's capability of burning minor actinides and long lived fission products (FPs) without imposing penalties on core nuclear and safety characteristics. The excess neutrons generated in the fast reactor core are fully utilized not only to generate the fissile material but also to transmute the minor actinides and long lived FPs. The FP target assemblies which consist of Tc-99 and I-129 are loaded into the selected blanket positions whereas the minor actinides are loaded to the rest of the blanket. A long term FP accumulation scenario is also considered in the mix of FP burner fast reactor and non-burner LWRs. (author)

  18. The effects of transuranic separation on waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Rogers and Associates Engineering has analyzed waste streams from fuel cycles involving actinide partitioning and transmutation to determine appropriate disposal facilities for the waste and the cost of disposal. The focus of the study is the economic impact of actinide partitioning and transmutation on waste disposal, although there is a qualitative discussion of the impacts of actinide burning on disposal risk. This effort is part of a multi-contractor task being coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute to address the technical feasibility and economic impact of transuranic burning. Waste streams were defined by General Electric Corporation for eight alternative processing cases -- involving aqueous and pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from light water reactors and liquid metal reactors and for low-actinide-recovery and high-actinide-recovery technologies. Disposal options are determined for three possible futures: one involving the present socio-political-licensing environment and using cost estimates for existing or planned facilities, an optimistic future with lower siting and licensing costs, and a pessimistic future with high siting and licensing costs and some extraordinary measures to assure waste isolation. The optimistic future allows the disposal of certain types of waste in a facility that provides a degree of waste isolation that is intermediate between a repository and a low-level-waste facility. 30 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs

  19. Removal of actinides from high activity wastes by solvent extraction: outline of the research work at Ispra J.R.C. laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1976-07-01

    The development of an advanced waste management alternative such as the actinide nuclear incineration requires an almost quantitative removal of actinides from waste streams. Within the framework of the Ispra JRC Waste Disposal R and D programme, actinide separation studies were directed towards solvent extraction and precipitation methods. To develop a tentative waste partitioning flow-sheet based on solvent extraction, two conceptual process flow-sheet for actinide removal were evaluated on the basis of the currently used actinide recovery processes, i.e. removal after waste adjustment to low-acidity conditions and direct actinide removal from acidic wastes, as they are generated in actual reprocessing plants. No improvements have been devised for actinide recoveries within the conventional Purex reprocessing operations and a currently agreed value has been assumed for neptunium recovery (90%). According to these basic orientations some organic extractants have been selected for testing as promising candidates for waste partitioning and laboratory studies, designed to develop a satisfactory partitioning flow-sheet, have been proposed and described

  20. Partitioning of minor actinides: research at Juelich and Karlsruhe Research Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, A.; Weigl, M.; Gompper, K.; Modolo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The work on minor actinide (MA) partitioning carried out at Karlsruhe and Juelich is integrated in the EC FP6 programme, EUROPART. Studies include the DIAMEX process (co-extraction of MA and lanthanides from PUREX raffinate) and the SANEX process (separation of MA from lanthanides). Aspects ranging from developing and improving highly selective and efficient extraction reagents, to fundamental structural studies, to process development and testing are covered. SANEX is a challenge in separation chemistry because of the chemical similarity of trivalent actinides and lanthanides. The extracting agents 2,6-di(5,6-di-propyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (n-Pr-BTP), developed at Karlsruhe, and the synergetic mixture of di(chloro-phenyl)di-thio-phosphinic acid (R2PSSH) with tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO), developed at Juelich, are considered a breakthrough because of their high separation efficiency in acidic systems. Separation factors for americium over lanthanides of more than 30 (R2PSSH+TOPO) and 130 (n-Pr-BTP) are achieved. To gain understanding of these selectivities, comparative investigations on the structures of curium and europium complexed with these SANEX ligands were performed at Karlsruhe. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis revealed distinct structural differences between curium and europium complexed with R2PSSH + TOPO, though no such differences were found for n-Pr-BTP. These investigations were therefore complemented by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopic investigations (TRLFS), showing complex stabilities and speciation to differ between n-Pr-BTP complexes of curium and europium. Kinetics of mass transfer was studied for both R2PSSH+TOPO and n-Pr-BTP systems. For the R2PSSH + TOPO system, diffusion was identified to control extraction rates. For the n-Pr-BTP system, a slow chemical reaction was identified as the rate-controlling process. These results were implemented into computer

  1. The status of nuclear data for transmutation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Young, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this point, the accurate description of transmutation products in a radiation environment is more a nuclear data problem than a code development effort. We have used versions of the CINDER code for over three decades to describe the transmutation of nuclear reactor fuels in radiation environments. The need for the accurate description of reactor neutron-absorption, decay-power, and decay-spectra properties have driven many AEC, ERDA, and DOE supported nuclear data development efforts in this period. The level of cross-section, decay, and fission-yield data has evolved from rudimentary to a comprehensive ENDF/B-VI library permitting great precision in reactor calculations. The precision of the data supporting reactor simulations provides a sturdy foundation for the data base required for the wide range of transmutation problems currently studied. However, such reactor problems are typically limited to neutron energies below 10 MeV or so; reaction and decay data are required for actinides of, say, 90 ≤ Z ≤ 96 neutron-rich fission products of 22 ≤ Z ≤ 72. The expansion into reactor structural materials and fusion systems extends these ranges in energy and Z somewhat. The library of nuclear data, constantly growing in breadth and quality with international cooperation, is now described in the following table

  2. ACSEPT. The current European project on actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Bouvet, S.; Caravaca, C.

    2011-01-01

    ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation) is a European research project dedicated to the development of advanced separation processes for transuranium elements (TRU) in the P and T context. 34 partners from 12 European countries plus Japan and Australia contribute to this project for 130 men years over a period of four years (2008-2012). General objective is developing hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical actinide separation processes suitable for both heterogeneous and homogeneous recycling strategies. To make such a large project manageable, ACSEPT consists of four domains, DM1 (hydrometallurgy), DM2 (pyrometallurgy), DM3 (cross-cutting activities), and DM4 (training and education). DM1 and DM2 are sub-divided into work packages, covering fuel dissolution, core process and refabrication aspects. Both fundamental and process related issues are dealt with. (author)

  3. Ma and LLFP transmutation in MTPs and ADSs: the typical SCK.CEN case of transmutations in BR2 and Myrrha. Position with respect to the global needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raedt, Ch. de; Verboomen, B.; Aoust, Th.; Malambu, E.; Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, A.; Kupschus, P.; Benoit, Ph.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Baetsle, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed paper indicates the performances, in the domain of the transmutation of MAs and LLFPs, of the high flux materials testing reactor BR2 located at SCK-CEN, and compares them with those of the multipurpose ADS MYRRHA, the pre-design of which is at the present time being finalized at SCK-CEN. With thermal neutron fluxes reaching 9.10 14 n/cm 2 s in thermal positions and 4.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reactor core and, in the latter position, a fast flux (E>0.1 MeV) of 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s, BR2 has a transmutation throughput of the order of 1.5 kg Np+Am per 200 EFPD. This capacity can be used for investigating at the technological scale the transmutation of MAs and LLFPs in a thermal neutron spectrum with a high contribution of epithermal and fast neutrons. The metallurgical behaviour of the targets can hence be studied. In MYRRHA, higher fast fluxes are expected to be attained in irradiation positions near the spallation source, viz fast fluxes (E>0.75 MeV) up to 10. 15 n/cm 2 s. One of the purposes of MYRRHA is therefore its utilisation for the investigation of actinide transmutation feasibility with ADSs. (author)

  4. Enhancing MA transmutation by irradiation of (MA, Zr)Hx in FBR blanket region - 5383

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, K.; Ikeda, K.; Itoh, K.; Hirai, M.; Koyama, T.; Kurosaki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) hydride is proposed as transmutation target in sodium-cooled mixed oxide fuelled fast reactor. Preliminarily calculations have been done to check the transmutation efficiency of MA hydride targets. Three different types of MA target, MA-Zr alloy, (MA, Zr)O 2 and (MA, Zr)H x , have been compared on MA transmutation rate. The targets are assumed to be loaded around an active core in a 280 MWe sodium-cooled reactor; 54 MA target assemblies are respectively arranged in a row in the radial blanket zone. They are supposed to be irradiated for one year and then be cooled for 60 days. The transmuted mass has been evaluated by three-dimensional diffusion calculation to be 25, 15, 61 kg/EFPY for the alloy, the oxide and the hydride respectively, where production of MA in the active core is taken into account. The transmutation mass by (MA, Zr)H x is much larger than those by the other types of targets, while the core characteristics remain sound by locating MA targets outside of the active core. On top of that, two kinds of (MA, Zr)O 2 targets which are combined with ZrH x (x=1.7) pins have been calculated. Major Research/Development items are selected to establish the MA hydride transmutation method by reviewing technologies applicable to the transmutation system. The practical use of the MA hydride transmutation method is not far ahead technically, since this method can be developed by the extension of existing technologies. (authors)

  5. Mercury extraction by the TRUEX process solvent. II. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bre