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Sample records for actinide matrix synthesis

  1. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of tetravalent actinide chlorides. Versatile compounds for actinide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerz, Juliane [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    Anhydrous actinide tetrachlorides (AnCl{sub 4}) were synthesized under mild conditions to provide versatile compounds for actinide chemistry. They enable a direct access to actinide complexes with organic and inorganic ligands.

  3. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacheux, N.

    2002-01-01

    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Thermodynamics of carbothermic synthesis of actinide mononitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Shirasu, Y.; Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    Carbothermic synthesis will be further applied to the fabrication of nitride fuels containing minor actinides (MA) such as neptunium, americium and curium. A thorough understanding of the carbothermic synthesis of UN will be beneficial in the development of the MA-containing fuels. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out for conditions of practical interest in order to better understand the recent fabrication experiences. Two types of solution phases, oxynitride and carbonitride phases, were taken into account. The Pu-N-O ternary isotherm was assessed for the modelling of M(C, N, O). With the understanding of the UN synthesis, the fabrication problems of Am-containing nitrides are discussed. (orig.)

  5. INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE ''BURNING'' AND DIRECT DISPOSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney C. Ewing; Lumin Wang

    2002-01-01

    Excess actinides result from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons (Pu) and the reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (mainly 241 Am, 244 Cm and 237 Np). In Europe, Canada and Japan studies have determined much improved efficiencies for burnup of actinides using inert-matrix fuels. This innovative approach also considers the properties of the inert-matrix fuel as a nuclear waste form for direct disposal after one-cycle of burn-up. Direct disposal can considerably reduce cost, processing requirements, and radiation exposure to workers

  6. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  7. Synthesis of selective extractor for minor actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seung [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea); Cho, Moon Hwan [Kangwon National University, Chunchon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    To selectively co-separate the lanthanide and actinide elements (MA) such as Am or Cm ion from radioactive waste, synthesis of diamide derivatives has been accomplished. In addition, picoline amide derivatives were also synthesized for selectively separate the minor actinide elements from lanthanide elements. The content of research has don are as follows: (1) synthesis of diamide as co-extractant (2) introduction of n-tetradecyl to increase the lipophilicity (3) Picolyl chloride, intermediate of the final product, was synthesized by improved method rather than reported method. (4) The length of alkyl side chain was adjusted to increase the lipophilicity of free ligand and its derivatives able to selectively separate the actinide metal from lanthanide metal ions was successfully synthesized and determined their purity by analytical instruments. (author). 12 refs., 28 figs.

  8. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides; Chimie des phosphates d'actinides tetravalents. Le phosphate-diphosphate de thorium en tant que matrice d'imobilisation des actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacheux, N

    2002-07-01

    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, L.; Fuger, J.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of the actinides is explained on the basis of their electronic structure. The actinide elements, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and laurencium are included. For all except the last three elements, the points of discussion are oxidation states, Gibbs energies and potentials, and potential diagram for the element in acid solution; and thermodynamic properties of these same elements are tabulated. References are cited following discussion of each element with a total of 97 references being cited. 13 tables

  10. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Boll, R.A.; Burns, J.D.; Ezold, J.G.; Felker, L.K.; Hogle, S.L.; Rykaczewski, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of "4"8Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including "2"4"2Pu, "2"4"4Pu, "2"4"3Am, "2"4"5Cm, "2"4"8Cm, "2"4"9Cf, and "2"4"9Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including "2"4"9Bk, "2"5"1Cf, and "2"5"4Es are described.

  11. Matrix infrared spectra and electronic structure calculations of the first actinide borylene: FB=ThF(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Roos, Björn O; Andrews, Lester

    2010-03-14

    Laser-ablated Th atoms react with BF(3) during condensation in excess argon at 6 K to form the first actinide borylene (FB=ThF(2)) and actinide-boron multiple bond. Three new product absorptions in the B-F and Th-F stretching regions of matrix infrared spectra are assigned to FB=ThF(2) from comparison to theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies.

  12. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregiroux, D.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR 3+ ) orthophosphate with a general formula TR 3+ PO 4 , is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR 3+ PO 4 powders (with TR 3+ = La 3+ to Gd 3+ , Pu 3+ and Am 3+ ). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce 4+ , U 4+ , Pu 4+ ) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR 3+ PO 4 pellets. The determination of some mechanical and thermal

  13. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author) [fr

  15. Actinide transmutation using inert matrix fuels versus recycle in a low conversion fast burner reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, M.R.; Schneider, E.A.; Recktenwald, G.; Cady, K.B. [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C2200, Austin, 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Reducing the disposal burden of the long lived radioisotopes that are contained within spent uranium oxide fuel is essential for ensuring the sustainability of nuclear power. Because of their non-fertile matrices, inert matrix fuels (IMFs) could allow light-water reactors to achieve a significant burn down of plutonium and minor actinides that are that are currently produced as a byproduct of operating light-water reactors. However, the extent to which this is possible is not yet fully understood. We consider a ZrO{sub 2} based IMF with a high transuranic loading and show that the neutron fluence (and the subsequent fuel residence time required to achieve it) present a practical limit for the achievable actinide burnup. The accumulation of transuranics in spent uranium oxide fuel is a major obstacle for the sustainability of nuclear power. While commercial light-water reactors (LWR's) produce these isotopes, they can be used to transmute them. At present, the only viable option for doing this is to partly fuel reactors with mixed oxide fuel (MOX) made using recycled plutonium. However, because of parasitic neutron capture in the uranium matrix of MOX, considerable plutonium and minor actinides are also bred as the fuel is burned. A better option is to entrain the recycled isotopes in a non-fertile matrix such as ZrO{sub 2}. Inert matrices such as these were originally envisioned for burning plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons [1]. However, because they achieve a conversion ratio of zero, they have also been considered as a better alternative to MOX [2-6]. Plutonium and minor actinides dominate the long term heat and radiological outputs from spent nuclear fuel. Recent work has shown that that IMFs can be used to reduce these outputs by at least a factor of four, on a per unit of energy generated basis [6]. The degree of reduction is strongly dependent on IMF burnup. In principle, complete transmutation of the transuranics could be achieved though this

  16. Synthesis and characterization of actinide metal compounds formed by combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; King, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the results of attempts to synthesize arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides of uranium and thorium using Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) techniques. This paper first summarizes the chemistry and thermodynamics of these chemical systems, describes SHS synthesis techniques, and then describes the results of the syntheses using data from powder x-ray diffraction, metallographic, and electron microprobe analyses

  17. Synthesis of Actinide Materials for the Study of Basic Actinide Science and Rapid Separation of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorhout, Jacquelyn Marie [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-11-28

    This dissertation covers several distinct projects relating to the fields of nuclear forensics and basic actinide science. Post-detonation nuclear forensics, in particular, the study of fission products resulting from a nuclear device to determine device attributes and information, often depends on the comparison of fission products to a library of known ratios. The expansion of this library is imperative as technology advances. Rapid separation of fission products from a target material, without the need to dissolve the target, is an important technique to develop to improve the library and provide a means to develop samples and standards for testing separations. Several materials were studied as a proof-of-concept that fission products can be extracted from a solid target, including microparticulate (< 10 μm diameter) dUO2, porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesized from depleted uranium (dU), and other organicbased frameworks containing dU. The targets were irradiated with fast neutrons from one of two different neutron sources, contacted with dilute acids to facilitate the separation of fission products, and analyzed via gamma spectroscopy for separation yields. The results indicate that smaller particle sizes of dUO2 in contact with the secondary matrix KBr yield higher separation yields than particles without a secondary matrix. It was also discovered that using 0.1 M HNO3 as a contact acid leads to the dissolution of the target material. Lower concentrations of acid were used for future experiments. In the case of the MOFs, a larger pore size in the framework leads to higher separation yields when contacted with 0.01 M HNO3. Different types of frameworks also yield different results.

  18. Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Drryl P.; Jaques, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (U x , Dy 1-x )N (0.7 (le) X (le) 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

  19. Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

    2009-03-31

    Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ≤ X ≤ 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

  20. Investigations on synthesis, coordination behaviour and actinide recovery of unexplored phosphine oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerashekhar Goud, E.; Pavankumar, B.B.; Das, Dhrubajyothi

    2016-01-01

    The search for the development of an optimum extractant for effective separation of a particular metal from a mixture is an active field of research in both chemistry and chemical engineering. These extractants find extensive application in extractive metallurgy and in nuclear fuel cycle (for the separation of actinides from other fission products). In the case of the latter, solvent extraction and ion exchange are two widely employed separation techniques. In this connection, the present paper reports synthesis and structural characterization of various new phosphine oxide derivatives. The coordination behavior of these ligands is studied with some selected lanthanides and actinides shows the proposed structures of La(III) and Th(IV) metal complexes. The purity and structural characterization of the ligands and their corresponding metal complexes are analyzed by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, we have applied Density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the electronic structure of some metal complexes formed during the extraction process. (author)

  1. Design and synthesis of macrocyclic ligands and their complexes of lanthanides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, V.

    1995-01-01

    A review article which covers the various design and synthetic strategies developed to synthesize macrocyclic complexes of lanthanides and actinides, their structural features, quantitative studies on the stabilities of these complexes, their applications, and the structure-reactivity principle would be an asset for those who are actively engaged in this area of research. This review is also purported to give a comprehensive view of the current status of this area of research to the beginners and to highlight the application of this chemical research to emerging nonchemical applications to lure the potential workers. The coordination template effect provides a general strategy for the synthesis of a wide variety of discrete metal complexes. The principal conceptual and experimental development that have established and exploited this strategy are briefly outlined. A brief review of the coordination template effect and subsequent developments in the design of macrocyclic complexes of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions is presented as an essential basis for the rational design of new macrocyclic complexes of lanthanides and actinides. The exciting aspect of this chemistry is that in the majority of cases the molecules meet the design criteria very well. It is evident that in an increasing number of cases the driving force behind the synthetic effort is the desire to create a molecule which will enable the user to make specific applications. 506 refs

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of actinide tetraborides by solid-state metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinetti, Anthony J [Los Alamos, NM; Garcia, Eduardo [Los Alamos, NM; Abney, Kent D [Los Alamos, NM

    2004-12-14

    The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB.sub.4), plutonium tetraboride (PuB.sub.4) and thorium tetraboride (ThB.sub.4) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to .ltoreq.850.degree. C. As an example, when UCl.sub.4 is reacted with an excess of MgB.sub.2, at 850.degree. C., crystalline UB.sub.4 is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl.sub.3 as the initial step in the reaction. The UB.sub.4 product is purified by washing water and drying.

  3. Conception, synthesis and application of tripodands in actinide/lanthanide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobet, Josselin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the synthesis of C, H, O and N containing compounds able to separate '4f' and '5f' elements by liquid/liquid extraction. In a first part, the literature's study allow us to point out actinide and lanthanide ions actual nature and the different ways offered by organic chemistry to share two metallic ions between two liquid phases. On one hand, these trivalent cations' high coordination numbers drive us to synthesize tripodands with hard sites which were fitted for complexation. On the other hand, it appeared that carboxylate or even less-hard site like pyridine chelate selectively actinides, allowing separation. In a second part, 60 ligands were synthesized. In each of the ligands families, a structural parameter changes (site nature, distance between two neighbouring sites, sites respective orientation, lipophilicity and rigidity). 2,2-dihydroxymethyl-dodecanol and 1,3,5- tri(chlorocarbonyl) benzene were chosen as core. O-alkylation and amidation reactions were also peculiarly studied. Rekker's proceeding for lipophilicity calculation was used in order to establish a structure-activity relationship. In a third part, extraction assays with radioactive effluents ( 152 Eu and 241 Am) point out extraction and separation abilities of our compounds. Different operating ways were used according as ligand is soluble in aqueous or organic phase. Organic phase-soluble compounds were compared to DcH18C6, pyridine ones to 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-l,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) and carboxylate ones to diethylenetriamine-tetracetic acid (DTPA, Talspeak proceeding). The third phase phenomenon was encountered and studied. Influence of salt, pH and organic phase were also studied. (author) [fr

  4. Actinide oxides synthesis in molten chloride. Structural studies and reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigier, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes are studied as potential alternatives to hydrochemical processes for spent nuclear fuel treatment. The CEA pyrochemical process led to a molten LiCl-CaCl 2 (30-70% mol) salt at 700 C with solubilized actinides at the oxidation state (III). The study developed in this thesis concerns actinide oxides synthesis in this media for nuclear fuel re-fabrication. This synthesis was done by wet argon sparging. First, this conversion method is described for neodymium (III) and cerium (III) co-conversion. The conversion rates are around 99.9%. The obtained powders contain mixed oxychloride Ce 1-x Nd x OCl as main component, with a small amount of mixed oxide Ce 1-x Nd x O 2-0,5x for the high cerium ratio. A second oxychloride CeIV(Nd 0.7 Ce 0.3 ) III O 3 Cl is obtained in specific conditions and in very low quantity. The structure of this oxychloride is described in this study. The partially oxidative property of the conversion method induces the oxidation of a part of cerium (III) to oxidation state (IV). In the case of uranium (III) conversion by wet argon sparging, all the uranium is oxidized and give the oxide UO 2 as single compound. The conversion rate for this element is over 99.9% in the molten chloride, but significant amount of uranium is lost by volatilization during the conversion. The study shows the oxygen sensitivity of uranium during the conversion, inducing oxidation over the oxidation state (IV), and giving UO 2+x or uranate CaUO 4 . As a consequence, oxygen led to calcium pollution in the precipitate. Finally, the U(III) and Pu(III) co-conversion study shows the highest precipitation sensitivity of uranium (III) in comparison with plutonium (III), responsible of a successive conversion of the two elements, giving an oxide mixture of UO 2 et PuO 2 with quantitative conversion rate. Surprisingly, the conversion of Pu(III) in the same conditions led to a mixture of PuO 2 and PuOCl, characteristic of a partial oxidation from Pu (III) to Pu

  5. Study of irradiation effects in perovskite: use of this matrix for actinides conditioning; Effets de l'irradiation dans une perovskite: utilisation de cette matrice pour un conditionnement des actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabathier, C

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study a specific conditioning matrix (ceramics) for actinides: the strontium titanate. At first, the choice of strontium titanate is discussed as well as its structure and its ability to incorporate actinides. The different studies carried out on the irradiation effects on the strontium titanate are reviewed. The main ion-matter interactions considered in the energy range used during our experiments are given. The different devices and techniques used with ion beams to carry out our experiments according to the type of sample: monocrystal or polycrystal are described. The experimental results on the behaviour of strontium titanate in terms of irradiation, temperature and ion flux used to damage the matrix are presented. The experimental results on the different steps of strontium titanate annealing are given as well as the identifying of the defects by different analyses techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron spectroscopy and x-rays spectroscopy). At last, a model of the behaviour of the strontium titanate in the case of an actinide conditioning is proposed and the evolving of the strontium titanate disorder during the storage is discussed. (O.M.)

  6. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of polyhydroxamate chelators for selective complexation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, A.; Jacobs, H.; Koshti, N.; Stark, P.; Huber, V.; Dasaradhi, L.; Caswell, W.; Smith, P.; Jarvinen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific chelating polymers targeted for actinides have much relevance to problems involving remediation of nuclear waste. Goal is to develop polymer supported, ion specific extraction systems for removing actinides and other hazardous metal ions from wastewaters. This is part of an effort to develop chelators for removing actinide ions such as Pu from soils and waste streams. Selected ligands are being attached to polymeric backbones to create novel chelating polymers. These polymers and other water soluble and insoluble polymers have been synthesized and are being evaluated for ability to selectively remove target metal ions from process waste streams

  7. Fixation of actinide elements into zeolites/zeotypes and Flexcrete-cement matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, S.; Dyer, A.; Durrani, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The leaching behavior of α-emitter radionuclides (uranium and americium) from zeolite-L and the zeotype (SAPO-34) in a Flexcrete-cement matrix were examined by static and dynamic methods using 0.005M CaCl 2 and synthetic ground water as leachants. The leaching rates of UO 2 2+ were found to be higher by about ten orders of magnitude than those of Am 3+ for both zeolite-L and SAPO-34 in the cement matrix. The static and dynamic leaching rates of UO 2 2+ for SAPO-34 in CaCl 2 and synthetic ground water were ten orders of magnitude lower than those for L. SAPO-34 showed good selectivity for uranium at pH 2-3.5 and L was usefully selective for Am 3+ . Distribution coefficients of Am 3+ and UO 2 2+ increased with equilibrium pH. (author) 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  8. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning; Synthese par voie solide et frittage de ceramiques a structure monazite. Application au conditionnement des actinides mineurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, D

    2005-11-15

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR{sup 3+}) orthophosphate with a general formula TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4}, is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} powders (with TR{sup 3+} = La{sup 3+} to Gd{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce{sup 4+}, U{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+}) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4

  9. Synthesis of Uranium-based Microspheres for Transmutation of Minor Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Henrik; Neumeier, Stefan; Modolo, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Utilisation of the internal gelation process is a promising perspective for the fabrication of advanced nuclear fuels containing minor actinides (MA). The formulation of appropriate precursor solutions for this process is an important step towards a working process as the chemistry of uranium-MA systems is quite complex. In this work, actinide surrogates were utilised for basic research on their influence on the system. The ceramics obtained through thermal treatment of the gels were characterised to optimise the calcination and sintering process. (authors)

  10. Investigation of migration an actinide imitator (Ce) in synthesis glass ceramics with a nuclear microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.N.; Goncharov, A.V.; Odejchuk, M.A.; Pistryak, V.M.; Pilipenko, A.V.; Sank, S.Yu.; Sukhostaeva, V.I.; Shevstiev, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The generally accepted conception of radioactive waste (RAW) safe disposal, so-called 'multibarrier strategy', assumes construction of several protective barriers in a geologic burial. One of these barriers is is a durable corrosion-resistant container of RAW. The glass ceramics (syntetic alumina silicate) is considered as promising material for such containers. An important parameter for long term reduction of behavior for such materials is rate of radionuclide emanation from the container. As an element whose migration in solids is analogous as that of actinide, one generally uses Cerium. For investigation of transuranium element migration Ce is used as an analogue. Accordingly, CeO 2 may serve as an imitator of transuranium oxides. In the present work Ce migration in glass ceramics has been investigated with a nuclear microprobe which is more sensitive instrument than an electron microscope. The glass ceramic material was prepared from mixture of materials powders (70 % mas. of red granite and 30% mas. of kaolin) by sintering under pressure. The hot pressing was conducted at 1050 deg. temperature and 40 MPa pressure. The endurance time continued 15 min. Manufactured alumina silicate samples were in the form of a pellet. The material density was 2.5-2.7 g/cm 3 . Pellets of imitator substance were made of CeO 2 powder by the same method. After polishing, aluminosilicate and imitator pellets were pressed together and annealed in the temperature range from 600 to 750 deg. C in vacuum during 10 hours. As a result of annealing, Ce penetration occurred thought the interface into the depth of the alumina silicate pellet. After that the pellets were separated, and the alumina silicate pellet was cleaved in the direction transversal to the former interface. The surface of cleavage of alumina silicate pellet was studied with a nuclear microprobe. For measurement of Ce diffusion distribution in alumina silicate samples we applied a nuclear microprobe on the basis

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of new Polyfunctional Molecules for Group Actinide Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, C.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this project is to design new extracting molecules for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. In order to minimize the long-term residual radiotoxicity of the waste, the GANEX process is an option based on homogeneous recycling of actinides. All actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm), present in a highly acidic aqueous solution, would be extracted together and separated from fission products (especially from lanthanides) using liquid-liquid extraction. In this context, twenty new bi-topic ligands constituted of a nitrogen poly-aromatic unit functionalized by amide groups were synthesized. Liquid-liquid extraction tests with these ligands dissolved alone in the organic phase show that N, N, N', N'-tetra-alkyl-6, 6''(2, 2':6', 2''-terpyridine)-diamides are able to selectively extract actinides at different oxidation states (Np(V et VI), U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Cm(III)) from an aqueous solution 3M HNO 3 . Nevertheless, actinides(III) are poorly extracted. According to crystallographic structures of complexes with Nd(III) and U(VI) determined by X-rays diffraction, these ligands are penta-dentate. In solution (methanol), complexes stoichiometries (1:1) of Nd(III), U(VI) and Pu(IV) were determined by electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Stability constants, evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry in MeOH/H 2 O solutions, confirm the selectivity of ligands toward actinides(III) with respect to lanthanides(III). Associate to nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory), a better knowledge of their coordination mode was achieved. (author)

  12. Synthesis of nuclear waste monazites, ideal actinide hosts for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; White, W.B.; Pfoertsch, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Monazite, an orthophosphate mineral of the lanthanides (Ln) and the actinides (An) U and Th, is a model for an ideal synthetic mineral waste form for geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear waste actinides. Natural monazites are known to have survived many of the conditions that might be inflicted on a nuclear waste repository by geological disruptions. High Th and U monazites with compositions typical of nuclear wastes have been synthesized with a routine calcination-pelletization-crystallization procedure. Charge balance for the Th 4+ → Ln 3+ substitution can be provided by either an equimolar Ca 2+ → Ln 3+ or Si 4+ → P 5+ substitution. For U 4+ → Ln 3+ , only the Ca 2+ → Ln 3+ substitution resulted in a phase-pure monazite. Unit cell parameter data were obtained for each nuclear waste monazite phase

  13. Synthesis and characterization of templated ion exchange resins for the selective complexation of actinide ions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, G.M.; Uy, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The purpose of this research is to develop polymeric extractants for the selective complexation of uranyl ions (and subsequently other actinyl and actinide ions) from aqueous solutions (lakes, streams, waste tanks and body fluids). Selectivity for a specific actinide ion is obtained by providing polymers with cavities lined with complexing ligands so arranged as to match the charge, coordination number, coordination geometry, and size of the actinide metal ion. These cavity-containing polymers will be produced using a specific actinide ion (or surrogate) as a template around which monomeric complexing ligands will be polymerized. The polymers will provide useful sequestering agents for removing actinide ions from wastes and will form the basis for a variety of analytical techniques for actinide determinations.'

  14. Reactive synthesis of NbAl3 matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Kim, Y.S.; Gokhale, A.B.; Abbaschian, R.

    1990-01-01

    NbAl 3 matrix composites were synthesized in-situ via reactive hot compaction (RHC) of elemental powders. It was found that the simultaneous application of pressure during synthesis was effective in attaining a near-theoretical density matrix at relatively low temperatures and pressures. Using this technique, two types of composites were produced: matrices containing a uniform dispersion of second phase particles (either Nb 3 Al or Nb 2 Al with an Nb core or Nb 2 Al) and matrices reinforced with coated or uncoated ductile Nb filaments. It was found that a limited amount of toughening is obtained using the first approach, while composites containing coated Nb filaments exhibited a significant increase in the ambient temperature fracture toughness. In this paper, various aspects of RHC processing of NbAl 3 matrix composites, the effect of initial stoichiometry and powder size on the microstructure, as well as the mechanical behavior of the composites are discussed

  15. Experimental synthesis of crystalline matrices based on Ce, Ba, Sr zirconates for immobilization of high-level radioactive actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, B.E.; Vasiliev, V.G.; Starchenko, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    In geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste the main storage barriers, in the first place the matrix containing radionuclides, must remain undestructible over a long period of time. Very high requirements are imposed for the matrices from the viewpoint of their chemical stability and mechanical strength. Zirconates may be classified among compounds potentially suitable for the creation of crystalline matrices incorporating radionuclides in their structure. The paper considers results of laboratory experiments on the synthesis of crystalline matrices based on various zirconates by the methods of gas-static and axial pressing. Problems are discussed concerning the crystalline matrix industrial synthesis technology developed at the Radium Institute. One of the most promising directions in solving the problem of high-level waste (HLW) removal from the sphere of human activity is disposal in deep geological formations. The realization of this direction envisages creation of multibarrier compositions. Special attention is paid to the technology for the synthesis of the first, the most crucial, engineering barrier: the matrix into which radionuclides are incorporated. It is assumed that crystalline compounds best satisfy all the requirements as the most thermodynamically stable

  16. Actinides-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry

  17. Actinides-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  18. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.

  19. Actinide tris(hydrocarbyls). Synthesis, properties, structure, and molecular dynamics of thorium and uranium pentamethylcyclopentadienyl tris(eta/sup n/-benzyls)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, E.A.; Moloy, K.G.; Marks, T.J.; Day, V.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report focuses on the synthesis, unusual molecular structure(s), and other interesting properties of ligands within a metal coordination sphere (cf. M(eta 5 -C 5 H 5 ) 3 R vs. M[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 ] 2 R 2 chemistry, where M=Th or U). This report represents a continuing effort to ''tune'' the actinide ligation environment with respect to such factors as the chemical characteristics of actinide-to-carbon sigma bonds. These bonds are a sensitive function of the number and nature of the other ligands within the metal coordination sphere. Structural analysis is reported that examines the nature and arrangement of the bonds in Th[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 C 5 ](CH 2 C 6 H 5 ) 3 and U[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 C 5 ](CH 2 C 6 H 5 ) 3 complexes

  20. Heavy ion induced damage in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 , an inert matrix candidate for the transmutation of minor actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Wiss, T

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl sub 2 O sub 4) is a material selected as a possible matrix for transmutation of minor actinides by neutron capture or fission in nuclear reactors. To study the radiation stability of this inert matrix, especially against fission product impact, irradiations with heavy energetic ions or clusters have been performed. The high electronic energy losses of the heavy ions in this material led to the formation of visible tracks as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy for 30 MeV C sub 6 sub 0 -Buckminster fullerenes and for ions of energy close to or higher than fission energy ( sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi with 120 MeV and 2.38 GeV energy). The irradiations at high energies showed a pronounced degradation of the spinel. Additionally, MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 exhibited a large swelling for irradiation at high fluences with fission products of fission energy (here I-ions of 72 MeV) and at temperatures <= 500 deg. C. These observations are discussed from the technological point of view in ...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes; Synthese und Charakterisierung niedervalenter Actinoidphosphidtelluride und ternaerer Selen-Halogenid-Komplexe des Iridiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, Karoline

    2016-04-07

    The thesis on the synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes includes two parts: a description of the experimental synthesis of UPTe and U2PTe2O and ThPTe and the synthesis of selenium-chloride iridium complexes and selenium-bromide iridium complexes. The characterization included X-ray diffraction and phase studies.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation structure/extracting and complexing properties of new bi-topic ligands for group actinides extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisson, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design and study new extractants for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. To decrease the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, the GANEX process is an option to homogeneously recycle actinides. All actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) would be extracted together from a highly acidic media and separated from fission products (especially from lanthanides). In this context, fourteen new bi-topic ligands constituted of a nitrogen poly-aromatic unit from the dipyridyl-phenanthroline and dipyridyl-1,3,5-triazine families and functionalized by amid groups were synthesized. Extraction studies performed with some of these ligands confirmed their interest to selectively separate actinides at different oxidation states from an aqueous solution 3M HNO 3 . To determine the influence of ligands structure on cation complexation, a study in a homogenous media (MeOH/H 2 O) has been carried out. Electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry have been used to characterize the complexes stoichiometries formed with several cations (Eu 3+ , Nd 3+ , Am 3+ , Pu 4+ and NpO 2 + ). Stability constants, evaluated by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, confirm the selectivity of these ligands toward actinides. Lanthanides and actinides complexes have also been characterized in the solid state by infra-red spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Associated to nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory), a better knowledge of their coordination mode was achieved. (author) [fr

  3. Advanced Silicon Carbide from Molecular Engineering and Actinide Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.J.M.; Garcia, J.; Guillaneux, D.; Wong-Chi-Man, M.; Moreau, J.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of nuclear fuels studies for generation IV, carbides or oxycarbides assemblies are one of the engaged material for high temperature reactors. The design of the fuels is not yet defined but some structures are actually considered with SiC as matrix for the actinide fuel. In this work we have studied the synthesis of a multi-scale structure controlled SiC matrix using molecular silicon organometallic precursors. The aim of this work was to develop a way to obtain multi-scale SiC matrix material which could be engineered to fit in any fuel structure defined for generation IV fuels. The control of this multi-scale structure was done using several simulation methods specific of the low temperature solution synthesis of the precursor. In a first step, we have focused our effort on the synthesis of the SiC material. A first level of template was successfully done by the use of solid silica 500 nm balls. A second level of template was studied by the use of meso-porous silica, structured at a 50 nm level. At least, supra-molecular simulation in non aqueous media was considered with the difficulty to build a molecular assembly (inverse micelles). In a second step, we have functionalized the primary silane phase with actinide complexing agent in order to blend directly the actinide inside this primary phase in a controlled way. During these studies, a new one pot synthesis route to obtain the functionalized primary silane phase was developed. (authors)

  4. Radiation synthesis of silver nanostructures in cotton matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, Dagmara; Sartowska, Bożena

    2012-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most popular natural fibres, composed mainly of cellulose, which finds a wide range of applications in paper, textile and health care products industry. Researchers have focused their interest on the synthesis of cotton nanocomposites, which enhances its mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties by the incorporation of various nanoparticles into the cotton matrix. Silver is one of the most popular antimicrobial agents with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity that results from a complex mechanism of its interactions with the cells of harmful microorganism. In this work, electron beam radiation was applied to synthesise silver nanostructures in cotton fibres. Investigations of the influence of the initial silver salt concentration on the size and distribution of the obtained silver nanostructures were carried out. A detailed characterisation of these nanocomposites with SEM-BSE and EDS methods was performed. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to assess the influence of different size silver nanoparticles and the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of cotton fibres. A microbiological investigation to determine the antibacterial activity of Ag-cotton nanocomposites was carried out. - Highlights: ► Ag NPs embedded in cotton matrix were synthesised by electron beam irradiation. ► Concentration of silver salt solution influences on size of silver nanoparticles. ► Silver content as well as irradiation affect thermal properties of cotton fabrics. ► Ag-cotton nanocomposites exhibit antibacterial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  5. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  6. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  7. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  8. Chemical durability and resistance to irradiation of LnYSiAlO (Ln=La or Ce) glasses, potential immobilization matrix of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavarini, St.

    2002-11-01

    Rare earth aluminosilicate glasses are known for their interesting mechanical and optical properties. Recent studies have shown that their chemical durability was very good too, such they have the potential to be used in the nuclear industry for the specific immobilization of trivalent actinides. Initial dissolution rates of LaYSiAlO and CeYSiAlO were determined using a Soxhlet device (dynamic leaching). The differences linked to the nature of the rare earth element were studied by synthesizing analogous glasses that only differed in their rare earth element composition (%at.): Y-5%, La-5 %, Si-15%, Al-10% O-65%. The influence of pH on the dissolution mechanisms and kinetics was also studied by static leaching tests performed in dilute solutions of NaOH or HNO 3 . Electronic defects and collision cascades, induced by a-disintegration of radioelements confined in storage matrix, can cause important modifications in the glass structure and, thus, influence its chemical durability. To simulate these effects, glass samples were irradiated with β particles and heavy ions accelerated to 2,5 MeV and 200 keV, respectively. Monoliths were then leached in static bi-distilled water (pH≥≥ 5.5) for one month in an autoclave heated to 90 degrees C. Initially, the structural changes caused by irradiation were determined using Raman, NMR and EPR spectroscopies. Ion μ-beams, SEM-EDS and XPS analysis were also performed to evaluate the potential modifications of the superficial composition. Finally, the leaching behavior was studied, for both irradiated and unirradiated samples, through solution and solid elementary characterization. (author)

  9. The actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter of coordination compound chemistry is devoted to the actinides and starts with a general survey. Most of the chapter relates to thorium and uranium but protactinium, neptunium and plutonium are included. There are sections on nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and halogen ligands of the metals in their +3, +4, +5 and +6 oxidation states and of the transplutonium elements in their +2, +3, +4, and +5 oxidation states. (UK)

  10. Sol-gel chemistry applied to the synthesis of polymetallic oxides including actinides reactivity and structure from solution to solid state; Synthese par voie douce d'oxydes polymetalliques incluant des actinides: reactivite et structure de la solution au solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonnier, St

    2006-02-15

    Minor actinides transmutation is studied at present in order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and the assessment of its technical feasibility requires specific designed materials. When considering americium, yttria stabilized zirconia (Am{sup III} YII Zriv)Or{sub x} is among the ceramic phases that one which presents the required physico-chemical properties. An innovative synthesis of this mixed oxide by sol-gel process is reported in this manuscript. The main aim of this work is to adjust the reactivity of the different metallic cations in aqueous media using complexing agent, in order to initiate a favourable interaction for a homogeneous elements repartition in the forming solid phase. The originality of the settled synthesis lies on an in-situ formation of a stable and monodisperse nano-particles dispersion in the presence of acetylacetone. The main reaction mechanisms have been identified: the sol stabilisation results from an original interaction between the three compounds (Zrly, trivalent cations and acetylacetone). The sol corresponds to a structured system at the nanometer scale for which zirconium and trivalent cations are homogeneously dispersed, preliminary to the sol-gel transition. Furthermore, preliminary studies were carried out with a view to developing materials. They have demonstrated that numerous innovative and potential applications can be developed by taking advantage of the direct and controlled formation of the sol and by adapting the sol-gel transition. The most illustrating result is the preparation of a sintered pellet with the composition Am0,13Zro,73Yo,0901,89 using this approach. (author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of novel lanthanide- and actinide-containing titanates and zircono-titanates; relevance to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, S.L.S.

    1995-08-01

    Before experiments using actinide elements are performed, synthetic routes are tested using lanthanides of comparable ionic radii as surrogates. Compound and solid solution formation in several lanthanide-containing titanate and zircono-titanate systems have been established using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which helped to define interesting and novel experiments, some of which have been performed and are discussed, for selected actinide elements. The aqueous solubilities of several lanthanide- and actinide-containing compounds, representative of the systems studied, were tested in several leachants, including the WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine, following modified Materials Characterization Center procedures (MCC-3). The WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine is a synthetic substitute for that found in nature at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The concentrations of cerium, used as a surrogate for plutonium, leached by the WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine from all the cerium-containing compounds and solid solutions tested were below the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry limit of detection (10 ppm) established for cerium in this brine. The concentrations of plutonium leached from the two plutonium-containing solid solutions were less than 1 ppm as determined by gross alpha counting and alpha pulse height analysis. Concentrations of strontium leached by the WIPP brine from stable strontium containing titanate compounds, studied as possible immobilizers of both 90 Sr and actinide elements, were also quite low. These compound and solid solution formation investigations and the aqueous solubility studies suggest that the types of titanate and zircono-titanate compounds and solid solutions studied in this work appear to be useful as host matrices for nuclear waste immobilization

  12. Synthesis, growth, and studies (crystal chemistry, magnetic chemistry) of actinide-based intermetallic compounds and alloys with a 1.1.1 stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergadallan, Yann

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the study of the synthesis and reactivity of intermetallic compounds with a 1.1.1 stoichiometry. It presents the thermal properties of 1.1.1 compounds: general presentation of physical transitions, and of solid solutions and formation heat, application to actinides (reactivity analysis from phase diagrams, techniques of crystal synthesis and crystal growth. It describes experimental techniques: synthesis, determination of fusion temperature by dilatometry, methods used for crystal growth, characterisation techniques (metallography, X ray diffraction on powders, dilatometry). It discusses the obtained results in terms of characterisation of synthesised samples, of crystal growth, and of measurements of fusion temperature. The second part addresses crystal chemistry studies: structure of compounds with a 1.1.1 stoichiometry (Laves structures, Zr, Ti and Pu compounds), techniques of analysis by X-ray diffraction (on powders and on single crystals), result interpretation (UNiX compounds, AnTAl compounds with T being a metal from group VIII, AnTGa compounds, AnNiGe compounds, distance comparison, structure modifications under pressure). The third part concerns physical issues. The author addresses the following topics: physical properties of intermetallic 1.1.1 compounds (magnetism of yttrium phases, behaviour of uranium-based Laves phases, analysis of pseudo-binary diagrams, physical characteristics of uranium-based 1.1.1 compounds, predictions of physical measurements), analysis techniques (Moessbauer spectroscopy, SQUID for Superconducting Quantum Interference Device), and result interpretation

  13. Suppression of matrix protein synthesis in endothelial cells by herpes simplex virus is not dependent on viral protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefalides, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of matrix proteins by human endothelial cells (EC) in vitro was studied before and at various times after infection with Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). Monolayers of EC were either mock-infected or infected with virus for 1 hr at a multiplicity infection (MOI) of 5 to 20 at 37 0 C. Control and infected cultures were pulse-labeled for 1 or 2 hrs with either [ 14 C]proline or [ 35 S]methionine. Synthesis of labeled matrix proteins was determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Suppression of synthesis of fibronectin, Type IV collagen and thrombospondin began as early as 2 hrs and became almost complete by 10 hrs post-infection. The degree of suppression varied with the protein and the virus dose. Suppression of Type IV collagen occurred first followed by that of fibronectin and then thrombospondin. Infection of EC with UV irradiated HSV-1 or HSV-2 resulted in suppression of host-cell protein synthesis as well as viral protein synthesis. Infection with intact virus in the presence of actinomycin-D resulted in suppression of both host-cell and viral protein synthesis. The data indicate that infection of EC with HSV leads to suppression of matrix protein synthesis which does not depend on viral protein synthesis

  14. High-pressure synthesis and characterization of new actinide borates, AnB4O8 (An=Th, U).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinteregger, Ernst; Hofer, Thomas S; Heymann, Gunter; Perfler, Lukas; Kraus, Florian; Huppertz, Hubert

    2013-11-18

    New actinide borates ThB4O8 and UB4O8 were synthesized under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions (5.5 GPa/1100 °C for thorium borate, 10.5 GPa/1100 °C for the isotypic uranium borate) in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus from their corresponding actinide oxide and boron oxide. The crystal structure was determined on basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data that were collected at room temperature. Both compounds crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c (Z=4). Lattice parameters for ThB4O8: a=1611.3(3), b=419.86(8), c=730.6(2) pm; β=114.70(3)°; V=449.0(2) Å(3); R1=0.0255, wR2=0.0653 (all data). Lattice parameters for UB4O8: a=1589.7(3), b=422.14(8), c=723.4(2) pm; β=114.13(3)°; V=443.1(2) Å(3); R1=0.0227, wR2=0.0372 (all data). The new AnB4O8 (An=Th, U) structure type is constructed from corner-sharing BO4 tetrahedra, which form layers in the bc plane. One of the four independent oxygen atoms is threefold-coordinated. The actinide cations are located between the boron-oxygen layers. In addition to Raman spectroscopic investigations, DFT calculations were performed to support the assignment of the vibrational bands. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This isan open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionLicense, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Thin layers in actinide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouder, T.

    1998-01-01

    Surface science research at the ITU is focused on the synthesis and surface spectroscopy studies of thin films of actinides and actinide compounds. The surface spectroscopies used are X-ray and ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS, respectively), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thin films of actinide elements and compounds are prepared by sputter deposition from elemental targets. Alloy films are deposited from corresponding alloy targets and could be used, in principle, as replicates of these targets. However, there are deviations between alloy film and target composition, which depend on the deposition conditions, such as pressure and target voltage. Mastering of these effects may allow us to study stoichiometric film replicates instead of thick bulk compounds. As an example, we discuss the composition of U-Ni films prepared from a UNi 5 target. (orig.)

  16. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  17. Actinide separation by electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusselman, S.P.; Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Grimmett, D.L.; Roy, J.J.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Takahashi, N.

    1995-01-01

    TRUMP-S is a pyrochemical process being developed for the recovery of actinides from PUREX wastes. This paper describes development of the electrochemical partitioning step for recovery of actinides in the TRUMP-S process. The objectives are to remove 99 % of each actinide from PUREX wastes, with a product that is > 90 % actinides. Laboratory tests indicate that > 99 % of actinides can be removed in the electrochemical partitioning step. A dynamic (not equilibrium) process model predicts that 90 wt % product actinide content can be achieved through 99 % actinide removal. Accuracy of model simulation results were confirmed in tests with rare earths. (authors)

  18. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis on the nuclear matrix of rat hepatocytes after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezlepkin, V.G.; Malinovskij, Yu.Yu.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Namvar, R.A.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    DNA synthesis in hepatocytes was studied by incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine administered of portal vein of γ-irradiated (80 Gy) rats. It was shown that the rate of replicative DNA synthesis decreased in hepatocytes of the regenerating liver and unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced at the nuclear matrix of resting cells of the intact liver. In addition to repair synthesis, DNA synthesis resembling replicative one (''aberrant'' DNA synthesis) accounts for a considerable fraction of γ-radiation-induced synthesis of DNA at the nuclear matrix

  19. Experimental study of kinetic and mechanism of dissolution of apatite structured minerals. Application to the prediction of the long term behavior of an actinides storage host matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, C.

    2005-11-01

    The motivation for this study is to assess the potential of using apatite structured ceramics as long-lived actinide storage hosts. To assess their ability to resist aqueous corrosion, the dissolution of natural fluoro-apatite and synthetic Nd-britholite (neodymium is a proxy for the trivalent actinides) was studied. Mineral surfaces were characterized using a combined spectrometric, electrokinetic and potentiometric approach and dissolution rates were measured in closed and open system reactors as a function of solution composition. Experimental results suggest apatitic minerals dissolve via distinct step sequence: 1) fluoride release, 2) release of the calcium situated in the M1, and 3) the simultaneous removal of phosphate and calcium II via the breaking of only Ca-O bonds. TST based rate equations based in this mechanism accurately describe fluoro-apatite and synthetic britholite dissolution rates as a function of solution composition. Nd release rates are limited by precipitation of Nd-rhabdophane. (author)

  20. Actinide metal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage

  1. Actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Paul L. [Geochem Australia, Kiama, NSW (Australia); Ekberg, Christian [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry/Industrial Materials Recycling

    2016-07-01

    All isotopes of actinium are radioactive and exist in aqueous solution only in the trivalent state. There have been very few studies on the hydrolytic reactions of actinium(III). The hydrolysis reactions for uranium would only be important in alkaline pH conditions. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydrolysis species of uranium(VI) and its oxide and hydroxide phases can be determined from the stability and solubility constants. The hydrolytic behaviour of neptunium(VI) is quite similar to that of uranium(VI). The solubility constant of NpO{sub 2}OH(am) has been reported a number of times for both zero ionic strength and in fixed ionic strength media. Americium can form four oxidation states in aqueous solution, namely trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent. Desire, Hussonnois and Guillaumont determined stability constants for the species AmOH{sup 2+} for the actinides, plutonium(III), americium(III), curium(III), berkelium(III) and californium(III) using a solvent extraction technique.

  2. Actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    All isotopes of actinium are radioactive and exist in aqueous solution only in the trivalent state. There have been very few studies on the hydrolytic reactions of actinium(III). The hydrolysis reactions for uranium would only be important in alkaline pH conditions. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydrolysis species of uranium(VI) and its oxide and hydroxide phases can be determined from the stability and solubility constants. The hydrolytic behaviour of neptunium(VI) is quite similar to that of uranium(VI). The solubility constant of NpO 2 OH(am) has been reported a number of times for both zero ionic strength and in fixed ionic strength media. Americium can form four oxidation states in aqueous solution, namely trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent. Desire, Hussonnois and Guillaumont determined stability constants for the species AmOH 2+ for the actinides, plutonium(III), americium(III), curium(III), berkelium(III) and californium(III) using a solvent extraction technique.

  3. Sol-gel chemistry applied to the synthesis of polymetallic oxides including actinides reactivity and structure from solution to solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, St.

    2006-02-01

    Minor actinides transmutation is studied at present in order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and the assessment of its technical feasibility requires specific designed materials. When considering americium, yttria stabilized zirconia (Am III YII Zriv)Or x is among the ceramic phases that one which presents the required physico-chemical properties. An innovative synthesis of this mixed oxide by sol-gel process is reported in this manuscript. The main aim of this work is to adjust the reactivity of the different metallic cations in aqueous media using complexing agent, in order to initiate a favourable interaction for a homogeneous elements repartition in the forming solid phase. The originality of the settled synthesis lies on an in-situ formation of a stable and monodisperse nano-particles dispersion in the presence of acetylacetone. The main reaction mechanisms have been identified: the sol stabilisation results from an original interaction between the three compounds (Zrly, trivalent cations and acetylacetone). The sol corresponds to a structured system at the nanometer scale for which zirconium and trivalent cations are homogeneously dispersed, preliminary to the sol-gel transition. Furthermore, preliminary studies were carried out with a view to developing materials. They have demonstrated that numerous innovative and potential applications can be developed by taking advantage of the direct and controlled formation of the sol and by adapting the sol-gel transition. The most illustrating result is the preparation of a sintered pellet with the composition Am0,13Zro,73Yo,0901,89 using this approach. (author)

  4. Glomerular matrix: synthesis, turnover and role in mesangial expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Beavan, L A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has an integral role in development, homeostasis and pathology of the glomerulus. Three spatially distinct matrices are present in the glomerulus: the mesangium, and basement membranes of the capillary loops and Bowman's capsule. Each is dominated by basement membrane com...

  5. Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, John J.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Donohoue, Collin D.

    2009-01-01

    The project uses an exothermic combustion synthesis reaction, termed self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), to produce high quality, reproducible nitride fuels and other ceramic type nuclear fuels (cercers and cermets, etc.) in conjunction with the fabrication of transmutation fuels. The major research objective of the project is determining the fundamental SHS processing parameters by first using manganese as a surrogate for americium to produce dense Zr-Mn-N ceramic compounds. These fundamental principles will then be transferred to the production of dense Zr-Am-N ceramic materials. A further research objective in the research program is generating fundamental SHS processing data to the synthesis of (i) Pu-Am-Zr-N and (ii) U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. In this case, Ce will be used as the surrogate for Pu, Mn as the surrogate for Am, and depleted uranium as the surrogate for U. Once sufficient fundamental data has been determined for these surrogate systems, the information will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for synthesis of Zr-Am-N, Pu-Am-Zr-N and U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or low-heat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS

  6. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  7. NewIn-situ synthesis method of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuqing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was prepared using a new in-situ synthesis method of remelting and dilution technique. And measurements were performed on the composites. The results of x ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed that TiC particulates were synthesized during the sintering process, and they retained in magnesium matrix composites after the remelting and dilution processing. From the microstructure characterization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, we could see that fine TiC particulates distributed uniformly in the matrix material.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of optically transparent epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito Corcione, C.; Manera, M.G.; Maffezzoli, A.; Rella, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work optically transparent nanocomposites were prepared and characterized from an optical and morphological point of view. An organically modified boehmite was added at different concentrations in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy matrix, hardened with a polyether diamine. Nanocomposites were characterized structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optically by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry and their morphology was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Morphological investigation reveals the presence of boehmite particles dispersed in the epoxy matrix in different dimensions ranging from ten to hundreds of nanometers; some aggregation in the particles is the tendency noticed in the AFM images. The acquisition of multiple AFM images in different areas of the sample was used for a statistical analysis of the volumetric distribution of boehmite aggregates. The obtained result, (3.6 ± 0.3)%vol, is well comparable to thermogravimetric analysis.

  9. Matrix Production, Pigment Synthesis, and Sporulation in a Marine Isolated Strain of Bacillus pumilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Riccio, Antonio; Vanacore, Adele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Molinaro, Antonio; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-10-21

    The ability to produce an extracellular matrix and form multicellular communities is an adaptive behavior shared by many bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the model system for spore-forming bacteria, matrix production is one of the possible differentiation pathways that a cell can follow when vegetative growth is no longer feasible. While in B. subtilis the genetic system controlling matrix production has been studied in detail, it is still unclear whether other spore formers utilize similar mechanisms. We report that SF214, a pigmented strain of Bacillus pumilus isolated from the marine environment, can produce an extracellular matrix relying on orthologs of many of the genes known to be important for matrix synthesis in B. subtilis. We also report a characterization of the carbohydrates forming the extracellular matrix of strain SF214. The isolation and characterization of mutants altered in matrix synthesis, pigmentation, and spore formation suggest that in strain SF214 the three processes are strictly interconnected and regulated by a common molecular mechanism.

  10. Graphene-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites: A Review of Synthesis Methods and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Gupta, Nikhil; Behera, Rakesh K.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2018-06-01

    Graphene-reinforced aluminum (Gr-Al) matrix nanocomposites (NCs) have attracted strong interest from both research and industry in high-performance weight-sensitive applications. Due to the vastly different bonding characteristics of the Al matrix (metallic) and graphene (in-plane covalent + inter-plane van der Waals), the graphene phase has a general tendency to agglomerate and phase separate in the metal matrix, which is detrimental for the mechanical and chemical properties of the composite. Thus, synthesis of Gr-Al NCs is extremely challenging. This review summarizes the different methods available to synthesize Gr-Al NCs and the resulting properties achieved in these NCs. Understanding the effect of processing parameters on the realized properties opens up the possibility of tailoring the synthesis methods to achieve the desired properties for a given application.

  11. Graphene-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites: A Review of Synthesis Methods and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Gupta, Nikhil; Behera, Rakesh K.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-reinforced aluminum (Gr-Al) matrix nanocomposites (NCs) have attracted strong interest from both research and industry in high-performance weight-sensitive applications. Due to the vastly different bonding characteristics of the Al matrix (metallic) and graphene (in-plane covalent + inter-plane van der Waals), the graphene phase has a general tendency to agglomerate and phase separate in the metal matrix, which is detrimental for the mechanical and chemical properties of the composite. Thus, synthesis of Gr-Al NCs is extremely challenging. This review summarizes the different methods available to synthesize Gr-Al NCs and the resulting properties achieved in these NCs. Understanding the effect of processing parameters on the realized properties opens up the possibility of tailoring the synthesis methods to achieve the desired properties for a given application.

  12. Synthesis of Ni nanoparticles in lanthanum chromite ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinti, Victor Buratto; Florio, Daniel Zanetti de; Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Lanthanum chromite is a well-known interconnector for solid oxide fuel cells. It presents electronic conductivity at high temperatures. Moreover it is very stable in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Due to its high stability this material is a promising matrix to produce and stabilize nanoparticles by exothermal reaction. The objective of the present work is to synthesize and stabilize nickel nanoparticles in a stable ceramic matrix. Compounds of (La 1-x Sr x ) a (Cr 1-y Ni y )O 3 (x and y = 0, 0.1, and 0.2; a = 1, and 0.8) were synthesized by Pechini method. The powders were heat treated in air at 1300 °C and 1600°C in attempt to solubilise NiO in the matrix. Then the samples were exposed to a reducing treatment in H 2(g) flux at 900°C per 8 hours. XRD measurements were made using a D8 Focus, Bruker AXS. The data was acquired in a range of 2θ from 20° to 90°, with a step of 0,02° per second. Magnetic properties were investigated utilizing a SQUIDVSM from Quantum Design. Magnetic moment at constant magnetic field (100 Oe and 1000 Oe) was measured in a range of 2K to 300K. Analyses with variable magnetic field were performed at 2K, 196K and 390K in a rage from -5 up to 5 T. Samples were observed using TEM technique. The XRD results showed that the stoichiometric samples achieved desiderate phase. Compounds without Sr and non-stoichiometric lanthanum site showed an incomplete nickel solid solution. The addition of 10% of Sr decreases the Neel temperature from 289 K to 285K. Ni doping created a stronger effect, lowering the temperature down to 267 K , in the sample with 10% of dopant. After reduction is possible to observe peaks of Ni in the XRD, indicating that nickel was exoluted form the matrix. Images of TEM confirm the presence of nanoparticles with an approximate diameter of 3 nm. The reducing treatment increased the magnetic response. (author)

  13. Actinides reduction by recycling in a thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Martinez C, E.; Balboa L, H.

    2014-10-01

    This work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; firstly a production reference of actinides in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR reactor is established, after a fuel containing plutonium is modeled to also calculate the actinides production in MOX fuel type. Also it proposes a design of fuel rod containing 6% of actinides in a matrix of uranium from the tails of enrichment, then four standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by actinides rods to evaluate the production and transmutation thereof, the same procedure was performed in the fuel type MOX and the end actinide reduction in the fuel was evaluated. (Author)

  14. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  15. Extracellular matrix components influence DNA synthesis of rat hepatocytes in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, N.; Tomomura, A.; Sattler, C.A.; Sattler, G.L.; Kleinman, H.K.; Pitot, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of several extracellular matrix components (EMCs) - fibronectin (Fn), laminin (Ln), type I (C-I) and type IV (C-IV) collagen - on DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes in primary culture were examined by both quantitative scintillation spectrometry and autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation. Hepatocytes cultured on Fn showed the most active DNA synthesis initiated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) with decreasing levels of [ 3 H]thymidine uptake exhibited in the cell cultured on C-IV, C-I, and Ln, respectively. The decreasing level of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes cultured on Fn, C-IV, C-I, and Ln respectively was not influenced by cell density. The number of EGF receptors of hepatocytes was also not influenced by EMCs. These data suggest that EMCs modify hepatocyte DNA synthesis by means of post-EGF-receptor mechanisms which are regulated by both growth factors and cell density

  16. Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  17. Malonamide, phosphine oxide and calix[4]arene functionalized ionic liquids: synthesis and extraction of actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternova, Dariia

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment is a crucial problem nowadays. This work was dedicated to the development of the new extracting systems for radionuclides on the basis of 'green' solvents Ionic Liquids (Ils). For this purpose Ils were functionalized with various extracting patterns: phosphine oxide, carbamoyl phosphine oxide groups and malonamide fragment. Also the calix[4]arene platforms were used for the synthesis of functionalized ionic liquids (Fils) and their precursors. The Fils of both types cationic and anionic have been obtained. The synthesized Fils were tested for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides. lt was found that extraction well occurs due to the extracting patterns, however a charge of a modified ion influences extraction.The various extracting experiments and mathematical modelling have been performed to determine the mechanisms of extraction. These studies showed that each extracting system is characterized by a different set of extracting equilibria, based mostly on cationic exchange. (author)

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYIMIDE-ZEOLITE MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogas has become an attractive alternative energy source due to the limitation of energy from fossil. In this study, a new type of mixed matrix membrane (MMM consisting of polyimide-zeolite was synthesized and characterized for biogas purification. The MMM consists of medium concentration of polymer (20% wt polyimide, 80% N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and 25% zeolite 4A in total solid were prepared by a dry/wet phase inversion technique.  The fabricated MMM was characterized using SEM, DSC, TGA and gas permeation. Post treatment coating procedure was also conducted. The research showed that surface coating by 3% silicone rubber toward MMM PI 20% gave the significant effect to improve membrane selectivity. The ideal selectivity for CO2/CH4 separation increased from 0.99 for before coating to 7.9 after coating for PI-Zeolite MMM, respectively. The results suggest that PI-Zeolite MMM with good post treatment procedure will increase the membrane selectivity and permeability with more saver polymer requirement as well as energy saving due to low energy for mixing.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of a Matrix-Free Nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierner, Jessica Anne [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles have a number of magnetic properties that make them a potentially useful material for transformer applications. These desirable traits include high saturation magnetization, high susceptibility, and very low magnetic hysteresis. Before iron nanoparticles can even be tested for applicability, however, a number of scientific hurdles must be overcome. First an affordable and scalable synthetic approach must be developed, and the results of these large scale reactions must be fashioned into a solid material. To be of use, this solid material must have very high loading of iron nanoparticles and must be relatively easy to form into desired shapes. To achieve these goals, iron nanoparticles were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in the presence of dodecylamine which bound to the surface of the particles. This reaction was scaled up to a multi-gram scale with only minor changes in size and shape control. These particles were then fashioned into “matrix-free nanocomposites”, where the particles were cross-linked to each other. This was achieved by first exchanging the surface coating for a combination of hexylamine and 1,6-diaminohexane. The diamine provided primary amines on the particle surface that were available for further reaction. These were shown to be capable of reacting with a triepoxide cross-linker to form a hard, solid material, analogous to the cure of a common epoxy adhesive. Loading of up to 80% iron by mass (about 43% by volume) was achieved.

  20. Uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix: synthesis, characterizations and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacheux, N.

    1995-03-01

    In the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage, uranium and thorium phosphates have been investigated. Their experimental synthesis conditions have been entirely reviewed, they lead to the preparation of four new compounds: U(UO 2 )(PO 4 ) 2 , U 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 , UCIPO 4 , 4H 2 O, and Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 . Experimental evidenced are advanced for non existent compounds such as: U 3 (PO 4 ) 4 , U 2 O 3 P 2 O 7 and Th 3 (PO 4 ) 4 . Characterization by several techniques (X-rays and neutron powder diffractions, UV-Visible and Infra-red spectroscopies, XPS,...) were performed. The ab initio structure determination of U(UO 2 )(PO 4 ) 2 has been achieved by X-rays and refined by neutron diffractions. Through its physico-chemical analysis, we found that this compound was a new mixed valence uranium phosphate in which U 4+ and UO 2 2+ ions are ordered in pairs along parallel chains according to a new type of arrangement. Reaction mechanism, starting from UCIPO 4 , 4H 2 O and based on redox processes of uranium in solid state was set up. From two main matrices U(UO 2 )(PO 4 ) 2 and Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 , solid solutions were studied. They consist of replacement of U(IV) by Th(IV) and reversely. The leaching tests on pure, loaded and doped matrices were performed in terms of storage time, pH of solutions, and determined by the use of solids labelled with 230 U or by the measurement of uranyl concentration by Laser-Induced Time-Resolved Spectro-fluorimetry. Average concentration of uranium in the liquid phase is around 10 -4 M to 10 -6 M. Taking into account the very low solubilities of the studied phosphate ceramics, we estimated their chemical performances promising as an answer to the important nuclear waste problem, if we compare them to the glasses used at the present time. (author)

  1. Synthesis and structural characterisation of mixed An(IV)-An(III) actinide oxalates used as precursors for dedicated fuel or target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, Christelle; Grandjean, Stephane; Arab Chapelet, Benedicte; Abraham, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Oxalic co-conversion process plays an important role by producing mixed-actinide compounds used as starting materials as they are particularly suitable precursors of actinide oxide solid solutions. In these oxalate compounds, a mixed crystallographic site which accommodates both elements in spite of their different oxidation states has been established. The charge compensation is ensured by monovalent cations present in the acidic solution. This communication reviews the various mixed-actinide oxalates obtained by crystallization from acidic solution. First, crystallographic structures determined by X-ray diffraction from single crystals are described. Then completing data obtained by powder X-ray diffraction are presented on various systems. The different supramolecular arrangements underline the complexity of An(IV)-An(III)/Ln(III) oxalate system and the need to pursue studies on single crystals. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles in a fluoropolymer matrix by annealing in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, Alexey, E-mail: safonov@itp.nsc.ru [Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Lavrentyev Ave. 1, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sulyaeva, Veronica [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Lavrentyev Ave. 3, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Timoshenko, Nikolay; Starinskiy, Sergey [Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Lavrentyev Ave. 1, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-12

    In this paper, a method for synthesizing copper nanoparticles in a fluoropolymer matrix is proposed which prevents the reduction in the plasmonic properties due to the oxidation of the metal. The basic idea of the proposed method of nanoparticle synthesis is to anneal of thin metal film coated with a thin layer of fluoropolymer. The morphology and optical properties of the resulting composites were determined. The optical properties remained unchanged after several months of storage under standard conditions. - Highlights: • The copper-fluoropolymer composites are obtained by a combination of GJD and HWCVD. • The annealing of thin Cu film covered with fluoropolymer leads to formation of NPs. • The dilution of the localized surface plasmon resonance due to oxidation was analyzed. • The plasmonic properties of the Cu NPs are saved in the fluoropolymer matrix. • The fluoropolymer matrix prevents oxidation of metal NPs.

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  4. Research in actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH - , CO 3 2- , PO 4 3- , humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements

  5. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: broadening the matrix approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootel, L. van; Wesel, F. van; O'Mara-Eves, A.; Thomas, J.; Hox, J.; Boeije, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the

  6. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  7. Upregulation of matrix synthesis in chondrocyte-seeded agarose following sustained bi-axial cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05. The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05, indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  8. Some results on development, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations of fuels for fast reactor-actinide burner (MOX and inert matrix fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.; Zabudko, L.; Moseev, L.; Rogozkin, B.; Kurina, I.

    1996-01-01

    Studies performed have shown principal feasibility of the BN-600 and BN-800 cores to achieve high efficiency of Pu burning when MOX fuel with Pu content up to 45% is used. Valuable experience on irradiation behaviour of oxide fuel with high Pu content (100%) was gained as a result of operation of two BR-10 core loadings where the maximum burnup 14 at.% was reached. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) allowed to reveal some specific features of the fuel with high plutonium content. Principal irradiation and PIE results are presented in the paper. Use of new fuel without U-238 provides the maximum burning capability as in this case the conversion ratio is reduced to zero. Technological investigations of inert matrix fuels have been continued now. Zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, magnesium oxide and other matrix materials are under consideration. Inert matrices selection criteria are discussed in the paper. Results of technological study, of irradiation in the BOR-60 reactor and PIE results of some inert matrix fuels are summarized in this report. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Regulation of aortic extracellular matrix synthesis via noradrenergic system and angiotensin II in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nedra; Sakly, Mohsen; Hodroj, Wassim; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2012-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis regulation by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or angiotensin II (ANG II) was widely reported, but interaction between the two systems on ECM synthesis needs further investigation. We tested implication of SNS and ANG II on ECM synthesis in juvenile rat aorta. Sympathectomy with guanethidine (50 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and blockade of the ANG II AT1 receptors (AT1R) blocker with losartan (20 mg/kg/day in drinking water) were performed alone or in combination in rats. mRNA and protein synthesis of collagen and elastin were examined by Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Collagen type I and III mRNA were increased respectively by 62 and 43% after sympathectomy and decreased respectively by 31 and 60% after AT1R blockade. Combined treatment increased collagen type III by 36% but not collagen type I. The same tendency of collagen expression was observed at mRNA and protein levels after the three treatments. mRNA and protein level of elastin was decreased respectively by 63 and 39% and increased by 158 and 15% after losartan treatment. Combined treatment abrogates changes induced by single treatments. The two systems act as antagonists on ECM expression in the aorta and combined inhibition of the two systems prevents imbalance of mRNA and protein level of collagen I and elastin induced by single treatment. Combined inhibition of the two systems prevents deposit or excessive reduction of ECM and can more prevent cardiovascular disorders.

  10. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ankita; Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a process akin to liquid-liquid or solvent extraction where a Supercritical fluid (SCF) is contacted with a solid/ liquid matrix for the purpose of separating the component of interest from the original matrix. Carbon dioxide is a preferred choice as supercritical fluid (SCF) owing to its moderate critical parameter (P c = 7.38 MPa and T c = 304.1K) coupled with radiation and chemical stability, non toxic nature and low cost. Despite widespread applications for extraction of organic compounds and associated advantages especially liquid waste minimization, the SFE of metal ions was left unexplored for quite some time, as direct metal ion extraction is inefficient due charge neutralization requirement and weak solute-solvent interaction. Neutral SCF soluble metal-ligand complexation is imperative and SFE of actinides was reported only in 1994. Several studies have been carried out on SFE of uranium, thorium and plutonium from nitric acid medium employing different sets of ligands (organophosphorus, diketones, amides). Especially attractive is the possibility of direct dissolution and extraction of actinides employing ligand-acid adducts (like TBP.HNO 3 adduct) from solid matrices of different stages of nuclear fuel cycle viz. ores, spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. Also, partitioning of actinides from fission products has been explored in spent nuclear fuel. These studies on supercritical fluid extraction of actinides indicate a more efficient and environmentally sustainable technology. (author)

  11. PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, J.B.

    1963-11-01

    A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

  12. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  13. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  14. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  15. Chemical durability and resistance to irradiation of LnYSiAlO (Ln=La or Ce) glasses, potential immobilization matrix of minor actinides; Durabilite chimique et comportement a l'irradiation des verres quaternaires LnYSiAlO (Ln = La ou Ce), matrice potentielle d'immobilisation d'actinides mineurs trivalents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavarini, St

    2002-11-01

    Rare earth aluminosilicate glasses are known for their interesting mechanical and optical properties. Recent studies have shown that their chemical durability was very good too, such they have the potential to be used in the nuclear industry for the specific immobilization of trivalent actinides. Initial dissolution rates of LaYSiAlO and CeYSiAlO were determined using a Soxhlet device (dynamic leaching). The differences linked to the nature of the rare earth element were studied by synthesizing analogous glasses that only differed in their rare earth element composition (%at.): Y-5%, La-5 %, Si-15%, Al-10% O-65%. The influence of pH on the dissolution mechanisms and kinetics was also studied by static leaching tests performed in dilute solutions of NaOH or HNO{sub 3}. Electronic defects and collision cascades, induced by a-disintegration of radioelements confined in storage matrix, can cause important modifications in the glass structure and, thus, influence its chemical durability. To simulate these effects, glass samples were irradiated with {beta} particles and heavy ions accelerated to 2,5 MeV and 200 keV, respectively. Monoliths were then leached in static bi-distilled water (pH{>=}{>=} 5.5) for one month in an autoclave heated to 90 degrees C. Initially, the structural changes caused by irradiation were determined using Raman, NMR and EPR spectroscopies. Ion {mu}-beams, SEM-EDS and XPS analysis were also performed to evaluate the potential modifications of the superficial composition. Finally, the leaching behavior was studied, for both irradiated and unirradiated samples, through solution and solid elementary characterization. (author)

  16. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: Broadening the matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie

    2017-09-01

    This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Pine Needles Reinforced RF Matrix Based Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Singha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of pine needles reinforced thermosetting resin (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde which is most suitable as composite matrix has been reported. The polycondensation reaction between resorcinol and formaldehyde (RF in different molar ratios has been applied to the synthesis of RF polymer matrix. A thermosetting resin based composite, containing approximately 10, 20, 30 and 40% of natural fiber by weight, has been obtained by adding pine needles to the Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF resin. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed particle reinforced (Pine needles composites were determined. Effect of fiber loading in terms of weight % on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, and flexural and wear properties have also been evaluated. The reinforcing of the resin with Pine needles was accomplished in particle size of 200 micron by employing optimized resin. Present work reveals that mechanical properties of the RF resin increases to extensive extent when reinforced with Pine needles. Thermal (TGA/DTA and morphological studies (SEM of the resin, fiber and polymer composites thus synthesized have also been carried out.

  18. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2014-10-25

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles and its nanocomposite in a PVA matrix prepared by ex situ technique. The crystallite sizes of the CdTe nanoparticles and nanocomposite calculated from X-ray diffraction patterns are 6.07 and 7.75 nm with hexagonal structure, respectively. The spherical nature of the CdTe nanoparticles is confirmed from transmission electron microscopy measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows good interaction between the CdTe nanoparticles and PVA matrix. The absorption and emission spectra have also been studied. The stability of the TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles increases after dispersion in a PVA matrix. In electrical measurements, the dark conductivity and the steady-state photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite thin films have been studied. The effect of temperature and intensity on the transient photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite is also studied. The values of differential life time have been calculated from the decay of photocurrent with time. The non-exponential decay of photoconductivity is observed indicating that the traps exist at all the energies in the band gap, making these materials suitable for various optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles and its nanocomposite in a PVA matrix prepared by ex situ technique. The crystallite sizes of the CdTe nanoparticles and nanocomposite calculated from X-ray diffraction patterns are 6.07 and 7.75 nm with hexagonal structure, respectively. The spherical nature of the CdTe nanoparticles is confirmed from transmission electron microscopy measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows good interaction between the CdTe nanoparticles and PVA matrix. The absorption and emission spectra have also been studied. The stability of the TGA-capped CdTe nanoparticles increases after dispersion in a PVA matrix. In electrical measurements, the dark conductivity and the steady-state photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite thin films have been studied. The effect of temperature and intensity on the transient photoconductivity of CdTe nanocomposite is also studied. The values of differential life time have been calculated from the decay of photocurrent with time. The non-exponential decay of photoconductivity is observed indicating that the traps exist at all the energies in the band gap, making these materials suitable for various optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  1. Effect of aging hardening on in situ synthesis magnesium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuqing; Liao Lihua; Ma Naiheng; Wang Haowei

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was synthesized using in situ synthesis technique. The result of XRD revealed the presence of TiC in precursor blocks and TiC/AZ91 composites. Effect of aging hardening on the composites was described using Brinell hardness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the aging hardening peak of TiC/AZ91 composite appeared earlier comparatively with that of AZ91 magnesium alloy. And the appearance of aging hardening peak was earlier under the higher aging temperature such as 200 deg. C. The precipitating behavior of Mg 17 Al 12 phase in AZ91 alloy and TiC/AZ91 composites was described. Little discontinuous was discovered in the composites, and the amount of continuous precipitate in the composite matrix is smaller comparatively to that of AZ91 alloy. These results were analyzed with the fine grain size, much more interface between TiC and magnesium and high-density dislocation in magnesium matrix, which was contributed to the addition of TiC particulates

  2. Estrogen Enhances Matrix Synthesis in Nucleus Pulposus Cell through the Estrogen Receptor β-p38 MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Matrix homeostasis within the disc nucleus pulposus (NP tissue is important for disc function. Increasing evidence indicates that sex hormone can influence the severity of disc degeneration. This study was aimed to study the role of 17β-estradiol (E2 in NP matrix synthesis and its underlying mechanism. Methods: Rat NP cells were cultured with (10-5, 10-7 and 10-9 M or without (control E2 for48 hours. The estrogen receptor (ER-β antagonist PHTPP and ERβ agonist ERB 041 were used to investigate the role mediated by ERβ. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 was used to investigate the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Gene and protein expression of SOX9, aggrecan and collagen II, glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, and immunostaining assay for aggrecan and collagen II were analyzed to evaluate matrix production in rat NP cells. Results: E2 enhanced NP matrix synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner regarding gene and proetin expression of SOX9, aggrecan and collagen II, protein deposition of aggrecan and collagen II, and GAG content. Moreover, activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway was increased with elevating E2 concentration. Further analysis indicated that ERB 041 and PHTPP could respectively enhance and suppress effects of E2 on matrix synthesis in NP cells, as well as activation of p38 MAPK pathway. Additionally, inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway significantly abolished the effects of E2 on matrix synthesis. Conclusion: E2 can enhance matrix synthesis of NP cells and the ERβ/p38 MAPK pathway is involved in this regulatory process.

  3. Actinide isotopic analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs

  4. Protactinium and the intersection of actinide and transition metal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; De Sio, Stephanie; Vallet, Valérie

    2018-02-12

    The role of the 5f and 6d orbitals in the chemistry of the actinide elements has been of considerable interest since their discovery and synthesis. Relativistic effects cause the energetics of the 5f and 6d orbitals to change as the actinide series is traversed left to right imparting a rich and complex chemistry. The 5f and 6d atomic states cross in energy at protactinium (Pa), making it a potential intersection between transition metal and actinide chemistries. Herein, we report the synthesis of a Pa-peroxo cluster, A(6)(Pa4O(O-2)(6)F-12) [A = Rb, Cs, (CH3)(4)N], formed in pursuit of an actinide polyoxometalate. Quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level demonstrate equal 5f and 6d orbital participation in the chemistry of Pa and increasing 5f orbital participation for the heavier actinides. Periodic changes in orbital character to the bonding in the early actinides highlights the influence of the 5f orbitals in their reactivity and chemical structure.

  5. Extraction chromatography of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    1978-01-01

    Extraction chromatography of actinides in the oxidation state from 2 to 6 is reviewed. Data on using neutral (tbp), basic (substituted ammonium salts) and acidic [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA)] extracting agents ketones, esters, alcohols and β-diketones in this method are given. Using the example of actinide separation using D2EHPA, discussed are factors influencing the efficiency of their chromatography separation (nature and particle size of the carrier materials, extracting agents amount on the carrier, temperature and elution rate)

  6. Actinide nanoparticle research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, Stepan N.; Denecke, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to cover actinide nano research. It is of interest both for fundamental research into the chemistry and physics of f-block elements as well as for applied researchers such as those studying the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal and developing remediation strategies. The authors cover important issues of the formation of actinide nano-particles, their properties and structure, environmental behavior of colloids and nanoparticles related to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, modeling and advanced methods of characterization at the nano-scale. (orig.)

  7. Radiochemistry and actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Peneloux, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of trace amounts of actinide elements by means of radiochemistry, is discussed. The similarities between radiochemistry and actinide chemistry, in the case of species amount by cubic cm below 10 12 , are explained. The parameters which allow to define what are the observable chemical reactions, are given. The classification of radionuclides in micro or macrocomponents is considered. The validity of the mass action law and the partition function in the definition of the average number of species for trace amounts, is investigated. Examples illustrating the results are given

  8. Synthesis of Dibenzo[hi,st]ovalene and Its Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Polystyrene Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, Giuseppe M; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Liu, Junzhi; Motti, Silvia G; Petrozza, Annamaria; Feng, Xinliang; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Müllen, Klaus; Narita, Akimitsu; Scotognella, Francesco

    2017-06-06

    A large number of graphene molecules, or large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been synthesized and display various optoelectronic properties. Nevertheless, their potential for application in photonics has remained largely unexplored. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a highly luminescent and stable graphene molecule, namely a substituted dibenzo[hi,st]ovalene (DBO 1), with zigzag edges and elucidate its promising optical-gain properties by means of ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon incorporation of DBO into an inert polystyrene matrix, amplified stimulated emission can be observed with a relatively low power threshold (ca. 60 μJ cm -2 ), thus highlighting its high potential for lasing applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cellulase assisted synthesis of nano-silver and gold: Application as immobilization matrix for biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhijeet; Sardar, Meryam

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we report in vitro synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) using cellulase enzyme in a single step reaction. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Spectroscopy (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Circular Dichroism (CD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-visible studies shows absorption band at 415nm and 520nm for silver and gold NPs respectively due to surface plasmon resonance. Sizes of NPs as shown by TEM are 5-25nm for silver and 5-20nm for gold. XRD peaks confirmed about phase purity and crystallinity of silver and gold NPs. FTIR data shows presence of amide I peak on both the NPs. The cellulase assisted synthesized NPs were further exploited as immobilization matrix for cellulase enzyme. Thermal stability analysis reveals that the immobilized cellulase on synthesized NPs retained 77-80% activity as compared to free enzyme. While reusability data suggests immobilized cellulase can be efficiently used up to sixth cycles with minimum loss of enzyme activity. The secondary structural analysis of cellulase enzyme during the synthesis of NPs and also after immobilization of cellulase on these NPs was carried out by CD spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of linear regression coefficients by recovering the within-study covariance matrix from summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneoka, Daisuke; Henmi, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the number of regression models has dramatically increased in several academic fields. However, within the context of meta-analysis, synthesis methods for such models have not been developed in a commensurate trend. One of the difficulties hindering the development is the disparity in sets of covariates among literature models. If the sets of covariates differ across models, interpretation of coefficients will differ, thereby making it difficult to synthesize them. Moreover, previous synthesis methods for regression models, such as multivariate meta-analysis, often have problems because covariance matrix of coefficients (i.e. within-study correlations) or individual patient data are not necessarily available. This study, therefore, proposes a brief explanation regarding a method to synthesize linear regression models under different covariate sets by using a generalized least squares method involving bias correction terms. Especially, we also propose an approach to recover (at most) threecorrelations of covariates, which is required for the calculation of the bias term without individual patient data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis of smooth muscle cells cultured from human coronary atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. MacLeod (Donald); B.H. Strauss (Bradley); J. Escaned (Javier); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); R-J. van Suylen (Robert-Jan); A. Verkerk (Anton); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. de Jong (Marcel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine the proliferative capacity and extracellular matrix synthesis of human coronary plaque cells in vitro. BACKGROUND. Common to both primary atherosclerosis and restenosis are vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and production of

  12. Actinides, the narrowwest bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Riseborough, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    A table of elements is shown that demonstrates the crossover from superconductivity to magnetism as well as regions of mixed valence. In particular, the actinides must eventually show 4f-electron like mixed valence, after the 5f-electrons become localized. There also seems to be an adiabatic continuation between heavy fermion and mixed valence behavior

  13. Design and synthesis of some polyaminopolycarboxylic acids and the structural influence of their anions on the separation of actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of some methods for the preparation of four polyaminopolycarboxylic acids: thiobis(ethylenenitrilo)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)aniline-N',N',N'',N''-tetraacetic acid, bis(3-aminopropyl)ether-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid and N,N-bis[N',N'-dicarboxymethyl-3-aminopropyl]-N-methylammonioacetate are reported. The coordinating properties of their anions with regard to lanthanide ions have been examined. Polyaminopolycarboxylates form 1:1 chelate species with trivalent lanthanide ions in aqueous media. The stability constants of their metal chelate species depend upon the size of the chelating rings formed, the basicity of the middle atom in the chain, and the number of coordination points between anion and metal cation. Tracer level 241 Am- 155 Eu cation-exchange experiments explore how the relative magnitude of the chelate stability constants affects the separation of members of the lanthanide and actinide series

  14. Sol-gel chemistry applied to the synthesis of polymetallic oxides including actinides reactivity and structure from solution to solid state; Synthese par voie douce d'oxydes polymetalliques incluant des actinides: reactivite et structure de la solution au solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonnier, St

    2006-02-15

    Minor actinides transmutation is studied at present in order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and the assessment of its technical feasibility requires specific designed materials. When considering americium, yttria stabilized zirconia (Am{sup III} YII Zriv)Or{sub x} is among the ceramic phases that one which presents the required physico-chemical properties. An innovative synthesis of this mixed oxide by sol-gel process is reported in this manuscript. The main aim of this work is to adjust the reactivity of the different metallic cations in aqueous media using complexing agent, in order to initiate a favourable interaction for a homogeneous elements repartition in the forming solid phase. The originality of the settled synthesis lies on an in-situ formation of a stable and monodisperse nano-particles dispersion in the presence of acetylacetone. The main reaction mechanisms have been identified: the sol stabilisation results from an original interaction between the three compounds (Zrly, trivalent cations and acetylacetone). The sol corresponds to a structured system at the nanometer scale for which zirconium and trivalent cations are homogeneously dispersed, preliminary to the sol-gel transition. Furthermore, preliminary studies were carried out with a view to developing materials. They have demonstrated that numerous innovative and potential applications can be developed by taking advantage of the direct and controlled formation of the sol and by adapting the sol-gel transition. The most illustrating result is the preparation of a sintered pellet with the composition Am0,13Zro,73Yo,0901,89 using this approach. (author)

  15. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  16. Actinide oxide photodiode and nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Milan; Usov, Igor

    2017-12-05

    Photodiodes and nuclear batteries may utilize actinide oxides, such a uranium oxide. An actinide oxide photodiode may include a first actinide oxide layer and a second actinide oxide layer deposited on the first actinide oxide layer. The first actinide oxide layer may be n-doped or p-doped. The second actinide oxide layer may be p-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is n-doped, and the second actinide oxide layer may be n-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is p-doped. The first actinide oxide layer and the second actinide oxide layer may form a p/n junction therebetween. Photodiodes including actinide oxides are better light absorbers, can be used in thinner films, and are more thermally stable than silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide.

  17. Synthesis of gels with basis of titanium tungstates as matrixes of radioactive generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galico C, L.

    2005-01-01

    The heteropolyanions, compounds formed by the union of molybdates or tungstates polyanions with atoms of metals like zirconium, titanium, cerium, thorium, tin, etc., have been used as generator matrixes of 99m Tc or 188 Re. Particularly they have been studied and produced successfully in our laboratory, generators of 99 Mo/ 99 m Tc at basis of gels zirconium molybdates and titanium molybdates. Considering that the molybdenum and tungsten, as well as the technetium and the rhenium, its belong to the same groups of transition metals, it is feasible that gels can be synthesized at basis of titanium tungstates, continuing a methodology similar to that of the gels titanium molybdates or zirconium molybdates, to produce generators 188 W/ 188 Re. The 188 Re possess nuclear characteristics that make it attractive for therapeutic applications, since, it emits β - particles of a great energy (2.12 MeV); joined to the possibility of being able to unite to different ligands (bifunctional agents) and biomolecules (antibodies or fragments of proteins), as it makes the 99m Tc, useful in radioimmunotherapy. Commercially the 188 Re generators use a chromatographic column loaded with alumina where the 188 Re, it is adsorbed and eluted the 188 ReO 4 - by means of a saline solution The alumina adsorbs around 0.2% of the 188 Re, situation that forces to use 188 Re of a high specific activity. The use of the gels technology, allows to work with medium or low specific activities of 188 Re, opening the possibility of their production in countries whose nuclear capacity is medium or low. In particular, the synthesized gels with basis of titanium offer the possibility of being synthesized with non active material, for later on to be irradiated and directly produce the generator, since, the titanium 51 Ti, unique radioisotope produced by the titanium, has a half life of 5.79 min. This synthesis method avoids the manipulation of radioactive material during the synthesis of the gels, process

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ZA-27 alloy matrix composites reinforced with zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Fatile

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been carried out on the synthesis and characterization of ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with zinc oxide nanoparticles. This was aimed at developing high performance ZA-27 matrix nanocomposite with low density. The particle size and morphology of the zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM and the elemental composition was obtained from Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS attached to TEM and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. ZA-27 nanocomposite samples were developed using 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles by double steps stir casting technique. Mechanical properties and Microstructural examination were used to characterize the composite samples produced. The results show that hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the composite samples increased progressively with increase in weight percentage of ZnO nanoparticles. Increase in Ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 10.2%, 21.1%, 22.3%, 35.5%, 33.4% and increase in hardness value of 8.2%, 14.8%, 21.7%, 27.9%, 27.1% were observed for nanocomposites reinforced with 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 4 wt%, and 5 wt% ZnO nanoparticles respectively in comparison with unreinforced alloy. It was generally observed that composite sample containing 4 wt% of reinforcement has the highest tensile strength and hardness values. However, the fracture toughness and percent elongation of the composites samples slightly decreased with increase in ZnO nanoparticles content. Results obtained from the Microstructural examination using optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM show that the nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ZA-27 alloy matrix.

  19. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of actinide elements released from high-level waste glasses into a tuff groundwater in laboratory tests at 90 degrees C at various glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (S/V) between dissolved, suspended, and sorbed fractions has been measured. While the maximum release of actinides is controlled by the corrosion rate of the glass matrix, their solubility and sorption behavior affects the amounts present in potentially mobile phases. Actinide solubilities are affected by the solution pH and the presence of complexants released from the glass, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chloride, radiolytic products, such as nitrate and nitrite, and carbonate. Sorption onto inorganic colloids formed during lass corrosion may increase the amounts of actinides in solution, although subsequent sedimentation of these colloids under static conditions leads to a significant reduction in the amount of actinides in solution. The solution chemistry and observed actinide behavior depend on the S/V of the test. Tests at high S/V lead to higher pH values, greater complexant concentrations, and generate colloids more quickly than tests at low S/V. The S/V also affects the rate of glass corrosion

  20. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mescher, A.L.; Munaim, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs

  1. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  2. Photochemistry of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Bell, J.T.; Friedman, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    It has been found that all three major actinides have a useful variety of photochemical reactions which could be used to achieve a separations process that requires fewer reagents. Several features merit enumerating: (1) Laser photochemistry is not now as uniquely important in fuel reprocessing as it is in isotopic enrichment. The photochemistry can be successfully accomplished with conventional light sources. (2) The easiest place to apply photo-reprocessing is on the three actinides U, Pu, and Np. The solutions are potentially cleaner and more amenable to photoreactions. (3) Organic-phase photoreactions are probably not worth much attention because of the troublesome solvent redox chemistry associated with the photochemical reaction. (4) Upstream process treatment on the raffinate (dissolver solution) may never be too attractive since the radiation intensity precludes the usage of many optical materials and the nature of the solution is such that light transmission into it might be totally impossible

  3. Analytical chemistry of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, H.; Marty, P.

    2001-01-01

    Different characterization methods specifically applied to the actinides are presented in this review such as ICP/OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), ICP/MS (inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry), TIMS (thermal ionization-mass spectrometry) and GD/OES (flow discharge optical emission). Molecular absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis are also available to complete the excellent range of analytical tools at our disposal. (authors)

  4. Experimental study of kinetic and mechanism of dissolution of apatite structured minerals. Application to the prediction of the long term behavior of an actinides storage host matrix; Etude experimentale de la cinetique et des mecanismes d'alteration de mineraux apatitiques. Application au comportement d'une ceramique de confinement d'actinides mineurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chairat, C

    2005-11-15

    The motivation for this study is to assess the potential of using apatite structured ceramics as long-lived actinide storage hosts. To assess their ability to resist aqueous corrosion, the dissolution of natural fluoro-apatite and synthetic Nd-britholite (neodymium is a proxy for the trivalent actinides) was studied. Mineral surfaces were characterized using a combined spectrometric, electrokinetic and potentiometric approach and dissolution rates were measured in closed and open system reactors as a function of solution composition. Experimental results suggest apatitic minerals dissolve via distinct step sequence: 1) fluoride release, 2) release of the calcium situated in the M1, and 3) the simultaneous removal of phosphate and calcium II via the breaking of only Ca-O bonds. TST based rate equations based in this mechanism accurately describe fluoro-apatite and synthetic britholite dissolution rates as a function of solution composition. Nd release rates are limited by precipitation of Nd-rhabdophane. (author)

  5. Actinides: why are they important biologically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: actinide elements in energy systems; biological hazards of the actinides; radiation protection standards; and purposes of actinide biological research with regard to toxicity, metabolism, and therapeutic regimens

  6. Chondroprotective effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles in conjunction with hypoxia on bovine cartilage-matrix synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Eraj Humayun; Pan-Pan, Chong; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar Bin; Djordjevic, Ivan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a tissue specifically adapted to a specific niche with a low oxygen tension (hypoxia), and the presence of such conditions is a key factor in regulating growth and survival of chondrocytes. Zinc deficiency has been linked to cartilage-related disease, and presence of Zinc is known to provide antibacterial benefits, which makes its inclusion attractive in an in vitro system to reduce infection. Inclusion of 1% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) in poly octanediol citrate (POC) polymer cultured in hypoxia has not been well determined. In this study we investigated the effects of ZnONP on chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis cultured under normoxia (21% O2 ) and hypoxia (5% O2 ). We report an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in hypoxic culture. Results demonstrate a synergistic effect of oxygen concentration and 1% ZnONP in up-regulation of anabolic gene expression (Type II collagen and aggrecan), and a down regulation of catabolic (MMP-13) gene expression. Furthermore, production of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF-1A) in response to hypoxic condition to regulate chondrocyte survival under hypoxia is not affected by the presence of 1% ZnONP. Presence of 1% ZnONP appears to act to preserve homeostasis of cartilage in its hypoxic environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Potent and Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Fuerst, Rita; Knapinska, Anna M; Taylor, Alexander B; Smith, Lyndsay; Cao, Xiaohang; Hart, P John; Fields, Gregg B; Roush, William R

    2017-07-13

    We describe the use of comparative structural analysis and structure-guided molecular design to develop potent and selective inhibitors (10d and (S)-17b) of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13). We applied a three-step process, starting with a comparative analysis of the X-ray crystallographic structure of compound 5 in complex with MMP-13 with published structures of known MMP-13·inhibitor complexes followed by molecular design and synthesis of potent but nonselective zinc-chelating MMP inhibitors (e.g., 10a and 10b). After demonstrating that the pharmacophores of the chelating inhibitors (S)-10a, (R)-10a, and 10b were binding within the MMP-13 active site, the Zn 2+ chelating unit was replaced with nonchelating polar residues that bridged over the Zn 2+ binding site and reached into a solvent accessible area. After two rounds of structural optimization, these design approaches led to small molecule MMP-13 inhibitors 10d and (S)-17b, which bind within the substrate-binding site of MMP-13 and surround the catalytically active Zn 2+ ion without chelating to the metal. These compounds exhibit at least 500-fold selectivity versus other MMPs.

  8. On the feasibility of a CANDU PHWR actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1995-01-01

    In this work a review of the current solutions to burn the actinide i.e. the spallation method, LWR, FBR, Siemens proposal and inert matrix is presented. Finally, a proposal is made to use the CANDU PHWR for this purpose, taking into account the techniques envisaged for LWR and the prospect of the advanced fuel cycle in CANDU system. (Author) 5 Refs

  9. Thermal neutron actinide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.

    1992-01-01

    During the 70's, the physicists involved in the cross section measurements for the low energy neutrons were almost exclusively interested in the resonance energy range. The thermal range was considered as sufficiently known. In the beginning of the 80's, reactor physicists had again to deal with the delicate problem of the power reactor temperature coefficient, essentially for the light water reactors. The measured value of the reactivity temperature coefficient does not agree with the computed one. The later is too negative. For obvious safety reasons, it is an important problem which must be solved. Several causes were suggested to explain this discrepancy. Among all these causes, the spectral shift in the thermal energy range seems to be very important. Sensibility calculations shown that this spectral shift is very sensitive to the shape of the neutron cross sections of the actinides for energies below one electron-volt. Consequently, reactor physicists require new and accurate measurements in the thermal and subthermal energy ranges. A part of these new measurement results were recently released and reviewed. The purpose of this study is to complete the preceding review with the new informations which are now available. In reactor physics the major actinides are the fertile nuclei, uranium 238, thorium 232 and plutonium 240 and the fissile nuclei, uranium 233, uranium 235 and plutonium 239. For the fertile nuclei the main datum is the capture cross section, for the fissile nuclei the data of interest are nu-bar, the fission and capture cross sections or a combination of these data such as η or α. In the following sections, we will review the neutron data of the major actinides for the energy below 1 eV

  10. Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning of minor actinide from high level waste could have a substantial impact in lowering the radio toxicity associated with high level waste as well as it will reduce the burden on geological repository. In Indian context, the partitioned minor actinide could be routed into the fast breeder reactor systems scheduled for commissioning in the near period. The technological breakthrough in solvent development has catalyzed the partitioning programme in India, leading to the setting up and hot commissioning of the Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) at BARC, Tarapur. The engineering scale Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) has been retrofitted in an available radiological hot cell situated adjacent to the Advanced Vitrification Facility (AVS). This location advantage ensures an uninterrupted supply of high-level waste and facilitates the vitrification of the high-level waste after separation of minor actinides

  11. Resveratrol increases nucleus pulposus matrix synthesis through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway under mechanical compression in a disc organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaorui; Leng, Xiaoming; Zhao, Man; Wu, Mei; Chen, Amei; Hong, Guoju; Sun, Ping

    2017-12-22

    Disc nucleus pulposus (NP) matrix homeostasis is important for normal disc function. Mechanical overloading seriously decreases matrix synthesis and increases matrix degradation. The present study aims to investigate the effects of resveratrol on disc NP matrix homeostasis under a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression and the potential mechanism underlying this process. Porcine discs were perfusion-cultured and subjected to a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression (1.3 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 2 h once per day) for 7 days in a mechanically active bioreactor. The non-compressed discs were used as controls. Resveratrol was added along with culture medium to observe the effects of resveratrol on NP matrix synthesis under mechanical load respectively. NP matrix synthesis was evaluated by histology, biochemical content (glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hydroxyproline (HYP)), and expression of matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Results showed that this high-magnitude mechanical compression significantly decreased NP matrix content, indicated by the decreased staining intensity of Alcian Blue and biochemical content (GAG and HYP), and the down-regulated expression of NP matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Further analysis indicated that resveratrol partly stimulated NP matrix synthesis and increased activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in a dose-dependent manner under mechanical compression. Together, resveratrol is beneficial for disc NP matrix synthesis under mechanical overloading, and the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway may participate in this regulatory process. Resveratrol may be promising to regenerate mechanical overloading-induced disc degeneration. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Recovery actinide values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Delphin, W.H.; Mason, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for partitioning and recovering actinide values from acidic waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels by adding hydroxylammonium nitrate and hydrazine to the waste solution to adjust the valence of the neptunium and plutonium values in the solution to the +4 oxidation state, thus forming a feed solution and contacting the feed solution with an extractant of di-hexoxyethyl phosphoric acid in an organic diluent whereby the actinide values, most of the rare earth values and some fission product values are taken up by the extractant. Separation is achieved by contacting the loaded extractant with two aqueous strip solutions, a nitric acid solution to selectively strip the americium, curium and rare earth values and an oxalate solution of tetramethylammonium hydrogen oxalate and oxalic acid or trimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate to selectively strip the neptunium, plutonium and fission product values. Uranium values remain in the extractant and may be recovered with a phosphoric acid strip. The neptunium and plutonium values are recovered from the oxalate by adding sufficient nitric acid to destroy the complexing ability of the oxalate, forming a second feed, and contacting the second feed with a second extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert diluent whereby the neptunium and plutonium values are selectively extracted. The values are recovered from the extractant with formic acid. (author)

  13. Actinide AMS at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenruecker, Rene [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Pavetich, Stefan [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); ANU, Canberra (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides such as {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were introduced into the environment by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, reactor accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities (Sellafield, La Hague), radioactive waste disposal, and accidents with nuclear devices (Palomares, Thule) [1]. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method to measure these actinides. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) facility is located at a 6 MV accelerator, which is shared with ion beam analytics and implantation users, preventing major modifications of the accelerator and magnetic analyzers. DREAMS was originally designed for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. To modify the system for actinide AMS, a Time-of-Flight (TOF) beamline at the high-energy side has been installed and performance tests are on-going. Ion beam and detector simulations are carried out to design a moveable ionization chamber. Especially, the detector window and anode dimensions have to be optimized. This ionization chamber will act as an energy detector of the system and its installation is planned as closely as possible to the stop detector of the TOF beamline for highest detection efficiency.

  14. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  15. Incineration of actinide targets in a pressurized water reactor spin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.; Bergeron, J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) with uranium fuel to limit the inventory growth of minor actinides (237 neptunium, and americium) produced by the French nuclear powerplants is studied. Targets containing an actinide oxide mixed to an inert matrix are loaded in some reactors. After being irradiated along with the fuel, the target is specially reprocessed. The remaining actinide and the plutonium which is produced, added to fresh actinide, are recycled in new targets. The radiotoxicity balance, with and without incineration, is examined considering that only the losses coming from the target reprocessing treated as waste. A scenario arbitrarily based on 18 years of operation results in a reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste by a factor between 10 and 20, depending on the actinide considered. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Diffusion Control in the in Situ Synthesis of Iconic Metal-Organic Frameworks within an Ionic Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jungho; Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Jae Sun; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2018-01-31

    Ionic polymers that possess ion-exchangeable sites have been shown to be a greatly useful platform to fabricate mixed matrices (MMs) where metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be in situ synthesized, although the in situ synthesis of MOF has been rarely studied. In this study, alginate (ALG), an anionic green polymer that possesses metal-ion-exchangeable sites, is employed as a platform of MMs for the in situ synthesis of iconic MOFs, HKUST-1, and MOF-74(Zn). We demonstrate for the first time that the sequential order of supplying MOF ingredients (metal ion and deprotonated ligand) into the alginate matrix leads to substantially different results because of a difference in the diffusion of the MOF components. For the examples examined, whereas the infusion of BTC 3- ligand into Cu 2+ -exchanged ALG engendered the eggshell-shaped HKUST-1 layers on the surface of MM spheres, the infusion of Cu 2+ ions into BTC 3- -included alginate engendered the high dispersivity and junction contact of HKUST-1 crystals in the alginate matrix. This fundamental property has been exploited to fabricate a flexible MOF-containing mixed matrix membrane by coincorporating poly(vinyl alcohol). Using two molecular dyes, namely, methylene blue and rhodamine 6G, further, we show that this in situ strategy is suitable for fabricating an MOF-MM that exhibits size-selective molecular uptake.

  17. Concentration of actinides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1976-06-01

    Considerable concern is now being expressed over the discharge of actinides into the environment. This report presents a brief review of the chemistry of the actinides and examines the evidence for interaction of the actinides with some naturally-occurring chelating agents and other factors which might stimulate actinide concentration in the food chain of man. This report also reviews the evidence for concentration of actinides in plants and for uptake through the gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  18. Lanthanide/Actinide Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Aimee; Fontes, Christopher J.

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational wave observations benefit from accompanying electromagnetic signals in order to accurately determine the sky positions of the sources. The ejecta of neutron star mergers are expected to produce such electromagnetic transients, called macronovae (e.g. the recent and unprecedented observation of GW170817). Characteristics of the ejecta include large velocity gradients and the presence of heavy r-process elements, which pose significant challenges to the accurate calculation of radiative opacities and radiation transport. Opacities include a dense forest of bound-bound features arising from near-neutral lanthanide and actinide elements. Here we present an overview of current theoretical opacity determinations that are used by neutron star merger light curve modelers. We will touch on atomic physics and plasma modeling codes that are used to generate these opacities, as well as the limited body of laboratory experiments that may serve as points of validation for these complex atomic physics calculations.

  19. Relativistic studies in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs

  20. Actinides reduction by recycling in a thermal reactor; Reduccion de actinidos por reciclado en un reactor termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Martinez C, E.; Balboa L, H., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; firstly a production reference of actinides in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR reactor is established, after a fuel containing plutonium is modeled to also calculate the actinides production in MOX fuel type. Also it proposes a design of fuel rod containing 6% of actinides in a matrix of uranium from the tails of enrichment, then four standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by actinides rods to evaluate the production and transmutation thereof, the same procedure was performed in the fuel type MOX and the end actinide reduction in the fuel was evaluated. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and their incorporation into poly(hydroxybutyrate) matrix in the formation of a novel nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Shahina; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Jan, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized through a modified chemical precipitation protocol and then mediated into poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) matrix to get ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Mean diameter and zeta potential of ZnS NPs, as determined using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS), were observed to be 53 nm and ‑89 mV, respectively. The structural investigations performed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique depicted the phase purity of ZnS NPs exhibiting cubic crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis was conducted to identify the presence or absence of bonding vibrational modes on the surface of synthesized single phase ZnS NPs. The FTIR analysis confirmed the metal to sulphur bond formation by showing the characteristic band at 1123 cm‑1. The UV–vis absorption spectra of ZnS NPs confirmed the synthesis of particles in nanoscale regime showing a λ max of 302 nm. These NPs were then successfully incorporated into PHB matrix to synthesize ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. The synthesis of nanocomposite was confirmed by EDX analysis. The chemical bonding and structural properties of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite were determined by FTIR and XRD analysis, respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Moreover, XRD analysis showed that structure of nanocomposite was completely controlled by ZnS NPs as pure PHB exhibited orthorhombic crystal structure while the nanocomposite demonstrated cubic crystal structure of ZnS. Thermal properties of nanocomposite were studied through thermogravimetric analysis revealing that the incorporation of ZnS NPs into PHB matrix lead to enhance heat resistance properties of PHB.

  2. An Innovative Electrolysis Approach for the Synthesis of Metal Matrix Bulk Nanocomposites: A Case Study on Copper-Niobium System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrvash, Hussein; Rad, Rahim Yazdani; Massoudi, Abouzar

    2018-04-01

    Design and synthesis of a prototype Cu-Nb nanocomposite are presented. Oxygen-free Cu-Nb nanocomposites were prepared using an electrolysis facility with special emphasis on the cathodic deoxidation of Cu and nanometric Nb2O5 blends in a molten NaCl-CaCl2 electrolyte. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The elemental analysis of the Cu matrix and Nb phase revealed the high solubility of Nb in the Cu structure (0.85 at. pct) and Cu in the Nb structure (10.59 at. pct) over short synthesis times (4-5 hours). Furthermore, precise analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the unique structure and nanocomposite morphology of the Cu-Nb nanocomposite. The successful synthesis of Cu-Nb nanocomposites offers a new conceptual and empirical outlook on the generation of bulk nanostructures of immiscible bimetals using electro-synthesis.

  3. Osmolarity affects matrix synthesis in the nucleus pulposus associated with the involvement of MAPK pathways: A study of ex vivo disc organ culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Gan, Yibo; Xu, Yuan; Li, Songtao; Song, Lei; Li, Sukai; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Matrix homeostasis within the nucleus pulposus (NP) is important for disc function. Unfortunately, the effects of osmolarity on NP matrix synthesis in a disc organ culture system and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study was to investigate the effects of different osmolarity modes (constant and cyclic) and osmolarity levels (hypo-, iso-, and hyper-) on NP matrix synthesis using a disc organ culture system and determine whether ERK1/2 or p38MAPK pathway has a role in this process. Porcine discs were cultured for 7 days in various osmotic media, including constant hypo-, iso-, hyper-osmolarity (330, 430, and 550 mOsm/kg, respectively) and cyclic-osmolarity (430 mOsm/kg for 8 h, followed by 550 mOsm/kg for 16 h). The role of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways were determined by their inhibitors U0126 and SB202190 respectively. The expression of SOX9 and downstream aggrecan and collagen II, biochemical content, and histology were used to assess NP matrix synthesis. The findings revealed that NP matrix synthesis was promoted in iso- and cyclic-osmolarity cultures compared to hypo- or hyper-osmolarity culture although the level of matrix synthesis in cyclic-osmolarity culture did not reach that in iso-osmolarity culture. Further analysis suggested that inhibition of the ERK1/2 or p38MAPK pathway in iso- and cyclic-osmolarity cultures reduced NP matrix production. Therefore, we concluded that the effects of osmolarity on NP matrix synthesis depend on osmolarity level (hypo-, iso-, or hyper-) and osmolarity mode (constant or cyclic), and the ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways may participate in this process. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1092-1100, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, Barbara; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Welle, Alexander; Mattes, Daniela S.; Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Meier, Michael A.R.; Breitling, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm"2. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm"2, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  5. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, Barbara [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Foertsch, Tobias C. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Welle, Alexander [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mattes, Daniela S. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Meier, Michael A.R., E-mail: m.a.r.meier@kit.edu [Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Breitling, Frank, E-mail: frank.breitling@kit.edu [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm{sup 2}. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm{sup 2}, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  6. Parallel synthesis of libraries of anodic and cathodic functionalized electrodeposition paints as immobilization matrix for amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngounou, Bertrand; Aliyev, Elchin H; Guschin, Dmitrii A; Sultanov, Yusif M; Efendiev, Ayaz A; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    The integration of flexible anchoring groups bearing imidazolyl or pyridyl substituents into the structure of electrodeposition paints (EDP) is the basis for the parallel synthesis of a library containing 107 members of different cathodic and anodic EDPs with a high variation in polymer properties. The obtained EDPs were used as immobilization matrix for biosensor fabrication using glucose oxidase as a model enzyme. Amperometric glucose sensors based on the different EDPs showed a wide variation in their sensor characteristics with respect to the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) representing the linear measuring range and the maximum current (Imax(app)). Based on these results first assumptions concerning the impact of different side chains in the EDP on the expected biosensor properties could be obtained allowing for an improved rational optimization of EDPs used as immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensors.

  7. Phototherapy up-regulates dentin matrix proteins expression and synthesis by stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrioni, Ana Paula S; Basso, Fernanda G; Montoro, Liege A; Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima D de; Costa, Carlos A de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infrared LED (850nm) irradiation on dentin matrix proteins expression and synthesis by cultured stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Near-exfoliation primary teeth were extracted (n=3), and SHED cultures were characterized by immunofluorescence using STRO-1, CD44, CD146, Nanog and OCT3/4 antibodies, before experimental protocol. The SHEDs were seeded (3×10(4) cells/cm(2)) with DMEM containing 10% FBS. After 24-h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by osteogenic differentiation medium, and the cells were irradiated with LED light at energy densities (EDs) of 0 (control), 2, or 4J/cm(2) (n=8). The irradiated SHEDs were then evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total protein (TP) production, and collagen synthesis (SIRCOL™ Assay), as well as ALP, collagen type I (Col I), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein (DMP-1) gene expression (qPCR). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Increased ALP activity and collagen synthesis, as well as gene expression of DSPP and ALP, were observed for both EDs compared with non-irradiated cells. The ED of 4J/cm(2) also increased gene expression of COL I and DMP-1. In conclusion, infrared LED irradiation was capable of biostimulating SHEDs by increasing the expression and synthesis of proteins related with mineralized tissue formation, with overall better results for the energy dose of 4J/cm(2). Phototherapy is an additional approach for the clinical application of LED in Restorative Dentistry. Infrared LED irradiation of the cavity's floor could biostimulate subjacent pulp cells, improving local tissue healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of waste form materials suitable for immobilizing actinide elements in high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Issei; Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1992-07-01

    The microstructure of waste form materials suitable for immobilizing actinide elements can be classified into the following two categories. (1) Actinide elements are immobilized in an crystallized matrix after the formation of solid solution or compounds. (2) Actinide elements are immobilized in a durable material by encapsulation. Based on crystal chemistry, durability data, phase diagrams, compositions of natural minerals, eleven oxide compounds and one non-oxide compound are pointed out to be new candidates included in category (1). The other survey on material compositions, manufacturing conditions and feasibility shows that SiC, glassy carbon, ZrO 2 , Ti-O-Si-C ceramics are preferable matrix materials included in category (2). Polymers and fine powders are suitable as starting materials for the encapsulation of actinide elements because of their excellent sinterability. (author) 50 refs

  9. Projected benefits of actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Goldstein, M.

    1976-05-01

    Possible benefits that could accrue from actinide separation and transmutations are presented. The time frame for implementing these processes is discussed and the expected benefits are qualitatively described. These benefits are provisionally quantified in a sample computation

  10. Environmental research on actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers

  11. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  12. Synthesis and properties of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) actinide hydrocarbyls and hydrides. A new class of highly reactive f-element organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagan, P.J.; Manriquez, J.M.; Maatta, E.A.; Seyam, A.M.; Marks, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis and chemical and physcochemical properties of Th and U bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) chlorides, hydrocarbyls, chlorohydrocarbyls, and hydrides are reported. The reaction of the precursor compounds M[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 C 5 ] 2 Cl 2 with 2 equiv of lithium reagent RLi produces M[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 ] 2 R 2 compounds where R = CH 3 , CH 2 Si(CH 3 ) 3 , CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 , CH 2 C 6 H 5 , and C 6 H 5 (M = Th) and R = CH 3 , CH 2 Si(CH 3 ) 3 , CH 2 C 6 H 5 , and C 6 H 5 (M = U) in good yield. With 1 equiv of lithium reagent, M[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 C 5 ] 2 (R)Cl compounds where R = CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 , CH 2 Si(CH 3 ) 3 , CH 2 C 6 H 5 , and C 6 H 5 (M = Th) and R = CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 CH 2 Si(C 3 ) 3 , CH 2 C 6 H 5 , and C 6 H 5 , and C 6 H 5 (M = U) are formed in high yield. The M[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5 C 52 (C 3 )Cl compounds can be synthesized by redistribution between the corresponding dimethyl and dichloro complexes. The new organoactinides were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, 1 H NMR and vibrational spectroscopy, and in many cases cryoscopic molecular weight measurements. The hydrocarbyls and chlorohydrocarbyls generally exhibit high thermal stability. However, the diphenyl compounds react readily with C 6 D 6 to yield, via a benzyne complex, the corresponding M(C 6 D 5 ) 2 compounds. The Th bis(neopentyl) complex reacts with benzene to produce the corresponding diphenyl complex. Competition experiments at -78 0 C indicate that the Th complexes are more reactive than those of U. The M[eta 5 -(CH 3 ) 5

  13. On the direct synthesis of Cu(BDC) MOF nanosheets and their performance in mixed matrix membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shete, Meera; Kumar, Prashant; Bachman, Jonathan E.; Ma, Xiaoli; Smith, Zachary P.; Xu, Wenqian; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Long, Jeffrey R.; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2018-03-01

    High aspect-ratio nanosheets of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) hold promise for use as selective flakes in gas separation membranes. However, simple and scalable methods for the synthesis of MOF nanosheets have thus far remained elusive. Here, we describe the direct synthesis of Cu(BDC) (BDC2-= 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) nanosheets with an average lateral size of 2.5 mu m and a thickness of 25 nm from a well-mixed solution. Characterization of the nanosheets by powder and thin film X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and electron diffraction reveals pronounced structural disorder that may affect their pore structure. Incorporation of the Cu (BDC) nanosheets into a Matrimid polymer matrix results in mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) that exhibit a 70% increase in the CO2/CH4 selectivity compared with that of Matrimid. Analysis of new and previously reported permeation data for Cu(BDC) MMMs using a mathematical model for selective flake composites indicates that further performance improvements could be achieved with the selection of different polymers for use in the continuous phase.

  14. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin films in PVA matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781 014, India ... matrix is relatively simple, cost effective and suitable for deposition of film on large area substrate. In the present communication, results of preparation and characterization.

  15. Synthesis of collagen by bovine chondrocytes cultured in alginate; posttranslational modifications and cell-matrix interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Verzijl, N.; Bank, R.A.; Von Der Mark, K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The extracellular matrix synthesized by articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads was investigated. Collagen levels increased sigmoidally with time and remained constant after 2 weeks of culture. The presence of cartilage-specific type II collagen was confirmed immunohistochemically.

  16. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwater is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudo colloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC Mirage II project, in particular the complexation and colloids research area

  17. Exosomes from embryonic mesenchymal stem cells alleviate osteoarthritis through balancing synthesis and degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Yu, Dongsheng; Liu, Zhiming; Zhou, Fang; Dai, Jun; Wu, Bingbing; Zhou, Jing; Heng, Boon Chin; Zou, Xiao Hui; Ouyang, Hongwei; Liu, Hua

    2017-08-14

    Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis (OA) has been widely investigated, but the mechanisms are still unclear. Exosomes that serve as carriers of genetic information have been implicated in many diseases and are known to participate in many physiological processes. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of exosomes from human embryonic stem cell-induced mesenchymal stem cells (ESC-MSCs) in alleviating osteoarthritis (OA). Exosomes were harvested from conditioned culture media of ESC-MSCs by a sequential centrifugation process. Primary mouse chondrocytes treated with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were used as an in vitro model to evaluate the effects of the conditioned medium with or without exosomes and titrated doses of isolated exosomes for 48 hours, prior to immunocytochemistry or western blot analysis. Destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed on the knee joints of C57BL/6 J mice as an OA model. This was followed by intra-articular injection of either ESC-MSCs or their exosomes. Cartilage destruction and matrix degradation were evaluated with histological staining and OARSI scores at the post-surgery 8 weeks. We found that intra-articular injection of ESC-MSCs alleviated cartilage destruction and matrix degradation in the DMM model. Further in vitro studies illustrated that this effect was exerted through ESC-MSC-derived exosomes. These exosomes maintained the chondrocyte phenotype by increasing collagen type II synthesis and decreasing ADAMTS5 expression in the presence of IL-1β. Immunocytochemistry revealed colocalization of the exosomes and collagen type II-positive chondrocytes. Subsequent intra-articular injection of exosomes derived from ESC-MSCs successfully impeded cartilage destruction in the DMM model. The exosomes from ESC-MSCs exert a beneficial therapeutic effect on OA by balancing the synthesis and degradation of chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM), which in turn provides a new target for OA drug

  18. Actinides and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The actinide series of elements begins with f-shell electrons forming energy bands, contributing to the bonding, and possessing no magnetic moments. At americium the series switches over to localized f electrons with magnetic moments. In metallic compounds this crossover of behavior can be modified and studied. In this continuum of behavior a few compounds on the very edge of localized f-electron behavior exhibit enormous electronic heat capacities at low temperatures. This is associated with an enhanced thermal mass of the conduction electrons, which is well over a hundred times the free electron mass, and is what led to the label heavy fermion for such compounds. A few of these become superconducting at even lower temperatures. The excitement in this field comes from attempting to understand how this heaviness arises and from the likelihood that the superconductivity is different from that of previously known superconductors. The effects of thorium impurities in UBe 13 were studied as a representative system for studying the nature of the superconductivity

  19. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Extracellular Matrix Synthesis and Degradation in a Rabbit Model of Disc Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at determining if the electroacupuncture (EA is able to protect degenerated disc in vivo. New Zealand white rabbits (n=40 were used for the study. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. EA intervention was applied to one of the four groups. Magnetic resonance imaging and Pfirrmann’s classification were obtained for each group to evaluate EA treatment on the intervertebral disc degeneration. Discs were analyzed using immunofluorescence for the labeling of collagens 1 and 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. For protein expression analysis, western blot was used for biglycan and decorin. Outcomes indicated that EA intervention decreased the grades compared with the compressed disc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a significant increase of collagens 1 and 2, TIMP-1, and BMP-2 positive cells, in contrast to MMP-13 after EA treatment for 28 days. The protein expression showed a sign of regeneration that decorin and biglycan were upregulated. It was concluded that EA contributed to the extracellular matrix (ECM anabolic processes and increased the ECM components. MMPs and their inhibitors involved in the mechanism of EA intervention on ECM decreased disc. It kept a dynamic balance between ECM synthesis and degradation.

  20. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T H [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  1. Actinide speciation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear test explosions and nuclear reactor wastes and accidents have released large amounts of radioactivity into the environment. Actinide ions in waters often are not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and their solubility and migration behavior is related to the form in which the nuclides are introduced into the aquatic system. Chemical speciation, oxidation state, redox reactions, and sorption characteristics are necessary in predicting solubility of the different actinides, their migration behaviors and their potential effects on marine biota. The most significant of these variables is the oxidation state of the metal ion as the simultaneous presence of more than one oxidation state for some actinides in a solution complicates actinide environmental behavior. Both Np(V)O 2 + and Pu(V)O 2 + , the most significant soluble states in natural oxic waters, are relatively noncomplexing and resistant to hydrolysis and subsequent precipitation. The solubility of NpO 2 + can be as high as 10 -4 M while that of PuO 2 + is much more limited by reduction to the insoluble tetravalent species, Pu(OH) 4 , (pK sp ≥56) but which can be present in the pentavalent form in aqautic phases as colloidal material. The solubility of hexavalent UO 2 2+ in sea water is relatively high due to formation of carbonate complexes. The insoluble trivalent americium hydroxocarbonate, Am(OH)(CO 3 ) is the limiting species for the solubility of Am(III) in sea water. Thorium(IV) is present as Th(OH) 4 , in colloidal form. The chemistry of actinide ions in the environment is reviewed to show the spectrum of reactions that can occur in natural waters which must be considered in assessing the environmental behavior of actinides. Much is understood about sorption of actinides on surfaces, the mode of migration of actinides in such waters and the potential effects of these radioactive species on marine biota, but much more understanding of the behavior of the actinides in the environment is

  2. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  3. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  4. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.M.; Wilk, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  5. Thermal-hydraulics of actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Takano, Hideki; Ogawa, Toru; Osakabe, Masahiro.

    1989-07-01

    As a part of conceptual study of actinide burner reactors, core thermal-hydraulic analyses were conducted for two types of reactor concepts, namely (1) sodium-cooled actinide alloy fuel reactor, and (2) helium-cooled particle-bed reactor, to examine the feasibility of high power-density cores for efficient transmutation of actinides within the maximum allowable temperature limits of fuel and cladding. In addition, calculations were made on cooling of actinide fuel assembly. (author)

  6. Zeolite-imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membrane synthesis on a mixed-matrix substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankova, Eva; Pradeep, Neelakanda; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-10-21

    A thin, dense, compact and hydrogen selective ZIF-8 membrane was synthesized on a polymer/metal oxide mixed-matrix support by a secondary seeding method. The new concept of incorporating ZnO particles into the support and PDMS coating of the ZIF-8 layer is introduced to improve the preparation of ZIF-polymer composite membranes.

  7. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 projectile target combinations. The values produced by the present formula are also compared with experiments. The present pocket formula produces fusion barrier characteristics of actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  8. ALMR potential for actinide consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockey, C.L.; Thompson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. This reactor combines a high degree of passive safety characteristics with a high level of modularity and factory fabrication to achieve attractive economics. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor fueled with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and for makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR core by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behavior throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. Waste disposal impacts are discussed. (author)

  9. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  10. Extraction chromatogrpahy of actinides, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1975-01-01

    This review on extraction chromatography of actinides emphasizes the important usage of neutral (Tributylphosphate), basic (substituted ammonium salts), and acidic (HDEHP) extractants, and their application to separations of actinides in the di-to hexavalent oxidation state. Furthermore, the actinide extraction by ketones, ethers, alcohols and β-diketones is discussed

  11. Actinides integral measurements on FCA assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1984-01-01

    Actinide integral measurements were performed on eight assemblies of FCA where neutron energy spectra were shifted systematically from soft to hard in order to evaluate and modify the nuclear cross section data of major actinides. Experimental values on actinide fission rates and sample reactivity worths are compared with the calculated values using JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-V (or IV) data sets. (author)

  12. Moessbauer effect studies with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1966-01-01

    Moessbauer resonance studies in the actinide elements offer a new technique for measuring solid-state properties to a region of the periodic chart where such information is relatively sparse. It is well known that the actinides, the elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103, form a transition series due to filling of the 5f electron shell, analogous to the rare-earth series in which the 4f shell is filled. Like the rare earths, the actinide metals and compounds are expected to exhibit a variety of interesting magnetic properties, but, unlike the rare earths, there have been few studies of the magnetic behaviour of actinides, and these properties are largely unknown. The chemical properties of the actinides have been studied somewhat more extensively, and, in contrast to the rare earths, form a multiplicity of stable valence states, especially in the lighter members of the series. It is just these properties, magnetic and chemical, for which the Moessbauer effect is a valuable probe, sensitive to the magnetic and electric environment of an atom. The rare-earth series has been a particularly fruitful region in terms of the number of elements which have been shown to exhibit the Moessbauer effect, and for this reason the exploitation of the Moessbauer effect to yield new solid-state and chemical information on the rare earths is a highly active field of research today. There is every reason to believe that the actinides can be similarly studied by the Moessbauer effect. 43 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO 2 + ) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO 2 + ; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO 2 + cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO 2 + species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO 2 + have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO 2 + cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + ·Th 4+ , PuO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 + ·Th 4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M -1

  14. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  15. Orbital effects in actinide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Actinide magnetism presents a number of important challenges; in particular, the proximity of 5f band to the Fermi energy gives rise to strong interaction with both d and s like conduction electrons, and the extended nature of the 5f electrons means that they can interact with electron orbitals from neighboring atoms. Theory has recently addressed these problems. Often neglected, however, is the overwhelming evidence for large orbital contributions to the magnetic properties of actinides. Some experimental evidence for these effects are presented briefly in this paper. They point, clearly incorrectly, to a very localized picture for the 5f electrons. This dichotomy only enhances the nature of the challenge

  16. In situ biomimetic synthesis, characterization and in vitro investigation of bone-like nanohydroxyapatite in starch matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjadi, M.S., E-mail: msadjad@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meskinfam, M. [Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, B. [Department of Chemistry, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tonekabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jazdarreh, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis of bone-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods in wheat starch matrix via a biomimetic process. Characterization of the samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used to determine the size, shape and morphology of nano-HAp. The results indicate that, the shape and morphology of nHAp is influenced by the presence of starch as a template agent and rod-like nHAp similar to the inorganic component in the human body is obtained at room temperature. In vitro bioactivity of the synthesized HAp nanocomposites was finally verified by comparison of the HAp's structures and morphology before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 3, 7, and 14 days.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a nanostructured matrix hydroxyapatite ceramic bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, P.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Silva, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The nanostructured ceramics have been shown promise as biomaterials for bone reconstruction. Among calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite Ca/P ratio = 1.67 mol stands out because of its crystallographic similarity with the mineral bone phase and biocompatibility. This work was based on synthesis and characterization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite for use in reconstituting bone tissue. The synthesis method for obtaining the bioceramic powder occurred at process of dissolution/precipitation, involving CaO solid/liquid and phosphoric acid required for forming the composition of Ca/P = 1.67 mole. The material recovered from the synthesis was calcined at 900 ° C/2h, providing the hydroxyapatite powder nanometer. This was subjected to mechanical fragmentation process in mill attritor, providing a hydroxyapatite with modified surface morphology. The results presented relate to morphological characterization studies (SEM), mineralogical (XRD), chemical (FTIR) and particle size distribution, using the laser particle size analysis method. Such results showed the formation of hydroxyapatite phase and morphology satisfactory for use in reconstituting bone tissue

  18. Direct synthesis of II-VI compound nanocrystals in polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolini, F.; Di Luccio, T.; Laera, A.M.; Mirenghi, L.; Piscopiello, E.; Re, M.; Tapfer, L.

    2007-01-01

    The production of II-VI semiconductor compound - polymer matrix nanocomposites by a direct in-situ thermolysis process is described. Metal-thiolate precursor molecules embedded in a polymer matrix decompose by a thermal annealing and the nucleation of semiconductor nanocrystals occurs. It is shown that the nucleation of nanoparticles and the formation of the nanocomposite can be also achieved by laser beam irradiation; this opens the way towards a ''lithographic'' in-situ nanocomposite production process. A possible growth and nanocomposite formation mechanism, describing the structural and chemical transformation of the precursor molecules, their decomposition and the formation of the nanoparticles, is presented. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Zeolite-imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membrane synthesis on a mixed-matrix substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Barankova, Eva; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-01-01

    A thin, dense, compact and hydrogen selective ZIF-8 membrane was synthesized on a polymer/metal oxide mixed-matrix support by a secondary seeding method. The new concept of incorporating ZnO particles into the support and PDMS coating of the ZIF-8 layer is introduced to improve the preparation of ZIF-polymer composite membranes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Effect of macrophage and matrix metalloproteinase-9 on proliferation of pulmonary fibroblast and synthesis of collagen IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Sun Li; Diao Ruiying; Li Yang; Zhang Yong; Yin Jiye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore pathogenetic mechanism in initiation of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Alveolar macrophages in Wistar rats irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray were collected by alveolar lavage; condition medium was prepared for stimulating human lung fibroblast (HLF) proliferation; HLF proliferation activity was determined by MTT method; collagen IV (Col IV) in HLF was determined by Western blot; the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was determined by zymography. Results: HLF proliferation activity was significantly increased after stimulation of condition medium, and the increase was most evident within 48-72 hs. Col IV synthesis in HLF was increased and reached a peak at 12 h after stimulation and then began to decrease. MMP-9 activity began to increase at 12 h and reached a peak at 48 h and then decreased after 72 h. Conclusions: Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiation of 20 Gy can stimulate secretion of some cytokines in alveolar macrophage to promote pulmonary interstitial fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of Col IV . Col IV can stimulate MMP-9 increase; MMP-9 can degrade excess Col IV. Such changes are involved in remodeling process of early pulmonary injury. (authors)

  1. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  2. Burning actinides in very hard spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Shirley, G.W.; Prichard, A.W.; Trapp, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    The major unresolved problem in the nuclear industry is the ultimate disposition of the waste products of light water reactors. The study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a very hard spectrum actinide burner reactor (ABR). A 1100 MW/sub t/ ABR design fueled entirely with actinides reprocessed from light water reactor (LWR) wastes is proposed as both an ultimate disposal mechanism for actinides and a means of concurrently producing usable power. Actinides from discharged ABR fuel are recycled to the ABR while fission products are routed to a permanent repository. As an integral part of a large energy park, each such ABR would dispose of the waste actinides from 2 LWRs

  3. Structural organization and spectroscopy of peptide-actinide(IV) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahou, S.

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of living organisms by actinide elements is at the origin of both radiological and chemical toxicity that may lead to severe dysfunction. Most of the data available on the actinide interaction with biological systems are macroscopic physiological measurements and are lacking a molecular description of the systems. Because of the intricacy of these systems, classical biochemical methods are difficult to implement. Our strategy consisted in designing simplified biomimetic peptides, and describing the corresponding intramolecular interactions with actinides. A carboxylic pentapeptide of the form DDPDD has been at the starting point of this work in order to further assess the influence of the peptide sequence on the topology of the complexes.To do so, various linear (Asp/Ala permutations, peptoids) and cyclic analogues have been synthesized. Furthermore, in order to include the hydroxamic function (with a high affinity for Fe(III)) in the peptide, both desferrioxamine and acetohydroxamic acid have been investigated. However because of difficulties in synthesis, we have not been able to test these peptides. Three actinide cations have been considered at oxidation state +IV (Th, Np, Pu) and compared to Fe(III), often considered as a biological surrogate of Pu(IV). The spatial arrangement of the peptide around the cation has been probed by spectrophotometry and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data and EXAFS data adjustment lead us to rationalize the topology of the complexes as a function of the peptide sequence: mix hydroxy polynuclear species for linear and cyclic peptides, mononuclear for the desferrioxamine complexes. Furthermore, significant differences have appeared between Fe(III) and actinide(IV), related to differences of reactivity in aqueous medium. (author)

  4. The Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Polyethersulfone (PES as A Matrix in Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B (Cal-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusna Widhyahrini

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Widhyahrini, K., Handayani, N., Wahyuningrum, D., Nurbaiti, S., Radiman, C.L. (2017. The Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Polyethersulfone (PES as A Matrix in Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B (Cal-B. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(3: 343-350 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.774.343-350

  5. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2010-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using advanced laser-based highly sensitive spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been performed for the chemical speciation of actinide in an aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. (1) Development of TRLFS technology for chemical speciation of actinides, (2) Development of LIBD technology for measuring solubility of actinides, (3) Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, (4) Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, (5) Development of technology for the chemical speciation of actinides by CE, (6) Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, (7) Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces, (8) Determination of actinide source terms of spent nuclear fuel

  6. ENDF/B-V actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the actinides part of the ENDF/B-V nuclear data library released by the US National Nuclear Data Center. This library or selective retrievals of it, are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  7. Environmental research on actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Photochemical reactions of actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of photochemical studies of actinide ions, which have been performed in our research group for past several years as follows: I) behavior of the excited uranyl(VI) ion; II) photo-reductions of the uranyl ion with organic and inorganic compounds; III) photo-oxidations of uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) in nitric acid solutions. (author)

  9. Angular overlap model in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative foundations of the Angular Overlap Model in actinides based on ab initio calculations of the crystal field effect in the uranium (III) (IV) and (V) ions in various crystals are presented. The calculations justify some common simplifications of the model and fix up the relations between the AOM parameters. Traps and limitations of the AOM phenomenology are discussed

  10. Angular overlap model in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (PL). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative foundations of the Angular Overlap Model in actinides based on ab initio calculations of the crystal field effect in the uranium (III) (IV) and (V) ions in various crystals are presented. The calculations justify some common simplifications of the model and fix up the relations between the AOM parameters. Traps and limitations of the AOM phenomenology are discussed.

  11. Extraction of actinides from chloride medium using pentaalkylpropanediamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.

    1991-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical processes for the purification of plutonium create waste solutions containing actinides, mainly americium, in chloride medium. Studies have been undertaken to study the extraction of actinides in chloride medium (hydrochloric acid mixed with concentrated salts such as LiCl, CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 , KCl) using pentaalkylpropanediamides as extractants. Plutonium (IV) is very easily extracted, Am (III) needs a salting out agent such as LiCl. Back extraction of trivalent cations is easy in HCl <5M. Plutonium(IV) and (VI) can be stripped by reduction either with ascorbic acid or hydroxylammonium salts in weak acid medium. Several diluents can be used (aromatic, chlorinated or even aliphatic) with addition of decanol to prevent third phase formation. In conclusion diamides can be used for various wastes declassification, they are potentially completely incinerable, and, as the synthesis has been optimized, they appear to be promising extractants

  12. Unidirectional fibers and polyurethane elastomer matrix based composites synthesis and properties. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakar, A.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the properties and manufacturing techniques for long-fiber reinforced elastomeric composites for flexible and damping structural materials is presented. Attention is given to the usage of polyurethane in the matrix to obtain plastic elastomeric matrices and vitreous transition temperatures which vary from -80 C to 10 C, as well as assure good fiber adhesion. Various polyurethane formulations synthesized from diisocyanate prepolymers are examined in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. The principal reinforcing fiber selected is a unidirectional glass cloth.

  13. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    's membrane by mouse embryo parietal endoderm cells (Hogan, B. L.M., A. Taylor, and A.R. Cooper, 1982, Dev. Biol., 90:210-214). Both the Mr 180,000 and 150,000 sgps are deposited in the detergent-insoluble matrix of cultured cells, but they do not apparently undergo any disulphide-dependent intermolecular...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  14. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carretero, A.

    2002-01-01

    Transmutation and incineration are innovative options in the management and disposal of fission products and actinides. nevertheless, the fabrication of targets for transmutation and incineration of actinides and fission products require a reconsideration of conventional processes (mechanical blending) and the development of new procedures compatible with the high activity of these materials. This work presents th R and D of a new fabrication method called INRAM (Infiltration of Radioactive Materials) based on the infiltration of an actinide solution in a porous non radiotoxic material in the form of a pellet (up to 12% An), or beads (up to 40% An) produced by sol-gel. The first method have been used for the fabrication of spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) targets containing 11% Am, which have been irradiated in HFR-Petten (358.4 full power days). Post-test burn-up calculations showed that at the end of the irradiation the initial Am-241 concentration was reduced to 4%. The fraction of the initial americum atoms that have been fissioned is 28%. The main advantage of the INRAM method is that matrices with low or zero activity can be fabricated and formed into the required shape in an unshielded facility. This method offers other advantages over conventional ones, such as the active wastes are reduced, is easy to automate, adoptable to telemanipulation and dust free, which facilitate operator intervention and minimise radiation exposure to the personal. In addition, the infiltrant needs only be present in liquid form, i. e. it could be transferred directly from the reprocessing plant for fabrication into targets without conversion into-solid form. In order to optimise the infiltration process in depth investigations of all important process parameters, e. g. infiltration kinetics and metal (pu, Am) concentration in the feed solution, and also on extensive study or powder metallurgy parameters for the preparation of high quality fuel pellets with a high density, have been made. In

  15. Sonochemical synthesis of stibnite nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in polynomial chloride matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2011-01-01

    Stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Amorphous powder of Sb 2 S 3 was obtained and exhibit nanospheres structure with an average size in the range of 300-500 nm. Commercial Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) containing Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles (PVC/Sb) at concentrations of 0.10; 0.30 and 0.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M v ) was measured for PVC systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 66,5% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the Sb 2 S 3 were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Changes in the infrared spectra of PVC systems indicated that polymer molecules interact with Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles. (author)

  16. Plutonium and minor actinide transmutation by long irradiation in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini, A.; Sanjust, V.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was made on the conceptual possibility of burning in a thermal reactor MOX fuel together with special pins containing plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products, recovered from the reprocessing of previously irradiated MOX fuel and mixed with an inter matrix. Preliminary calculations showed that the long term radiotoxicity of the above special pins is reduced to reasonable levels when they are irradiated up to 20 divided-by 30 years, and cooled for some centuries. In particular, during the whole life such a reactor should be able to burn a considerable fraction of plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products recovered from the MOX fuel irradiated along the same period of time

  17. Actinide analytical program for characterization of Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Winters, W.I.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this program has been to develop faster, more accurate methods for the concentration and determination of actinides at their maximum permissible concentration (MPC) levels in a controlled zone. These analyses are needed to characterize various forms of Hanford high rad waste and to support characterization of products and effluents from new waste management processes. The most acceptable methods developed for the determination of 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 237 Np, 241 Am, and 243 Cm employ solvent extraction with the addition of tracer isotopes. Plutonium and neptunium are extracted from acidified waste solutions into Aliquat-336. Americium and curium are then extracted from the waste solution at the same acidity into dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate (DHDECMP). After back extraction into an aqueous matrix, these actinides are electrodeposited on steel disks for alpha energy analysis. Total uranium and total thorium are also isolated by solvent extraction and determined spectrophotometrically

  18. Defining a turnover index for the correlation of biomaterial degradation and cell based extracellular matrix synthesis using fluorescent tagging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Wimpenny, Ian; Wechsler, Roni; Shachaf, Yonatan; Yang, Ying; El Haj, Alicia J

    2016-11-01

    Non-destructive protocols which can define a biomaterial's degradation and its associated ability to support proliferation and/or promote extracellular matrix deposition will be an essential in vitro tool. In this study we investigate fluorescently tagged biomaterials, with varying rates of degradation and their ability to support cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Changes in fluorescence of the biomaterials and the release of fluorescent soluble by-products were confirmed as accurate methods to quantify degradation. It was demonstrated that increasing rates of the selected biomaterials' degradation led to a decrease in cell proliferation and concurrently an increase in osteogenic matrix production. A novel turnover index (TI), which directly describes the effect of degradation of a biomaterial on cell behaviour, was calculated. Lower TIs for proliferation and high TIs for osteogenic marker production were observed on faster degrading biomaterials, indicating that these biomaterials supported an upregulation of osteogenic markers. This TI was further validated using an ex vivo chick femur model, where the faster degrading biomaterial, fibrin, led to an increased TI for mineralisation within an epiphyseal defect. This in vitro tool, TI, for monitoring the effect of biomaterial degradation on extracellular matrix production may well act as predictor of the selected biomaterials' performance during in vivo studies. This paper outlines a novel metric, Turnover Index (TI), which can be utilised in tissue-engineering for the comparison of a range of biomaterials. The metric sets out to define the relationship between the rate of degradation of biomaterials with the rate of cell proliferation and ECM synthesis, ultimately allowing us to tailor material for set clinical requirements. We have discovered some novel comparative findings that cells cultured on biomaterials with increased rates of degradation have lower rates of proliferation but alternatively

  19. Matrix rigidity regulates cancer cell growth by modulating cellular metabolism and protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Tilghman

    Full Text Available Tumor cells in vivo encounter diverse types of microenvironments both at the site of the primary tumor and at sites of distant metastases. Understanding how the various mechanical properties of these microenvironments affect the biology of tumor cells during disease progression is critical in identifying molecular targets for cancer therapy.This study uses flexible polyacrylamide gels as substrates for cell growth in conjunction with a novel proteomic approach to identify the properties of rigidity-dependent cancer cell lines that contribute to their differential growth on soft and rigid substrates. Compared to cells growing on more rigid/stiff substrates (>10,000 Pa, cells on soft substrates (150-300 Pa exhibited a longer cell cycle, due predominantly to an extension of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and were metabolically less active, showing decreased levels of intracellular ATP and a marked reduction in protein synthesis. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC and mass spectrometry, we measured the rates of protein synthesis of over 1200 cellular proteins under growth conditions on soft and rigid/stiff substrates. We identified cellular proteins whose syntheses were either preferentially inhibited or preserved on soft matrices. The former category included proteins that regulate cytoskeletal structures (e.g., tubulins and glycolysis (e.g., phosphofructokinase-1, whereas the latter category included proteins that regulate key metabolic pathways required for survival, e.g., nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a regulator of the NAD salvage pathway.The cellular properties of rigidity-dependent cancer cells growing on soft matrices are reminiscent of the properties of dormant cancer cells, e.g., slow growth rate and reduced metabolism. We suggest that the use of relatively soft gels as cell culture substrates would allow molecular pathways to be studied under conditions that reflect the different mechanical

  20. Low-density, high-strength intermetallic matrix composites by XD (trademark) synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Dipietro, M. S.; Brown, S. A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the potential of particulate composites based on low-density, L1(sub 2) trialuminide matrices for high-temperature applications. The compounds evaluated included Al22Fe3Ti8 (as a multiphase matrix), Al67Ti25Cr8, and Al66Ti25Mn9. The reinforcement consisted of TiB2 particulates. The TiB2 composites were processed by ingot and powder metallurgy techniques. Microstructural characterization and mechanical testing were performed in the hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed condition. The casting were sectioned and isothermally forged into pancakes. All the materials were tested in compression as a function of temperature, and at high temperatures as a function of strain rate. The test results are discussed.

  1. Matrix based method for synthesis of main intensified and integrated distillation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Garakani, Amirhossein; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of many studies in this area has involved access to a column-sequencing algorithm enabling designers and researchers alike to generate a wide range of sequences in a broad search space, and be as mathematically and as automated as possible for programing purposes and with good generality. In the present work an algorithm previously developed by the authors, called the matrix method, has been developed much further. The new version of the algorithm includes thermally coupled, thermodynamically equivalent, intensified, simultaneous heat and mass integrated and divided-wall column sequences which are of gross application and provide vast saving potential both on capital investment, operating costs and energy usage in industrial applications. To demonstrate the much wider searchable space now accessible, a three component separation has been thoroughly examined as a case study, always resulting in an integrated sequence being proposed as the optimum.

  2. Synthesis of new metal-matrix Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshina, L. A.; Muradymov, R. V.; Kvashnichev, A. G.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.; Molchanova, N. G.; Pankratov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of formation of ceramic microparticles (alumina) and graphene in a molten aluminum matrix is studied as a function of the morphology and type of precursor particles, the temperature, and the gas atmosphere. The influence of the composition of an aluminum composite material (as a function of the concentration and size of reinforcing particles) on its mechanical and corrosion properties, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity is investigated. Hybrid metallic Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials with up to 10 wt % alumina microparticles and 0.2 wt % graphene films, which are uniformly distributed over the metal volume and are fully wetted with aluminum, are synthesized during the chemical interaction of a salt solution containing yttria and boron carbide with molten aluminum in air. Simultaneous introduction of alumina and graphene into an aluminum matrix makes it possible to produce hybrid metallic composite materials having a unique combination of the following properties: their thermal conductivity is higher than that of aluminum, their hardness and strength are increased by two times, their relative elongation during tension is increased threefold, and their corrosion resistance is higher than that of initial aluminum by a factor of 2.5-4. We are the first to synthesize an in situ hybrid Al-Al2O3-graphene composite material having a unique combination of some characteristics. This material can be recommended as a promising material for a wide circle of electrical applications, including ultrathin wires, and as a structural material for the aerospace industry, the car industry, and the shipbuilding industry.

  3. Sonochemical synthesis of stibnite nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in polynomial chloride matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Amorphous powder of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} was obtained and exhibit nanospheres structure with an average size in the range of 300-500 nm. Commercial Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) containing Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles (PVC/Sb) at concentrations of 0.10; 0.30 and 0.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M{sub v}) was measured for PVC systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 66,5% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Changes in the infrared spectra of PVC systems indicated that polymer molecules interact with Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles. (author)

  4. Recent development in computational actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the Manhattan project in World War II, actinide chemistry has been essential for nuclear science and technology. Yet scientists still seek the ability to interpret and predict chemical and physical properties of actinide compounds and materials using first-principle theory and computational modeling. Actinide compounds are challenging to computational chemistry because of their complicated electron correlation effects and relativistic effects, including spin-orbit coupling effects. There have been significant developments in theoretical studies on actinide compounds in the past several years. The theoretical capabilities coupled with new experimental characterization techniques now offer a powerful combination for unraveling the complexities of actinide chemistry. In this talk, we will provide an overview of our own research in this field, with particular emphasis on applications of relativistic density functional and ab initio quantum chemical methods to the geometries, electronic structures, spectroscopy and excited-state properties of small actinide molecules such as CUO and UO 2 and some large actinide compounds relevant to separation and environment science. The performance of various density functional approaches and wavefunction theory-based electron correlation methods will be compared. The results of computational modeling on the vibrational, electronic, and NMR spectra of actinide compounds will be briefly discussed as well [1-4]. We will show that progress in relativistic quantum chemistry, computer hardware and computational chemistry software has enabled computational actinide chemistry to emerge as a powerful and predictive tool for research in actinide chemistry. (authors)

  5. Study on the leaching behavior of actinides from nuclear fuel debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirishima, Akira; Hirano, Masahiko; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2018-04-01

    For the prediction of the leaching behavior of actinides contained in the nuclear fuel debris generated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, simulated fuel debris consisting of a UO2-ZrO2 solid solution doped with 137Cs, 237Np, 236Pu, and 241Am tracers was synthesized and investigated. The synthesis of the debris was carried out by heat treatment at 1200 °C at different oxygen partial pressures, and the samples were subsequently used for leaching tests with Milli-Q water and seawater. The results of the leaching tests indicate that the leaching of actinides depends on the redox conditions under which the debris was generated; for example, debris generated under oxidative conditions releases more actinide nuclides to water than that generated under reductive conditions. Furthermore, we found that, as Zr(IV) increasingly substituted U(IV) in the fluorite crystal structure of the debris, the actinide leaching from the debris decreased. In addition, we found that seawater leached more actinides from the debris than pure water, which seems to be caused by the complexation of actinides by carbonate ions in seawater.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of porous silicon as hydroxyapatite host matrix of biomedical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dussan

    Full Text Available In this work, porous-silicon samples were prepared by electrochemical etching on p-type (B-doped Silicon (Si wafers. Hydrofluoric acid (HF-ethanol (C2H5OH [HF:Et] and Hydrofluoric acid (HF-dimethylformamide (DMF-C3H7NO [HF:DMF] solution concentrations were varied between [1:2]-[1:3] and [1:7]-[1:9], respectively. Effects of synthesis parameters, like current density, solution concentrations, reaction time, on morphological properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM measurements. Pore sizes varying from 20 nm to micrometers were obtained for long reaction times and [HF:Et] [1:2] concentrations; while pore sizes in the same order were observed for [HF:DMF] [1:7], but for shorter reaction time. Greater surface uniformity and pore distribution was obtained for a current density of around 8 mA/cm2 using solutions with DMF. A correlation between reflectance measurements and pore size is presented. The porous-silicon samples were used as substrate for hydroxyapatite growth by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD and SEM were used to characterize the layers grown. It was found that the layer topography obtained on PS samples was characterized by the evidence of Hydroxyapatite in the inter-pore regions and over the surface.

  7. Synthesis of Ag{sub 2}S nanorods by biomimetic method in the lysozyme matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dezhi, E-mail: dezhiqin@163.com; Zhang, Li; He, Guoxu; Zhang, Qiuxia

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Firstly, Ag{sub 2}S nanorods were synthesized by biomimetic method in the lysozyme solutions. • The study of the interaction between Ag{sup +} and the lysozyme. • Discussion of possible formation mechanism of Ag{sub 2}S nanorods. • The synthesis process of lyso-conjugated Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals is facile, effective and environment friendly. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S nanorods were successfully synthesized by biomimetic route in the lysozyme solution at physiological temperature and atmospheric pressure. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the prepared nanorods are uniform and monodisperse with homogeneous size about 50 nm in diameter and 150 nm in length. The optical property of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals was studied by the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, the results show that the products exhibit well-defined emission at 471 nm and 496 nm excited by 292 nm. The interaction of Ag{sup +}/Ag{sub 2}S with the lysozyme was investigated through Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which shows that the cooperation effect of the lysozyme and Ag{sup +} could be responsible for the formation of as obtained Ag{sub 2}S nanorods.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of porous silicon as hydroxyapatite host matrix of biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, A; Bertel, S D; Melo, S F; Mesa, F

    2017-01-01

    In this work, porous-silicon samples were prepared by electrochemical etching on p-type (B-doped) Silicon (Si) wafers. Hydrofluoric acid (HF)-ethanol (C2H5OH) [HF:Et] and Hydrofluoric acid (HF)-dimethylformamide (DMF-C3H7NO) [HF:DMF] solution concentrations were varied between [1:2]-[1:3] and [1:7]-[1:9], respectively. Effects of synthesis parameters, like current density, solution concentrations, reaction time, on morphological properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Pore sizes varying from 20 nm to micrometers were obtained for long reaction times and [HF:Et] [1:2] concentrations; while pore sizes in the same order were observed for [HF:DMF] [1:7], but for shorter reaction time. Greater surface uniformity and pore distribution was obtained for a current density of around 8 mA/cm2 using solutions with DMF. A correlation between reflectance measurements and pore size is presented. The porous-silicon samples were used as substrate for hydroxyapatite growth by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM were used to characterize the layers grown. It was found that the layer topography obtained on PS samples was characterized by the evidence of Hydroxyapatite in the inter-pore regions and over the surface.

  9. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  10. Nuclear fuel activity with minor actinides after their useful life in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear fuel used in nuclear power reactors has a life cycle, in which it provides energy, at the end of this cycle is withdrawn from the reactor core. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, a strong problem with this fuel is that when the fuel was irradiated in a nuclear reactor it leaves with an activity of approximately 1.229 x 10 15 Bq. The aim of the transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is to reduce the activity of high level waste that must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high level waste; these two achievements would reduce the number of necessary repositories, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is aimed at evaluating the activity of a nuclear fuel in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material, first establishing a reference of actinides production in the standard nuclear fuel of uranium at end of its burning in a BWR, and a fuel rod design containing 6% of actinides in an uranium matrix from the enrichment tails is proposed, then 4 standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by 4 actinide bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of the same, finally the reduction of actinide activity in the fuel is evaluated. (Author)

  11. Analysis of semi-solid processing for metal matrix composite synthesis using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratus Ranieri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in this work is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the mechanical stir casting process for obtaining particulate metal matrix composites. A combined route of stirring at semi-solid state followed by stirring at liquid state is proposed. A fractional factorial design was developed to investigate the influence and interactions of factors as: time, rotation, initial fraction and particle size, on the incorporated fraction. The best incorporations were obtained with all factors at high levels, as well as that very long stirring periods have no strong influence being particle size and rotation the most important factors on the incorporated fraction. Particle wetting occurs during stirring at semi-solid state, highlighting the importance of the interactions between particles and the alloy globularized phase. The role of the alloying element Mg as a wettability-promoting agent is discussed. The shear forces resulting from the stirring system is emphasized and understood as the effect of rotation itself added to the propeller blade geometry.

  12. Low‑dose halofuginone inhibits the synthesis of type I collagen without influencing type II collagen in the extracellular matrix of chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Fei, Hao; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Tianyi

    2017-09-01

    Full‑thickness and large area defects of articular cartilage are unable to completely repair themselves and require surgical intervention, including microfracture, autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. A large proportion of regenerative cartilage exists as fibrocartilage, which is unable to withstand impacts in the same way as native hyaline cartilage, owing to excess synthesis of type I collagen in the matrix. The present study demonstrated that low‑dose halofuginone (HF), a plant alkaloid isolated from Dichroa febrifuga, may inhibit the synthesis of type I collagen without influencing type II collagen in the extracellular matrix of chondrocytes. In addition, HF was revealed to inhibit the phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)2/3 and promoted Smad7 expression, as well as decrease the synthesis of type I collagen synthesis. Results from the present study indicated that HF treatment suppressed the synthesis of type I collagen by inhibiting the transforming growth factor‑β signaling pathway in chondrocytes. These results may provide an alternative solution to the problems associated with fibrocartilage, and convert fibrocartilage into hyaline cartilage at the mid‑early stages of cartilage regeneration. HF may additionally be used to improve monolayer expansion or 3D cultures of seed cells for the tissue engineering of cartilage.

  13. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  14. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  15. Analytical evaluation of actinide sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of actinides to various parameters such as cross sections, decay constants, flux and time is presented. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium series. The agreement between analytically obtained and computer evaluated sensitivities being always good, it is throught that the formulation includes all the important parameters entering in the evaluation of sensitivities. A study of the published data is made

  16. Synthesis of Au nanoparticles at the surface and embedded in carbonaceous matrix by 150 keV Ar ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Jai; Tripathi, Jalaj; Tripathi, A; Kumar, P; Asokan, K; Avasthi, D K; Rigato, V; Pivin, J C; Chae, Keun Hwa; Gautam, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    We report on synthesis of spherical Au nanoparticles at the surface and embedded in carbonaceous matrix by 150 keV Ar ion irradiation of thin Au film on polyethyleneterepthlate (PET). The pristine and irradiated samples are characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. RBS spectra reveal the sputtering of Au film and interface mixing, increasing with increasing fluence. Surface morphology shows that at the fluence of 5 x 10 15 ions cm -2 , dewetting of thin Au film begins and partially connected nanostructures are formed whereas, at the higher fluence of 5 x 10 16 ions cm -2 , isolated spherical Au nanoparticles (45 ± 20 nm) are formed at the surface. Cross-sectional TEM observations also evidence the Au nanoparticles at the surface and mixed metal-polymer region indicating the formation of nanocomposites with small Au nanoparticles. The results are explained by the crater formation, sputtering followed by dewetting of the thin Au film and interdiffusion at the interface, through molten zones due to thermal spike induced by Ar ions.

  17. Amino acids supply in culture media is not a limiting factor in the matrix synthesis of engineered cartilage tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K. W.; DeFrancis, J. G.; Kugler, L. E.; Kelly, T.-A. N.; Ho, M. M.; O’Conor, C. J.; Ateshian, G. A.; Hung, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Increased amino acid supplementation (0.5×, 1.0×, and 5.0× recommended concentrations or additional proline) was hypothesized to increase the collagen content in engineered cartilage. No significant differences were found between groups in matrix content or dynamic modulus. Control constructs possessed the highest compressive Young’s modulus on day 42. On day 42, compared to controls, decreased type II collagen was found with 0.5×, 1.0×, and 5.0× supplementation and significantly increased DNA content found in 1.0× and 5.0×. No effects were observed on these measures with added proline. These results lead us to reject our hypothesis and indicate that the low collagen synthesis in engineered cartilage is not due to a limited supply of amino acids in media but may require a further stimulatory signal. The results of this study also highlight the impact that culture environment can play on the development of engineered cartilage. PMID:17713744

  18. High-flexibility combinatorial peptide synthesis with laser-based transfer of monomers in solid matrix material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Felix F; Foertsch, Tobias C; Popov, Roman; Mattes, Daniela S; Schlageter, Martin; Sedlmayr, Martyna; Ridder, Barbara; Dang, Florian-Xuan; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Weber, Laura K; Fischer, Andrea; Greifenstein, Juliane; Bykovskaya, Valentina; Buliev, Ivan; Bischoff, F Ralf; Hahn, Lothar; Meier, Michael A R; Bräse, Stefan; Powell, Annie K; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander

    2016-06-14

    Laser writing is used to structure surfaces in many different ways in materials and life sciences. However, combinatorial patterning applications are still limited. Here we present a method for cost-efficient combinatorial synthesis of very-high-density peptide arrays with natural and synthetic monomers. A laser automatically transfers nanometre-thin solid material spots from different donor slides to an acceptor. Each donor bears a thin polymer film, embedding one type of monomer. Coupling occurs in a separate heating step, where the matrix becomes viscous and building blocks diffuse and couple to the acceptor surface. Furthermore, we can consecutively deposit two material layers of activation reagents and amino acids. Subsequent heat-induced mixing facilitates an in situ activation and coupling of the monomers. This allows us to incorporate building blocks with click chemistry compatibility or a large variety of commercially available non-activated, for example, posttranslationally modified building blocks into the array's peptides with >17,000 spots per cm(2).

  19. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  20. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  1. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  2. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using highly sensitive and advanced laser-based spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been applied for the chemical speciation of actinide in aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. Development of TRLFS technology for the chemical speciation of actinides, Development of laser-induced photo-acoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) system, Application of LIBD technology to investigate dynamic behaviors of actinides dissolution reactions, Development of nanoparticle analysis technology in groundwater using LIBD, Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, Spectroscopic speciation of uranium-ligand complexes in aqueous solution, Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces

  3. Chemistry of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.J.; Sherrow, S.A.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This task is concerned primarily with the fundamental chemistry of the actinide and fission product elements. Special efforts are made to develop research programs in collaboration with researchers at universities and in industry who have need of national laboratory facilities. Specific areas currently under investigation include: (1) spectroscopy and photochemistry of actinides in low-temperature matrices; (2) small-angle scattering studies of hydrous actinide and fission product polymers in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents; (3) kinetic and thermodynamic studies of complexation reactions in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions; and (4) the development of inorganic ion exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide separations. Recent results from work in these areas are summarized here

  4. On the use of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boshoven, J.G.; Hein, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Zhang, H.; Meeldijk, J.D.; Woensdregt, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides are investigated. The results of laboratory experiments, thermodynamic calculations and irradiations in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten are presented, and allow us to evaluate the potential of spinel as an inert matrix for fuels and targets for transmutation. (author)

  5. Safe management of actinides in the nuclear fuel cycle: Role of mineralogy; La gestion des actinides dans le cycle du combustible nucleaire: le role de la mineralogie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Department of Geological Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    During the past 60 years, more than 1800 metric tonnes of Pu, and substantial quantities of the 'minor' actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranium elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., {sup 239}Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np), and of environmental concern because of their long-half lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these heavy elements: (1) to 'burn' or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; (2) to 'sequester' the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, especially isometric pyrochlore, A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium, both as inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. Systematic studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high doses of alpha-decay event damage. Recent developments in our understanding of the properties of heavy element solids have opened up new possibilities for the design of advanced nuclear fuels and waste forms. (author)

  6. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90 degrees C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials

  7. Advances in Metallic Fuels for High Burnup and Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S. L.; Harp, J. M.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Fielding, R. S.; Mariani, R. D.; Carmack, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels in the US are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. A number of metallic fuel design innovations are under investigation with a view toward significantly increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels, since higher discharge burnups equate to lower potential actinide losses during recycle. Promising innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smeared density in order to accommodate the additional swelling expected as burnups increase, 2) utilizing an annular fuel geometry for better geometrical stability at low smeared densities, as well as the potential to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, and 3) minor alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products inside the metallic fuel matrix and prevent their transport to the cladding resulting in fuel-cladding chemical interaction. This paper presents results from these efforts to advance metallic fuel technology in support of high burnup and actinide transmutation objectives. Highlights include examples of fabrication of low smeared density annular metallic fuels, experiments to identify alloy additions effective in immobilizing lanthanide fission products, and early postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels having low smeared densities and palladium additions for fission product immobilization.

  8. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes

  9. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  10. Theoretical Studies of the Electronic Structure of the Compounds of the Actinide Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Hay, P.J.; Li, Jun; Blaudeau, Jean-Philippe; Bursten, Bruce E.

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we will present an overview of the theoretical and computational developments that have increased our understanding of the electronic structure of actinide-containing molecules and ions. The application of modern electronic structure methodologies to actinide systems remains one of the great challenges in quantum chemistry; indeed, as will be discussed below, there is no other portion of the periodic table that leads to the confluence of complexity with respect to the calculation of ground- and excited-state energies, bonding descriptions, and molecular properties. But there is also no place in the periodic table in which effective computational modeling of electronic structure can be more useful. The difficulties in creating, isolating, and handling many of the actinide elements provide an opportunity for computational chemistry to be an unusually important partner in developing the chemistry of these elements. The importance of actinide electronic structure begins with the earliest studies of uranium chemistry and predates the discovery of quantum mechanics. The fluorescence of uranyl compounds was observed as early as 1833, a presage of the development of actinometry as a tool for measuring photochemical quantum yields. Interest in nuclear fuels has stimulated tremendous interest in understanding the properties, including electronic properties, of small actinide-containing molecules and ions, especially the oxides and halides of uranium and plutonium. The synthesis of uranocene in 1968 led to the flurry of activity in the organometallic chemistry of the actinides that continues today. Actinide organometallics (or organoactinides) are nearly always molecular systems and are often volatile, which makes them amenable to an arsenal of experimental probes of molecular and electronic structure (Marks and Fischer, 1979). Theoretical and computational studies of the electronic structure of actinide systems have developed in concert with the experimental

  11. Functionalized ionic liquids: new agents for the extraction of actinides/lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouadi, A.; Hesemann, P.; Billard, I.; Gaillard, C.; Gadenne, B.; Moreau, Joel J.E; Moutiers, G.; Mariet, C.; Labet, A.

    2004-01-01

    The potentialities of hydrophobic ionic liquids BumimPF 6 and BumimTf 2 N for their use in the nuclear fuel cycle were investigated, in particular for the liquid liquid extraction. We demonstrate that the use of RTILs in replacement of the organic diluents for actinides partitioning is promising. In our contribution, we present the synthesis of several task-specific ionic liquids. Our results show that grafting metal complexing groups increases the affinity of metals to the IL phase and gives rise to suitable media for the liquid-liquid extraction of actinides. (authors)

  12. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89 / 90 Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. This approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 h. (author)

  13. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  14. Environmental chemistry of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Linfeng

    1986-01-01

    The environmental chemistry of the actinide elements is a new branch of science developing with the application of nuclear energy on a larger and larger scale. Various aspects of the environmental chemistry of the actinide elements are briefly reviewed in this paper, such as its significance in the nuclear waste disposal, its coverage of research fields and possible directions for future study

  15. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  16. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  17. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  18. Review of actinide decorporation with chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/CETAMA), 30 - Marcoule (France); Amekraz, B.; Moulin, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Moulin, V. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares (DEN/DDIN/MR), 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France); Taran, F. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SMMCB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bailly, Th.; Burgada, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/LCSB/UMR 7033), 93 - Bobigny (France); Henge-Napoli, M.H. [CEA Valrho, Site de Marcoule (INSTN), 30 (France); Jeanson, A.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Bonin, L.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-10-15

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination (inhalation, ingestion or wound) with actinides represents a severe health risk to human beings. It is therefore important to provide effective chelation therapy or decorporation to reduce acute radiation damage, chemical toxicity, and late radiation effects. Speciation governs bioavailability and toxicity of elements and it is a prerequisite tool for the design and success of new ligands or chelating agents. The purpose of this review is to present the state-of-the-art of actinide decorporation within biological media, to recall briefly actinide metabolism, to list the basic constraints of actinide-ligand for development, to describe main tools developed and used for decorporation studies, to review mainly the chelating agents tested for actinides, and finally to conclude on the future trends in this field. (authors)

  19. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  20. Room temperature ionic liquids for actinide extraction: a 'green' approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of actinides is one of the key issues in the remediation of high level radioactive wastes emanating from the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Effective actinide extraction makes the waste benign and ready for disposal as vitrified waste blocks in deep geological repositories. However, conventional solvent extraction methods, though being routinely used for actinide separations, have several disadvantages, which include large VOC (volatile organic compounds) inventory and generation of huge volumes of secondary wastes. Growing concern for the environment has led to the increasing interest in room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) as an alternative to molecular diluents in myriad applications including synthesis, catalysis, separation and electrochemistry. Out of these, application of RTILs to separation science has increased enormously as can be seen from the rapid rise in the number of publications in this area in the last decade, due to their unique characteristics of high thermal stability and low volatility

  1. Determination of long-lived actinides in soil leachates by inductively coupled plasma: Mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, J.S.; Smith, L.L.; Yaeger, J.S.; Alvarado, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma -- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to concurrently determine multiple long-lived (t 1/2 > 10 4 y) actinide isotopes in soil samples. Ultrasonic nebulization was found to maximize instrument sensitivity. Instrument detection limits for actinides in solution ranged from 50 mBq L -1 ( 239 Pu) to 2 μBq L -1 ( 235 U) Hydride adducts of 232 Th and 238 U interfered with the determinations of 233 U and 239 Pu; thus, extraction chromatography was, used to eliminate the sample matrix, concentrate the analytes, and separate uranium from the other actinides. Alpha spectrometric determinations of 230 Th, 239 Pu, and the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio in soil leachates compared well with ICP-MS determinations; however, there were some small systematic differences (ca. 10%) between ICP-MS and a-spectrometric determinations of 234 U and 238 U activities

  2. Quantum Chemical Studies of Actinides and Lanthanides: From Small Molecules to Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess

    Research into actinides is of high interest because of their potential applications as an energy source and for the environmental implications therein. Global concern has arisen since the development of the actinide concept in the 1940s led to the industrial scale use of the commercial nuclear energy cycle and nuclear weapons production. Large quantities of waste have been generated from these processes inspiring efforts to address fundamental questions in actinide science. In this regard, the objective of this work is to use theory to provide insight and predictions into actinide chemistry, where experimental work is extremely challenging because of the intrinsic difficulties of the experiments themselves and the safety issues associated with this type of chemistry. This thesis is a collection of theoretical studies of actinide chemistry falling into three categories: quantum chemical and matrix isolation studies of small molecules, the electronic structure of organoactinide systems, and uranyl peroxide nanoclusters and other solid state actinide compounds. The work herein not only spans a wide range of systems size but also investigates a range of chemical problems. Various quantum chemical approaches have been employed. Wave function-based methods have been used to study the electronic structure of actinide containing molecules of small to middle-size. Among these methods, the complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) approach with corrections from second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), the generalized active space SCF (GASSCF) approach, and Moller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2) have been employed. Likewise, density functional theory (DFT) has been used along with analysis tools like bond energy decomposition, bond orders, and Bader's Atoms in Molecules. From these quantum chemical results, comparison with experimentally obtained structures and spectra are made.

  3. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  4. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  5. Specific sequestering agents for iron and the actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.

    1983-06-01

    The transuranium actinide ions represent one unique environmental hazard associated with the waste of the nuclear power industry. A major component associated with that waste and a potential hazard is plutonium. The synthesis of metal-ion-specific complexing agents for ions such as Pu(IV) potentially represents a powerful new approach to many of the problems posed by waste treatment. This document is a progress report of a rational approach to the synthesis of such chelating agents based on the similarities of Pu(IV) and Fe(III), the structures of naturally-occurring complexing agents which are highly specific for Fe(III), and the incorporation of the same kinds of ligating groups present in the iron complexes to make octadentate complexes highly specific for plutonium. Both thermodynamic and animal test results indicate that a relatively high degree of success has already been achieved in this aim.

  6. Actinide Sequestration Using Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Wu, Hong; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramic oxides condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. The ceramic oxide interface is receptive to surface functionalization through molecular self-assembly. The marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry creates a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials called self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS). These SAMMS materials are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Details addressing the design, synthesis and characterization of SAMMS materials specifically designed to sequester actinides, of central importance to the environmental clean-up necessary after 40 years of weapons grade plutonium production, as well as evaluation of their binding affinities and kinetics are presented

  7. Safe management of actinides in the nuclear fuel cycle: Role of mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, more than 1800 metric tonnes of Pu, and substantial quantities of the 'minor' actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranium elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239 Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239 Pu and 237 Np), and of environmental concern because of their long-half lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239 Pu and 237 Np). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these heavy elements: (1) to 'burn' or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; (2) to 'sequester' the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, especially isometric pyrochlore, A 2 B 2 O 7 (A rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium, both as inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. Systematic studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high doses of alpha-decay event damage. Recent developments in our understanding of the properties of heavy element solids have opened up new possibilities for the design of advanced nuclear fuels and waste forms. (author)

  8. Dynamic Compression Promotes the Matrix Synthesis of Nucleus Pulposus Cells Through Up-Regulating N-CDH Expression in a Perfusion Bioreactor Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichun; Yao, Hui; Li, Pei; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Junbin; Lv, Lulu; Teng, Haijun; Guo, Zhiliang; Zhao, Huiqing; Hou, Gang

    2018-01-01

    An adequate matrix production of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells is an important tissue engineering-based strategy to regenerate degenerative discs. Here, we mainly aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of mechanical compression (i.e., static compression vs. dynamic compression) on the matrix synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) cultured NP cells in vitro. Rat NP cells seeded on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) cryogel scaffolds were cultured in the chambers of a self-developed, mechanically active bioreactor for 10 days. Meanwhile, the NP cells were subjected to compression (static compression or dynamic compression at a 10% scaffold deformation) for 6 hours once per day. Unloaded NP cells were used as controls. The cellular phenotype and matrix biosynthesis of NP cells were investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Lentivirus-mediated N-cadherin (N-CDH) knockdown and an inhibitor, LY294002, were used to further investigate the role of N-CDH and the PI3K/Akt pathway in this process. Dynamic compression better maintained the expression of cell-specific markers (keratin-19, FOXF1 and PAX1) and matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II), as well as N-CDH expression and the activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in the 3D-cultured NP cells compared with those expression levels and activity in the cells grown under static compression. Further analysis showed that the N-CDH knockdown significantly down-regulated the expression of NP cell-specific markers and matrix macromolecules and inhibited the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway under dynamic compression. However, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway had no effects on N-CDH expression but down-regulated the expression of NP cell-specific markers and matrix macromolecules under dynamic compression. Dynamic compression increases the matrix synthesis of 3D-cultured NP cells compared with that of the cells under static compression, and the N-CDH-PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in this regulatory process

  9. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  10. Criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to discuss various criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals, the goals for actinide reduction must be defined themselves. In this context the term actinides is interpreted to mean plutonium and the so called ''minor actinides'' neptunium, americium and curium, but also protactinium. Some possible goals and the reasons behind these will be presented. On the basis of the suggested goals it is possible to analyze various types of devices for production of nuclear energy from uranium or thorium, such as thermal or fast reactors and accelerator driven system, with their associated fuel cycles with regard to their ability to reach the actinide reduction goals. The relation between necessary single cycle burn-up values, fuel cycle processing losses and losses to waste will be defined and discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to arrange the possible systems on order of performance with regard to their potential to reduce the actinide inventory and the actinide losses to wastes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Actinides burnup in a sodium fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Pineda A, R.; Martinez C, E.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The burnup of actinides in a nuclear reactor is been proposed as part of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, this process would close the fuel cycle recycling some of the radioactive material produced in the open nuclear fuel cycle. These actinides are found in the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power reactors at the end of their burnup in the reactor. Previous studies of actinides recycling in thermal reactors show that would be possible reduce the amounts of actinides at least in 50% of the recycled amounts. in this work, the amounts of actinides that can be burned in a fast reactor is calculated, very interesting results surge from the calculations, first, the amounts of actinides generated by the fuel is higher than for thermal fuel and the composition of the actinides vector is different as in fuel for thermal reactor the main isotope is the {sup 237}Np in the fuel for fast reactor the main isotope is the {sup 241}Am, finally it is concluded that the fast reactor, also generates important amounts of waste. (Author)

  12. Pore radius fine tuning of a silica matrix (MCM-41) based on the synthesis of alumina nanolayers with different thicknesses by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemtsova, Elena G.; Arbenin, Andrei Yu.; Plotnikov, Alexander F.; Smirnov, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated a new approach to modify the surface of the mesoporous silica matrix MCM-41. This approach is based on manipulating the chemical composition of the porous surface layer and also on fine tuning the pore radius by applying the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The synthesis of alumina nanolayers was performed on the planar and the porous matrix (MCM-41) by the ALD technique using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide and water as precursors. The authors show that one cycle on silicon, using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide and water as precursors, results in a 1–1.2 Å increase in alumina nanolayer thickness. This is comparable to the increase in thickness per cycle for other precursors such as trimethylaluminum and aluminum chloride. The authors show that the synthesis of an Al 2 O 3 nanolayer on the pore surface of the mesoporous silica matrix MCM-41 by the ALD technique results in a regular change in the porous structure of the samples. The specific porosity (ml/g) of the MCM-41 was 0.95 and that of MCM-41 after 5 ALD cycles was 0.39. The pore diameter (nm) of MCM-41 was 3.3 and that of MCM-41 after 5 ALD cycles was 2.3

  13. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Neutron nuclear data evaluation for actinide nucleic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guochang; Yu Baosheng; Duan Junfeng; Ge Zhigang; Cao Wentian; Tang Guoyou; Shi Zhaomin; Zou Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides are playing an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle concepts, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Through describe the class of nuclear data and nuclear date library, and introduce the procedure of neutron nuclear data evaluation. 234 U(n, f) and 237 Np(n, 2n) reaction experimental data evaluation was evaluated. The fission nuclear data are updated and improved. (authors)

  16. Actinide chemistry in the far field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.; Morris, K.; Parkman, R.; Moyes, L.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental chemistry of the actinides is complicated due both to the extensive redox and coordination chemistry of the elements and also to the complexity of the reactive phases encountered in natural environments. In the far field, interactions with reactive surfaces, coatings and colloidal particles will play a crucial role in controlling actinide mobility. By virtue of both their abundance and reactivity; clays and other layer aluminosilicate minerals, hydrous oxides and organic matter (humic substances) are all identified as having the potential to react with actinide ions and some possible modes of interaction are described, together with experimental evidence for their occurrence. (author)

  17. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  18. Comparative Study of f-Element Electronic Structure across a Series of Multimetallic Actinide, Lanthanide-Actinide and Lanthanum-Actinide Complexes Possessing Redox-Active Bridging Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelter, Eric J.; Wu, Ruilian; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Bauer, Eric D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Thomson, Robert K.; Graves, Christopher R.; John, Kevin D.; Scott, Brian L.; Thompson, Joe D.; Morris, David E.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L.

    2010-02-24

    A comparative examination of the electronic interactions across a series of trimetallic actinide and mixed lanthanide-actinide and lanthanum-actinide complexes is presented. Using reduced, radical terpyridyl ligands as conduits in a bridging framework to promote intramolecular metal-metal communication, studies containing structural, electrochemical, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are presented for (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}An[-N=C(Bn)(tpy-M{l_brace}C{sub 5}Me4R{r_brace}{sub 2})]{sub 2} (where An = Th{sup IV}, U{sup IV}; Bn = CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}; M = La{sup III}, Sm{sup III}, Yb{sup III}, U{sup III}; R = H, Me, Et) to reveal effects dependent on the identities of the metal ions and R-groups. The electrochemical results show differences in redox energetics at the peripheral 'M' site between complexes and significant wave splitting of the metal- and ligand-based processes indicating substantial electronic interactions between multiple redox sites across the actinide-containing bridge. Most striking is the appearance of strong electronic coupling for the trimetallic Yb{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Yb{sup III}, Sm{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Sm{sup III}, and La{sup III}-U{sup IV}-La{sup III} complexes, [8]{sup -}, [9b]{sup -} and [10b]{sup -}, respectively, whose calculated comproportionation constant K{sub c} is slightly larger than that reported for the benchmark Creutz-Taube ion. X-ray absorption studies for monometallic metallocene complexes of U{sup III}, U{sup IV}, and U{sup V} reveal small but detectable energy differences in the 'white-line' feature of the uranium L{sub III}-edges consistent with these variations in nominal oxidation state. The sum of this data provides evidence of 5f/6d-orbital participation in bonding and electronic delocalization in these multimetallic f-element complexes. An improved, high-yielding synthesis of 4{prime}-cyano-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine is also reported.

  19. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  20. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  1. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms. Implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, the way how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides is assessed. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. The way how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility is described. Why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions is explained. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. Development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions is described. Throughout, the key research needs are identified. (author)

  2. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs

  3. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  4. Microwave combustion synthesis of in situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Zr reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Heguo, E-mail: zhg1200@sina.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Nano Materials and Technology, Jiangsu Province Higher Education Institutions, 210094 (China); Synergetic Center for Advanced Materials Research, Jiangsu Province Higher Education Institutions, 210094 (China); Hua, Bo; Cui, Tao; Huang, Jiewen; Li, Jianliang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Xie, Zonghan, E-mail: zonghan.xie@adelaide.edu.au [School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2015-08-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Zr reinforced aluminum matrix composites were fabricated from Al and ZrO{sub 2} powders by SiC assisted microwave combustion synthesis. The microstructure and reaction pathways were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the heating rate during microwave synthesis was very high and the entire process took several minutes and that the ignition temperature of the reaction was much lower than that of conventional methods. In addition, the resulting microstructure was found to be finer than that prepared by the conventional methods and no cracks can be seen in the Al{sub 3}Zr reinforcements. As such, the newly developed composites have potential for safety-critical applications where catastrophic failure is not tolerated.

  5. Electronic structure and correlation effects in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report consists of the vugraphs given at a conference on electronic structure. Topics discussed are electronic structure, f-bonding, crystal structure, and crystal structure stability of the actinides and how they are inter-related

  6. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  7. Research for actinides extractants from various wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Cuillerdier, C.; Condamines, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the actinides solvent extraction research undertaken in Fontenay-aux-Roses. Two kinds of extractants are investigated; those usable for the improvement of the nowadays nuclear fuels reprocessing and those necessary for advanced fuels cycles which include the minor actinides (Np, Am) recovery for a further elimination through nuclear reactions. In the first class the mono and diamides, alternative to the organophosphorus extractants, TBP and polyfunctional phosphonates, showed promising properties. The main results are discussed. For the future efficient extractants for trivalent actinides-lanthanides group separations are suitable. The point about the actinides (III) - lanthanides (III) group separation chemistry and the development of some of these extractants are given

  8. Actinide isotopes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of actinide isotopes in the environment are important not only from the viewpoint of their radiological effects on human life, but also from the fact that they act as excellent biochemical and geochemical tracers especially in the marine environment. For several of the actinide isotopes there is still a lack of basic data on concentration levels and further investigations on their chemical and physical speciation are required to understand their behaviour in the marine environment. The measured and estimated activity concentration levels of artificial actinides are at present in general a few orders of magnitude lower than those of the natural ones and their concentration factors in biota are relatively low, except in a few species of macroalgae and phytoplankton. The contribution from seafood to total ingestion of actinides by the world population is a few per cent and, therefore, the dose to man from these long-lived radionuclides caused by seafood ingestion is usually low. (orig.)

  9. Robust membrane systems for actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Bluhm, Elizabeth A.; Abney, Kent D.; Ehler, Deborah S.; Bauer, Eve; Le, Quyen T.; Young, Jennifer S.; Ford, Doris K.; Pesiri, David R.; Dye, Robert C.; Robison, Thomas W.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Redondo, Antonio; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective in this project is to develop very stable thin membrane structures containing ionic recognition sites that facilitate the selective transport of target metal ions, especially the actinides

  10. Ingestion of Casein in a Milk Matrix Modulates Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption Kinetics but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Snijders, Tim; Linkens, Armand M A; Hamer, Henrike M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    The slow digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics of isolated micellar casein have been held responsible for its relatively lower postprandial muscle protein synthetic response compared with rapidly digested proteins such as isolated whey. However, casein is normally consumed within a milk matrix. We hypothesized that protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response after micellar casein ingestion are modulated by the milk matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a milk matrix on casein protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis in older men. In a parallel-group design, 32 healthy older men (aged 71 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine, L-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]-tyrosine, and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine, and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine labeled casein dissolved in bovine milk serum (Cas+Serum) or water (Cas). Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and for 300 min in the postprandial period to examine whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Casein ingestion increased plasma leucine and phenylalanine concentrations and L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments, with a more rapid rise after Cas vs. Cas+Serum. Nonetheless, dietary protein-derived phenylalanine availability did not differ between Cas+Serum (47 ± 2%, mean ± SEM) and Cas (46 ± 3%) when assessed over the 300-min postprandial period (P = 0.80). The milk matrix did not modulate postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates from 0 to 120 min (0.038 ± 0.005 vs. 0.031 ± 0.007%/h) or from 120 to 300 min (0.052 ± 0.004 vs. 0.067 ± 0.005%/h) after Cas+Serum vs. Cas. Similarly, no treatment differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments were observed at 120 min (0.003 ± 0.001 vs. 0.002 ± 0.001) or 300 min (0.015 ± 0.002 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002 mole

  11. Possible existence of backbending in actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Szymanski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities for the backbending effect to occur in actinide nuclei are studied using the pairing-self-consistent independent quasiparticle method. The Hamiltonian used is that of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus monopole pairing term. The results of the calculations explain why there is no backbending in most actinide nuclei and simultaneously suggest that in some light neutron deficient nuclei around Th and 22 Ra a backbending effect may occur

  12. Lattice effects in the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.C.; Cort, B.; Roberts, J.A.; Bennett, B.I.; Brun, T.O.; Dreele, R.B. von; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The light actinides show a variety of lattice effects that do not normally appear in other regions of the periodic table. The article will cover the crystal structures of the light actinides, their atomic volumes, their thermal expansion behavior, and their elastic behavior as reflected in recent thermal vibration measurements made by neutron diffraction. A discussion of the melting points will be given in terms of the thermal vibration measurements. Pressure effects will be only briefly indicated

  13. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  14. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  15. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 239/Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus; S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River

  16. Proposal for experiments with actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted in which critical masses for some actinide isotopes were calculated with the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) Transport computer code. Different spherical computer models were used for even- and odd-neutron nuclides. Critical masses obtained are tabulated for Np-237, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243, Pu-241, and Am-242m, together with indirect experimental data. Experimental data are needed for actinides with odd number of neutrons

  17. Interaction between actinides and protein: the calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulfert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Considering the environmental impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident, it is fundamental to study the mechanisms governing the effects of the released radionuclides on the biosphere and thus identify the molecular processes generating the transport and deposition of actinides, such as neptunium and uranium. However, the information about the microscopic aspect of the interaction between actinides and biological molecules (peptides, proteins...) is scarce. The data being mostly reported from a physiological point of view, the structure of the coordination sites remains largely unknown. These microscopic data are indeed essential for the understanding of the interdependency between structural aspect, function and affinity.The Calmodulin (CaM) (abbreviation for Calcium-Modulated protein), also known for its affinity towards actinides, acts as a metabolic regulator of calcium. This protein is a Ca carrier, which is present ubiquitously in the human body, may also bind other metals such as actinides. Thus, in case of a contamination, actinides that bind to CaM could avoid the protein to perform properly and lead to repercussions on a large range of vital functions.The complexation of Np and U was studied by EXAFS spectroscopy which showed that actinides were incorporated in a calcium coordination site. Once the thermodynamical and structural aspects studied, the impact of the coordination site distortion on the biological efficiency was analyzed. In order to evaluate these consequences, a calorimetric method based on enzyme kinetics was developed. This experiment, which was conducted with both uranium (50 - 500 nM) and neptunium (30 - 250 nM) showed a decrease of the heat produced by the enzymatic reaction with an increasing concentration of actinides in the medium. Our findings showed that the Calmodulin actinide complex works as an enzymatic inhibitor. Furthermore, at higher neptunium (250 nM) and uranium (500 nM) concentration the metals seem to have a poison

  18. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    actinide oxides . The work described here is an attempt to characterize the quality of crystals using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS). The...Upadhyaya, R. V. Muraleedharan, B. D. Sharma and K. G. Prasad, " Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders," Philosohical Magazine A, vol. 45... crystals . A strong foundation for actinide PALS studies was laid, but further work is required to build a more effective system. Positron Spectroscopy

  19. Separation of actinides and their transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Bathelier, M.; Cousin, M.

    1978-08-01

    Neutron irradiation of long-half-life actinides for transmutation into elements with shorter half-life is investigated as a means to reduce the long-term hazards of these actinides. The effectiveness of the method is analysed by applying it to fission product solutions from the first extraction cycle of fuel reprocessing plants. Basic principles, separation techniques and transmutation efficiencies are studied and discussed in detail

  20. The removal of actinide metals from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.D.; Howell, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A process is specified for removing actinide metals (e.g. uranium) from solutions. The solution is contacted with a substrate comprising the product obtained by reacting an inorganic solid containing surface hydroxyl groups (e.g. silica gel) with a compound containing a silane grouping, a nitrogen-containing group (e.g. an amine) and other specified radicals. After treatment, the actinide metal is recovered from the substrate. (U.K.)

  1. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  2. Molecular structure design and soft template synthesis of aza-, oxaaza- and thiaazamacrocyclic metal chelates in the gelatin matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg V. Mikhailov

    2017-01-01

    The data about of soft template synthesis proceeding in gelatin matrices in [3d-element M(II) ion – (N,S)- or (N,O,S)-ambidentate ligson – mono- or dicarbonyl ligson] systems, have been considered and discussed. The chemical nature of the final products of template synthesis formed under these specific conditions, has been compared with the chemical nature of the final products formed by template synthesis in solutions. It has been noted that in many cases, the nature and chemical composition...

  3. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then undergone radioactive decay to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal radionuclides remaining. It was therefore at first sight an attractive concept to recycle the actinides to nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. Thus, investigations of the feasibility and potential benefits and hazards of the concept of 'actinide partitioning and transmutation' were started in numerous countries in the mid-1970s. This final report summarizes the results and conclusions of technical studies performed in connection with a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, started in 1976, on the ''Environmental Evaluation and Hazard Assessment of the Separation of Actinides from Nuclear Wastes followed by either Transmutation or Separate Disposal''. Although many related studies are still continuing, e.g. on waste disposal, long-term safety assessments, and waste actinide management (particularly for low and intermediate-level wastes), some firm conclusions on the overall concept were drawn by the programme participants, which are reflected in this report

  4. Advances in computational actinide chemistry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqi; Wu, Jingyi; Chai, Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Multidisciplinary Initiative Center; Su, Jing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Div. of Nuclear Materials Science and Engineering; Li, Jun [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry and Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering

    2014-04-01

    The advances in computational actinide chemistry made in China are reviewed. Several areas relevant to chemistry of actinides in gas, liquid, and solid phases have been explored. However, we limit the scope to selected contributions in the chemistry of molecular actinide systems in gas and liquid phases. These studies may be classified into two categories: treatment of relativistic effects, which cover the development of two- and four-component Hamiltonians and the optimization of relativistic pseudopotentials, and the applications of theoretical methods in actinide chemistry. The applications include (1) the electronic structures of actinocene, noble gas complexes, An-C multiple bonding compounds, uranyl and its isoelectronic species, fluorides and oxides, molecular systems with metal-metal bonding in their isolated forms (U{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}) and in fullerene (U{sub 2} rate at C{sub 60}), and the excited states of actinide complexes; (2) chemical reactions, including oxidation, hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}, ligand exchange, reactivities of thorium oxo and sulfido metallocenes, CO{sub 2}/CS{sub 2} functionalization promoted by trivalent uranium complex; and (3) migration of actinides in the environment. A future outlook is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; McAlister, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti +3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1-2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ∼30-60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4-8 h with tracer yields of ∼85-95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort. (author)

  6. Fabrication and characterisation of composite targets for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naestren, C.; Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Transmutation of transuranic elements separated from spent fuel is a way to reduce the toxicity of long-lived nuclides in the waste before disposal. Plutonium and the minor actinides (MA) are reintroduced into the fuel cycle for further irradiation and incineration. Currently CERMET fuel forms, in which a ceramic actinide is dispersed in a matrix, are considered for MA transmutation. In a first step, PuO 2 beads are produced by a sol gel method in which a Pu nitrate solution is converted to solid, dust-free, particles. These porous beads are then infiltrated with an americium nitrate solution to the incipient wetness point and calcined to give the (PuAm)O 2 beads, which are blended with a metal matrix and compacted and sintered to form the final fuel pellet. The matrix used is molybdenum due to its high thermal conductivity and low neutron capture cross section, if it is enriched in 92 Mo. In this work, optimization of the bead porosity is investigated to achieve a higher Am content by infiltration. Addition of carbon to the mother solution in the sol gel step increases the bead porosity but it also changes both bead and final fuel pellet microstructure. A surrogate fuel, with cerium simulating the actinides has been fabricated and its mechanical stability and bead characteristics investigated as a function of carbon content and thermal treatment. The characterization of the surrogate fuel by ceramography, density, porosity, bead-quality, etc., is a necessary step in the process optimization, to be transferred to the production of the actinide samples. This process is now at an advanced stage and is being used for the production of fuels for irradiation tests in the Phenix (Futurix) and HFR-Petten (HELIOS) reactors. In parallel, studies on the dissolution of the fuel pellets, with the aim of dissolving the Mo-matrix while keeping the CeO 2 beads intact, have been initiated. Thus, Mo can be recycled for further fuel fabrication either from production scraps or from

  7. Molecular structure design and soft template synthesis of aza-, oxaaza- and thiaazamacrocyclic metal chelates in the gelatin matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Mikhailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The data about of soft template synthesis proceeding in gelatin matrices in [3d-element M(II ion – (N,S- or (N,O,S-ambidentate ligson – mono- or dicarbonyl ligson] systems, have been considered and discussed. The chemical nature of the final products of template synthesis formed under these specific conditions, has been compared with the chemical nature of the final products formed by template synthesis in solutions. It has been noted that in many cases, the nature and chemical composition of these products differ substantially. Specific features of the DFT calculated molecular structures of the macrocyclic compounds that can be formed due to the template synthesis in the systems indicated above, have been discussed, too. The review covers the period 1990–2015.

  8. Recovery of Actinides from Actinide-Aluminium Alloys: Chlorination Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Soucek, P.; Jardin, R.; Glatz, J.P.; Cassayre, L.

    2008-01-01

    A method for recovery of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed by electrochemical separation of metallic spent nuclear fuel on solid aluminium electrodes in molten chloride salts is described. The proposed route consists of three main steps: -) vacuum distillation of salt adhered on the electrodes, -) chlorination of An-Al alloy by pure chlorine gas and -) sublimation of formed AlCl 3 . A thermochemical study of the route was performed to determine important chemical reactions and to find optimum experimental conditions for all process steps. Vacuum distillation of the electrode is efficient for complete removal of remaining salt and most fission products, full chlorination of the An-Al alloys is possible at any working temperature and evaporation of AlCl 3 is achieved by heating under argon. Experiments have been carried out using U-Al alloy in order to define parameters providing full alloy chlorination without formation of volatile UCl 5 and UCl 6 . It was shown that full chlorination of An-Al alloys without An losses should be possible at a temperature approx. 150 deg. C. (authors)

  9. Recovery of Actinides from Actinide-Aluminium Alloys: Chlorination Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Soucek, P.; Jardin, R.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5503, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A method for recovery of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed by electrochemical separation of metallic spent nuclear fuel on solid aluminium electrodes in molten chloride salts is described. The proposed route consists of three main steps: -) vacuum distillation of salt adhered on the electrodes, -) chlorination of An-Al alloy by pure chlorine gas and -) sublimation of formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study of the route was performed to determine important chemical reactions and to find optimum experimental conditions for all process steps. Vacuum distillation of the electrode is efficient for complete removal of remaining salt and most fission products, full chlorination of the An-Al alloys is possible at any working temperature and evaporation of AlCl{sub 3} is achieved by heating under argon. Experiments have been carried out using U-Al alloy in order to define parameters providing full alloy chlorination without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. It was shown that full chlorination of An-Al alloys without An losses should be possible at a temperature approx. 150 deg. C. (authors)

  10. Study of nuclear energy systems and double strata scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    The French law of 28 June 2006 regarding advanced nuclear waste management requires a scientific assessment to define future industrial strategies. The present PhD thesis was carried in this framework and concerns specifically the research axis of minor actinides transmutation. A high power Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concept is developed at SUBATECH for this purpose. A 1 GeV proton beam feeds three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. The Multiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS reaches the thermal powers up to 1 GW with a high specific power. A nuclear reactor dimensioning method has been developed and applied to different double strata scenarios. In these scenarios, SFR (Sodium Fast Reactors) or PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) power reactors produce minor actinides that will be transmuted into ADS. In each core (SFR and ADS), the plutonium multi-reprocessing strategy is performed while ADS subcritical core also multi-reprocesses minor actinides. To limit the core reactivity and improve the fuel thermal conductivity, the minor actinides fuel is mixed with MgO inert matrix. Nuclear branches with lead and sodium coolants for the ADS, have been studied for different irradiation times and two transmutation strategies have been assessed: whether whole minor actinides, whether americium only is transmuted. The thesis presents precisely the MUST ADS design methodology and the calculations to get a fuel composition at equilibrium. Then a one cycle evolution is performed and analysed for the fuel and the multiplication factor. Radiotoxicity and thermal power of the waste produced are then compared. Finally, the study of double strata scenarios is performed to analyse the plutonium and minor actinides inventories in cycle and also the waste produced according to the transmutation strategies applied and the first stratum evolution. (author)

  11. Reactor physics aspects of burning actinides in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1978-01-01

    A short review of the different recycling strategies of actinides other than fuel treated in the literature, is given along with nuclear data requirements for actinide build-up and transmutation studies. The effects of recycling actinides in a nuclear reactor on the flux distribution, the infinite neutron multiplication factor, the reactivity control system, the reactivity coefficients and the delayed neutron fraction are discussed considering a notional LWR or LMFBR as an Actinide Trasmutaton Reactor. Some operational problems of Actinide Transmutation reactors are mentioned, which are caused by the α-decay heat and the neutron sources of Actinide Target Elements

  12. Physical chemistry and modelling of the sintering of actinide oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelle, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a synthesis of the work I have carried out or to which I have numerically contributed to from 1996 up to 2012 in the Department of Plutonium Uranium and minor Actinides in Cadarache CEA Center. Their main goal is the study and the modeling of the sintering process of nuclear fuels which is the unifying thread of this document. Both in order to take into account the physical and chemical features of the actinide bearing oxide material and in order to combine the different transport phenomena leading to sintering, a sub-granular scale model is under development. Extension to a varying chemical composition as well as exchanges with the gaseous phase are foreseen. A simulation on a larger scale (pellet scale) is ongoing in the framework of a PhD thesis. Validation means have been tested with (U,Pu)O 2 material on the scale of the pellet (Small Angle Neutron Diffusion), on the scale of powder granules (X-Ray High Resolution Micro-Tomography) and with CeO 2 at the 'Institut de Chimie Separative' in Marcoule on a single crystal scale (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope). The required microstructure homogeneity for nuclear fuels has led to a campaign of experimental studies about the role of Cr 2 O 3 as a sintering aid. Whole of these studies improve our understanding of fuel sintering and hence leads to an improved mastering of this process. (author) [fr

  13. Synthesis and physical properties of new layered double hydroxides based on ionic liquids: Application to a polylactide matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Livi, Sé bastien; Bugatti, Valeria; Estevez, Luis; Duchet-Rumeau, Jannick; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    very low amount of LDHs has been introduced within a polylactide (PLA) matrix and PLA/LDHs nanocomposites have been processed in melt by twin-screw extrusion. Then, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis has been used to investigate

  14. Parallel Programming Application to Matrix Algebra in the Spectral Method for Control Systems Analysis, Synthesis and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Kleshnin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the matrix algebra libraries based on the modern technologies of parallel programming for the Spectrum software, which can use a spectral method (in the spectral form of mathematical description to analyse, synthesise and identify deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. The developed matrix algebra libraries use the following technologies for the GPUs: OmniThreadLibrary, OpenMP, Intel Threading Building Blocks, Intel Cilk Plus for CPUs nVidia CUDA, OpenCL, and Microsoft Accelerated Massive Parallelism.The developed libraries support matrices with real elements (single and double precision. The matrix dimensions are limited by 32-bit or 64-bit memory model and computer configuration. These libraries are general-purpose and can be used not only for the Spectrum software. They can also find application in the other projects where there is a need to perform operations with large matrices.The article provides a comparative analysis of the libraries developed for various matrix operations (addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, multiplication, powers of matrices, tensor multiplication, transpose, inverse matrix, finding a solution of the system of linear equations through the numerical experiments using different CPU and GPU. The article contains sample programs and performance test results for matrix multiplication, which requires most of all computational resources in regard to the other operations.

  15. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP)

  16. Actinide/crown ether chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benning, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A structural survey of actinide/crown ether compounds was conducted in order to investigate the solid state chemistry of these complexes. Several parameters - the metal size, crown type, counterion, solvent systems and reaction and crystallization conditions - were varied to correlate their importance in complexation. Under atmospheric conditions, two types of complexes were isolated, those containing only hydrogen-bonded crown interactions and instances where the crown interacts directly with the metal center. In both cases, water seems to play a very important role. When coordinated to the metal, water molecules exhibit the necessary donor properties required for the formation of hydrogen-bonded contacts. The water molecules also provide fierce competition with the crown ethers for metal-binding sites and in most cases prohibit the formation of complexes in which direct metal-ligand association exists. The results of this study indicate that direct interaction between the metal atoms and the crown ethers, in the presence of water, can only occur with polyether conformations which limit the steric replusions within the metal coordination sphere

  17. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J H

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  18. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  19. Study of actinide paramagnetism in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autillo, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The physiochemical properties of actinide (An) solutions are still difficult to explain, particularly the behavioral differences between An(III) and Ln(III). The study of actinide paramagnetic behavior may be a 'simple' method to analyze the electronic properties of actinide elements and to obtain information on the ligand-actinide interaction. The objective of this PhD thesis is to understand the paramagnetic properties of these elements by magnetic susceptibility measurements and chemical shift studies. Studies on actinide electronic properties at various oxidation states in solution were carried out by magnetic susceptibility measurements in solution according to the Evans method. Unlike Ln(III) elements, there is no specific theory describing the magnetic properties of these ions in solution. To obtain accurate data, the influence of experimental measurement technique and radioactivity of these elements was analyzed. Then, to describe the electronic structure of their low energy states, the experimental results were complemented with quantum chemical calculations from which the influence of the ligand field was studied. Finally, these interpretations were applied to better understand the variations in the magnetic properties of actinide cations in chloride and nitrate media. Information about ligand-actinide interactions may be determined from an NMR chemical shift study of actinide complexes. Indeed, modifications induced by a paramagnetic complex can be separated into two components. The first component, a Fermi contact contribution (δ_c) is related to the degree of covalency in coordination bonds with the actinide ions and the second, a dipolar contribution (δ_p_c) is related to the structure of the complex. The paramagnetic induced shift can be used only if we can isolate these two terms. To achieve this study on actinide elements, we chose to work with the complexes of dipicolinic acid (DPA). Firstly, to characterize the geometrical parameters, a

  20. Actinide science. Fundamental and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, Gregory R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear test explosions and reactor wastes have deposited an estimated 16x10 15 Bq of plutonium into the world's aquatic systems. However, plutonium concentration in open ocean waters is orders of magnitude less, indicating that most of the plutonium is quite insolvable in marine waters and has been incorporated into sediments. Actinide ions in waters often are not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and their solubility and migration behavior is related to the form in which the nuclides were introduced into the aquatic system. Actinide solubility depends on such factors as pH(hydrolysis), E H (oxidation state), reaction with complexants (e.g. carbonate, phosphate, humic acid, etc.) sorption to surfaces of minerals and/or colloids, etc., in the water. The most significant of these variables is the oxidation sate of the metal ion. The simultaneous presence of more than one oxidation state for some actinides (e.g. plutonium) in a solution complicates actinide environmental behavior. Both Np(V)O 2 + and Pu(V)O 2 + , the most significant soluble states in natural oxic waters are relatively noncomplexing and resistant to hydrolysis and subsequent precipitation but can undergo reduction to the Pu(IV) oxidation state with its different elemental behavior. The solubility of NpO 2 + can be as high as 10 -4 M while that of PuO 2 + is more limited by reduction to the insoluble tetravalent species, Pu(OH) 4 , (pK SP - 56). The net solubility of hexavalent UO 2 2+ in sea water is also limited by hydrolysis; however, it has a relatively high concentration due to formation of carbonate complexes. The insoluble trivalent americium hydroxocarbonate, Am(CO) 3 (OH), is the limiting species for the solubility of Am(III) in sea water. Thorium is found exclusively as the tetravalent species and its solubility is limited by the formation of quite insoluble Th(OH) 4 . The chemistry of actinide ions in the environment is reviewed to show the spectrum of reactions that can occur in

  1. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Band structure studies of actinide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the f-orbitals in an actinide system plays a crucial role in determining the electronic properties. It has long been realized that when the actinide separation is small enough for the f-orbitals to interact directly, the system will exhibit itinerant electron properties: an absence of local moment due to the f-orbitals and sometimes even superconductivity. However, a number of systems with the larger actinide separation that should imply local moment behavior also exhibit intinerant properties. Such systems (URh 3 , UIr 3 , UGe 3 , UC) were examined to learn something about the other f-interactions. A preliminary observation made is that there is apparently a very large and ansiotropic mass enhancement in these systems. There is very good reason to believe that this is not solely due to large electron--electron correlations but to a large electron--phonon interaction as well. These features of the ''non-magnetic'', large actinide separation systems are discussed in light of our results to date. Finally, the results of some recent molecular calculations on actinide hexafluorides are used to illustrate the shielding effects on the intra-atomic Coulomb term U/sub f-f/ which would appear in any attempt to study the formation of local moments. As one becomes interested in materials for which a band structure is no longer an adequate model, this screened U/sub ff/ is the significant parameter and efforts must be made to evaluate it in solid state systems

  3. Coordination polymers: trapping of radionuclides and chemistry of tetravalent actinides (Th, U) carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falaise, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy obviously raises the question of the presence of radionuclides in the environment. Currently, their mitigation is a major issue associated with nuclear chemistry. This thesis focuses on both the trapping of radionuclides by porous solids called Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) and the crystal chemistry of the carboxylate of tetravalent actinides (AnIV). The academic knowledge of the reactivity of carboxylate of AnIV could help the understanding of actinides speciation in environment. We focused on the sequestration of iodine by aluminum based MOF. The functionalization (electron-donor group) of the MOF drastically enhances the iodine capture capacity. The removal of light actinides (Th and U) from aqueous solution was also investigated as well as the stability of (Al)-MOF under γ radiation. More than twenty coordination polymers based on tetravalent actinides have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of controlled hydrolysis promotes the formation of coordination polymers exhibiting polynuclear cluster ([U 4 ], [Th 6 ], [U 6 ] and [U 38 ]). In order to understand the formation of the largest cluster, the ex-situ study of the solvo-thermal synthesis of compound {U 38 } has also been investigated. (author)

  4. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol

  5. Strategies for minority actinides transmutation in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of the strategies that can be followed in fast reactors designed for the fourth generation to reduce the inventory of minority actinides generated in current light water reactors, as the actinides generation in fast reactor.

  6. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  7. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery

  8. Development of CERMET fuels for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Naestren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Maschek, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    The sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is now being considered as a potential means to burn long-lived transuranium nuclides. The preferred fuel for such a fast neutron reactor is uranium-free, highly enriched with plutonium and minor actinides. Requirements for ADS transmutation fuels are linked with the core design and safety parameters, the fuel properties and the ease of reprocessing. This study concerns the properties of metals as matrices, with the particular case of Mo. To improve the neutronic characteristics, enriched molybdenum (Mo-92) is required. To overcome the high enrichment cost, it is proposed to recover the matrix by pellet dissolution, and to recycle it for further use. Irradiation programmes are also planned to examine the in-reactor properties of the material. Based on the current status of the research, the results are promising, but irradiation results are still missing. (authors)

  9. 1981 Annual Status Report. Plutonium fuels and actinide programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In this 1981 report the work carried out by the European Institute for Transuranium elements is reviewed. Main topics are: operation limits of plutonium fuels: swelling of advanced fuels, oxide fuel transients, equation of state of nuclear materials; actinide cycle safety: formation of actinides (FACT), safe handling of plutonium fuel (SHAPE), aspects of the head-end processing of carbide fuel (RECARB); actinide research: crystal chemistry, solid state studies, applied actinide research

  10. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  11. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  12. Z-sinapinic acid: the change of the stereochemistry of cinnamic acids as rational synthesis of a new matrix for carbohydrate MALDI-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, María L; Itovich, Lucia M; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2013-11-01

    Successful application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS started with the introduction of efficient matrices such as cinnamic acid derivatives (i.e. 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, SA; α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Since the empirical founding of these matrices, other commercial available cinnamic acids with different nature and location of substituents at benzene ring were attempted. Rational design and synthesis of new cinnamic acids have been recently described too. Because the presence of a rigid double bond in its molecule structure, cinnamic acids can exist as two different geometric isomers, the E-form and Z-form. Commercial available cinnamic acids currently used as matrices are the geometric isomers trans or E (E-cinnamic and trans-cinnamic acids). As a new rational design of MALDI matrices, Z-cinnamic acids were synthesized, and their properties as matrices were studied. Their performance was compared with that of the corresponding E-isomer and classical crystalline matrices (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid; norharmane) in the analysis of neutral/sulfated carbohydrates. Herein, we demonstrate the outstanding performance for Z-SA. Sulfated oligosaccharides were detected in negative ion mode, and the dissociation of sulfate groups was almost suppressed. Additionally, to better understand the quite different performance of each geometric isomer as matrix, the physical and morphological properties as well as the photochemical stability in solid state were studied. The influence of the E/Z photoisomerization of the matrix during MALDI was evaluated. Finally, molecular modeling (density functional theory study) of the optimized geometry and stereochemistry of E-cinnamic and Z-cinnamic acids revealed some factors governing the analyte-matrix interaction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  14. Interaction of actinides with natural microporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaelides, P.; Godelirsas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The existing studies mainly concern the sorption of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium from aqueous media by clay minerals and zeolites as well as the determination of the corresponding chemical processes taking place at the mineral-water interface. The investigation techniques applied for this purpose include, except the conventional wet-chemical and radiochemical methods, advanced spectroscopic methods such as extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques significantly contribute to the characterization of the reacted mineral waters and to the explanation of the structural and compositional characteristics of the sorbed actinide species. Theoretical models regarding the aqueous chemistry and speciation of the actinides have also been developed aiming the elucidation of the complex actinide sorption mechanisms. This contribution will critically review of the existing literature, present recently obtained unpublished results and discuss the necessity of future work in the field. (authors)

  15. Actinide distribution in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Radiochemical analysis of two half skeletons donated to the United States Transuranium Registry, one from an individual with an occupationally incurred deposition of 241 Am and the other with a deposition of 239 Pu, revealed an inverse linear relationship between the concentration of actinide in the bone ash and the fraction of ash. Two distinct relationships were noted, one for the cranium and the other for the remainder of the skeleton. The results suggest that the actinide content of the skeleton as a whole, Q, can be obtained with an uncertainty of +-50% from analysis of a single sample of any bone (except the cranium) by Q = [(830 C/sub sample/)/(0.61 - f/sub sample/)], in which C/sub sample/ refers to the actinide content per g of ash and f/sub sample/ the fraction of ash (i.e., ratio of dry to wet weight) in the sample. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Neutron scattering studies of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The electronic structure of actinide materials presents a unique example of the interplay between localized and band electrons. Together with a variety of other techniques, especially magnetization and the Mossbauer effect, neutron studies have helped us to understand the systematics of many actinide compounds that order magnetically. A direct consequence of the localization of 5f electrons is the spin-orbit coupling and subsequent spin-lattice interaction that often leads to strongly anisotropic behavior. The unusual phase transition in UO 2 , for example, arises from interactions between quadrupole moments. On the other hand, in the monopnictides and monochalcogenides, the anisotropy is more difficult to understand, but probably involves an interaction between actinide and anion wave functions. A variety of neutron experiments, including form-factor studies, critical scattering and measurements of the elementary excitations have now been performed, and the conceptual picture emerging from these studies will be discussed

  17. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography

    2013-03-01

    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  18. Actinide separations by supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.; Chiarizia, R.

    1984-01-01

    The work has demonstrated that actinide removal from synthetic waste solutions using both flat-sheet and hollow-fiber SLM's is a feasible chemical process at the laboratory scale level. The process is characterized by the typical features of SLM's processes: very small quantities of extractant required; the potential for operations with high feed/strip volume ratios, resulting in a corresponding concentration factor of the actinides; and simplicity of operation. Major obstacles to the implementation of the SLM technology to the decontamination of liquid nuclear wastes are the probable low resistance of polypropylene supports to high radiation fields, which may prevent the application to high-level nuclear wastes; the unknown lifetime of the SLM; and the high Na content of the separated actinide solution

  19. Research on Actinides in Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Park, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Hwan

    2010-04-01

    The electrochemical/spectroscopic integrated measurement system was designed and set up for spectro-electrochemical measurements of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media. A compact electrochemical cell and electrode system was also developed for the minimization of reactants, and consequently minimization of radioactive waste generation. By applying these equipment, oxidation and reduction behavior of lanthanide and actinide ions in molten salt media have been made. Also, thermodynamic parameter values are determined by interpreting the results obtained from electrochemical measurements. Several lanthanide ions exhibited fluorescence properties in molten salt. Also, UV-VIS measurement provided the detailed information regarding the oxidation states of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media

  20. Research on Actinides in Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Park, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Hwan

    2010-04-15

    The electrochemical/spectroscopic integrated measurement system was designed and set up for spectro-electrochemical measurements of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media. A compact electrochemical cell and electrode system was also developed for the minimization of reactants, and consequently minimization of radioactive waste generation. By applying these equipment, oxidation and reduction behavior of lanthanide and actinide ions in molten salt media have been made. Also, thermodynamic parameter values are determined by interpreting the results obtained from electrochemical measurements. Several lanthanide ions exhibited fluorescence properties in molten salt. Also, UV-VIS measurement provided the detailed information regarding the oxidation states of lanthanide and actinide ions in high temperature molten salt media

  1. Ground-state electronic structure of actinide monocarbides and mononitrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually increa...

  2. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  3. Aqueous actinide complexes: A thermochemical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuger, J.; Khodakovsky, I.L.; Medvedev, V.A.; Navratil, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The scope and purpose of an assessment of the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous actinide complexes are presented. This work which, at present, is limited to inorganic ligands and three selected organic ligands (formate, acetate and oxalate), is part of an effort established by the International Atomic Energy Agency to assess the thermodynamic properties of the actinides and their compounds. The problems involved in this work are illustrated by discussing the present status of the assessment as related to a few complex species, (hydroxyl-, fluoride-, carbonate complexes). (orig.) [de

  4. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Bogle, M.A.; Brantley, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239 Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  5. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  6. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO 3 H 2 ) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described

  7. A worldwide perspective on actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide interest has been evident over the past few years in reexamining the merits of recovering the actinides from spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel and transmuting them in fast reactors to reduce hazards in geologic repositories. This paper will summarize some of the recent activities in this field. Several countries are embarked on programs of reprocessing and vitrification of present wastes, from which removal of the actinides is largely precluded. The United States is assessing the ideas related to the fast reactor program and the potential application to defense wastes. 18 refs., 2 figs

  8. Molecular dynamics studies of actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) calculation was performed for actinide nitrides (UN, NpN, and PuN) in the temperature range from 300 to 2800 K to evaluate the physical properties viz., the lattice parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and heat capacity. The Morse-type potential function added to the Busing-Ida type potential was employed for the ionic interactions. The interatomic potential parameters were determined by fitting to the experimental data of the lattice parameter. The usefulness and applicability of the MD method to evaluate the physical properties of actinide nitrides were studied. (author)

  9. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  10. Static and dynamic deformations of actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.

    1985-09-01

    The zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations have been taken into account to calculate dynamical deformations for even-even actinide nuclei. The collective and intrinsic motions are separated according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed using the macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and the cranking model in the kinetic energy part. The BCS theory with a modified oscillator potential is applied to describe the intrinsic motion of nucleons. A new set of Nilsson potential parameters, which produces a much better description of the properties of light actinide nuclei, has also been found. (orig.)

  11. Spin–orbit coupling in actinide cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Martin, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The limiting case of Russell–Saunders coupling, which leads to a maximum spin alignment for the open shell electrons, usually explains the properties of high spin ionic crystals with transition metals. For actinide compounds, the spin–orbit splitting is large enough to cause a significantly reduced...... spin alignment. Novel concepts are used to explain the dependence of the spin alignment on the 5f shell occupation. We present evidence that the XPS of ionic actinide materials may provide direct information about the angular momentum coupling within the 5f shell....

  12. Influence of Polyphenol Extract from Evening Primrose (Oenothera Paradoxa Seeds on Proliferation of Caco-2 Cells and on Expression, Synthesis and Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Karolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok seeds are a rich source of not only a valuable oil containing an essential fatty acid - ᵧ-linolenic acid (GLA - but also polyphenols which can be obtained from the biomass remaining after oil pressing. The aim of our studies was to evaluate the influence of a polyphenol extract from defatted seeds of evening primrose on human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell proliferation and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs synthesis and activity. To assess the effect of evening primrose extract on Caco-2 cell proliferation, crystal violet staining and sulforhodamine B (SRB assays were used whereas mRNA expression and activity of MMPs were evaluated by RT-PCR and gelatin zymography.

  13. Synthesis and physical properties of new layered double hydroxides based on ionic liquids: Application to a polylactide matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Livi, Sébastien

    2012-12-01

    Ionic liquids based on tetraalkylphosphonium salts combined with different anions (decanoate and dodecylsulfonate) have been used as intercalating agents of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by ion exchange. The synthesized phosphonium-treated LDHs display a dramatically improved thermal degradation and a significant increase in the interlayer distance as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. To highlight the effect of thermostable ionic liquids, a very low amount of LDHs has been introduced within a polylactide (PLA) matrix and PLA/LDHs nanocomposites have been processed in melt by twin-screw extrusion. Then, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis has been used to investigate the influence of ILs on the different morphologies of these nanocomposites. Even though the thermal stability of PLA matrix decreased, an excellent stiffness-toughness compromise has been obtained. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Knockdown of asporin affects transforming growth factor-β1-induced matrix synthesis in human intervertebral annulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our results have verified a functional feedback loop between TGF-β1 and asporin in human intervertebral annulus cells indicating that TGF-β1-induced annulus matrix biosynthesis can be significantly upregulated by knockdown of asporin. Therefore, asporin could be a potential new therapeutic target and inhibition of asporin could be adopted to enhance the anabolic effect of TGF-β1 in human intervertebral annulus cells in degenerative IVD diseases.

  15. Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-04-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for three irradiation options of a light water reactor (LWR). The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies; transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with 235 U enrichment of uranium; and transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with plutonium enrichment of natural uranium. When all actinides were recycled in a uniform lattice, the transuranic inventory after ten recycles was 38% of the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from two regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after five recycles

  16. Chemical compatibility of HLW borosilicate glasses with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Scheffler, K.; Riege, U.

    1978-11-01

    During liquid storage of HLLW the formation of actinide enriched sludges is being expected. Also during melting of HLW glasses an increase of top-to-bottom actinide concentrations can take place. Both effects have been studied. Besides, the vitrification of plutonium enriched wastes from Pu fuel element fabrication plants has been investigated with respect to an isolated vitrification process or a combined one with the HLLW. It is shown that the solidification of actinides from HLLW and actinide waste concentrates will set no principal problems. The leaching of actinides has been measured in salt brine at 23 0 C and 115 0 C. (orig.) [de

  17. Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs

  18. Transmutation of LWR waste actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle of actinides to a reactor for transmutation to fission products is being considered as a possible means of waste disposal. Actinide transmutation calculations were made for two irradiation options in a thermal (LWR) reactor. The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies, and transuranic actinides recycled in separate mixed oxide (MOX) assemblies. When all actinides were recycled in a uranium lattice, a reduction of 62% in the transuranic inventory was achieved after 10 recycles, compared to the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from 2 regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after 5 recycles

  19. Synthesis and characterization of new nanocomposites films using alanine-Cu-functionalized graphene oxide as nanofiller and PVA as polymeric matrix for improving of their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Karshenas, Azam

    2017-09-01

    In the synthesis of polymer-graphene nanocomposites, for improving properties of nanocomposites, two factors dispersion and strong interfacial interactions between graphene and the polymer, are essential. In the present work, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposite films were manufactured using concentrations 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% of GO-Cu-alanine in water solution. For this purpose, L-alanine amino acid was located on the surface and edges of GO through copper(II) ion as a coordinating function. Then, flexible PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposite films were fabricated using GO-Cu-alanine as filler and PVA as matrix. Due to the existence of affective interaction between GO-Cu-alanine and PVA matrix, the acquired PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposites demonstrated great thermal and mechanical properties. Properties of manufactured materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

  20. Heterogeneous all actinide recycling in LWR all actinide cycle closure concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondinelli, Luciano

    1980-01-01

    A project for the elimination of transuranium elements (Waste Actinides, WA) by neutron transmutation is developed in a commercial BWR with U-Pu (Fuel Actinides, FA) recycle. The project is based on the All Actinide Cycle Closure concept: 1) closure of the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, U-Pu coprocessing, 2) waste actinide disposal by neutron transmutation. The reactor core consists of Pu-island fuel assemblies containing WAs in target pins. Two parallel reprocessing lines for FAs and WAs are provided. Mass balance, hazard measure, spontaneous activity during 10 recycles are calculated. Conclusions are: the reduction in All Actinide inventory achieved by Heterogeneous All Actinide Recycling is on the order of 83% after 10 recycles. The U235 enrichment needed for a constant end of cycle reactivity decreases for increasing number of recycles after the 4th recycle. A diffusion-burnup calculation of the pin power peak factors in the fuel assembly shows that design limits can be satisfied. A strong effort should be devoted to the solution of the problems related to high values of spontaneous emission by the target pins

  1. Calculated investigation of actinide transmutation in the BOR-60 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemkov, I.Yu.; Ishunina, O.V.; Yakovleva, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    One of the prospective actinide burner reactor type is the fast reactor with a 'hard' spectrum and small breeding factor, which is the BOR-60. The calculated investigations demonstrate that Loading up to 40% of minor-actinides to the BOR-60 reactor did not lead to the considerable change of neutron-physical characteristics. The performed calculations show that the BOR- 60 reactor possesses a high efficiency of the minor-actinide and plutonium bum-up (up to 37 kg/(TW · h)) hat is comparable with properties of the actinide burner-reactors under design. The BOR-60 reactor can provide a homogeneous minor-actinide Loading (minor-actinide addition to the standard fuel) to the core and heterogeneous Loading (as separate assemblies-targets with a high minor-actinide fraction) to the first rows of a radial blanket that allows the optimum usage of the reactor and its characteristics. (authors)

  2. ENDF/B-5 Actinides (Rev. 86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the Actinides part of the ENDF/B-5 nuclear data library released by the US National Nuclear Data Center. This library or selective retrievals of it, are available costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request. The present version of the library is the Revision of 1986. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Trends in actinide processing at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1993-09-01

    In 1989, the mission at the Hanford Site began a dramatic and sometimes painful transition. The days of production--as we used to know it--are over. Our mission officially has become waste management and environmental cleanup. This mission change didn't eliminate many jobs--in fact, budgets have grown dramatically to support the new mission. Most all of the same skilled crafts, engineers, and scientists are still required for the new mission. This change has not eliminated the need for actinide processing, but it has certainly changed the focus that our actinide chemists and process engineers have. The focus used to be on such things as increasing capacity, improving separations efficiency, and product purity. Minimizing waste had become a more important theme in recent years and it is still a very important concept in the waste management and environmental cleanup arena. However, at Hanford, a new set of words dominates the actinide process scene as we work to deal with actinides that still reside in a variety of forms at the Hanford Site. These words are repackage, stabilize, remove, store and dispose. Some key activities in each of these areas are described in this report

  4. Report of the panel on inhaled actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: assessment of risks to man of inhaling actinides; use of estimates for developing protection standards; epidemiology of lung cancer in exposed human populations; development of respiratory tract models; and effects in animals: dose- and effect-modifying factors

  5. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  6. Placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessl, I.; Stieve, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    The report is based on an extensive literature search. All data available from studies on placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides in man and animals have been collected and analysed, and the report presents the significant results as well as unresolved questions and knowledge gaps which may serve as a waypost to future research work. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  8. Actinide nitride ceramic transmutation fuels for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, St.; McClellan, K.; Stanek, Ch.; Maloy, St.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The transmutation of plutonium and other minor actinides is an important component of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is currently considering mono-nitrides as potential transmutation fuel material on account of the mutual solubility of actinide mono-nitrides as well as their desirable thermal characteristics. The feedstock is most commonly produced by a carbothermic reduction/nitridisation process, as it is for this programme. Fuel pellet fabrication is accomplished via a cold press/sinter approach. In order to allow for easier investigation of the synthesis and fabrication processes, surrogate material studies are used to compliment the actinide activities. Fuel compositions of particular interest denoted as low fertile (i.e. containing uranium) and non-fertile (i.e. not containing uranium) are (PuAmNp) 0.5 U 0.5 N and (PuAm) 0.42 Zr 0.58 N, respectively. The AFCI programme is investigating the validity of these fuel forms via Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Phenix irradiations. Here, we report on the recent progress of actinide-nitride transmutation fuel development and production for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment. Furthermore, we highlight specific cases where the complimentary approach of surrogate studies and actinide development aid in the understanding complex material issues. In order to allow for easier investigation of the fundamental materials properties, surrogate materials have been used. The amount of surrogate in each compound was determined by comparing both molar concentration and lattice parameter mismatch via Vegard Law. Cerium was chosen to simultaneously substitute for Pu, Am and Np, while depleted U was chosen to substitute for enriched U. Another goal of this work was the optimisation of added graphite during carbothermic reduction in order to minimise the duration of the carbon removal step (i.e. heat treatment under H 2 containing gas). One proposed

  9. ACTINET: a European Network for Actinide Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Boullis; Pascal Chaix

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The research in Actinide sciences appear as a strategic issue for the future of nuclear systems. Sustainability issues are clearly in connection with the way actinide elements are managed (either addressing saving natural resource, or decreasing the radiotoxicity of the waste). The recent developments in the field of minor actinide P and T offer convincing indications of what could be possible options, possible future processes for the selective recovery of minor actinides. But they point out, too, some lacks in the basic understanding of key-issues (such as for instance the control An versus Ln selectivity, or solvation phenomena in organic phases). Such lacks could be real obstacles for an optimization of future processes, with new fuel compounds and facing new recycling strategies. This is why a large and sustainable work appears necessary, here in the field of basic actinide separative chemistry. And similar examples could be taken from other aspects of An science, for various applications (nuclear fuel or transmutation targets design, or migration issues,): future developments need a strong, enlarged, scientific basis. The Network ACTINET, established with the support of the European Commission, has the following objectives: - significantly improve the accessibility of the major actinide facilities to the European scientific community, and form a set of pooled facilities, as the corner-stone of a progressive integration process, - improve mobility between the member organisations, in particular between Academic Institutions and National Laboratories holding the pooled facilities, - merge part of the research programs conducted by the member institutions, and optimise the research programs and infrastructure policy via joint management procedures, - strengthen European excellence through a selection process of joint proposals, and reduce the fragmentation of the community by putting critical mass of resources and expertise on

  10. LEMA facility and equipments for minor actinides compounds fabrication and characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnet, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA, CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SDTC/LEMA (France)

    2008-07-01

    The LEMA (Actinide based materials study laboratory) is mainly involved in minor actinides materials development and fabrication, from raw materials choice and synthesis to finished products including pin assembly. The aim of the technological analyses is to establish choices of raw materials and manufacturing techniques. The LEMA is located in the ATALANTE facility in Marcoule. It consists in two shielded chains (one specific for neutrons) and three hot laboratories. The laboratory has various apparatuses in hot cells such as: ball mills, press, dilatometer, TGA (thermo-gravimetry analyser), calcination and sintering furnaces (2000 deg. C). The laboratory has also characterisation apparatuses such as XRD and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) dedicated to structural and microstructural studies. Thanks to the diversity of its equipment, the LEMA has well established worldwide collaborations and takes part in international fuels/target fabrication and irradiation experiments. (author)

  11. New insights into phosphate based materials for the immobilisation of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeier, Stefan; Ji, Yaqi; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Kegler, Philip; Schlenz, Hartmut; Bosbach, Dirk; Deissmann, Guido [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); JARA High-Performance Computing, Aachen (Germany); Arinicheva, Yulia [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); JARA High-Performance Computing, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEK), Werkstoffsynthese und Herstellungsverfahren (IEK-1); Heuser, Julia M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); JARA High-Performance Computing, Aachen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Applied Materials (IAM)

    2017-07-01

    This paper focuses on major phosphate-based ceramic materials relevant for the immobilisation of Pu, minor actinides, fission and activation products. Key points addressed include the recent progress regarding synthesis methods, the formation of solid solutions by structural incorporation of actinides or their non-radioactive surrogates and waste form fabrication by advanced sintering techniques. Particular attention is paid to the properties that govern the long-term stability of the waste forms under conditions relevant to geological disposal. The paper highlights the benefits gained from synergies of state-of-the-art experimental approaches and advanced atomistic modeling tools for addressing properties and stability of f-element-bearing phosphate materials. In conclusion, this article provides a perspective on the recent advancements in the understanding of phosphate based ceramics and their properties with respect to their application as nuclear waste forms.

  12. LEMA facility and equipments for minor actinides compounds fabrication and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnet, L.

    2008-01-01

    The LEMA (Actinide based materials study laboratory) is mainly involved in minor actinides materials development and fabrication, from raw materials choice and synthesis to finished products including pin assembly. The aim of the technological analyses is to establish choices of raw materials and manufacturing techniques. The LEMA is located in the ATALANTE facility in Marcoule. It consists in two shielded chains (one specific for neutrons) and three hot laboratories. The laboratory has various apparatuses in hot cells such as: ball mills, press, dilatometer, TGA (thermo-gravimetry analyser), calcination and sintering furnaces (2000 deg. C). The laboratory has also characterisation apparatuses such as XRD and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) dedicated to structural and microstructural studies. Thanks to the diversity of its equipment, the LEMA has well established worldwide collaborations and takes part in international fuels/target fabrication and irradiation experiments. (author)

  13. European Europart integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Hudson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This poster presents the objectives of EUROPART, a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous FP5 programs named PARTNEW and PYROREP. The two main axes of research within EUROPART will be: The partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from high burn-up UO x fuels and multi-recycled MOx fuels; the partitioning of the whole actinide family for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (and in connection with the studies to be performed in the EUROTRANS integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organised into five Work Packages (WP). Four WP are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparation. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WP, listed hereafter: development of actinide partitioning methods, study of the basic chemistry of trans-curium elements in molten salts, study of the conditioning of the wastes, some system studies. Moreover, a strong management team will be concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe. Training and education of young researchers will also pertain to the project. EUROPART has also established collaboration with US DOE and Japanese CRIEPI. (authors)

  14. A new look at actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Croff, A.G.; Rawlins, J.A.; Schulz, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will address the justification for reexamination of the value of recovering the minor actinides and certain fission products from spent light-water reactor fuels and describe some of the technical progress that has been made since the major studies of a decade ago. During this time, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have begun establishing detailed criteria and regulations for geologic repositories. An examination of the hazards of waste disposal relative to the EPA release standards reveals that removal of 99.9% of the actinides (Pu, Am, and Np) reduces these hazards quite close to the EPA standards after 300 years' decay of the strontium and cesium. It may be also useful to remove and separately manage and dispose of certain of the long-lived fission products, such as 99 Tc and 129 I. Much additional work is required to fully assess the appropriate target recoveries as the hazards and risks are more closely examined and as the standards are reworked and refined. The two decades before the projected start of the US repository may present a window of opportunity to introduce several better management practices that act to simplify the repository safety issues. From a technical standpoint, significant progress has been made on recovery of the actinides from aqueous wastes though use of the TRUEX process. Additional work is required to demonstrate the application of the process to spent LWR fuels, but it appears straightforward. In addition, work at the Argonne National Laboratory on the liquid-metal reactor metal fuel cycle shows the relative simplicity of recycle of the actinides in that fast reactor cycle. Much work remains to fully demonstrate that actinides from all secondary waste streams can be removed to the target levels from both the aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel and the pyro processes for the metal-fueled fast reactor. 9 refs., 2 figs

  15. Synroc tailored waste forms for actinide immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Daniel J.; Vance, Eric R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee (Australia). ANSTOsynroc, Inst. of Materials Engineering

    2017-07-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, Synroc at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has evolved from a focus on titanate ceramics directed at PUREX waste to a platform waste treatment technology to fabricate tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms for different types of actinide, high- and intermediate level wastes. The particular emphasis for Synroc is on wastes which are problematic for glass matrices or existing vitrification process technologies. In particular, nuclear wastes containing actinides, notably plutonium, pose a unique set of requirements for a waste form, which Synroc ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms can be tailored to meet. Key aspects to waste form design include maximising the waste loading, producing a chemically durable product, maintaining flexibility to accommodate waste variations, a proliferation resistance to prevent theft and diversion, and appropriate process technology to produce waste forms that meet requirements for actinide waste streams. Synroc waste forms incorporate the actinides within mineral phases, producing products which are much more durable in water than baseline borosilicate glasses. Further, Synroc waste forms can incorporate neutron absorbers and {sup 238}U which provide criticality control both during processing and whilst within the repository. Synroc waste forms offer proliferation resistance advantages over baseline borosilicate glasses as it is much more difficult to retrieve the actinide and they can reduce the radiation dose to workers compared to borosilicate glasses. Major research and development into Synroc at ANSTO over the past 40 years has included the development of waste forms for excess weapons plutonium immobilization in collaboration with the US and for impure plutonium residues in collaboration with the UK, as examples. With a waste loading of 40-50 wt.%, Synroc would also be considered a strong candidate as an engineered waste form for used nuclear fuel and highly

  16. Versatile and biomass synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon matrix with high iron content and tunable reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongmao; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Pittman, Charles U.; Jiang Dongping; Che Wen; Gai Zheng; Howe, Jane Y.; More, Karren L.; Antonyraj, Arockiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs-C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP-C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP-C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C (FeNP-C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP-C prepared at 800 °C (FeNP-C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP-C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5–15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs-C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  17. Reactivating the extracellular matrix synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to improve the human skin aspect and its mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajra H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanane Chajra,1 Daniel Auriol,1 Francine Joly,2 Aurélie Pagnon,3 Magda Rodrigues,4 Sophie Allart,4 Gérard Redziniak,5 Fabrice Lefevre1 1Libragen, Induchem (Givaudan Active Beauty, Toulouse, 2Sephra Pharma, Puteaux, 3Novotec, Bron, 4Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse-Purpan, Toulouse, 5Cosmetic Inventions, Antony, France Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a defined cosmetic composition is able to induce an increase in the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs and/or proteoglycans and finally to demonstrate that the composition, through its combined action of enzyme production and synthesis of macromolecules, modulates organization and skin surface aspect with a benefit in antiaging applications. Materials and methods: Gene expression was studied by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from a 45-year-old donor skin dermis. De novo synthesis of sGAGs and proteoglycans was determined using Blyscan™ assay and/or immunohistochemical techniques. These studies were performed on normal human dermal fibroblasts (41- and 62-year-old donors and on human skin explants. Dermis organization was studied either ex vivo on skin explants using bi-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy or directly in vivo on human volunteers by ultrasound technique. Skin surface modification was investigated in vivo using silicone replicas coupled with macrophotography, and the mechanical properties of the skin were studied using Cutometer. Results: It was first shown that mRNA expression of several genes involved in the synthesis pathway of sGAG was stimulated. An increase in the de novo synthesis of sGAGs was shown at the cellular level despite the age of cells, and this phenomenon was clearly related to the previously observed stimulation of mRNA expression of genes. An increase in the expression of the corresponding core protein of decorin, perlecan

  18. Determination of Pb-210 and actinides by extraction chromatography and anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, St.N.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to the determination of Pb-210 and actinides (Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, U-235, U-238, Th-232) by means of highly selective chromatographic resins and anion exchangers. The special interest was paid to the analysis of large quantities of samples with high concentration of competitive ions like ocean sediments, bone ash and others.The commercially available TRU-Spec chromatographic resins was used for separation of actinides from the matrix. Then U, Th, Am, and Pu were separated from other using anion exchange chromatography with AG-1X4 anionite in Cl - form, electro-deposed and α-counted.Pb-21- and Bi-210 were determined by liquid scintillation counting. The developed procedure is rather express, effective and could be adopted for the determination of radionuclides like Ba-133, Ra, Np-239

  19. Simulation of alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate glasses by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, Charu L., E-mail: dubecharu@gmail.com; Stennett, Martin C.; Gandy, Amy S.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate glasses is simulated by employing ion irradiation technique. • FTIR and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm modification of glass network. • The depolymerisation of glass network after irradiation is attributed to synergetic effect of nuclear and electronic losses. - Abstract: A surrogate approach of ion beam irradiation is employed to simulate alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses. Bismuth and helium ions of different energies have been selected for simulating glass matrix modification owing to radiolysis and ballistic damage due to recoil atoms. Structural modification and change in coordination number of network former were probed by employing Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopies as a consequence of ion irradiation. Depolymerisation is observed in glass sample irradiated at intermediate energy of 2 MeV. Helium blisters of micron size are seen in glass sample irradiated at low helium ion energy of 30 keV.

  20. Sonochemical synthesis of cooper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in polyvinyl chloride matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Danubia Maria da Silva; Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2013-01-01

    Cooper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. CuS crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular aggregates of particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing CuS nanoparticles (PVC/CuS) at concentrations of 0.10; 0.30; 0.50 and 0.70 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M v ) was measured for PVC systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in viscosity molar mass was observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.5 wt% into PVC matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 84% in PVC matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PVC systems. The interactions between CuS and PVC favor action of nanoparticles as a good plasticizer in the PVC molecule. (author)

  1. Sonochemical synthesis of copper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2011-01-01

    Copper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Cu S crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing CuS nanoparticles (PMMA/Cu) at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30; 0.45 and 0.60 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) was measured for PMMA systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PMMA matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 50% in PMMA matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PMMA systems. Changes in the infrared spectra of PMMA systems indicate that polymer molecules interact with CuS nanoparticles. Improvement of mechanical properties was found for PMMA/Cu films. An increase of 38% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 22% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PMMA/Cu films exposed to gamma irradiation. (author)

  2. Sonochemical synthesis of copper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Copper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Cu S crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing CuS nanoparticles (PMMA/Cu) at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30; 0.45 and 0.60 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) was measured for PMMA systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PMMA matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 50% in PMMA matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PMMA systems. Changes in the infrared spectra of PMMA systems indicate that polymer molecules interact with CuS nanoparticles. Improvement of mechanical properties was found for PMMA/Cu films. An increase of 38% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 22% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PMMA/Cu films exposed to gamma irradiation. (author)

  3. New strategies for the chemical separation of actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.; Iveson, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    A general model is proposed for the effective design of ligands for partitioning. There is no doubt that the correct design of a molecule is required for the effective separation by separation of metal ions such as lanthanides(III) and actinides(III). Heterocyclic ligands with aromatic rings systems have a rich chemistry, which is only now becoming sufficiently well understood, in relation to the partitioning process. The synthesis, characterisation and structures of some chosen molecules will be introduced in order to illustrate some important features. For example, the molecule N-butyl-2-amino-4,6-di (2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (BADPTZ), which is an effective solvent extraction reagent for actinides and lanthanides, has been synthesised, characterised and its interaction with metal ions studied. The interesting and important features of this molecule will be compared with those of other heterocyclic molecules such as 2,6-bis(5-butyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) pyridine (DBTZP), which is a candidate molecule for the commercial separation of actinides and lanthanide elements. Primary Coordination Sphere. One of the most critical features concerning whether a molecule is a suitable extraction reagent is the nature of the binding and co-ordination in the primary co-ordination sphere. This effect will be considered in depth for the selected heterocylic molecules. It will be shown how the bonding of the heterocyclic and nitrate ligands changes as the complete lanthanide series is traversed from lanthanum to lutetium. For effective solvent extraction, the ligand(s) should be able completely to occupy the primary co-ordination sphere of the metal ion to be extracted. Interactions in the secondary co-ordination sphere are of less importance. Inter-complex Hydrogen Bonding Interactions. Another feature that will be considered is the intermolecular binding between ligands when bound to the metal ion. Thus the intermolecular structures between complex molecules will be considered

  4. Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandria

    1999-01-01

    The recent arms reduction treaties between the U.S. and Russia have resulted in inventories of plutonium in excess of current defense needs. Storage of this material poses significant, and unnecessary, risks of diversion, especially for Russia whose infrastructure for protecting these materials has been weakened since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Moreover, maintaining and protecting these materials in their current form is costly. The United States has about sixty metric tons of excess plutonium, half of which is high-purity weapon material. This high purity material will be converted into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for use in nuclear reactors. The less pure excess plutonium does not meet the specifications for MOX fuel and will not be purified to meet the fuel specifications. Instead, it will be immobilized directly in a ceramic. The ceramic will be encased in a high level waste (HLW) glass monolith (i.e., the can-in-canister option) thus making a form that simulates the intrinsic security of spent nuclear fuel. The immobilized product will be placed in a HLW repository. To meet the repository requirements, the product must be shown to be durable for the intended storage time, the host matrix must be stable in the radiation environment, the solubility and leaching characteristics of the plutonium in the host material must be established, and optimum processing parameters must be determined for the entire compositional envelope of feed materials. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste forms proposed as immobilization matrices. However, the relevant thermodynamic data (e.g., enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity) for the ceramic forms are severely lacking and this information gap directly affects the Energy Department's ability to license the disposal matrices and methods. High-temperature solution

  5. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jianhua, E-mail: fjh2008@126.com; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO{sub 3} crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO{sub 3} crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0 mg/mL. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate • Calcification mechanisms in the presence of both protein and polysaccharides • Biomineralization under the action of protein and polysaccharides.

  6. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    noncomplexing aqueous solution and submission of this scientific breakthrough as a paper in Science; The first-ever co-crystallization of Am(VI) with UO2(NO3)2 ∙ 6H2O, opening the door to a new approach for separating hexavalent actinides as a group; Results showing that three potentially problematic metals will not present risk in ALSEP; Improvement in ALSEP contactor stripping kinetics to acceptable performance; A comparison of centrifugal contactors vs mixer-settlers showing the former performs better in ALSEP stripping; Synthesis of new mixed N,O-donor extractants with enhanced solubility and strength for selective trivalent actinide extraction; Development of computational methods showing promise in prediction of the selectivity of new extractants for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides; An order-of-magnitude improvement in aqueous Am/Eu complexation selectivity of an alternative macrocyclic stripping agent for ALSEP, potentially enabling an option for an Am product stream free from both Ln and Cm. An alternative aqueous combination of dipicolinate complexant and malonate buffer that may present options for ALSEP and TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) type separations. The ALSEP concept is advancing toward a benchtop flowsheet demonstration planned for FY 2016, and a bench-scale test bed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be employed to demonstrate at least one tandem Am oxidation and separation concept. This report outlines the goals of the STAAR, significance of achieving these goals, STAAR organization around the above aims and questions, recent highlights, and future directions. The report also includes a listing of publications, reports, patents, and dissertations.

  7. Exploration of mild copper-mediated coupling of organotrifluoroborates in the synthesis of thiirane-based inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testero, Sebastian A; Bouley, Renee; Fisher, Jed F; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2011-05-01

    The copper-mediated and non-basic oxidative cross-coupling of organotrifluoroborates with phenols was applied to elaboration of the structures of thiirane-based inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. By revision of the synthetic sequence to allow this cross-coupling as the final step, and taking advantage of the neutral nature of organotrifluoroborate cross-coupling, a focussed series of inhibitors showing aryloxy and alkenyloxy replacement of the phenoxy substituent was prepared. This reaction shows exceptional promise as an alternative to the classic copper-mediated but strongly basic Ullmann reaction, for the diversification of ether segments within base-labile lead structures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of single-phase Ni ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Traussnig, T.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Krenn, H.; Brossmann, U.; Wuerschum, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles of NiFe 2 O 4 dispersed in SiO 2 (25 wt%) matrix were synthesized by sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), as a precursor for SiO 2 . The sol-gel method for nanocomposites normally provides multi-phase nanoparticles. We investigated by a synopsis of different analysis methods, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SQUID-magnetometry, how the various chemical phases are transformed to a single-phase spinel structure during the various stages of annealing from 300 to 900 o C. We have developed a full phase diagram of chemical phases as a function of annealing temperature. The average particle size lies in the range 16-27 nm. The chemical phases formed below 900 o C are NiFe, NiO, γ-Fe 2 O 3 , α-Fe 2 O 3 , and NiFe 2 O 4 , respectively. The role of the TEOS prepared SiO 2 matrix is to restrict the particle size in a small range in order to rule out particle size effects. In the mid-infrared, a shift of the vibrational Fe-O bond is observed from 568 to 586 cm -1 for annealing between 500 and 700 o C which indicates an increasing NiFe 2 O 4 phase formation. A systematic study of coercivity field (ranging from 32 to 200 Oe) and saturation magnetic moment (ranging from 12.2 to 32.1 emu/g) for differently annealed samples supports our findings about the evolution of single-phase NiFe 2 O 4 at 900 o C. The opposite trend of saturation magnetic moment and coercivity with respect to annealing temperature clearly separates the different phases of metallic, antiferromagnetic, and finally single-phase spinel NiFe 2 O 4 .

  9. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  10. MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2009-02-01

    temperature or below. For many spectroscopic measurements, low temperatures have been achieved by co-condensing the actinide vapor in rare gas or inert molecule host matrices. Spectra recorded in matrices are usually considered to be minimally perturbed. Trapping the products from gas-phase reactions that occur when trace quantities of reactants are added to the inert host gas has resulted in the discovery of many new actinide species. Selected aspects of the matrix isolation data were discussed in chapter 17. In the present chapter we review the spectroscopic matrix data in terms of its relationship to gas-phase measurements, and update the description of the new reaction products found in matrices to reflect the developments that have occurred during the past two years. Spectra recorded in matrix environments are usually considered to be minimally perturbed, and this expectation is borne out for many closed shell actinide molecules. However, there is growing evidence that significant perturbations can occur for open shell molecules, resulting in geometric distortions and/or electronic state reordering. Studies of actinide reactions in the gas phase provide an opportunity to probe the relationship between electronic structure and reactivity. Much of this work has focused on the reactions of ionic species, as these may be selected and controlled using various forms of mass spectrometry. As an example of the type of insight derived from reaction studies, it has been established that the reaction barriers for An+ ions are determined by the promotion energies required to achieve the 5fn6d7s configuration. Gas-phase reaction studies also provide fundamental thermodynamic properties such as bond dissociation and ionization energies. In recent years, an increased number of gas-phase ion chemistry studies of bare (atomic) and ligated (molecular) actinide ions have appeared, in which relevant contributions to fundamental actinide chemistry have been made. These studies were initiated

  11. Synthesis of gels with basis of titanium tungstates as matrixes of radioactive generators; Sintesis de geles a base de titanio tungstenatos como matrices de generadores radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galico C, L

    2005-07-01

    synthesis method avoids the manipulation of radioactive material during the synthesis of the gels, process that consumes around 7 hours. Therefore, in base to the studies carried out with titanium molybdates, it is intends in this work, the synthesis of titanium tungstates gels, to be used as matrixes of the generators {sup 188} W / {sup 188} Re. This type of studies has not been reported in the literature, for what is necessary to undertake basic studies on those preparation conditions and the effect of the characteristics of the titanium tungstates gels in the efficiency of the generators. Parameters like the pH of those initial solutions of tungsten and titanium, the molar relation W:Ti and very particularly the drying of the final product are fundamental to determine the preparation conditions of these gels. Therefore, in order to finding new alternatives of production of {sup 188} W {yields} {sup 188} Re, easy to produce and with high titration efficiencies, it is intends in this work, to develop a generator with basis of titanium and tungsten compounds that could be irradiated after their synthesis. (Author)

  12. On the synthesis of a bio-inspired dual-cellular fluidic flexible matrix composite adaptive structure based on a non-dimensional dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K W

    2013-01-01

    A recent study investigated the dynamic characteristics of an adaptive structure concept featuring dual fluidic flexible matrix composite (F 2 MC) cells inspired by the configuration of plant cells and cell walls. This novel bio-inspired system consists of two F 2 MC cells with different fiber angles connected through internal fluid circuits. It was discovered that the dual F 2 MC cellular structure can be characterized as a two degree of freedom damped mass–spring oscillator, and can be utilized as a vibration absorber or an enhanced actuator under different operation conditions. These results demonstrated that the concept is promising and further investigations are needed to develop methodologies for synthesizing future multi-cellular F 2 MC structural systems. While interesting, the previous study focused on specific case studies and analysis. That is, the outcome did not provide insight that could be generalized, or tools for synthesizing a multiple F 2 MC cellular structure. This paper attempts to address this important issue by developing a non-dimensional dynamic model, which reveals good physical insights as well as identifying crucial constitutive parameters for F 2 MC cellular design. Working with these parameters, rather than physical variables, can greatly simplify the mathematics involved in the study. A synthesis tool is then developed for the dual-cellular structure, and it is found that for each set of achievable target poles and zero, there exist multiple F 2 MC cellular designs, forming a design space. The presented physical insights and synthesis tool for the dual-cellular structure will be the building blocks for future investigation on cellular structures with a larger number of cells. (paper)

  13. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassayre, L., E-mail: cassayre@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl{sub 2}/UAl{sub 3} molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.

  14. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassayre, L.; Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl 3 . A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl 3 alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl 2 /UAl 3 molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl 5 and UCl 6 . The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.

  15. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  16. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor; Reduccion de actinidos menores por reciclado en un reactor de agua ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  17. On the solvation of actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagberg, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Simulation of the universal ions in water solution is a standardized tool commonly used today. The route to simulation of actinide ions is normally tough because the evaluation of the simulation parameters are normally not given empirically and standard Hartree-Fock calculations are not accurate enough. We use multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations when deriving the parameters for actinide ion-water potential [1]. The parameters are then simulated using classical molecular dynamics. A case study of the Cm 3+ ion will be presented on the poster. Results from the simulations will be also be discussed, e.g. the radial distribution functions and the coordination number. [1] D. Hagberg, G. Karlstrom, B.O. Roos and L. Gagliardi The coordination of uranyl in water: a combined quantum chemical and molecular simulation study J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 14250-14256 (2005)

  18. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  19. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  20. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is an exhaustive, updated discourse on the chemistry of Actinides, Volume 1 contains a systematic coverage of the elements Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu, which constitutes Part 1 of the work. The characterization of each element is discussed in terms of its nuclear properties, occurrence, preparation, atomic and metallic properties, chemistry of specific compounds, and solution chemistry. The first part of Volume 2 follows the same format as Volume 1 but is confined to the elements Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es, plus a more condensed coverage of the Transeinsteinium elements (Fm, Md, No, Lw, and 104-109). Part 2 of this volume is devoted to a discussion of the actinide elements in general, with a specific focus on electronic spectra, thermodynamic and magnetic properties, the metallic state, structural chemistry, solution kinetics, organometallic chemistry for σ- and π-bonded compounds, and some concluding remarks on the superheavy elements

  1. The thermodynamic functions of gaseous actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The actinide gases have large number of unobserved energy states - up to 3 x 10 6 for Pu(g) - which could contribute to the partition function and its derivatives, from which the thermal functions of these gases are calculated. Existing compilations have simply ignored these levels. By making reasonable assumptions as to the distribution of these energy states, their effect on the functions can be calculated. It is concluded that the existing compilations will be inadequate above approximately 2000K. The effect is particularly marked on the heat capacity. For example, when unobserved levels for Pu(g) are included, the heat capacity of Pu(g) reaches a maximum value of more than 12R at 3200K. Similar considerations will apply to the gaseous actinide ions. (orig.) [de

  2. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  3. Seventeen-coordinate actinide helium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-12

    The geometries and electronic structures of molecular ions featuring He atoms complexed to actinide cations are explored computationally using density functional and coupled cluster theories. A new record coordination number is established, as AcHe{sub 17}{sup 3+}, ThHe{sub 17}{sup 4+}, and PaHe{sub 17}{sup 4+} are all found to be true geometric minima, with the He atoms clearly located in the first shell around the actinide. Analysis of AcHe{sub n}{sup 3+} (n=1-17) using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) confirms these systems as having closed shell, charge-induced dipole bonding. Excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>0.95) are found between QTAIM metrics (bond critical point electron densities and delocalization indices) and the average Ac-He distances, and also with the incremental He binding energies. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph.; Vidaud, C.; Goudard, F.; Barbot, C.; Solari, P.L.; Funke, H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O 2 2+ , Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  5. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  6. Actinides: from heavy fermions to plutonium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Hecker, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The actinide elements mark the emergence of 5f electrons. The f electrons possess sufficiently unusual characteristics that their participation in atomic binding often result in dramatic changes in properties. This provides an excellent opportunity to study the question of localization of electrons; a question that is paramount in predicting the physical and chemical properties of d and f electron transition metals. The transition region between localized (magnetic) and itinerant (often superconducting) behavior provides for many interesting phenomena such as structural instabilities (polymorphism), spin fluctuations, mixed valences, charge density waves, exceptional catalytic activity and hydrogen storage. This region offers most interesting behavior such as that exhibited by the actinide compounds UBe 13 and UPt 3 . Both compounds are heavy-fermion superconductors in which both magnetic and superconducting behavior exist in the same electrons. The consequences of f-electron bonding (which appears greatest at Plutonium) show dramatic effects on phase stability, alloying behavior, phase transformations and mechanical behavior

  7. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  8. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  9. Actinide Source Term Program, position paper. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.; Papenguth, H.W.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Actinide Source Term represents the quantity of actinides that could be mobilized within WIPP brines and could migrate with the brines away from the disposal room vicinity. This document presents the various proposed methods for estimating this source term, with a particular focus on defining these methods and evaluating the defensibility of the models for mobile actinide concentrations. The conclusions reached in this document are: the 92 PA open-quotes expert panelclose quotes model for mobile actinide concentrations is not defensible; and, although it is extremely conservative, the open-quotes inventory limitsclose quotes model is the only existing defensible model for the actinide source term. The model effort in progress, open-quotes chemical modeling of mobile actinide concentrationsclose quotes, supported by a laboratory effort that is also in progress, is designed to provide a reasonable description of the system and be scientifically realistic and supplant the open-quotes Inventory limitsclose quotes model

  10. Strength of Coriolis Coupling in actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peker, L.K.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coriolis Coupling V/sub cor/ plays an important role in deformed nuclei. V/sub cor/ is proportional to h 2 /J[j (j + 1) -Ω (Ω + 1)]/sup 1/2/ and therefore is particularly significant in the nuclei with large j and low Ω Nilsson levels close to Fermi surface: n(i/sub 13/2/) in A = 150 to 170 rare-earth nuclei and p(i/sub 13/2/) and n(j/sub 15/2/) in A greater than or equal to 224 actinide nuclei. Because of larger j (n(j/sub 15/2/) versus n(i/sub 13/2/)) and smaller deformations (β approx. = 0.22 versus β 0.28) it was reasonable to expect that in actinide nuclei Coriolis effects are stronger than in the rare earth nuclei. Recently it was realized that the strength of observed Coriolis effects depends not only on the genuine Coriolis Coupling but also on the interplay between Coriolis ad pairing forces which leads to an interference between the wave functions of two mixing rotational bands. As a consequence the effective interaction V/sub eff/ of both bands is an oscillating function of the degree of shell filling (or chemical potential lambda F). It was shown that in the rare earth nuclei this interference strongly influenced conclusions about the trends in the Coriolis coupling strength and explained many of the observed band-mixing features (the sharpness of back banding curves, details of the blocking effect etc.). From theoretical analysis it was concluded that in the majority of actinide nuclei the effective interaction V/sub eff/ is strong, and therefore the Coriolis band-mixing have to be very strong. In this paper we would like to demonstrate that contrary to these predictions experimental data suggest that Coriolis band mixing in studied actinide nuclei is relatively weak and possibly significantly weaker than in rare earth nuclei

  11. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  12. Actinide burning in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the past few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing the integral fast reactor (IFR), an advanced liquid-metal reactor concept. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid-metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics, and waste management. A key feature of the IFR concept is its unique pyroprocessing. Pyroprocessing has the potential to radically improve long-term waste management strategies by exploiting the following attributes: 1. Minor actinides accompany plutonium product stream; therefore, actinide recycling occurs naturally. Actinides, the primary source of long-term radiological toxicity, are removed from the waste stream and returned to the reactor for in situ burning, generating useful energy. 2. High-level waste volume from pyroprocessing call be reduced substantially as compared with direct disposal of spent fuel. 3. Decay heat loading in the repository can be reduced by a large factor, especially for the long-term burden. 4. Low-level waste generation is minimal. 5. Troublesome fission products, such as 99 Tc, 129 I, and 14 C, are contained and immobilized. Singly or in combination, the foregoing attributes provide important improvements in long-term waste management in terms of the ease in meeting technical performance requirements (perhaps even the feasibility of demonstrating that technical performance requirements can be met) and perhaps also in ultimate public acceptance. Actinide recycling, if successfully developed, could well help the current repository program by providing an opportunity to enhance capacity utilization and by deferring the need for future repositories. It also represents a viable technical backup option in the event unforeseen difficulties arise in the repository licensing process

  13. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G. Ivan; Christenson, John M.; Renier, J.P.; Marcille, T.F.; Casal, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs). A top-level objective of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis program element of the DOE NERI program is to investigate spent fuel treatment and recycling options for current light water reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, this project targets to expand the traditional scope of nuclear fuel management optimization into the following two complementary specific objectives: (1) To develop a direct coupling between the pin-by-pin within-bundle loading control variables and core-wide (bundle-by-bundle) optimization objectives, (2) to extend the methodology developed to explicitly encompass control variables, objectives, and constraints designed to maximize minor actinide incineration in BWR bundles and cycles. The first specific objective is projected to 'uncover' dormant thermal margin made available by employing additional degrees of freedom within the optimization process, while the addition of minor actinides is expected to 'consume' some of the uncovered thermal margin. Therefore, a key underlying goal of this project is to effectively invest some of the uncovered thermal margin into achieving the primary objective.

  14. Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility

  15. Value of burnup credit beyond actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, Chi.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has submitted a topical report to the NRC justifying burnup credit based only on actinide isotopes (U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241). When this topical report is approved, it will allow a great deal of the commercial spent nuclear fuel to be transported in significantly higher capacity casks. A cost savings estimate for shipping fuel in 32 assembly (burnup credit) casks as opposed to 24 assembly (non-burnup credit) casks was previously presented. Since that time, more detailed calculations have been performed using the methodology presented in the Actinide-Only Burnup Credit Topical Report. Loading curves for derated casks have been generated using actinide-only burnup credit and are presented in this paper. The estimates of cost savings due to burnup credit for shipping fuel utilizing 32, 30, 28, and 24 assembly casks where only the 24 assembly cask does not burnup credit have been created and are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs

  16. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  17. Successive change regularity of actinide properties with atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuexian

    1990-08-01

    The development and achievements on chemistry of actinide elements are summarised. The relations of properties of actinides to their electronic configurations of valence electronic shells are discussed. Some anomalies of solid properties, the radius contraction, the stable state effect of f 7n -orbits (n = 0, 1, 2) and the tetrad effect of oxidation states, etc., with atomic number (Z) are described. 31 figures appended show directly the successive change regularity of actinide properties with Z

  18. Actinide recycle potential in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. In the IFR pyroprocessing, minor actinides accompany plutonium product stream, and therefore, actinide recycle occurs naturally. The fast neutron spectrum of the IFR makes it an ideal actinide burner, as well. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and potential implications on long-term waste management

  19. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing μg to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs

  20. Actinides and rare earths complexation with adenosine phosphate nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostapha, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are important molecules in both nuclear industry and living systems fields. Indeed, several extractants of organophosphorus compounds (such as TBP, HDEHP) are used in the nuclear fuel cycle reprocessing and in the biological field. For instance, the nucleotides are organophosphates which play a very important role in various metabolic processes. Although the literature on the interactions of actinides with inorganic phosphate is abundant, published studies with organophosphate compounds are generally limited to macroscopic and / or physiological approaches. The objective of this thesis is to study the structure of several organophosphorus compounds with actinides to reach a better understanding and develop new specific buildings blocks. The family of the chosen molecules for this procedure consists of three adenine nucleotides mono, bi and triphosphate (AMP, adenosine monophosphate - ADP, adenosine diphosphate - ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and an amino-alkylphosphate (AEP O-phosphoryl-ethanolamine). Complexes synthesis was conducted in aqueous and weakly acidic medium (2.8-4) for several lanthanides (III) (Lu, Yb, Eu) and actinides (U (VI), Th (IV) and Am (III)). Several analytical and spectroscopic techniques have been used to describe the organization of the synthesized complexes: spectrometric analysis performed by FTIR and NMR were used to identify the functional groups involved in the complexation, analysis by ESI-MS and pH-metric titration were used to determine the solution speciation and EXAFS analyzes were performed on Mars beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, have described the local cation environment, for both solution and solid compounds. Some theoretical approaches of DFT were conducted to identify stable structures in purpose of completing the experimental studies. All solid complexes (AMP, ADP, ATP and AEP) have polynuclear structures, while soluble ATP complexes are mononuclear. For all synthesized complexes, it has been

  1. Hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates: a new aqueous route towards reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates (An= Th, U, Pu at temperatures between 95 and 250 °C is shown to lead to the production of highly crystalline, reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals (NCs. This aqueous process proved to be quantitative, reproducible and fast (depending on temperature. The NCs obtained were characterised by X-ray diffraction and TEM showing their size to be smaller than 15 nm. Attempts to extend this general approach towards transition metal or lanthanide oxalates failed in the 95–250 °C temperature range. The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide oxalates is therefore a clean, flexible and powerful approach towards NCs of AnO2 with possible scale-up potential.

  2. Recent progress in actinide and lanthanide solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Hubert, H.; Benjelloun, N.; Vitorge, P.; Bonnin, M.; Forchioni, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1983-04-01

    Work in progress on actinide solvent extraction is briefly reviewed in this paper. 1 H and 31 P NMR are used to elucidate several fundamental unsolved problems concerning organophosphorous extractants often used in actinides extraction: determination of site of dialkylthiophosphate protonation and addition of basic phosphine oxide to dibutylthiophosphoric acid dimer. Extraction of Am III and Eu from high radioactivity level wastes by tetrasubsituted methylene diamides is investigated. Trivalent actinide-lanthanide group are separated by solvent extraction using soft donor ligand complexes which are more stable. The synergism of dinonylnaphtalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) associated with several neutral donors like TBP, TOPO, amides are examined in the trivalent and tetravalent actinide extraction

  3. Biotransformation of uranium and other actinides in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Microorganisms affect the solubility, bioavailability, and mobility of actinides in radioactive wastes. Under appropriate conditions, actinides are solubilized or stabilized by the direct enzymatic or indirect nonenzymatic actions of microorganisms. Biotransformation of various forms of uranium (ionic, inorganic, and organic complexes) by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms has been extensively studied, whereas limited information is available on other important actinides (Th, Np, Pu, and Am). Fundamental information on the mechanisms of biotransformation of actinides by microbes under various environmental conditions will be useful in predicting the long-term performance of waste repositories and in developing strategies for waste management and remediation of contaminated sites. (orig.)

  4. Exploration of the potential of complex fluids and liquid mineral crystals as templates for obtaining meso-porous monoliths for actinides immobilization; Exploration du potentiel de fluides complexes et cristaux liquides mineraux comme templates pour l'obtention de monolithes mesoporeux pour l'immobilisation d'actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, C. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France)]|[CEA Valrho, Lab. de Chimie des Actinides (LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of generation IV reactors, the implementation of a closed cycle involves a grouped management of actinides, as well as their united insertion in a new fuel material. The researches carried out for the main variant of fuel cycle are then centred on the synthesis of a material allowing to immobilize these radioelements in an ordered way inside a solid phase of known composition and structure, and in which they have to be dispersed in an homogeneous way. In this work, is considered the study of the synthesis of innovating materials by a molecular engineering approach. The aim is to explore the properties of matrices based on complex mineral fluids for actinides immobilization, to study the confinement potential of these new mineral liquid crystal phases and to understand their interaction with the actinides. (O.M.)

  5. Selective Media for Actinide Collection and Pre-Concentration: Results of FY 2006 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Latesky, Stanley L.

    2006-11-17

    In this work, we have investigated new materials for potential use in automated radiochemical separations. The work can be divided into three primary tasks: (1) synthesis of new ligands with high affinity for actinide ions, (2) evaluation of new materials for actinide ion affinity, and (3) computational design of advanced ligand architectures for highly selective binding of actinide ions. Ligand Synthesis Work was conducted on synthesizing Kl?ui ligand derivatives containing functionalized pendant groups on the cyclopentadienyl ring. The functionalized pendent groups would allow these ligands to be attached to organic and inorganic solid supports. This work focused on synthesizing the compound Na[Cp?Co(PO(OC2H5)2)3], where Cp?= C5H4C(O)OCH3. Synthesizing this compound is feasible, but the method used in FY 2006 produced an impure material. A modified synthetic scheme has been developed and will be pursued in FY 2007. Work was also initiated on synthesizing bicyclic diamides functionalized for binding to polymeric resins or other surfaces. Researchers at the University of Oregon are collaborators in this work. To date, this effort has focused on synthesizing and characterizing a symmetrically substituted bicyclic diamide ligand with the ?COOH functionality. Again, this synthetic effort will continue into FY 2007. Separations Material Evaluation Work was conducted in FY 2006 to provide a more extensive set of data on the selectivity and affinity of extraction chromatography resins prepared by sorption of Kl?ui ligand onto an inert macroreticular polymeric support. Consistent with previous observations, it was found that these materials strongly bind tetravalent actinides. These materials also adsorb trivalent actinides at low nitric acid concentrations, but the affinity for the trivalent actinides decreases with increasing nitric acid concentration. These materials have relatively low affinity for U(VI), but they do sorb U(VI) to a greater extent than Am(III) at [HNO

  6. Selective Media for Actinide Collection and Pre-Concentration: Results of FY 2006 Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Latesky, Stanley L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated new materials for potential use in automated radiochemical separations. The work can be divided into three primary tasks: (1) synthesis of new ligands with high affinity for actinide ions, (2) evaluation of new materials for actinide ion affinity, and (3) computational design of advanced ligand architectures for highly selective binding of actinide ions. Ligand Synthesis Work was conducted on synthesizing Kl?ui ligand derivatives containing functionalized pendant groups on the cyclopentadienyl ring. The functionalized pendent groups would allow these ligands to be attached to organic and inorganic solid supports. This work focused on synthesizing the compound Na[Cp?Co(PO(OC2H5)2)3], where Cp?C5H4C(O)OCH3. Synthesizing this compound is feasible, but the method used in FY 2006 produced an impure material. A modified synthetic scheme has been developed and will be pursued in FY 2007. Work was also initiated on synthesizing bicyclic diamides functionalized for binding to polymeric resins or other surfaces. Researchers at the University of Oregon are collaborators in this work. To date, this effort has focused on synthesizing and characterizing a symmetrically substituted bicyclic diamide ligand with the ?COOH functionality. Again, this synthetic effort will continue into FY 2007. Separations Material Evaluation Work was conducted in FY 2006 to provide a more extensive set of data on the selectivity and affinity of extraction chromatography resins prepared by sorption of Kl?ui ligand onto an inert macroreticular polymeric support. Consistent with previous observations, it was found that these materials strongly bind tetravalent actinides. These materials also adsorb trivalent actinides at low nitric acid concentrations, but the affinity for the trivalent actinides decreases with increasing nitric acid concentration. These materials have relatively low affinity for U(VI), but they do sorb U(VI) to a greater extent than Am(III) at [HNO3

  7. Synthesis of polystyrene coated SiC nanowires as fillers in a polyurethane matrix for electromechanical conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybak, Andrzej; Warde, Micheline; Bechelany, Mikhael; Brioude, Arnaud; Toury, Berangere; Cornu, David; Miele, Philippe [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS, Universite Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Beyou, Emmanuel; Chaumont, Philippe [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, UMRCNRS 5223, Laboratoire des Materiaux Polymeres et des Biomateriaux, Universite Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 15 Boulevard Latarget, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Guiffard, Benoit; Seveyrat, Laurence; Guyomar, Daniel, E-mail: beyou@univ-lyon1.fr, E-mail: David.Cornu@iemm.univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF-INSA Lyon, Batiment Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2010-04-09

    Grafting of polystyrene (PS) from silica coating of silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNWs) has been performed by a two-step nitroxide mediated free radical polymerization (NMP) of styrene. First, an alkoxyamine based on N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl) nitroxide (DEPN) was covalently attached onto NWs through free surface silanol groups. To immobilize the alkoxyamine initiator on the silica surface, alkoxylamine was formed in situ by the simultaneous reaction of polymerizable acryloxy propyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS), azobis isobutyronitrile (AIBN), and DEPN, which was used as a radical trap. Polystyrene chains with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersity were then grown from the alkoxyamine-functionalized NWs surface in the presence of a 'free' sacrificial styrylDEPN alkoxyamine. Both the initiator and polystyrene chains were characterized by FTIR and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR and quantified by TGA. Ensuing nanocomposites were characterized by FEG-SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. EDX analysis performed on functionalized nanowires during FEG-SEM analysis also gave evidence of grafting by a strong increase in the average C/Si atomic ratio. Incorporation of 2 wt% NWs into the polyurethane (PU) matrix has been carried out to prepare homogeneous nanocomposite films. The electric field induced thickness strain response has been investigated for the polystyrene-grafted silica coated SiC NWs (PU-SiC-SiO{sub 2}-PS) nanocomposites and compared to pure polyurethane film and PU-SiC-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite without polystyrene grafting. At a moderate electric field of 10 V {mu}m{sup -1}, SiC-SiO{sub 2}-PS loading increased the strain level of pure PU by a factor of 2.2. This improvement came partially due to polystyrene grafting since PU-SiC-SiO{sub 2} films showed only a 1.7 times increase. The observed higher strain response of these nanocomposites makes them very attractive for micro-electromechanical applications.

  8. IAEA Activities on Assessment of Partitioning Processes for Transmutation of Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Uddharan; Dyck, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    In these days of nuclear renaissance, appropriate management of radioactive materials arising from the nuclear fuel cycle back end is one of the most important issues related to the long term sustainability of nuclear energy. The present practice in the back end of the closed fuel cycle involves the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel by the aqueous based PUREX process for reuse in reactors and the conditioning of reprocessing waste into a form suitable for long term storage. The waste contains mainly fission products and transuranium elements immobilized in glass matrix. However, advanced fuel cycles incorporating partitioning of actinides along with minor actinides and their subsequent transmutation (P and T) in a fast neutron energy spectrum could be proliferation resistant and at the same time reduce the waste radiotoxicity by many orders of magnitude. Considering the importance of P and T on long term sustainability, the International Atomic Energy Agency has initiated many collaborative research programs in this area as part of our advanced fuel cycle activities. This paper presents the current and future activities on advanced partitioning methods, highlighting the challenges associated with these processes, fuel manufacturing techniques suitable for integration with reprocessing facility and the IAEA's minor actinide data base (MADB), as a part of integrated nuclear fuel cycle information system (iNFCIS). (authors)

  9. Neodymium partitioning in zirconolite-based glass-ceramics designed for minor actinides immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.; Baffier, N.; Fillet, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with glass-ceramic matrices designed for the conditioning of minor actinides, in which zirconolite crystals (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ) are homogeneously dispersed in a residual glassy matrix. Good immobilization performances require a high enrichment of actinides in the crystalline phase (double containment principle). Glass-ceramics are obtained by controlled devitrification of an aluminosilicate parent glass containing large amounts of TiO 2 and ZrO 2 . Neodymium was selected to simulate the trivalent minor actinides. Crystallization was performed at 1200 deg. C for various Nd 2 O 3 contents (0 - 10 wt. %). In all cases, zirconolite crystallization is obtained in the bulk of glass-ceramics. The evolution of Nd 3+ location between the crystals and the residual glass was followed by electron spin resonance and optical absorption. Both techniques demonstrate that neodymium is partly incorporated in zirconolite crystals. Moreover, total Nd 2 O 3 content in parent glass has a strong effect on Nd 3+ ions distribution. (authors)

  10. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  11. Development of quantitative analytical methods for the control of actinides in a pyrochemical partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abousahl, S.; Belle, P. van; Eberle, H.; Ottmar, H.; Lynch, B.; Vallet, P.; Mayer, K.; Ougier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed in order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of highly radioactive waste. Pyrochemical partitioning techniques appear particularly attractive for advanced fuel cycles in which the minor actinides are recycled. The electrochemical processes of practical importance are the electrorefining process and the liquid-liquid extraction of transuranic (TRU) elements from fission products using either non-miscible molten metal or molten salt-metal phases. Analytical methods for the accurate assay of actinide elements in these matrices needed to be developed. A quantitative assay is required in order to establish a material balance for process development and - at a later stage - for accountancy and control purposes. To this end radiometric techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) were extensively employed for the quantitative determination of actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) in process samples. Comparative analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The respective samples were available in small quantities (≅ 100 mg) either in the form of eutectic salt or in metallic form with Cd, Zr or Bi as major metallic matrix constituents. (orig.)

  12. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  13. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38{sup th} JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment.

  14. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38 th JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment

  15. Structural characterization of the Actinides (III) and (IV) - DOTA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audras, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    The polyamino-carboxylate anions have been identified as compounds of interest in the operations of actinide separation, in actinide migration in the environment and in human radio-toxicology. The structural characterization of complexes formed between actinides and polyamino-carboxylates ligands is essential for a better understanding of actinide-ligands interactions. Among the polyamino-carboxylate anions, the DOTA ligand (1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane tetraacetic acid) is described as a very strong complexing agent of the lanthanides(III), but has been little studied with actinides. The objective of this thesis is to describe the complexes formed between the actinides (III) and (IV) and the DOTA ligand, and compare them with the lanthanide complexes. For this, an approach has been introduced to characterize the complexes by complementary analytical techniques (spectrophotometry, electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry, NMR, EXAFS, electrochemistry), but also by calculations of theoretical chemistry to help the interpretation of the experimental data. The formation of a 1:1 complex is observed with the actinides(III) (plutonium and americium) as for lanthanides(III): rapid formation of intermediate species which evolves slowly towards the formation of a limit complex. Within this complex, the cation is located inside the cavity formed by the ligand. Four nitrogen atoms and four oxygen atoms from the carboxylate functions are involved in the coordination sphere of the cation. However, differences were observed in the bond lengths formed between the cation and the nitrogen atoms (the bonds are somewhat shorter in the case of actinide complexes) as well as the complexation kinetics, which is slightly faster for the actinides(III) than for lanthanide(III) ions of equivalent radius. The same behavior was observed in solution upon complexation of actinides(IV) (uranium, plutonium and neptunium): slow formation of a 1:1 complex (actinide(IV):ligand) in wherein the

  16. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data on the evaporation residue cross-sections, in addition to those on mass and angular distributions, are necessary for better understanding of the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in the pre-actinide region. Measurement of mass-resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne+232Th reaction ...

  17. Synergistic extraction of actinides : Part I. Hexa-and pentavalent actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed discussion on the reported literature on the synergistic extraction of hexa- and pentavalent actinide ions, by different combinations of extractants and from different aqueous media, is presented. Structural aspects of the various complexes involved in synergism also are reviewed. A short account of the applications based on synergistic extraction is also given. (author)

  18. Actinide-specific complexing agents: their structural and solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, K.N.; Freeman, G.E.; Kappel, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of a series of tetracatecholate ligands designed to be specific for Pu(IV) and other actinide(IV) ions has been achieved. Although these compounds are very effective as in vivo plutonium removal agents, potentiometric and voltammetric data indicate that at neutral pH full complexation of the Pu(IV) ion by all four catecholate groups does not occur. Spectroscopic results indicate that the tetracatecholates, 3,4,3-LICAMS and 3,4,3-LICAMC, complex Am(III). The Am(IV)/(III)-catecholate couple (where catecholate = 3,4,3-LICAMS or 3,4,3-LICAMC) is not observed, but may not be observable due to the large currents associated with ligand oxidation. However, within the potential range where ligand oxidation does not occur, these experiments indicate that the reduction potential of free Am(IV)/(III) is probably greater than or equal to + 2.6 V vs NHE or higher. Proof of the complexation of americium in the trivalent oxidation state by 3,4,3-LICAMS and 3,4,3-LICAMC elimates the possibility of tetracatholates stabilizing Am(IV) in vivo

  19. Research needs in metabolism and dosimetry of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: uranium mine and mill tailings; environmental standards; recommendations of NCRP and ICRP; metabolic models and health effects; life-time exposures to actinides and other alpha emitters; high-specific-activity actinide isotopes versus naturally occurring isotopic mixtures of uranium isotopes; adequacy of the n factor; and metabolism and dosimetry;

  20. ACTINET - EU network of excellence for actinide sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    2006-01-01

    ACTINET, the Network of Excellence for Actinide Sciences within the 6th EU Framework Program, was launched in March 2004 for an initial period of four years. A number of tools are available in ACTINET to serve the purposes of the project, i.e. stimulate and coordinate actinide research in Europe, promote integration, train young scientists and, in this way, ensure and enhance European competence. The large European actinide laboratories with their unique experimental and analytical equipment are available to scientists from Europe as so-called 'pool facilities' within the framework of joint research projects. Setting up a 'theoretical user lab' has turned out to be a promising way of exploiting the synergies of theory and experiment in various fields of actinide science. Joint research projects are supported within the network, working with actinides being made possible in the pool facilities. Training and instruction are ensured by seminars, workshops, and schools organized annually. In familiarizing young scientists with actinide work, ACTINET exercises training functions and contributes to ensuring and enhancing European competence in the field on the medium and long term. Even after only half of its term, ACTINET is developing into a live network, thus decisively contributing towards promoting, coordinating and integrating European actinide research. As actinides play a key role in the use of nuclear power, this benefits European industries, research centers, operators of nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities as well as licensing and regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  1. Transmutation of minor actinide using thorium fueled BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2002-01-01

    One of the methods to conduct transmutation of minor actinide is the use of BWR with thorium fuel. Thorium fuel has a specific behaviour of producing a little secondary minor actinides. Transmutation of minor actinide is done by loading it in the BWR with thorium fuel through two methods, namely close recycle and accumulation recycle. The calculation of minor actinide composition produced, weigh of minor actinide transmuted, and percentage of reminder transmutation was carried SRAC. The calculations were done to equivalent cell modeling from one fuel rod of BWR. The results show that minor actinide transmutation is more effective using thorium fuel than uranium fuel, through both close recycle and accumulation recycle. Minor actinide transmutation weight show that the same value for those recycle for 5th recycle. And most of all minor actinide produced from 5 unit BWR uranium fuel can transmuted in the 6 t h of close recycle. And, the minimal value of excess reactivity of the core is 12,15 % Δk/k, that is possible value for core operation

  2. Actinide extractants for the nuclear industry of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Morisseau, J.C.; Hoel, P.; Guillaume, B.

    1987-06-01

    Non organo-phosphorus extractants properties regarding the extractions of actinides in nuclear fuels reprocessing are presented. N,N-dialkylamides are proposed as alternatives to TBP.N,N'-tetraalkylamides or pentaalkyl propane diamides properties are reported. They show that those bidentate extractants are alternatives to bidentate organophosphorus extractants for actinides (III) extraction from concentrated nitric acid. 11 figs, 15 refs

  3. Separations chemistry for actinide elements: Recent developments and historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.; Choppin, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, the principal mission in actinide separations has changed from production of plutonium to cleanup of the immense volume of moderately radioactive mixed wastes which resulted from fifty years of processing activities. In order to approach the cleanup task from a proper perspective, it is necessary to understand how the wastes were generated. Most of the key separations techniques central to actinide production were developed in the 40's and 50's for the identification and production of actinide elements. Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separations, and selective partitioning of actinides from inert constituents are currently of primary concern. To respond to the modern world of actinide separations, new techniques are being developed for separations ranging from analytical methods to detect ultra-trace concentrations (for bioassay and environmental monitoring) to large-scale waste treatment procedures. In this report, the history of actinide separations, both the basic science and production aspects, is examined and evaluated in terms of contemporary priorities

  4. Potential carcinogenic effects of actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Pasternack, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    Inhalation of alpha emitting actinides delivers a dose to critical cancer sites in the human body. These sites are the bronchial epithelium and cells near bone surfaces. Inhalation of the naturally occurring actinides uranium and thorium in resuspended soil in the air results in a continuous exposure for the global population of about 0.1 fCi/m 3 for each of these actinides. The highest dose is from the natural actinide 230 Th. Over 50 yr, the dose to bronchial epithelium is 0.05 mrad and to bone surfaces 0.4 mrad. In the case of accidental environmental contamination (e.g. near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant) the man-made actinides plutonium, americium and curium could deliver about the same alpha dose to these sites if the soil is contaminated to the same level as the natural actinides (approximately 1 pCi/g). Two nuclear accidents have already produced contamination of about this level. Exposures in this case, however, are to small local populations compared with global exposure for the natural actinides. Significant enhancement of the natural radioactive actinide pollution by combustion of all types of fossil fuel is suspected but not enough data are available to estimate total population doses. (author)

  5. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO 2 at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of light-actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosh, Eli; Makov, Guy; Shneck, Roni Z.

    2005-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the alpha phases of the light actinide elements Th, U, Np and Pu were analysed. For each of the analysed elements, the Gibbs free-energy was modelled by an explicit function of temperature T and pressure P over the whole relevant T-P range, in a manner compatible with the CALPHAD (Calculation of Alloy Phase Diagrams) method. Several adjustable model-parameters were fitted to available experimental results. The model is based on a new semi-empirical equation of state, which interpolates with Thomas-Fermi type models for the volume and with the Dulong-Petit value for the heat capacity, at extreme pressures

  7. Determination of actinides using ICP-SFMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the determination of the actinides using ICP-MS has steadily increased with the development of systems capable of more sensitive and precise measurements. However, the analysis of less abundant actinides such as Pu and Am is not straightforward due to the need for chemical separation of these elements prior to determination. In many applications of mass-spectrometric actinide analysis, isotope ratio measurements are important, either for the analysis of the isotopic composition of, e.g., U or Pu in the sample, or for quantitative determinations using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In order to achieve high precision and accuracy in an isotope ratio measurement, corrections for instrumentally induced systematic errors, e.g., due to dead-time and mass bias, need to be considered. In this thesis, different aspects of actinide analysis using ICP-SFMS have been addressed. In Papers I and III, separation procedures based on solid phase extraction for Pu, Am and U were developed and evaluated with respect to chemical yield and separation from elements causing spectral interferences. Applications of the analytical procedures developed comprised measurement of the 240 Pu/ 2 3 9Pu ratio in environmental reference materials, and age determination of Pu based on the 241 Pu/ 241 Am and 240 Pu/ 236 U ratios. In the application of different separation procedures for Pu, previously unidentified spectral interferences were discovered. In Paper II, these interferences were identified as lanthanide phosphate ions and the composition and formation of these species with respect to different instrumental parameters were further examined. Due to the importance of precise and accurate isotope ratio determination, a thorough investigation of the instrumental dead time of an ICP-SFMS system was performed. The dead time was evaluated via both isotope ratio and electronic measurements of the output from the detector amplifier. It was found that the overall uncertainty in ratio

  8. Photofissility of actinide nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Pina, S.R. de; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Goncalves, M.

    2001-08-01

    We analyze the recent experimental data on photofissility for 237 Np, 238 U, and 232 Th at incident photon energies above 200 MeV. For this analysis, we developed a Monte carlo algorithm for the nuclear evaporation process in photonuclear reactions. This code is used in association with the multi-collisional model for the photon-induced intranuclear cascade process. Our results show a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the emission of protons and alpha particles at the evaporation stage is an important component for the non-saturation of the actinides photofissility up to, at least, 1GeV. (author)

  9. Thermal decomposition of lanthanide and actinide tetrafluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stabilities of several lanthanide/actinide tetrafluorides have been studied using mass spectrometry to monitor the gaseous decomposition products, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify solid products. The tetrafluorides, TbF 4 , CmF 4 , and AmF 4 , have been found to thermally decompose to their respective solid trifluorides with accompanying release of fluorine, while cerium tetrafluoride has been found to be significantly more thermally stable and to congruently sublime as CeF 4 prior to appreciable decomposition. The results of these studies are discussed in relation to other relevant experimental studies and the thermodynamics of the decomposition processes. 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. Electronic structure of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    In the last few years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the properties of the light actinides. Although these are 5f transition elements formally equivalent to the lanthanide (4f) elements, these materials show a much more varied behavior due to the larger spatial extent and ionizability of the 5f electrons. A review is given of some areas of current interest, especially where hyperfine measurements have played an active role. These include studies of a variety of magnetic phenomena, systematics of isomer shift measurements, and studies of paramagnetic relaxation

  11. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  13. Compilation of actinide neutron nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear data committee has compiled a selected set of neutron cross section data for the 16 most important actinide isotopes. The aim of the report is to present available data in a comprehensible way to allow a comparison between different evaluated libraries and to judge about the reliability of these libraries from the experimental data. The data are given in graphical form below about 1 ev and above about 10 keV shile the 2200 m/s cross sections and resonance integrals are given in numerical form. (G.B.)

  14. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  15. AMS detection of actinides at high mass separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, Peter; Lachner, Johannes; Priller, Alfred; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Eigl, Rosmarie [Hiroshima University, Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima (Japan); Quinto, Francesca [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sakaguchi, Aya [University of Tsukuba, Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    AMS is the mass spectrometric method with the highest abundance sensitivity, which is a prerequisite for measurement of the long-lived radioisotope {sup 236}U (t{sub 1/2}=23.4 million years). The most successful application so far is oceanography, since anthropogenic {sup 236}U is present in the world oceans at {sup 236}U:{sup 238}U from 10{sup -11} to 10{sup -8}. We have explored methods to increase the sensitivity and thus to reduce the water volume required to 1 L or less, which significantly reduces the sampling effort. High sensitivity is also necessary to address the expected typical natural isotopic ratios on the order {sup 236}U:{sup 238}U = 10{sup -13}, with potential applications in geology. With a second 90 analyzer magnet and a new Time-of-Flight beam line, VERA is robust against chemical impurities in the background, which e.g. allows measuring Pu isotopes directly in a uranium matrix. This simplifies chemical sample preparation for actinide detection, and may illustrate why AMS reaches lower detection limits than other mass spectrometric methods with nominally higher detection efficiency.

  16. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The recent Evaluation and Screening study chartered by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has identified four fuel cycle options as being the most promising. Among these four options, the two single-stage fuel cycles rely on a fast reactor and are differing in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The two other fuel cycles are two-stage and rely on both fast and thermal reactors. They also differ in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The current study assesses the impact of recycling minor actinides on the reactor core design, its performance characteristics, and the characteristics of the recycled material and waste material. The recycling of minor actinides is found not to affect the reactor core performance, as long as the same cycle length, core layout and specific power are being used. One notable difference is that the required transuranics (TRU) content is slightly increased when minor actinides are recycled. The mass flows are mostly unchanged given a same specific power and cycle length. Although the material mass flows and reactor performance characteristics are hardly affected by recycling minor actinides, some differences are observed in the waste characteristics between the two fuel cycles considered. The absence of minor actinides in the waste results in a different buildup of decay products, and in somewhat different behaviors depending on the characteristic and time frame considered. Recycling of minor actinides is found to result in a reduction of the waste characteristics ranging from 10% to 90%. These results are consistent with previous studies in this domain and depending on the time frame considered, packaging conditions, repository site, repository strategy, the differences observed in the waste characteristics could be beneficial and help improve

  17. The electronic structure of the lanthanides and actinides, a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Optical spectra of the two f-element series (the lanthanides and actinides) are comparable in many respects. For the trivalent ions isolated in single crystals, both series exhibit rich, narrow line spectra. These data can be analysed in terms of a parametric model based on a free-ion Hamiltonian plus the addition of a crystal field Hamiltonian. For most systems the agreement between the calculated and experimental energy levels is quite good. In the actinide series there appears to be a correlation between the magnitude of the crystal field and the inadequacy of the fits. The early actinides exhibit multiple oxidation states for which there is no precedent in the lanthanide series. The parametric model mentioned earlier has been utilized for some tetravalent actinide systems with reasonably good results. A selective survey of results describing the similarities and differences of various lanthanide and actinide systems will be given

  18. Actinide recovery from waste and low-grade sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Actinide and nuclear fuel cycle operations generate a variety of process waste streams. New methods are needed to remove and recover actinides. More interest is also being expressed in recovering uranium from oceans, phosphoric acid, and other low grade sources. To meet the need for an up-to-date status report in the area of actinide recovery from waste and low grade sources, these papers were brought together. The papers provide an authoritative, in-depth coverage of an important area of nuclear and industrial and engineering chemistry which cover the following topics: uranium recovery from oceans and phosphoric acid; recovery of actinides from solids and liquid wastes; plutonium scrap recovery technology; and other new developments in actinide recovery processes

  19. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.; Fedosseev, Alexander M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  1. Innovative synthesis of meso-structured YSZ using V2O5 complex fluids as a template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, Camille; Grandjean, Stephane; Batail, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of generation IV nuclear reactors, the prospect of a closed fuel cycle generate a need for new advanced materials integrating the actinides jointly. Researches are conducted on fuel material precursors synthesized by soft chemistry processes, which allow a fine control of the homogeneity and ordering at a nano-scale[1]. In a view to meso-structure an inorganic matrix, recent studies[2,3] have highlighted the potential of mineral liquid crystals as templates in new soft chemistry synthesis routes. The studies presently exposed relate to an original synthesis of an inorganic-inorganic hybrid material consisting in a main zirconia matrix tem plated by ribbon-like vanadium pentoxide. After eliminating the V 2 O 5 template, the obtained solid is to be a meso-porous material with ordered pores, and becomes a prime choice material, for example to immobilize actinides. The zirconia matrix has been chosen for its ability to host actinides, which are surrogated by neodymium. It is also a preliminary material for the study of the synthesis of uranium oxide based materials, thus preventing from the drawbacks of working with radioactive materials. The vanadium pentoxide is used as a template since it structure itself as ribbon-like mineral liquid crystals that can be aligned in weak magnetic field; consequently, the final material may be structured at a nano-scale over a macroscopic range. Since the shape of vanadium oxide in solution is very sensitive to the ionic strength of the medium and the pH, the real challenge is to establish a synthesis protocol which is compatible with the presence of vanadium pentoxide, remaining in its ribbon-like liquid crystal form. References: [1] Masson, M.; Grandjean, S.; Lacquement, J.; Bourg, S.; Delauzun, J. M.; Lacombe, J.; Nuclear Engineering and Design, 236 (5-6),516 (2006). [2] Camerel, F.; Gabriel, J.-C.P.; Batail, P.; Adv. Funct. Mater., 13 (5), 377 (2003). [3] Gabriel, J

  2. The radiological impact of actinides discharged to the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Smith, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the radiological effects of releases of actinides to the Irish Sea from Sellafield, the major source. Exposure pathways to man since the commencement of discharges in 1952 are reviewed; the importance of actinides began to increase with increased discharges in the 1970s. With the demise of the porphyra/laverbread pathway due to transport difficulties, the pathway due to fish and shellfish consumption became critical, particularly for actinides through molluscan shellfish. A reassessment on the current basis of effective dose shows that peak exposures to the critical group of about 2 mSv yr -1 were received in the mid-1970s, about 30% of which was due to actinides. Effective doses have since reduced but the relative importance of actinides is greater, due to the interplay of discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and their behaviour in the environment. Additive doses through sea food due to releases of natural radionuclides from the Marchon phosphate plant at Whitehaven are also considered, although the actinide component from this source has been small. Exposures due to actinides from Sellafield via other pathways are shown to be much lower than those involving sea food. Collective doses are also considered; these peaked at about 300 man-Sv to the European population (including the UK) in 1979, with only a few percent due to actinides. As in the case of critical group doses, the relative importance of actinides has increased in recent years within the decreasing total collective dose. For both critical group and collective doses, therefore, the actinide component needs to be kept under review. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Action of an ionizing radiation and hydrodynamic effect on matrix properties of DNA during extracellular synthesis of RNA, and thiophosphate protection of matrix properties of T2-DNA against. gamma. -radiation. [gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhtman, Ya L; Domashenko, A D; Kamzolova, S G; Medvedkov, A A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1976-05-01

    Action of an ionizing radiation and the hydrodynamic effect of the matrix activity of thymus DNA and T2 phase DNA have been studied in vitro in the RNA: polymerase system of E.coli B. Also studied have been the thiophosphate protection of matrix properties of T2-DNA against ..gamma..-radiation.

  4. Recycle of LWR actinides to an IFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, G.K.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Poa, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Large quantities of actinide elements are present in irradiated light water reactor fuel that is stored throughout the world. Because of the high fission to capture ratio for the transuranium (TRU) elements with the high energy neutrons in metal-fueled integral fast reactors (IFR), that reactor can consume these elements effectively. The stored fuel may represent valuable resource for the expanding application of fast power reactors. In addition, the removal of TRU elements from spent LWR fuel has the potential for increasing the capacity of high level waste facilities by reducing the heat load and may increase the margin of safety in meeting licensing requirement. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a pyrochemical process, which is compatible with the IFR fuel cycle for the recovery of TRU elements from LWR fuel. The proposed product is a metallic actinide ingot, which can be introduced into the electrorefining step of the IFR process. Two pyrochemical processes, that is, salt transport process and blanket processing study, are discussed in this paper. Also the experimental studies are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus: S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River. The subcritical limits are 201 g for 241 Pu, 13 g for 242 /sup m/Am, 90 g for 243 Cm, 30 g for 245 Cm, 900 g for 247 Cm, 10 g for 249 Cf, and 5 g for 251 Cf. Association of 241 Pu with an equal mass of 240 Pu increases the 241 Pu limit to a value greater than that for pure 239 Pu. Association of 242 /sup m/Am with 241 Am increases the limit for the mixture to that for dry, theoretical density AmO 2 at isotopic concentrations of 242 /sup m/Am less than approx. 6%. Association of 245 Cm with 244 Cm increases the limit according to the formula 30 + 0.3 244 Cm/ 245 Cm up to the limit for dry CmO 2 . A limiting mass of 8.15 kg for plutonium containing at least 67% 238 Pu as oxide was calculated that applies (provided 240 Pu exceeds 241 Pu) with no limit on moderation. 1 figure, 5 tables

  6. The dose from actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.; Pasternack, Bernard S.

    1978-01-01

    We attempt to evaluate the health effects on local populations from the nuclear power industry. The nuclides which are thought to be most hazardous are the long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium, americium and curium. These long-lived alpha emitters will almost certainly be dispersed in the environment during fuel reprocessing. Their effect is local, not global and at worst a single community could be affected. The most important pathway for exposure to the actinides is through inhalation following resuspension of contaminated soil particles. The most important alpha dose estimates are to cells in bronchial epithelium and cells on bone surfaces. These alpha dose estimates are calculated for a dispersal which contaminates soil with 1 pCi/g of each of the nuclides Pu 238,239 , Am 241 , Cm 242,244 . These bronchial and bone cell dose estimates are compared with those from the naturally occurring actinide 232 Th (and daughters) which are normally found in soil at a level of about 1 pCi/g. (author)

  7. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  8. Burning minor actinides in a HTR energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christoph; Rütten, H. Jochem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Burn-up analysis for varying plutonium/minor actinide fuel compositions. ► The influence of varying heavy metal fuel element loads is investigated. ► Significant burn-up via radiative capture and subsequently fission is observed. ► Difference observed between fuel element burn-up and total actinide burning rate. - Abstract: The generation of nuclear energy by means of the existing nuclear reactor systems is based mainly on the fission of U-235. But this comes along with the capture of neutrons by the U-238 faction and results in a build-up of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides as neptunium, americium and curium. These actinides are dominant for the long time assessment of the radiological risk of a final disposal therefore a minimization of the long living isotopes is aspired. Burning the actinides in a high temperature helium cooled graphite moderated reactor (HTR) is one of these options. The use of plutonium isotopes to sustain the criticality of the system is intended to avoid on the one hand highly enriched uranium because of international regulations and on the other hand low enriched uranium because of the build up of new actinides from neutron capture in the U-238 fraction. Because initial minor actinide isotopes are typically not fissionable by thermal neutrons the idea is to fission instead the intermediate isotopes generated by the first neutron capture. This paper comprises calculations for plutonium/minor actinides/thorium fuel compositions and their correlated final burn-up for a generic pebble bed HTR based on the reference design of the 400 MW PBMR. In particular the cross sections and the neutron balance of the different minor actinide isotopes in the higher thermal energy spectrum of a HTR will be discussed. For a fuel mixture of plutonium and minor actinides a significant burn-up of these actinides up to 20% can be achieved but at the expense of a higher residual fraction of plutonium in the burned fuel. Combining

  9. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  10. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  11. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements

  12. On the suitability of lanthanides as actinide analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza

    2008-01-01

    With the current level of actinide materials used in civilian power generation and the need for safe and efficient methods for the chemical separation of these species from their daughter products and for long-term storage requirements, a detailed understanding of actinide chemistry is of great importance. Due to the unique bonding properties of the f-elements, the lanthanides are commonly used as structural and chemical models for the actinides, but differences in the bonding between these 4f and 5f elements has become a question of immediate applicability to separations technology. This brief overview of actinide coordination chemistry in the Raymond group at UC Berkeley/LBNL examines the validity of using lanthanide analogs as structural models for the actinides, with particular attention paid to single crystal X-ray diffraction structures. Although lanthanides are commonly accepted as reasonable analogs for the actinides, these comparisons suggest the careful study of actinide materials independent of their lanthanide analogs to be of utmost importance to present and future efforts in nuclear industries. (authors)

  13. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  14. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  15. Minor Actinide Recycle in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using Heterogeneous Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bays, Samuel; Medvedev, Pavel; Pope, Michael; Ferrer, Rodolfo; Forget, Benoit; Asgari, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the plausible design of transmutation target assemblies for minor actinides (MA) in Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). A heterogeneous recycling strategy is investigated, whereby after each reactor pass, un-burned MAs from the targets are blended with MAs produced by the driver fuel and additional MAs from Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). A design iteration methodology was adopted for customizing the core design, target assembly design and matrix composition design. The overall design was constrained against allowable peak or maximum in-core performances. While respecting these criteria, the overall design was adjusted to reduce the total number of assemblies fabricated per refueling cycle. It was found that an inert metal-hydride MA-Zr-Hx target matrix gave the highest transmutation efficiency, thus allowing for the least number of targets to be fabricated per reactor cycle.

  16. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitrates and actinides with simultaneous separation of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is intended to reduce the acid and nitrate content of nitrate waste solutions, to reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, to remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation, without any danger of violent reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig./PW) [de

  17. General survey of applications which require actinide nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1976-01-01

    This review paper discusses the actinide waste problem, the buildup of toxic isotopes in the fuel, the neutron activity associated with irradiated fuel, the 252 Cf buildup problem, and the production of radioisotope power sources as broad areas that require actinide cross-section data. Decay data enter into the area of radiological safety and health physics. This paper also discusses a few cross-section measurements in progress at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. The availability of actinide samples through the Transuranium Program at Oak Ridge is discussed in considerable detail. The present data status with respect to the various applications is reviewed along with recommendations for improving the data base

  18. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  19. Minor Actinide Laboratory at JRC-ITU: Fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Minor Actinide Laboratory (MA-lab) of the Institute for Transuranium Elements is a unique facility for the fabrication of fuels and targets containing minor actinides (MA). It is of key importance for research on Partitioning and Transmutation in Europe, as it is one of the only dedicated facilities for the fabrication of MA containing materials, either for property measurements or for the production of test pins for irradiation experiments. In this paper a detailed description of the MA-Lab facility and the fabrication processes developed to fabricate fuels and samples containing high content of minor actinides is given. In addition, experience gained and improvements are also outlined. (authors)

  20. Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's political and public discussions on nuclear energy. One of the fields that looks into the future possibilities of nuclear technology is the neutronic transmutation of actinides and of some most important fission products. Studies on transmutation of actinides are carried out in various countries and at an international level. This status report which gives an up-to-date general overview of current and planned research on transmutation of actinides and fission products in non-OECD countries, has been prepared by a Technical Committee meeting organized by the IAEA in September 1995. 168 refs, 16 figs, 34 tabs

  1. Report of the panel on practical problems in actinide biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Practical problems are classified as the need to make operational decisions, the need for regulatory assessment either of individual facilities or of generic actions, and the overt appearance of radiobiological effects in man or radioactivity in man or the environment. Topics discussed are as follows: simulated reactor accident; long term effects of low doses; effects of repeated exposures to actinides; inhaled uranium mine air contaminants; metabolism and dosimetry; environmental equilibrium models; patterns of alpha dosimetry; internal dose calculations; interfaces between actinide biology and environmental studies; removal of actinides deposited in the body; and research needs related to uranium isotopes

  2. Critical masses for the even-neutron-numbered transuranium actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a standards effort of the American Nuclear Society to establish subcritical mass limits for the transuranium actinides, critical masses were calculated for seven actinides, critical masses were calculated for seven actinide elements in bare, water-reflected, and steel-reflected metal systems. For the nuclides /sup 242/Pu and /sup 241/Am, values obtained with ENDF/B-V cross-section data were in much better agreement with values inferred from experimental measurement than were initial values calculated with ENDF/B-IV data. A brief description of the analytical methods employed is followed by a presentation of the results. 10 refs

  3. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides

  4. Actinide and xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D. L.; Sailor, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides

  5. Self-interaction corrected local spin density calculations of actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z

    2010-01-01

    We use the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation in order to describe localization-delocalization phenomena in the strongly correlated actinide materials. Based on total energy considerations, the methodology enables us to predict the ground-state valency configuration...... of the actinide ions in these compounds from first principles. Here we review a number of applications, ranging from electronic structure calculations of actinide metals, nitrides and carbides to the behaviour under pressure of intermetallics, and O vacancies in PuO2....

  6. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, M. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides.

  7. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  8. Comparative study of accelerator driven system (ADS) of different transmutation scenarios for actinides in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid-Segura, M.; Gonzalez Romero, M.E.; Perez Parra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. In recent years transmutation has raised as a complementary option to solve the problem of the long-lived radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. The main advantages expected from transmutation are the reduction in volume of the high level waste and a significant decrease in the long-term radiotoxicity inventory, with a probable impact in the final costs and potential risks of the geological repository. This paper will describe the evaluation of different systems proposed for actinide transmutation, their integration in the waste management process, their viability, performances and limitations. Particular attention is taking of comparing transmutation scenarios where the actinides are transmuted inside fertile (U, Th) or inert matrix. This study has been supported by ENRESA inside the CIEMAT-ENRESA collaboration for the study of long-lived isotope transmutation. (authors)

  9. Fission properties of very heavy actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    The existing data on neutron-emission, kinetic-energy and mass distributions, and half-lives for spontaneous fission of the heavy actinides are reviewed. A comparison of the data for the Fm isotopes with heavier and lighter nuclides suggests that the properties of the heavy Fm isotopes may be unique and can qualitatively be explained on the basis of fragment shell effects, i.e., symmetric fission results in two fragments with configurations close to the doubly magic 132 Sn nucleus. The effect of excitation energy and the use of systematics and theoretical predictions of fission properties and half-lives in the identification of new heavy element isotopes is discussed. 54 references

  10. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  11. Determination of actinides by alpha spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.

    2011-01-01

    The submitted thesis in its first part concern with content determination of plutonium, americium, uranium, thorium radionuclides, like the most significant representatives of actinides in environmental patterns, where by the primary consideration is a focusing on content of these actinides in samples of superior mycotic organisms - mushrooms. Following the published studies the mushrooms were monitored as organisms that could verify most of attributes putted on bioindicators in term of observation of substantial radionuclides in living environment. There were analyzed two groups of samples that came from two chosen locations, one of them is situated in Eastern Slovakia and the second one in West Slovakia. Except for mushrooms samples the examined radionuclides volumes were determined even in specimens of soil sub-base and some plants from chosen localities. The liquid - liquid extraction methods were used for determination of mass activities of actinides in samples for radiochemical separation of monitored radionuclides. The obtained results of plutonium and americium mass activities determination's lead us to carry out experiments that proved abilities of superior mycotic organisms to absorb and accumulate alpha radionuclides in their textures. We choose the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) species as an experimental object. Sporocarps of this mushroom were cultivated on substratum which is commercially exploited to cultivate it whereby this substratum was purposely contaminated by known activities of 239 Pu and 241 Am. We prepared five autonomous samples together. The values of mass activities of 239 Pu and 241 Am obtained by following analysis of prepared samples showed the ability of mushrooms to absorb observed actinides in their texture structures. On the basis of obtained mass activities it was possible to evaluate and numerically determine a transmitting factor's attributes of monitored radionuclides in sporocarps and in sub-base. Accordingly we

  12. Actinide behavior in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Goal of this project is to determine the consumption of Np-237, Pu-240, Am-241, and Am-243 in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. These four actinides set the long term waste management criteria for spent nuclear fuel; if it can be demonstrated that they can be efficiently consumed in the IFR, then requirements for nuclear waste repositories can be much less demanding. Irradiations in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory's site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, will be conducted to determine fission and transmutation rates for the four nuclides. The experimental effort involves target package design, fabrication, quality assurance, and irradiation. Post irradiation analyses are required to determine the fission rates and neutron spectra in the EBR-II core

  13. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  14. Role of actinide behavior in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    For purposes of assessing the safety of repositories of radioactive wastes placed in geologic isolation, actinide behavior in the environment has been interpreted in terms of five steps of prediction: analysis of repository stability; geosphere transport; the geosphere-biosphere interface; biosphere transport; and biosphere consequences. Each step in the analysis requires models of nuclide behavior and data on the physical and chemical properties of the radioactivity. The scope of information required in order to make reliable safety assessments has been outlined. All steps in the assessment process are coupled; reliable models and data are therefore needed for each step. The prediction phase of safety assessment is also coupled to activities concerned with waste treatment, selection of the final form of the waste, and selection of repository sites and designs. Results of the predictions can impact these activities

  15. Light element thermodynamics related to actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.; Johnson, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The accumulation of waste from the last five decades of nuclear reactor development has resulted in large quantities of materials of very diverse chemical composition. An electrometallurgical (EM) method is being developed to separate the components of the waste into several unique streams suitable for permanent disposal and an actinide stream suitable for retrievable storage. The principal types of nuclear wastes are spent oxide or metallic fuel. Since the EM module requires a metallic feed, and oxygen interferes with its operation, the oxide fuel has to be reduced prior to EM treatment. Further, the wastes contain, in addition to oxygen, other light elements (first- and second-row elements) that may also interfere with the operation of the EM module. The extent that these light elements interfere with the operation of the EM module has been determined by chemical thermodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  16. Development and testing of metallic fuels with high minor actinide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Hayes, S.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Hilton, B.A.; Frank, S.M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Chang, G.; Ambrosek, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Metallic alloys are promising candidates for use as fuels for transmutation and in advanced closed nuclear cycles. Metallic alloys have high heavy metal atom density, relatively high thermal conductivity, favorable gas release behavior, and lend themselves to remote recycle processes. Both non-fertile and uranium-bearing metal fuels containing minor actinide are under consideration for use as transmutation fuels by the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program, however, little irradiation performance data exists for fuel forms containing significant fractions of minor actinides. The first irradiation tests of non-fertile high-actinide-content fuels are scheduled to begin in early 2003 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The irradiation test matrix was designed to provide basic information on the irradiation behavior of binary Pu-Zr alloy fuel and the effect of the minor actinides americium and neptunium on alloy fuel behavior, together and separately. Five variants of transuranic containing zirconium-based alloy fuels are included in the AFC-1 irradiation test matrix. These are (in wt.%) Pu-40Zr, Pu-60Zr, Pu-12Am-40Zr, Pu-10Np-40Zr and Pu-10Np-10Am-40Zr. PuN-ZrN based fuels containing Am and Np are also included. All five of the fuel alloys have been fabricated in the form of cylindrical fuel slugs by arc-casting. Short melt times, on the order or 5-20 seconds, prevent the volatilization of significant quantities of americium metal, despite the high melt temperatures characteristic of the arc-melting process. Alloy microstructure have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal analysis has also been performed. The AFC-1 irradiation experiment configuration consists of twenty-four sodium bonded fuel specimens sealed in helium filled secondary capsules. The first capsule has a design burnup to 7 at.% 239 Pu; goal peak burnup of the second capsule is ∼18 at%. Capsule assemblies are placed within an aluminum flow-through basket

  17. Radiochemical studies of neutron deficient actinide isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.E.

    1978-04-01

    The production of neutron deficient actinide isotopes in heavy ion reactions was studied using alpha, gamma, x-ray, and spontaneous fission detection systems. A new isotope of berkelium, 242 Bk, was produced with a cross-section of approximately 10 μb in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7.0 +- 1.3 minutes. The alpha-branching ratio for this isotope is less than 1% and the spontaneous fission ratio is less than 0.03%. Studies of (Heavy Ion, pxn) and (Heavy Ion, αxn) transfer reactions in comparison with (Heavy ion, xn) compound nucleus reactions revealed transfer reaction cross-sections equal to or greater than the compound nucleus yields. The data show that in some cases the yield of an isotope produced via a (H.I.,pxn) or (H.I.,αxn) reaction may be higher than its production via an xn compound nucleus reaction. These results have dire consequences for proponents of the ''Z 1 + Z 2 = Z/sub 1+2/'' philosophy. It is no longer acceptable to assume that (H.I.,pxn) and (H.I.,αxn) product yields are of no consequence when studying compound nucleus reactions. No evidence for spontaneous fission decay of 228 Pu, 230 Pu, 232 Cm, or 238 Cf was observed indicating that strictly empirical extrapolations of spontaneous fission half-life data is inadequate for predictions of half-lives for unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes

  18. Archetypes for actinide-specific chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The complexes of uranium and thorium with monomeric hydroxamic acids can serve as archetypes for an optimized macrochelate designed for tetravalent actinides. The eight-coordinate complexes, Th(i-PrN(O)C(O)R) 4 , where R = tert-butyl or R = neopentyl, have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by x-ray diffraction. The bulky alkyl substituents impart remarkable volatility and hydrocarbon solubility to these complexes, and the steric interactions of these substituents largely determine the structures. When R = tert-butyl, the substituents occupy the corners of a tetrahedron and force the complex into a distorted cubic geometry with crystallographic S 4 symmetry. Insertion of a methylene group between the carbonyl carbon and the tert-butyl group relaxes the steric requirements, and the coordination polyhedron of the neopentyl derivative is close to the mmmm isomer of the trigonal-faced dodecahedron. Uranium tetrachloride was quantitatively oxidized via an oxygen transfer reaction with two equivalents of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid anion (PBHA) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to form UO 2 Cl(PBHA)(THF) 2 and benzanilide. The structure of the uranyl complex has been determined from x-ray diffraction data; the linear uranyl ion is surrounded by a planar pentagonal array composed of two hydroxamate oxygen atoms, a chloride ion and two THF oxygens, such that the chloride ion is opposite the hydroxamate group. That the THF and phenyl rings are twisted from this equatorial plane limits the molecular geometry to that of the C 1 point group. Some aspects of the chemistry of hydroxamic acids and of their incorporation into molecules that may serve as precursors of tetravalent actinide specific sequestering agents have also been investigated

  19. Radiochemical studies of neutron deficient actinide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.

    1978-04-01

    The production of neutron deficient actinide isotopes in heavy ion reactions was studied using alpha, gamma, x-ray, and spontaneous fission detection systems. A new isotope of berkelium, /sup 242/Bk, was produced with a cross-section of approximately 10 ..mu..b in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7.0 +- 1.3 minutes. The alpha-branching ratio for this isotope is less than 1% and the spontaneous fission ratio is less than 0.03%. Studies of (Heavy Ion, pxn) and (Heavy Ion, ..cap alpha..xn) transfer reactions in comparison with (Heavy ion, xn) compound nucleus reactions revealed transfer reaction cross-sections equal to or greater than the compound nucleus yields. The data show that in some cases the yield of an isotope produced via a (H.I.,pxn) or (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) reaction may be higher than its production via an xn compound nucleus reaction. These results have dire consequences for proponents of the ''Z/sub 1/ + Z/sub 2/ = Z/sub 1+2/'' philosophy. It is no longer acceptable to assume that (H.I.,pxn) and (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) product yields are of no consequence when studying compound nucleus reactions. No evidence for spontaneous fission decay of /sup 228/Pu, /sup 230/Pu, /sup 232/Cm, or /sup 238/Cf was observed indicating that strictly empirical extrapolations of spontaneous fission half-life data is inadequate for predictions of half-lives for unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes.

  20. Pyrometallurgical processes for recovery of actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    A metallic fuel alloy, nominally U-20-Pu-lOZr, is the key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. Metallic fuel permits the use of an innovative, simple pyrometallurgical process, known as pyroprocessing, (the subject of this report), which features fused salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Electrorefining separates the actinide elements from fission products, without producing a separate stream of plutonium. The plutonium-bearing product is contaminated with higher actinides and with a minor amount of rare earth fission products, making it diversion resistant while still suitable as a fuel material in the fast spectrum of the IFR core. The engineering-scale demonstration of this process will be conducted in the refurbished EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility, which has entered the start-up phase. An additional pyrometallurgical process is under development for extracting transuranic (TRU) elements from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel in a form suitable for use as a feed to the IFR fuel cycle. Four candidate extraction processes have been investigated and shown to be chemically feasible. The main steps in each process are oxide reduction with calcium or lithium, regeneration of the reductant and recycle of the salt, and separation of the TRU product from the bulk uranium. Two processes, referred to as the lithium and salt transport (calcium reductant) processes, have been selected for engineering-scale demonstration, which is expected to start in late 1993. An integral part of pyroprocessing development is the treatment and packaging of high-level waste materials arising from the operations, along with the qualification of these waste forms for disposal in a geologic repository

  1. Studies of actinides in a superanoxic fjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.

    1997-04-01

    Water column and sediment profiles of Pu, Am, Th and U have been obtained in the superanoxic Framvaren fjord, southern Norway. The concentration of bomb test fallout Pu, Am as well as `dissolved` Th in the bottom water are the highest recorded in the marine environment. The behaviour of the actinides in the anoxic water mass is to a large extent governed by the behaviour of the colloidal material. Ultrafiltration reveals that 40-60% of the actinides are associated to the large colloids, surprisingly this is valid also for U. The sediment acts as a source for Pu, Am, and Th to the water column but primarily as a sink for U. The remobilization of Pu, Am and Th is evident from the water column profiles which have similar diffusion shape profiles as other constituents originating from the sediments. The vertical eddy diffusion coefficient calculated from the Pu profile is in the same order of magnitude as reported from the H{sub 2}S profile. Decreased bottom water concentrations (but a constant water column inventory) between 1989 and 1995 as well as pore water Pu concentrations nearly identical to the overlaying bottom water indicates that the present Pu flux from the sediments are low. Contrary to Pu and Am, the water column Th inventory ({sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th) continues to increase. The flux of {sup 232}Th from the sediments was determined from changes in water column inventory between 1989 and 1995 and from a pore water profile to be in the order of 2-8 Bq/m{sup 2}/y. 208 refs.

  2. Pyrometallurgical processes for recovery of actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    A metallic fuel alloy, nominally U-20-Pu-lOZr, is the key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. Metallic fuel permits the use of an innovative, simple pyrometallurgical process, known as pyroprocessing, (the subject of this report), which features fused salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Electrorefining separates the actinide elements from fission products, without producing a separate stream of plutonium. The plutonium-bearing product is contaminated with higher actinides and with a minor amount of rare earth fission products, making it diversion resistant while still suitable as a fuel material in the fast spectrum of the IFR core. The engineering-scale demonstration of this process will be conducted in the refurbished EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility, which has entered the start-up phase. An additional pyrometallurgical process is under development for extracting transuranic (TRU) elements from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel in a form suitable for use as a feed to the IFR fuel cycle. Four candidate extraction processes have been investigated and shown to be chemically feasible. The main steps in each process are oxide reduction with calcium or lithium, regeneration of the reductant and recycle of the salt, and separation of the TRU product from the bulk uranium. Two processes, referred to as the lithium and salt transport (calcium reductant) processes, have been selected for engineering-scale demonstration, which is expected to start in late 1993. An integral part of pyroprocessing development is the treatment and packaging of high-level waste materials arising from the operations, along with the qualification of these waste forms for disposal in a geologic repository.

  3. Studies of actinides in a superanoxic fjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.

    1997-04-01

    Water column and sediment profiles of Pu, Am, Th and U have been obtained in the superanoxic Framvaren fjord, southern Norway. The concentration of bomb test fallout Pu, Am as well as 'dissolved' Th in the bottom water are the highest recorded in the marine environment. The behaviour of the actinides in the anoxic water mass is to a large extent governed by the behaviour of the colloidal material. Ultrafiltration reveals that 40-60% of the actinides are associated to the large colloids, surprisingly this is valid also for U. The sediment acts as a source for Pu, Am, and Th to the water column but primarily as a sink for U. The remobilization of Pu, Am and Th is evident from the water column profiles which have similar diffusion shape profiles as other constituents originating from the sediments. The vertical eddy diffusion coefficient calculated from the Pu profile is in the same order of magnitude as reported from the H 2 S profile. Decreased bottom water concentrations (but a constant water column inventory) between 1989 and 1995 as well as pore water Pu concentrations nearly identical to the overlaying bottom water indicates that the present Pu flux from the sediments are low. Contrary to Pu and Am, the water column Th inventory ( 232 Th and 230 Th) continues to increase. The flux of 232 Th from the sediments was determined from changes in water column inventory between 1989 and 1995 and from a pore water profile to be in the order of 2-8 Bq/m 2 /y. 208 refs

  4. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin [eds.

    2012-07-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  5. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  6. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems

  7. The chemistry of the actinide elements. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements is a comprehensive, contemporary and authoritative exposition of the chemistry and related properties of the 5f series of elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium and the first eleven. This second edition has been completely restructured and rewritten to incorporate current research in all areas of actinide chemistry and chemical physics. The descriptions of each element include accounts of their history, separation, metallurgy, solid-state chemistry, solution chemistry, thermo-dynamics and kinetics. Additionally, separate chapters on spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, thermodynamics, solids, the metallic state, complex ions and organometallic compounds emphasize the comparative chemistry and unique properties of the actinide series of elements. Comprehensive lists of properties of all actinide compounds and ions in solution are given, and there are special sections on such topics as biochemistry, superconductivity, radioisotope safety, and waste management, as well as discussion of the transactinides and future elements

  8. Use of fast-spectrum reactors for actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon I.

    1991-01-01

    Finally, Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) pyroprocessing has been developed only in recent years and it appears to have potential as a relatively uncomplicated, effective actinide recovery process. In fact, actinide recycling occurs naturally in the IFR fuel cycle. Although still very much developmental, the entire IFR fuel cycle will be demonstrated on prototype-scale in conjunction with the EBR-II and its refurbished Fuel Cycle Facility starting in late 1991. A logical extension to this work, therefore, is to establish whether this IFR pyrochemical processing can be applied to extracting actinides from LWR spent fuel. This paper summarizes current thinking on the rationale for actinide recycle, its ramifications on the geologic repository and the current high-level waste management plans, and the necessary development programs. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of minor actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Takano, Masahide; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Burning or transmutation of minor actinides (MA: Np, Am, Cm) that are classified as the high-level radioactive waste in the current nuclear fuel cycle is an option for the advanced nuclear fuel cycle. Although the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of minor actinide compounds are essential for the design of MA-bearing fuels and analysis of their behavior, the experimental data on minor actinide compounds are limited. To support the research and development of the MA-bearing fuels, the property measurements were carried out on minor actinide nitrides and oxides. The lattice parameters and their thermal expansions were measured by high-temperature X-ray diffractometry. The specific heat capacities were measured by drop calorimetry and the thermal diffusivities by laser-flash method. The thermal conductivities were determined by the specific heat capacities, thermal diffusivities and densities. The oxygen potentials were measured by electromotive force method.

  10. Formation of actinides in irradiated HTGR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, A. M.

    1976-03-15

    Actinide nuclide concentrations of 11 spent AVR fuel elements were determined experimentally. The burnup of the spheres varied in the range between 10% and 100% fifa, the Th : U ratio was 5 : 1. The separation procedures for an actinide isolation were tested with highly irradiated ThO/sub 2/. Separation and decontamination factors are presented. Build-up of /sup 232/U was discussed. The AVR breeding rate was ascertained to be 0.5. The hazard potential of high activity waste was calculated. Actinide recovery factors were proposed in order to reduce the hazard potential of the waste by an actinide removal under consideration of the reprocessing technology which is available presently.

  11. Actinide removal from aqueous solution with activated magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochen, R.L.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    An actinide aqueous waste treatment process using activated magnetite has been developed at Rocky Flats. The use and effectiveness of various magnetites in lowering actinide concentrations in aqueous solution are described. Experiments indicate that magnetite particle size and pretreatment (activation of the magnetite surface with hydroxyl ions greatly influence the effective use of magnetite as an actinide adsorbent. With respect to actinide removal, Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was more effective over a broader pH range than was NaOH-activated magnetite. About 50% less Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was required to lower plutonium concentration from 10 -4 to 10 -8 g/l. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  12. What fits best minor actinides as a die material?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinfray, J.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconolite might be the die material used to confine actinides definitively. Cea's teams have been investigating the ability of zirconolite to trap actinide atoms in its own crystal structure. These studies have been performed with 239 Pu that presents the same ability to set chemical links with the constituents of the die as 3 minor actinides do. Crystal materials like zirconolite are more sensitive to self irradiation than glass. The next step of the characterization of zirconolite is to evaluate its capacity to sustain self alpha irradiation. In order to do so, 238 Pu is used since its relatively short period (T = 87 years) allows an acceleration of the process : damages cumulated in the die material in 2 years will be equivalent to those produced by minor actinides for millions years. The results will be known in 2004. (A.C.)

  13. Leaching of actinides from nuclear waste glass: French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.Y.; Godon, N.

    1991-01-01

    The activity concentration versus time of a typical LWR glass shows that after 300 years most of the activity is attributable to three actinides (Np, Pu and Am) and to 99 Tc. This activity decreases slowly, and some 50.000 years are necessary before the activity concentration drops to the level of the richest natural ores. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the kinetics of actinide release from glass subjected to aqueous leaching

  14. Chemical factors controlling actinide sorption in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.

    1979-01-01

    The solid geologic media and the aqueous phase are of equal importance for the retention of actinides in the environment. The composition of the water is largely determined by the mineralogical composition of the rock that it is in equilibrium with. The chemical form of the actinides and their sorption, are highly dependent on the composition of the water with respect to pH, redox potential, and concentration of anions like carbonate, phosphate, fluoride, and organic acids

  15. Actinides complexes in solvent extraction. The amide type of extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Condamines, N.; Charbonnel, M.C.; Hubert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The N,N-dialkylamides and the N,N'-tetraalkyl. 2-alkyl 1,3-diamide propane are two promising classes of extractants which could replace advantageously the organophosphorus molecules for the separations of the actinide. The main advantages of the amides lie in their complete incinerability and the small interference of their radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation products for the processes. The actinide extraction chemistry with various amides is reviewed in this paper

  16. Extraction of tetravalent and hexavalent actinide ions by tetraheptylammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, Rajendra; Patil, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Extraction of Th(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV), U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) by tetraheptylammonium nitrate in Solvesso-100 has been studied from nitric acid medium. Attempts were made to identify the complex species in the organic phase by studying the dependence of the distribution coefficient of the actinide on amine concentration and taking the absorption spectra of the organic phase containing actinide ions. A compound tetraheptylammonium trinitratodioxouranate (VI) has been isolated and characterised. (author)

  17. Electronic structure and properties of rare earth and actinide intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayr, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    There are 188 contributions, experimental and theoretical, a few on rare earth and actinide elements but mostly on rare earth and actinide intermetallic compounds and alloys. The properties dealt with include 1) crystal structure, 2) magnetic properties and magnetic structure, 3) magnetic phase transformations and valence fluctuations, 4) electrical properties and superconductivity and their temperature, pressure and magnetic field dependence. A few papers deal with crystal growth and novel measuring methods. (G.Q.)

  18. Methods for separating actinides from reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedder, D.W.; Finney, B.C.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical processing flowsheets have been developed to partition actinides from all actinide-bearing LWR fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes. These wastes include high-activity-level liquids, scrap recovery liquors, HEPA filters and incinerator ashes, and chemical salt wastes such as sodium carbonate scrub solutions, detergent cleanup streams, and alkaline off-gas scrubber liquors. The separations processes that were adopted for this study are based on solvent extraction, cation exchange chromatography, and leaching with Ce 4+ -HNO 3 solution

  19. Mixer-settler performance evaluation in actinide extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, R.L.; Goncalves, M.A.; Carvalho, E.I.; Nakazone, A.K.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    This paper deals with four conceptions of mixer-settlers used for actinide purification and recovery. By means of the uranium concentration profiles in the organic and aqueous phases, the evaluation of each mixer-settler was made. The main purpose of this work is the data acquisition, for adapting the different contactor types to actinide recovery by liquid-liquid extraction, in the nuclear fuel cycle. (autor) [pt

  20. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.